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Hummer
Former type Division
Fate Business failure
Process of Liquidation
Founded 1992
Defunct 2010
Headquarters Detroit, Michigan, United States
Industry Automotive
Products (H1) pickup truck, SUV (H2, H3), Sport utility vehicles
Parent General Motors

Hummer was a marque of trucks sold by General Motors. The HUMMER brand was not transferred to Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy. Instead, this brand was retained by GM in order to investigate selling the brand. The original Hummer H1 was based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). However, the Hummer H2 and the Hummer H3 were based on other, smaller civilian-market vehicles.

Chinese automaker Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company announced in 2009 that it will acquire the Hummer brand pending government approvals. However, the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China rejected the deal on February 24, 2010, and GM has decided to retire the brand.[1] There have been reports that Sichuan Tengzhong may pursue the purchase of the Hummer brand from GM by purchasing it privately through the company's new J&A Tengzhong Fund SPC, a private equity investment fund owned by an offshore entity that is already recruiting private investors to buy into its acquisition plan.[2]

On February 26, 2010, General Motors announced it has been approached by several other companies interested in purchasing the brand after the deal with Sichuan Tengzhong could not be completed.[3] GM is currently reviewing other potential buyers for the brand despite having announced a wind-down of operations.

Contents

History

Hummers were originally built by AM General Corporation, which was formerly AMC-Jeep's General Products division,[4] in its Mishawaka, Indiana assembly plant. They were created under a contract for the United States armed forces. The first model, the Hum-Vee, was built in a variety of military-based equipment and versions. These included troop carriers, gun turrets and radar. The U.S. military, on receiving their quota, have adapted some of the vehicles, including modifications to facilitate a directional microwave crowd control beam (Active Denial System).

AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of the Hum-Vee as far back as the late 1980s.

In 1990, two matching white Hum-Vees were driven from London to Beijing over the rough roads of central Soviet Union. The Hummers made the trip with ease, for they were built to drive on off-road terrain. The highlights of this journey were broadcast in the United States on ESPN. This publicity would pale in comparison to the attention that the Hum-Vee received for its service in Operation: Desert Storm the following year. Also, a privately-owned Hum-Vee was modified into the first Snow-Vee, including the addition of caterpillar tracks, a new rear compartment and a new engine. This vehicle was designed for use in and just below the Arctic Circle, and the Antarctic.

In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Hum-Vee) vehicle to the public under the brand name "Hummer".

In 1998, AM General sold the brand name to General Motors, but continued to manufacture the vehicles. GM was responsible for the marketing and distribution of all Hummers produced by AM General. Shortly thereafter, GM introduced two new homegrown models, the H2 and H3, and renamed the original vehicle H1. AM General continued to build the H1 until it was discontinued in 2006,[5] and was contracted by GM to produce the H2. The H3 was built in Shreveport, LA alongside the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon pickups, with which it shares the GMT-355 platform (custom modified and designated GMT-345).

2006 Hummer lineup: H3, H1, and H2 (L-R)

By 2006, the Hummer also began to be exported and sold through importers and distributors in 33 countries.[6] On October 10, 2006, GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international markets.[6] The Hummers built there at first were only left-hand drive, but right-hand drive versions were added and exported to Australia and other markets.

The H2 is also assembled in Kaliningrad, Russia, by Avtotor, starting in June 2004. The plant produces a few hundred vehicles annually, and its output is limited to local consumption (five dealers in Russia initially).

On June 3, 2008, one day prior to GM's annual shareholder meeting, Rick Wagoner, GM's CEO at that time, said the brand was being reviewed, and had the possibility of either being sold, having the production line completely redesigned, or being discontinued.[7] This is due to the decreasing demand for large SUVs as a result of higher oil prices. Almost immediately after the announcement, a pair of Indian automakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra, expressed interest in purchasing all or part of Hummer.[8]

GM President Fritz Henderson stated several interested parties approached GM regarding the Hummer business.

On April 5, 2009, Société de Participation Financière Eidos Canada Inc. made an unsolicited bid for Hummer.

