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Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
Clockwise, from top left: John of Bohemia at the Battle of Crécy, English and Franco-Castilian fleets at the Battle of La Rochelle, Henry V and the Plantagenet army at the Battle of Agincourt,
Joan of Arc rallies French forces at the Siege of Orléans
Date 1337–1453
Location Primarily France and the Low Countries
Result Valoisian victory,
.House of Valois established as ruling dynasty of France.^ France › History › House of Valois, 1328-1589 (10) .
  • Hundred Years' War, 1339-1453 | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Reference]

^ France › History › House of Valois, 1328-1589 (9) .
  • Hundred Years' War, 1339-1453 | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Reference]

Territorial
changes
House of Valois secures control of all France except Pale of Calais
Belligerents
Blason France moderne.svg House of Valois
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png Castile
Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg Scotland
CoA civ ITA genova.png Genoa
Armoiries Majorque.svg Majorca
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Bohemia
Aragon Arms.svg Crown of Aragon
COA fr BRE.svg Brittany
England Arms 1340.svg House of Plantagenet
Blason fr Bourgogne.svg Burgundy
Blason de l'Aquitaine et de la Guyenne.svg Aquitaine
COA fr BRE.svg Brittany
Armoires portugal 1385.png Portugal
Blason Royaume Navarre.svg Navarre
Blason Nord-Pas-De-Calais.svg Flanders
Hainaut Modern Arms.svg Hainaut
Luxembourg New Arms.svg Luxembourg
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
.The Hundred Years' War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne, which was vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings.^ This has been true until within the last two or three hundred years.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This meant that the Low Countries were now de facto sovereign , with their princes feeling the encroaching power of the French king.
  • Hundred Years' War (1337–1360) - Uberpedia, the ultimate online resource 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC uberpedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The struggle between the two forces was fuelled by the shared view that whoever gained dominance during war would wield greater influence in the peace.
  • DPI - Foreign Media Monitoring 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.unmikonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two primary contenders were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou.^ It was Rene d’Anjou who was responsible for the two-bar cross becoming known as the Cross of Lorraine.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thompson in 1930 acquired the two story cut-stone building at 75 Hillside known as the Round House for the operation of the Eureka Springs Water Co.

.The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England.^ He arrived in England in February 1804 with the former royal paymaster of France, George Payseur, and was protected by King George III, the monarch at the time of the American War of Independence.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The successive Dukes of Parma, the third line of the House of Bourbon, had continued to accept from the Kings of Spain the title of Infant of Spain; the last reigning Duke, also an Infante, died in 1907.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 12/31/01) 1564 The Peace of Troyes ended the war between England and France with England re-nouncing its claim to Calais for a substantial payment.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Plantagenet Kings were the 12th century rulers of the Kingdom of England, and had their roots in the French regions of Anjou and Normandy.^ Robert, Duke of Normandy, was the eldest son of William the Conqueror; but on his father’s death he was deprived of the kingdom of England, by his own indolence and the activity of his brother Rufus.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER LVIII - The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 10 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These vast regions, which China had for centuries regarded as tributary provinces, are now virtually French territory and are openly governed as such.
  • New Forces in Old China - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/8) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tales of Old China 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.talesofoldchina.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Kilx, wuen Torrigiano was employed by the king on the monument of Henry VII. 'S ;e Sir Digby Wyatt's book " On the Foreign Artists Employed in England aurimj the .Sixteenth Century.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French soldiers fought on both sides, with Burgundy and Aquitaine providing notable support for the Plantagenet side.^ My support for Israel does not mean that I ignore the tragic loss of life on both sides.

^ Both Dr. George Waldbott (1978) and Dr. Hans Moolenburgh (1987) have provided case studies and described double blind studies supporting these claims.
  • The Emperor Has No Clothes: A Critique of the CDC's Promotion of Fluoridation 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It says that a forthcoming French documentary containing interviews with the French soldiers provides proof for the allegation.
  • Citizens for Legitimate Government, News Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: News]

.The conflict lasted 116 years but was punctuated by several periods of peace, before it finally ended in the expulsion of the Plantagenets from France (except the Pale of Calais).^ His wife died several years before.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After these unfortunate years the number of children born grew at an even rate for several five-year periods in a row (see the totals in Table 13).
  • Eilert Sundt - On Marriage in Norway 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rhd.uit.no [Source type: Original source]

^ And the king appointed them a daily provision of the kings meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years , that at the end thereof they might stand before the king.

.The war was eventually a victory for the house of Valois, who succeeded in recovering the Plantagenet gains made initially and expelling them from the majority of France by the 1450s.^ And in their place King Rehoboam had other body-covers made of brass and gave them into the care of the captains of the armed men who were stationed at the door of the king's house.
  • Basic English Bible: 2 Chronicles 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Representative Charles Halleck, who was the majority leader of the House, and Taft had a session in the Senate Republican cloakroom.
  • Truman Library - Grover W. Ensley Oral History Interview by Senate Historical Office 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ben and Joan Kennett who were holidaying in Queensland made their Hamilton house available to us for two nights--27th and 28th September.
  • Colin E. Curtis's The Life Story of Colin E. Curtis 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mun.ca [Source type: General]

.However, the war nearly ruined the Valois, while the Plantagenets gained huge amounts of plunder from the mainland, which enriched England.^ A yellow fever epidemic nearly ruined his health and while ill, two subordinates stole large amounts of government funds with which he had been entrusted.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The market's prosperity, however, was seriously checked in the 18th century, when the smallpox epidemic of 1704 nearly ruined it.
  • The market town of Bicester | British History Online 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Tortworth, England, there exists a chestnut tree measuring, at four feet from the ground, 60 feet in circumference, although at the present time it is nearly a sylvan ruin.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France itself likewise suffered greatly from the war, as most of the conflict occurred on the continent.^ The European continent suffered greatly in both wars, and the United States was devastated by the Great Depression.
  • Hoover Institution - Essays in Public Policy - The Case against the International Monetary Fund 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report, however, notes that the most severe abuses occurred in the civil war fought in the south, the central Nuba Mountains, and the east.