Failed sale

On June 1, 2009, as a part of the General Motors bankruptcy announcement, the company revealed that the Hummer brand would be discontinued. However, the following day GM announced that instead it had reached a deal to sell the brand to an undisclosed buyer.[9] After GM announced that same day that the sale was to an undisclosed Chinese company[10], CNN and the New York Times identified the buyer of the Hummer truck unit as China-based Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd.[11][12][13] Later that day, Sichuan Tengzhong itself announced the deal on their own website. On January 6, 2010, GM CEO Ed Whitacre said he hopes to close the deal with Tengzhong by the end of January 2010.[14] On 1 February 2010 it was announced that Sichuan and General Motors had agreed to extend the deadline till the end of February as Sichuan tried to get approval by the Chinese government.[15] It was also revealed that the price tag of the Hummer brand was $150 million.[16]

On February 24, 2010, the deal was rejected by the Chinese government, and it was announced that the Hummer brand would soon shut down.[17] The company has announced it is willing to consider offers for all or part of the assets.

Models

"Customized" Hummer H2
The Hummer H3

There are three current and possibly two future models in the Hummer line:

Production models
Concept vehicles
Modified vehicles

Civilian model details

Hummer H1

The first car in the Hummer Range, was the Hummer H1 based on the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (Hum-Vee). Originally released in 1992, this vehicle was designed by American Motors' AM General subsidiary for the U.S. Military. Five years previously, AMC had been bought by Chrysler.

Hummer H2

The Hummer H2 is the second vehicle in the Hummer range. There are two models available: H2 SUV and H2 SUT.

Plug-in Hybrid

Raser Technologies of Utah wants to use technology similar to that in the Chevy Volt to make the Hummer a 100 MPG fuel sipper. Details are unclear, as Raser plans to debut the prototype on April 20–23 at the Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress in Detroit. But Raser is saying that using their E-REV (Extended-Range Electric Vehicle) powertrain technology, the Hummer plug-in hybrid will run up to 40 miles per day on its battery alone, then a small 4 cylinder combustion engine will kick in to generate more electricity.[19]

Hummer H3

The H3 is the smallest of the Hummer models and is based on the GMT355 platform shared with the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon compact pickup trucks.

Off-road abilities

As of April 2009, Hummer is the only brand in the United States whose entire model range lineup comes standard with a low-range transfer case, relatively high-ground clearance, and off-road tires. Additionally, no two-wheel drive Hummers are offered at this time.

Racing

Rod Hall in the 2005 Baja 1000.
Robby Gordon's Dakar Rally H3.

Team Hummer Racing was created in 1993 and showcases the Hummer's abilities. Led by off-road racer Rod Hall, Team Hummer competes in the Stock classes of both BitD and SCORE, which feature production-based vehicles with stock frames, stock suspension designs, and production-based engines. Specialized racing shock absorbers, tires, and other minor modifications are allowed, along with the required supporting components and mandatory safety equipment. Team Hummer stock-class H3 driven by Hall finished first in class with the H3 in the 2005 Baja 1000.

Team Hummer has tallied one of the most impressive records in production-class racing, earning 11 class wins at the Baja 1000.

Dakar Rally

A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon in the 2006, 2007 (8th place) and 2009 (3rd place) Dakar Rally.

Licensing

GM has been active in licensing the Hummer. Various companies have licensed the Hummer trademarks for use on colognes, flashlights, bicycles,[20] shoes, coats, hats, laptops,[21] clothing, CD players and other items.[22]

Starting in the early-1990s, when AM General started selling to the civilian market, Hummers began making appearances in the Film and Television industry. Some earlier and noticeable appearances include seaQuest DSV which used the Hummer H1 in place of Humvees, and Earth 2 which featured a large, "solar-powered" Hummer Concept truck as their main mode of conveyance. More recently noticeable appearances include CSI: Miami, being driven by the chief of the crime lab Lt. Horatio Caine (played by David Caruso), during the 6th season of CSI: Miami, they received all new 2008 H2s with redesigned interior and in the 2007 Transformers movie the Autobot known as Ratchet transforms into a search and rescue Hummer H2.