^ In 1793, when France and Great Britain engaged in war, it was thought, historians tell the pupils, that "our country would find itself on the side of France."
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war was in fact a series of conflicts and is commonly divided into three or four phases: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), the Lancastrian War (1415–1429), and the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc (1412–1431).^ The book is settling into a slow decline.
  • THE BEAT » Blog Archive » DC Month-to-Month Sales January 2008 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC pwbeat.publishersweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ But it would also have to include a serious process of conflict resolution to achieve agreement on the most sensitive political issues dividing the two groups.
  • The Third Option in Iraq: A Responsible Exit Strategy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mepc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (If there are three sons by wives of different castes, but) no Vaisya among them, they shall divide the estate into eight parts, and take four parts, three parts, and one part respectively.
  • The Institutes of Vishnu Online - The Gold Scales 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Several other contemporary European conflicts were directly related to this conflict: the Breton War of Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters, and the 1383-1385 Crisis.^ The civil war appeared to be approaching a crisis.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Anunnaki had many internal conflicts and high-tech wars with each other, as the Enlil and Enki factions fought for control.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the post-crisis years, three Peronist presidents have tried to prevent cleavage-based conflicts from escalating, but with only partial success.

.The term "Hundred Years' War" was a later term invented by historians to describe the series of events.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, it was generally understood for three hundred years before and after Christ that the "elohim" were the "sons of God" who were termed "messengers" or "angels."
  • FAQ Bible Study Old Testament (No. 57) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was rather upset years later when a historian from Wisconsin wrote a biography of Joseph McCarthy.
  • Truman Library - Grover W. Ensley Oral History Interview by Senate Historical Office 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war owes its historical significance to a number of factors.^ Nigeria and Rich Mens Oil Historic highs in crude oil prices reached this week are due to a number of factors.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The belief that Daniel had predicted not only what would happen, but when, was no doubt a significant factor in the timing of the war with Rome -in AD 66.

^ A collection of films on the Vietnam War from the National Archives, selected for their historical significance; uncut and uncensored.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationalism.^ We do call on them both to keep working for unified national and regional anti-war events.
  • 4strugglemag: Issue 06 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.4strugglemag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A squadron sailed from Spain for the Netherlands, and, though it evaded the now powerful French navy , it was driven into English territorial waters by the Dutch.

^ In looking over the furniture exhibits one cannot but be struck with the extent to which English ideas have been grafted upon the con- ventional French designs.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Militarily, it saw the introduction of new weapons and tactics, which eroded the older system of feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry.^ For instance, it appears that they tried out new weapons systems during the invasion.

^ Moreover, these weapons systems are completely inadequate to deal with the new, nontraditional security threats facing the hemisphere in the post-cold-war period.

^ Many of Chinas new weapon systems are applicable to a range of operations beyond the Taiwan Strait.
  • String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China�s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry.^ For the first time since the cap was introduced, EVER. .
  • Article:The What "Ever"? Whatever... is it 2008 or 1988? A Peer Into Stiles' 20 Years' Kaleidoscope - ArmchairGM - Sports Wiki Database 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC armchairgm.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western Roman Empire falls.

^ For the first time in the history of western Europe Cossacks appeared on the Rhine.

.For all this, as well as for its long duration, it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare.^ "The best beloved of all things in My sight is justice," He wrote, and "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens" in two often-quoted passages.
  • Flemington NJ COM - Religion Page 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC flemington-nj.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O most auspicious lady, one should perform all the ceremonies under the direction of learned acaryas and should satisfy them and their priests.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I say it to remind you that the most important criterion for a bishop is the one that the election committee ignored completely that a bishop must, above all else, be a defender of the faith.
  • A House Divided, by Robert C. Harvey 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.oursaviouracc.org [Source type: Original source]

.In France, the English invasion, civil wars, deadly epidemics, famines and marauding mercenary armies (turned to banditry) reduced the population by two-thirds.^ Of the cases reviewed by the AP, about two-thirds involved black or Hispanic inmates, roughly reflecting state prison populations racial makeup.
  • fUSION Anomaly. The Prisoner 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC fusionanomaly.net [Source type: General]

^ Researchers say that an injection of minocycline immediately after a stroke can reduce damage to brain cells by as much as two thirds.
  • Rockefeller Medical Library - what the papers say page 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ion.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the U.S. invasion in March 2003, Amman's population has grown by a third.
  • Israel News - Daily News Alert from Israel 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.dailyalert.org [Source type: News]

[1] .Shorn of its Continental possessions, England was left an island nation, a fact which profoundly affected its outlook and development for more than 500 years.^ Not more than 5 years and/or not more than $5,000.
  • Daily Kos: BUSTED! GOP Rising Star Nailed for Cocaine! 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Not more than 5 years and/or not more than $10,000.
  • Daily Kos: BUSTED! GOP Rising Star Nailed for Cocaine! 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ The "Cavea" was in fact very much higher than the actual one, and leaned on two rows of arches, but there is practically nothing left of the superior part.
  • Associazione Eugubini nel Mondo 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.eugubininelmondo.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Contents

Background

.The background to the conflict is to be found in 1066, when William, Duke of Normandy, led an invasion of England.^ This line became the St Clairs while they were living in Normandy before they crossed the English Channel with William the Conqueror for the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the Scottish Sinclairs.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fitzgeralds were one of the mighty Black Nobility clans of Italy which supported William the Conqueror’s conquest of England in 1066.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert, Duke of Normandy, was the eldest son of William the Conqueror; but on his father’s death he was deprived of the kingdom of England, by his own indolence and the activity of his brother Rufus.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER LVIII - The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 10 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He defeated the English King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, and had himself crowned King of England.^ Croesus was a wealthy king who had allied himself with Egypt and Babylon against Medo-Persia - but they were all defeated.

^ Then, although He fought alone on a single chariot, Pradyumna defeated the assembled kings in battle and took her away.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the English Civil War of 1642-1646, the Stuart king and Freemason, Charles I, was defeated and later executed.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.As Duke of Normandy, he remained a vassal of the French King, and was required to swear fealty to the latter for his lands in France; for a King to swear fealty to another King was considered humiliating, and the Norman Kings of England generally attempted to avoid the service.^ Spain always considered that Phillip was King of England and so their aim to retake their lands culminated in the Armada and their old enemy Elizabeth beating them.
  • The Website of King Henry VIII - Ask Henry. Questions 400-500 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.henrytudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Another proof of the efficacy of the phosphates in restoring fertility to exhausted land is afforded by the use of the guano—a manure which, although of recent introduction into England, has found such general and extensive application.
  • Familiar Letters on Chemistry 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.netlibrary.net [Source type: Original source]

^ MA'ARIV reported that the General Security Service has exposed another terrorist cell in the village of Deir Samet, near Hebron.
  • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

.On the French side, the Capetian monarchs resented a neighbouring king holding lands within their own realm, and sought to neutralise the threat England now posed to France.^ The site and lands are now owned by 0.
  • Portsmouth, Scioto County, Ohio 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.heritagepursuit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Threats are openly made that if King Louis persists in his determination to erect the statue, it will be found demolished within a few nights after its inauguration.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Landlord of England art thou now, not king....
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - - 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following a period of civil wars and unrest in England known as The Anarchy (1135–1154), the Anglo-Norman dynasty was succeeded by the Angevin Kings.^ Many African Americans in Kansas are descended from the Exodusters , newly freed blacks who fled the South for land in Kansas following the Civil War.
  • Aspca Careers Wiki 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.careercube.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lincoln and the military heroes of the Civil War, particularly Grant and Lee, are found appearing most often in the period of the Civil War.
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hearing of the pitiable condition of King Indra, the demons, following the instructions of their guru, Sukracarya, equipped themselves with weapons and declared war against the demigods.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the height of power the Angevins controlled Normandy and England, along with Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Gascony, Saintonge, and Aquitaine.^ The dry-laid fieldstone wall along the south side of the main block rises between two and three feet in height.
  • Parker Hill Rural Historic District 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.crjc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The King of England directly ruled more territory on the continent than the King of France himself.^ Our King asks nothing of any man more than Our King himself has done.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Years Between, by Rudyard Kipling 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, fulfilment from employment is more likely to be the rule than the exception.
  • Contents 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cog.kent.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But as it is, under the rule of the Sentences, we find among theologians more human and heathenish fallacies than true holy knowledge of the Scriptures.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Martin Luther (1483-1546): Address To The Nobility ofthe German Nation, 1520 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This situation – where the Angevin kings owed vassalage to a ruler who was de facto much weaker – was a cause of continual conflict.^ He who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana), must bring a club to the king, proclaiming his deed.
  • The Institutes of Vishnu Online - The Gold Scales 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One who is situated in household life and who systematically conquers his mind and five sense organs is like a king in his fortress who conquers his powerful enemies.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He adds that she is likely to have much in common with the industry commissioner, the German Gunter Verheugen, who is on a big de-regulation drive to cut unnecessary EU laws.
  • News Archive / October 2005. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.emins.org [Source type: News]

This assemblage of lands is sometimes known as the Angevin Empire.
.John of England inherited this great estate from King Richard I.^ The Eyam and Great Longstone estates were inherited by his elder brother Captain Robert Wright, but in 1796 James purchased Eyam Hall from his nephew, Robert's son John Thomas Wright, who lived in Devon.

^ In 1771 the entire Great Longstone and Eyam estate was reunited in the hands of John Wright (1700-1780).

^ King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
  • What Happened on Your Birthday? [Archive] - Tampa Racing 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tamparacing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Philip II of France acted decisively to exploit the weaknesses of King John, both legally and militarily, and by 1204 had succeeded in wresting control of most of the ancient territorial possessions.^ And who controlled King John?
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, weak-minded Dhrtarastra, the son of Ambika, has come under the control of his wicked sons, and therefore that blind King is not treating his brothers sons fairly.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have the will of both John and Sarah McGraw Hamilton also...and of most of Gibsons, some Stearns, many McGraw's as I have been to Fairfield Co., SC to research several times.
  • http://www.warbington.net/WarbGen/Generation%20Four.htm 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.warbington.net [Source type: Academic]

.The subsequent Battle of Bouvines (1214), along with the Saintonge War (1242) and finally the War of Saint-Sardos (1324), reduced Angevin hold on the continent to a few small provinces in Gascony, and the complete loss of the crown jewel of Normandy.^ Iron ore in the Pibara of WA. Jacket clipped and worn, a few small tears, stained along the edges.
  • Warrigal Press -- publishing since 1987 and rare books for sale 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.warrigalpress.com.au [Source type: General]

^ The Channel Islands, a 'peculiar' of the Crown, were retained by the English Crown on the loss of Normandy to the King of France, Philip Augustus, in 1204.

^ The Channel Islands, a 'peculiar' of the Crown, were retained by the English Crown on the loss of Normandy to the King of France, Philip Augustus, in 1204] .

.By the early 14th century, many in the English aristocracy could still remember a time when their grandparents and great-grandparents had control over wealthy continental regions, such as Normandy, which they also considered their ancestral homeland, and were motivated to regain possession of these territories.^ They were considered the eldest of the regions tribes, and had great respect.

^ Many good times are remembered at her home....
  • Database Text File Report 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC users.amerion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though one may not get ridiculed for stuttering all the time, they are still very self-conscious and aware of the way that words are coming out their mouth.
  • Free Article Directory - Submit Articles Free | Get Content | Article Directory|Articlebanker.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.articlebanker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dynastic turmoil: 1314–1328

.The specific events leading up to the war took place in France, where the unbroken line of the Direct Capetian firstborn sons had succeeded each other for centuries.^ In the years (actually centuries) leading up to the "fall", Rome was treated as 2nd class by the eastern empire.
  • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They took every other prudent measure in their power, to place themselves in readiness for the critical moment.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war, the Lucas family took up a settlement farm east of Carnamah known as Floradale, part of the original Inering Estate.
  • The Carnamah-Winchester Database 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.carnamah.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was the longest continuous dynasty in medieval Europe. .In 1314, the Direct Capetian, King Philip IV, died, leaving three male heirs: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV.^ Philip IV (1268-1314) King of France, 1285-1314.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles VII dies; son Louis XI succeeds (-1483) .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles IV dies; Philip of Valois becomes regent because Charles IV's widow is pregnant .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A fourth child of Phillip IV, Isabella, was married to Edward II of England, and in 1312 had produced a son, Edward of Windsor, who was a potential heir to the thrones of both England (through his father) and France (through his grandfather).^ Revelation 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.