Production Facilities

  • AM General Hummer H1 Assembly Plant, Mishawaka, Indiana – 500,000 square foot plant opened 1984 to build HMVEE and began production of the Hummer/H1 in 1992
  • AM General Hummer H2 Assembly Plant, Mishawaka, Indiana – 673,000 square foot plant opened 2002
  • Avtotor Kaliningrad, Russia – licensed version of H2 starting 2008

Owner efforts

Since all Hummer vehicles have heavy-duty capabilities, they have been employed by owners for aid in large disaster situations. Hummer Owners Prepared for Emergencies (HOPE) was created by the efforts of The Hummer Club, INC. and the American Red Cross. Together, the two organizations train Hummer owners with CPR and First Aid skills, and basic off-highway skills so that they may assist victims during a disaster situation. GM paid the Red Cross $4 million to participate in the organization.[23]

Criticisms

Criticism of Hummers includes the criticism of SUVs in general, although at a higher degree. Specific extra criticisms of Hummers include:

Size
Hummers (specifically the H1 and H2) are significantly bigger than other SUVs; this can cause problems parking, driving and fitting in a garage. Their large size also potentially poses a serious threat to smaller vehicles. [24]
Ecology
Safety and ecological perceptions from other road users has attracted a lot of criticism.[25][26] The Hummer (usually the H2) has been singled out and attacked, sometimes using violent means, as a symbol of ecological irresponsibility.[27][28][29]
Poor fuel economy
Even compared to other heavy passenger vehicles, Hummers without the alternate Duramax V8 engine have very poor fuel economy. Because the H2 is built to the over-8500-lb GVW class, its fuel economy is neither published by the EPA nor counted toward Corporate Average Fuel Economy.[30] For instance, H2 in one engine configuration averages about 14 mpg-US (17 L/100 km; 17 mpg-imp) on highways, 10 mpg-US (24 L/100 km; 12 mpg-imp) in the city, and has a curb weight of over 6,000 lb (2,700 kg), making it technically illegal for use on some streets.[31]
Safety
Crash data for Hummers is less complete than for other SUVs. Because of its weight, it takes longer and further to stop in emergency braking situations. As a Class 3 truck, the Hummer is exempt from many DOT safety regulations.[32] The H1 lacks standard safety features, including child safety locks, child seat tethers, side air bags and stability control. Large blind spots make parking difficult and possibly dangerous.[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61N5XE20100224
  2. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/24/AR2010022401259.html
  3. ^ http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_world_business/view/1040245/1/.html
  4. ^ The History of AM General
  5. ^ Page expired - MSN Money
  6. ^ a b '"Hummer Sustains Steady, Upward Sales Trend In North America And Overseas" GM Media Online, October 10, 2006, retrieved on February 23, 2009.
  7. ^ GM Closing 4 Truck and SUV Plants in North America - washingtonpost.com
  8. ^ Indian Automakers Eyeing Hummer?
  9. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/03/business/03auto.html
  10. ^ 1:34 p.m. ET (2009-06-24). "Chinese company to buy Hummer from GM - Autos- msnbc.com". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31059625/. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  11. ^ By Aaron Smith, CNNMoney.com staff writer (2009-06-02). "Who bought Hummer? Sichuan Tengzhong of China - Jun. 2, 2009". Money.cnn.com. http://money.cnn.com/2009/06/02/news/companies/gm_hummer/index.htm?postversion=2009060207. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  12. ^ 1:34 p.m. ET (2009-06-24). "Chinese company to buy Hummer from GM - Autos- msnbc.com". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31059625//. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  13. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/03/business/03auto.html?_r=1&hp
  14. ^ news http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6055B220100106
  15. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTOE61005520100201
  16. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSHKU00013520100201?loomia_ow=t0:s0:a49:g43:r1:c0.184211:b30168612:z0
  17. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2010/02/24/news/companies/hummer_chinese/index.htm?hpt=T2
  18. ^ "Hummer H2 Gets "All Stretched Out" To Become the H6" Edmund's Inside Line, date posted: March 16, 2006, retrieved on August 25, 2008.
  19. ^ "100 MPG Hummer H3 Plug-In Hybrid to be Unveiled". AllCarsElectric.com. April 13, 2009. http://www.allcarselectric.com/blog/1020028_raser-to-show-hummer-h2-plug-in-hybrid. Retrieved April 27, 2009. 
  20. ^ Hummer Bikes
  21. ^ Hummer Laptops. This product has been decomissioned
  22. ^ Hummerstuff.com
  23. ^ Hummer Owners Become Unique Disaster Volunteers
  24. ^ Hummer Cons: The Downsides Of Owning a Hummer H1 or H2
  25. ^ Drive.com.au review, with statements such as 'The mere mention of its name gets many people incandescent with rage']
  26. ^ H2 Hummer: Do You Need Attention This Badly? - The Car Family Reviews - National Motorists Association
  27. ^ Eco T-shirts: Anti-Hummer, anti-4x4 t-shirt
  28. ^ Eco-Terrorists Vandalize Hummer » Outside The Beltway | OTB
  29. ^ Hummer Owner Gets Angry Message - washingtonpost.com
  30. ^ "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2: a tweaked Tahoe or the real thing?", Motor Trend magazine, retrieved on June 23, 2008.
  31. ^ "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2, Overview", Motor Trend magazine, retrieved on June 23, 2008.
  32. ^ a b Hummer FAQ - Little Known Facts About Hummer H1 and H2 Vehicles