^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.19) 1558 Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin, who later became Francis II of France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The father is one of the old residents of this county, and both he and his family are esteemed by every one who knows them.

.Philip IV's eldest son and heir, Louis X, died in 1316, leaving only his posthumous son John I, who was born and died that same year, and a daughter Joan, whose paternity was suspect.^ A son who died in infancy.
  • Pioneer Days in Sparks and Vicinity (1924) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was born and died in the same house.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also John CLIDERO son of the above who died September 8 1879 aged 73 years.

.Upon the deaths of Louis X and John I, Philip IV's second-eldest son, Philip V, sought the throne for himself, using rumours that his niece Joan was a result of her mother's adultery (and thus barred from the succession).^ After the death of king Rhampsinitus, the eldest of his sons ascended the throne, .
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of Shashanq, the throne was mounted by his second son, .
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon the retirement of Bishop MacGinley, Philip Scher, Vicar General of the Diocese, was appointed the second Bishop of Monterey-Fresno and consecrated in 1933.

.A by-product of this was the invocation in the 1380s of Salic law to assert that women could not inherit the French throne.^ It was the coming of age of a people, claiming its lawful inheritance and asserting its rights.
  • ITTZ�S G�bor 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC rs.as.wvu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The French people found that they simply could not reject the Bible, and the government passed laws allowing the return of the Scriptures and religious freedom.
  • Community approach to peacebuilding - GMANews.TV - Jun Mercado Blog 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As Modena had been entirely independent since 1815 the Duke considered he could dispose of the throne as he wished, in accordance with the historic laws of succession.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] When Philip V himself died in 1322, his daughters, too, were put aside in favour of an uncle: Charles IV, the third son of Philip IV.
.In 1324, Charles IV of France and his brother-in-law, Edward II of England fought the short War of Saint-Sardos in Gascony.^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles V renews the war with England .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles declares war on England .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The major event of the war was the brief siege of the English fortress of La Réole, on the Garonne.^ Part 1 is a documentary film covering the major events in the Korean War.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A formidable conspiracy against Richelieu brought about a civil war in which the king's troops Civil war were defeated at La Marfee, near Sedan (the fortress of France.

.The English forces, led by Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, were forced to surrender after a month of bombardment from the French cannons, after promised reinforcements never arrived.^ English surrender Rouen to French .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill Rallies British Citizens Winston Churchill promised his nation and the world that Britain would ''never surrender,'' and the British people mobilized behind their leader.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scots routed the English after a day of battle when a force of ‘unknown’ horsemen arrived to support the Scottish ranks.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The war was a complete failure for England, and only Bordeaux and a narrow coastal strip of the once great Duchy of Aquitaine remained in English hands.^ Even after I went to England, I had a pretty strong presentiment that I had only got a few more months to live—so strong that for once I really believed it.
  • Oral History Transcript — Otto R. Frisch 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dalton , William Hugh [1794] The new and complete English traveller; or a new historical survey and modern description of England and Wales .

^ There were great forces of the Saxons yet remaining in the eastern part of England ad in Kent.

.The recovery of these lost lands became a major focus of English diplomacy.^ These are people who became more politically aware and active once they landed in prison.
  • 4strugglemag: Issue 06 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.4strugglemag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the American people were not English the Dutch, Irish, Ger- mans, and others and these did not inherit a filial love of the mother- land; and the great majority of English descent had been born on this side of the water and had never seen England.
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think these statements became major news stories the next day?
  • 2004 Reasons to Boot Bush 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The war also galvanised opposition to Edward II among the English nobility and led to his being deposed from the throne in 1327, in favour of his young son, Edward of Windsor, who thus became Edward III.^ The English Crown Jewels at the time of King John were kept at the Templar’s London Temple and under John, Henry II, Henry III and Edward I, it was also one of four royal treasuries.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They have been close associates of the House of Windsor and they controlled people like Edward VII, the Grand Master of English Freemasonry.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henceforth he was a picturesque but powerless exile, and his lands and his electoral dignity, forfeited by the ban, went to the prudent Maximilian, who thus became elector of Bavaria.

.Charles IV died in 1328, leaving only a daughter, and an unborn infant who would prove to be a girl.^ She died in the 70's leaving a son and daughter.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also of Pheobe Charlotte, infant daughter of the above who died September 5 1860.

^ A daughter who died when young.
  • Pioneer Days in Sparks and Vicinity (1924) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The senior line of the Capetian dynasty thus ended, creating a crisis over the French succession.^ The last king in the dynasty of Iksvaku will be Sumitra; after Sumitra there will be no more sons in the dynasty of the sun-god, and thus the dynasty will end.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their general attack of the 11th of July on the French lines was made not simultaneously but successively, and Harcourt repulsed each in turn with heavy losses.

^ The platina points for closing the main circuit are at the rear end of the key, and thus, when the knob is pressed down, the line circuit is broken.
  • Early Telegraph and Electrical Manufacturers 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.telegraph-history.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile in England, the young Edward of Windsor had become King Edward III of England in 1327. Being also the nephew of Charles IV of France, Edward was Charles' closest living male relative, and the only surviving male descendent of Philip IV. By the English interpretation of feudal law, this made Edward III the legitimate heir to the throne of France.^ Philip IV (1268-1314) King of France, 1285-1314.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Edward IV 21 17.
  • The Website of King Henry VIII - Ask Henry. Questions 400-500 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.henrytudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward reassumes the title of "King of France" .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

Family tree relating the French and English royal houses at the beginning of the war
.The French nobility, however, balked at the prospect of a foreign king, particularly one who was also king of England.^ You are a strange one or foreign one- who are you?
  • .:: SUFISMUS, MYSTIK, ISLAM, DERWISCH, SUNNAH, KORAN, HADITH, SUFITUM, SUFIS, UND F�R DICH! ::. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC sufiportal.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I ought, however, to be contented, as he is the one man who has ever, as far as 1 know,1 treated me basely.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The citizens of London, in an address to the queen, expressed their delight at the prospect of the French king being soon compelled to accept terms.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.They asserted, based on their interpretation of the ancient Salic Law, that the royal inheritance could not pass to a woman or through her to her offspring.^ They could not be as they are, had no law regu- .
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Controversial marine parks laws pass through Vic Parliament.
  • ABC News Online - Archive 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: News]

^ They could tolerate my smoking but they couldnt stand to see a woman living with me...

.Therefore, the most senior male of the Capetian dynasty after Charles IV, Philip of Valois, grandson of Philip III of France, was the legitimate heir in the eyes of the French.^ When there was a dispute over the succession in the dynasty of the Two Sicilies, over the precise interpretation of the 1759 decree, the King of Spain as successor of Carlos III, in 1983 ordered a detailed investigation by the highest organs of the Spanish state, which concluded in favor of the senior male heir of the Two Sicilies branch.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 3/14/02) 1559 Apr 3, Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A point which most writers would probably agree in fixing at 1700, the year of Charles II.'s death, the last and most imbecile of the Austrian dynasty.

.He had taken regency after Charles IV's death and was allowed to take the throne after Charles' widow gave birth to a daughter.^ In 1977 I married a local Midland girl, Jackie Zurawic, and she gave birth to our beloved daughter, Tanya Faith, on May 4th of 1978.
  • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

^ At his death his daughter, Mrs. Louisa Chase Lakey, widow of the late Franklin Lakey, came into possession of the property.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1903 his daughter came to live with her parents, who generously allowed her to take three or four children as pupils.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Philip of Valois was crowned as Philip VI, the first of the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.^ There are several other dynasties of which there are multiple reigning branches; but over which the head of the particular House has only limited rights over the other reigning, or formerly reigning branches.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joan II of Navarre, the daughter of Louis X, also had a good legal claim to the French throne, but lacked the power to back it up.^ His claim is backed up by the history .
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The opposition is already claiming victory, but Chavez is shoring up his power base.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ "To claim power over what you do not understand is not wise, nor is the end of it likely to be good" ( FS 74; ch.
  • Chapter 7: Explicity Daoist Works 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sfra.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Kingdom of Navarre had no precedent against female rulers (the House of Capet having inherited it through Joan's grandmother, Joan I of Navarre), and so by treaty she and her husband, Philip of Evreux, were permitted to inherit that Kingdom; however, the same treaty forced Joan and her husband to accept the accession of Philip VI in France, and to surrender her hereditary French domains of Champagne and Brie to the French crown in exchange for inferior estates.^ The ratios for female drug and prohibition offenders showed little or no movement during the same two years.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: Joseph E. Kennedy, Drug Wars In Black And White, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 153 (Summer 2003) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ O King, owner of the state of Surasena, one's wife, his house, the opulence of his kingdom, and his various other opulences and objects of sense perception are all the same in that they are temporary.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole English nation was stirred against the French king for having dared to acknowledge as their sovereign the boy who had been held to be supposititious and whose title to the crown had been rejected by parliament.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Joan and Philip of Evreux then produced a son, Charles II of Navarre.^ In 1555, Charles handed the Netherlands over to his son Phillip II, who was Spanish by birth.

^ In 1734, the tower of the ancient Alcazar, the Palace of Charles V, and of Philip II, on the site of which now stands the present royal palace.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philip VI dies; his son John II (-1364) succeeds .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

Born in 1332, Charles replaced Edward III as Philip IV's male heir in primogeniture, and in proximity to Louis X; although Edward remained the male heir in proximity to Saint Louis, Philip IV, and Charles IV.

On the eve of war: 1328–1337

After Philip's accession, the English still controlled Gascony. .Gascony produced vital shipments of salt and wine, and was very profitable.^ All told, wine grapes produce a pretax profit of close to $2,000 an acre while rice produces a pretax profit around $240 an acre.
  • Bay Area United Against War 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bauaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even with the recent doubling of rice prices, to around $1,000 a metric ton for the high grades produced by Australia, it is even more profitable to grow wine grapes.
  • Bay Area United Against War 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bauaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was a separate fief, held of the French crown, rather than a territory of England.^ If someone is indeed struggling to separate politics and big business, it is Vladimir Putin rather than his liberal opponents.
  • Johnson's Russia List #5318 - June 23, 2001 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was when this membership increased to very large numbers that separate churches for colored people, rather than of the colored people, were established.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, Ed.. The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University; Together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Doves can be seen standing on Maltese crosses on the sceptres held by the Queen of England in her ceremonies and there are Maltese crosses on the crown of the British monarch (see picture section).
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Homage done for its possession was a bone of contention between the two kings.^ It’s sort of like the feeling I had between “Fellowship of the Ring” and “Two Towers” or “Two Towers” and “Return of the King”.
  • THE BEAT » Blog Archive » DC Month-to-Month Sales January 2008 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC pwbeat.publishersweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ He was content to wait God's time and studiously avoided any collision with the rival king, till, at the lapse of two years, hostilities were threatened from that quarter.
  • Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary: Second Samuel. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.prophecyforum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great saintly sage Maitreya told Vidura: My dear Vidura, King Prthu lived in the tract of land between the two great rivers Ganges and Yamuna.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

.Philip VI demanded Edward's recognition as sovereign; Edward wanted the return of further lands lost by his father.^ The new Coalition government was demanding that the land be sold at public auction all, it seemed, was lost.
  • A Gift to Australia: Caodaism and the First Caodaist Temple of Australia 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-personal.usyd.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The private financial advisor to George VI, the father of Queen 376 Elizabeth, was Sir Edward Peacock of Barings Bank and the Bank of England.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While he actually ruled the land as king, Ramses, his son, as legitimate sovereign, gave authority to all the acts of his father.
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

.A compromise "homage" in 1329 pleased neither side; but in 1331, facing serious problems at home, Edward accepted Philip as King of France and gave up his claims to the French throne.^ Sweden gave up her claim to Norway.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ O best of kings, please get up!
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward reassumes the title of "King of France" .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In effect, England kept Gascony, in return for Edward giving up his claims to be the rightful king of France.^ The Catholic king had the address, moreover, just before the battle to detach the emperor from France, by effecting a truce between him and Venice.