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

A Hummer H1.
See also hummer

Contents

English

Noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Hummer

Plural
Hummers

Hummer (plural Hummers)

  1. A brand of sport utility vehicles sold by General Motors, and by extension, any large similar vehicle.
  2. (military, slang) The HMMWV or Humvee, a US Army vehicle which replaced the Jeep.
    • 1985, Andy Rooney, Pieces of my Mind [1], ISBN 0380698854, page 38:
    "The vehicle is called the 'Hummer,' a contrived abbreviation of its official designation, 'High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle.'"
    • 1985, James Coates and Michael Kilian, Heavy Losses: The Dangerous Decline of American Defense [2], ISBN 0670804843, page 25:
    "The Hummer, a clumsy, elongated vehicle the Army intended as a replacement for the hardy Jeep, developed so many problems it became known as the Bummer."
    • 1987, Michael Barone & Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics, 1988 [3], ISBN 0892340371, page 403:
    "He made a point of not taking federal money for the district -- though by 1986 he was bragging about landing an Army contract to build the Hummer vehicle for a South Bend company."
    • 1994, World Book Inc., "Jeep" in World Book Encyclopedia vol. J [4], ISBN 0716600943, page 25:
    "A Hummer can carry four people."
  3. (ornithology) Alternative spelling of hummer.
    • 1868, Titus Fey Cronise, The Natural Wealth of California [5], page 458:
    "The Purple-Throated Hummer is green, with the throat a brilliant violet-purple."

Translations

Usage notes

Since the introduction of the civilian Hummer in the 1990s, this term has ceased to be used for the military vehicle; the term "Humvee" is typically used instead.

Proper noun

Singular
Hummer

Plural
-

Hummer

  1. A surname of German origin.

German

Etymology

Akin to Icelandic humar

Noun

Hummer m.

  1. lobster

See also

  • Panzerkrebs m.

Simple English

File:Hummer
The Hummer H2

Hummer is a type of Sport utility vehicle. Hummer was first made by AM General who also made vehicles used by the United States Army. The design of the Hummer H1 is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV – Humvee).

Hummer used to be made by General Motors. General Motors wanted to sell the brand, but they could not find a buyer, so the brand will stop being made.

Models

  • H1, the first Hummer, based on the Humvee
  • H2
  • H3

References

Other websites

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