^ But the latter haughtily answered, "He would not give up the right of complaining of the injustice done him, for the finest city in the king's dominions."

^ Cosimos decision to admit the right of his daughter to the succession opened up the claims of other female line heiresses.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1333, Edward III went to war against David II of Scotland, a French ally under the Auld Alliance, and began the Second War of Scottish Independence.^ Shows the Russian defense against the Nazi invasion during World War II, focusing on the Battle of Stalingrad.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, they were permitted to settle in the outskirts of Nairobi, where they went on to create the suburb of Kibera.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Reaction to North Korean Surprise Attack In November 1942, in the first major commitment of U.S. forces to the war in Europe, Allied troops under Eisenhower invaded French Africa.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Philip saw the opportunity to reclaim Gascony while England's attention was concentrated northwards. .However, the war was, initially at least, a quick success for England, and David was forced to flee to France after being defeated by King Edward and Edward Balliol at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July.^ Edward reassumes the title of "King of France" .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic king had the address, moreover, just before the battle to detach the emperor from France, by effecting a truce between him and Venice.

^ So is the idea of the King David-Jesus bloodline being taken to France by ‘Mary Magdalene’ to become the Merovingians as suggested in many books over recent years.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1336, Philip made plans for an expedition to restore David to the Scottish throne, and to also seize Gascony.^ The discourses of which we spoke all have reference to this Kingdom, and it is clearly brought out that the mission of Christ is to the Jews only and that the establishment of His rule will be a restoration of the fallen throne of David.
  • Introduction to the New Testament (all) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.theologue.org [Source type: Original source]

Beginning of the war: 1337–1360

.Open hostilities broke out as French ships began scouting coastal settlements on the English Channel and in 1337 Philip reclaimed the Gascon fief, citing feudal law and saying that Edward had broken his oath (a felony) by not attending to the needs and demands of his lord.^ The conflict broke out in 2003 following an announcement that natural gas would be shipped to the United States via Chilean ports.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ He quickly built a shipping empire, then began building a railroad empire, and he was worth $20 million when the Civil War broke out, when the robber barons really began their ascent in America.

^ "It never gets spelled out beyond the general definition in the (treaties)," says Kunich, the law professor.
  • NucNews - March 5, 2003 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC nucnews.net [Source type: News]

.Edward III responded by saying he was in fact the rightful heir to the French throne, and on All Saints' Day, Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, arrived in Paris with the defiance of the king of England.^ NGUYEN: All right, a busy day.

^ All I can say is that facts speak for themselves.
  • ANOPSOLOGY (part one) — Instincto, Instinctive Nutrition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sunfood.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All right, I'm going to say it.
  • Boston Globe book reviews and articles - archive - Boston.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

War had been declared.
Battle of Sluys from a manuscript of Froissart's Chronicles, Bruge, c.1470
.In the early years of the war, Edward III allied with the nobles of the Low Countries and the burghers of Flanders, but after two campaigns where nothing was achieved, the alliance fell apart in 1340. The payments of subsidies to the German princes and the costs of maintaining an army abroad dragged the English government into bankruptcy, heavily damaging Edward’s prestige.^ In the years preceding 1815, the country was at war.
  • Eilert Sundt - On Marriage in Norway 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rhd.uit.no [Source type: Original source]

^ Which country is Ethiopia currently fighting a two year border war with ?

^ Nothing changed when she got pregnant after two years.
  • The Use of Children as Soldiers in Africa report 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reliefweb.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At sea, France enjoyed supremacy for some time, through the use of Genoese ships and crews.^ Matters might have continued on the same footing for some time longer had not Charles conceived the idea of claiming the sovereignty of the seas as a pretext for raising a fleet.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have used this time to evaluate some of the mistakes I have made.
  • Pastor's Wives' Support Board 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rockdove.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When navigation closed in the Fall, farmers used to take their canal horses to keep through the Winter at a price agreed upon, some farmers keeping as many as forty or fifty horses at a time.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several towns on the English coast were sacked, some repeatedly.^ It was a two-month trip, with some 40-odd concerts in all the big towns on the East Coast.
  • ANOPSOLOGY (part one) — Instincto, Instinctive Nutrition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sunfood.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This provision bore very severely on the towns of the New England sea-board, for many of them depended on the coasting vessels for fuel, and other necessary articles.
  • Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, Chapter XXXV - Civil Affairs in 1813 - Events on the Northern Frontier in 1814. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The crew are of several nations, some English, pretending to be Americans.

1782 Norfolk Chronicle newspaper Selections 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.foxearth.org.uk [Source type: Original source]


.This caused fear and disruption along the English coast.^ Smallpox epidemics "caused more fear and social disruption than any other disease" well into the 19th century.'

^ English influence was powerful all along the coasts of the South American continent, while the power of his own government was little known or respected.

.There was a constant fear during this part of the war that the French would invade.^ There would be a world war, he was told.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, there would be the "risk of being regarded as interlopers a la the French.
  • U.S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II, 1961-1964 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Veterans of Earlier Service Periods In 2007, there were about 12 million veterans who had served during World War II, the Korean War, or the Vietnam era.
  • Employment Situation of Veterans News Release 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France's sea power led to economic disruptions in England as it cut down on the wool trade to Flanders and the wine trade from Gascony.^ It was a time prolific in economic pamphlets; but, as we might expect, scarcely any of them were directly called forth by the question, of trade with France.
  • http://www.efm.bris.ac.uk/het/ashley/toryfree.htm 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.efm.bris.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ How the Balance of Trade stands between England and France is worthy of your grave Consideration.
  • http://www.efm.bris.ac.uk/het/ashley/toryfree.htm 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.efm.bris.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Bush, the bosses have regained the power to cut wages, increase hours and wither down the health care packages workers earn.
  • 2004 Reasons to Boot Bush 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, in 1340, while attempting to hinder the English army from landing, the French fleet was almost completely destroyed in the Battle of Sluys.^ Spanish army destroyed by French army at Rocroi.

^ Spanish Armada is destroyed in battle with English navy.

^ During the last half of the 17 th century, the Asian trade route was the scene of continual battles between the Portuguese, Dutch, French and English traders.

.After this, England was able to dominate the English Channel for the rest of the war, preventing French invasions.^ The French abandon their planned invasion of England .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As with the Spanish in the New World , the English process of invasion and settlement was devastating to New Englands environment, which further doomed the natives.

^ English war with Spain ends, and Spain never again rises to its former imperial dominance.

.In 1341, conflict over the succession to the Duchy of Brittany began the Breton War of Succession, in which Edward backed John of Montfort and Philip backed Charles of Blois.^ Claude V. 6 Steinruck (Edward Charles 5 , George Philip 4 , John 3 , Christian 2 , Johan George 1 Steinrock) was born December 02, 1883 in Jordan Township, Lycoming County, PA, and died July 29, 1971.

^ (M652) In view of a war with the Dutch, which seemed inevitable, owing to their interference with English trade, Charles began taking steps to replenish his exhausted exchequer.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the result of the treaty of Blois, with Maximilian, guaranteed by Louis XII., the object of which was to secure the succession to the archduke Charles.

.Action for the next few years focused around a back and forth struggle in Brittany, with the city of Vannes changing hands several times, as well as further campaigns in Gascony with mixed success for both sides.^ But little will change over the next 25 years.
  • ABC Family: podkido OT: PodKiDo's conservative thread 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC community.abcfamily.go.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the death of Mrs. West the place changed hands several times.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since his death the property has changed hands several times.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In July 1346, Edward mounted a major invasion across the Channel, landing in the Cotentin.^ MCCLUER and LT. Hugh MCCLUER under Col. Edward LACY and Major MCGRIFF. He participated in the battles of Rocky Mount, Hanging Rock and Fish Dam Ford.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The English army captured Caen in just one day, surprising the French who had expected the city to hold out much longer.^ One day was just an island; it was a succession of islands.
  • Speaker for Suffrage and Petitioner for Peace, 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes I feel like just one day is too much.
  • Pastor's Wives' Support Board 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rockdove.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sara was the one who spoke that day.
  • Speaker for Suffrage and Petitioner for Peace, 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.Philip gathered a large army to oppose him, and Edward chose to march northward toward the Low Countries, pillaging as he went, rather than attempting to take and hold territory.^ You should take credit and put in a handle rather than post anonymous.
  • Naruto Manga 413 Translation! + Discussion – The 8 tails beast finally comes out! + Why is Kakashi always sick? (updated) + One reader predicts the End of the world as we know it! « I ARE AWESOMENESS… 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC iareawesomeness.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Caesar went into hiding and joined the army as a way to leave Rome and keep a low profile.
  • Rome Italy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1976 large numbers of students left the country and went into exile.
  • 1976 - The O'Malley Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nelsonmandela.org [Source type: Original source]

.Finding himself unable to outmanoeuvre Philip, Edward positioned his forces for battle, and Philip's army attacked.^ Philip and Edward campaign in Picardy, but fight no pitched battle .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He saw the only chance of maintaining his present position lay in detaching France from the interests of Philip, and securing her to himself.

^ Khartoum said the new northern force had no intention to attack the south’s Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) also deployed in the area.

.The famous Battle of Crécy was a complete disaster for the French, largely credited to the English longbowmen.^ During the last half of the 17 th century, the Asian trade route was the scene of continual battles between the Portuguese, Dutch, French and English traders.

^ (MC, 7/16/02) 1557 Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino).
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal had largely lost out by 1620, and the Dutch by the early 1700s, leaving the English and French alone on the field.

.Edward proceeded north unopposed and besieged the city of Calais on the English Channel, capturing it in 1347. This became an important strategic asset for the English.^ English and French embassies, in conference at Bruges, conclude a general truce; Edward now holds only Calais, Brest, Bordeaux and Bayonne .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cities of the Underworld: Freemason Underground Learn about Fort Mifflin and how it became an important part of the Revolutionary War.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Britain had the English Channel as its greatest defense against invasion, Russia had its fierce winter as its greatest defensive asset.

.It allowed them to keep troops in France safely.^ Theres even a section in the book on keeping troops responding to a pandemic flu safe from contracting the virus.
  • Citizens for Legitimate Government, News Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: News]

.In the same year, an English victory against Scotland in the Battle of Neville's Cross led to the capture of David II and greatly reduced the threat from Scotland.^ Shows the Russian defense against the Nazi invasion during World War II, focusing on the Battle of Stalingrad.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan Afghanistan, the first target in the global fight against terrorism, led by the United States, is far from being a peaceful place one year after the beginning of the offensive.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of the Herrings at Rouvray results in an English victory when the French attack supplies bound for the siege of Orleans .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1348, the Black Death began to ravage Europe.^ In 1347, the Black Death swept into Europe, and in 1400, Europes population was perhaps as low as half of what it had been in 1300, although two-thirds is a more common estimate.

^ While the Chinese exclusively used it for firecrackers, Europe began using it in the 1330s, just before the Black Death epidemics, and Europeans invented its use in weaponry.

^ Mate, M. 1984 Agrarian economy after the Black Death: the manors of Canterbury Cathedral Priory 1348 - 91.

.In 1356, after it had passed and England was able to recover financially, Edward's son and namesake, the Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince, invaded France from Gascony, winning a great victory in the Battle of Poitiers, where the English archers repeated the tactics used at Crécy.^ Edward campaigns in Picardy for ten days; the Black Prince raids southern France, sacking Carcassone and Narbonne .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The sons of the sons of the great king of Khita will hold together and be friends with the sons of the sons of Ramessu Miamun, the great prince of Egypt.
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tylor, A. 1866 Remarks upon the interval of time which has passed between the formation of the upper and lower valley-gravels of part of England and France.

.The new French king, John II, was captured (See: Ransom of King John II of France.) John signed a truce with Edward, and in his absence, much of the government began to collapse.^ The new mayor, Sir John Robinson,(1256) had been a promoter of the king's restoration, and in return for his services received an augmentation of arms.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Intimidatory tactics by pro-Mugabe supporters and new laws restricting anti-government demonstrations have made orthodox electioneering virtually impossible in much of Zimbabwe.

^ The promises of the French king proved fallacious and Mansfeld was forbidden to land his forces in France.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later that year, the Second Treaty of London was signed, by which England gained possession of Aquitaine and John was freed.^ During the years 1810-1814 she signed treaties relating to the subject with Portugal, Denmark, and Sweden.
  • The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638-1870 / Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Allen Veatch and Samuel M. Veatch in later years were with their father in geological work in California and Nevada; and a son of Andrew Allen Veatch, John Allen Veatch (b.
  • SHQ Online :: Volume 46 Number 2 :: Issue View 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A peace treaty was signed thirty years later in 449 BC and Xerxes tried bribery and diplomacy to influence the Greeks.

.The French countryside at this point began to fall into complete chaos.^ Gada, Satyaki, Samba and others began killing Salvas army, and thus all the soldiers inside the airship began falling into the ocean, their necks severed.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The main point was to prevent the completion of the British success, until he should be relieved by the arrival of the French squadron from Boston, which he had the highest reason every moment to expect.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French had rushed into battle with too much precipitation to agree on any plan of operations, or any point on which to rally in case of defeat.

Brigandage, the actions of the professional soldiery when fighting was at low ebb, was rampant. In 1358, the peasants rose in rebellion in what was called the Jacquerie. .Edward invaded France, for the third and last time, hoping to capitalise on the discontent and seize the throne, but although no French army stood against him in the field, he was unable to take Paris or Rheims from the Dauphin, later King Charles V.^ Edward reassumes the title of "King of France" .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ French hopes dim as Denmark takes half-time lead.
  • ABC News Online - Archive 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: News]

^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.19) 1558 Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin, who later became Francis II of France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He negotiated the Treaty of Brétigny which was signed in 1360. The English came out of this phase of the war with half of Brittany, Aquitaine (about a quarter of France), Calais, Ponthieu, and about half of France's vassal states as their allies, representing the clear advantage of a united England against a generally disunified France.^ A declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America in general congress assembled.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States to the court of France.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopia also enjoys the support of the United States in the war against terrorism.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

First peace: 1360–1369

.When John's son Louis I, Duc d'Anjou, sent to the English as a hostage on John's behalf, escaped in 1362, John II chivalrously gave himself up and returned to captivity in England.^ John returns to captivity in London when one of the hostages for him escapes .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar language is used also by Saint John: “In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins” (1 Jn 4:10).
  • Community approach to peacebuilding - GMANews.TV - Jun Mercado Blog 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ On returning to England, Lloyd excused himself by alleging a mutiny in his ship, and on that charge several of the sailors were executed.

.He died in honourable captivity in 1364 and Charles V succeeded him as king of France.^ The Catholic king had the address, moreover, just before the battle to detach the emperor from France, by effecting a truce between him and Venice.

^ King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
  • What Happened on Your Birthday? [Archive] - Tampa Racing 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tamparacing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the league of Cambray was adjusted, the king of France and the pope were desirous of giving him the command of the allied armies.

.The Treaty of Brétigny had made Edward renounce his claim to the French crown.^ English and French embassies fail to settle on a peace at the Congress of Calais when the English refuse to renounce Henry VI's claim to the French throne .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emperor in turn would renounce his claim to Spain and the Indies while Felipe would confirm the renunciation of his French rights included in the Treaties of Utrecht.
  • The surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chivalricorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time it greatly expanded his territory in Aquitaine and confirmed his conquest of Calais.^ At the same time Kennedy appears to have approved a letter to Diem, as suggested by the State Department, confirming and explaining the U.S. decision.
  • U.S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II, 1961-1964 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This essay confirmed the arrival of the cowboy as a symbol at the same time as it signaled the demise of the world in which real cowboys actually lived.
  • Frieda Knobloch | Creating the Cowboy State: Culture and Underdevelopment in Wyoming Since 1867 | Western Historical Quarterly 32.2 | The History Cooperative 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, the Moroccan government counts on the support of pro-Moroccan Sahrawis as part of its strategy for maintaining control over the territory.
  • SAHARA PRESSE SERVICE 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.spsrasd.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In reality, Edward never renounced his claim to the French crown, and Charles made a point of retaking Edward's new territory as soon as he ascended to the throne.^ If you refer to the topic of this thread and read Dr Spencer’s thoughts on it on his site you will see there is real evidence to support the point I made.
  • James Hansen’s Former NASA Supervisor Declares Himself a Skeptic – Says Hansen ‘Embarrassed NASA’, ‘Was Never Muzzled’, & Models ‘Useless’ « Watts Up With That? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now this made me think real real good point: "Simple answer to all your questions...
  • Captain's Blog: Return to Flight ... A Tale of Tiles .... 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.enterprisemission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No attempts at doing this have ever yet been really made, but the evolutions of the ingenious toys which the French engineers have devised will soon point the way for applying the principles which they discover to air-ships made with serious purpose.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1369, on the pretext that Edward III had failed to observe the terms of the treaty of Brétigny, Charles declared war once again.^ Richelieu had, as the price of his assistance after Nordlingen, taken over the Alsatian fortresses held by Bernhard, and in May, just before the treaty of Prague was signed, he declared war on Spain.

^ Once more they suffered sore defeat and humiliating terms of peace in the treaty of 1858.
  • New Forces in Old China - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/8) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tales of Old China 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.talesofoldchina.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The War once again showed that the Ukrainian leadership had dismally failed to take any steps to improve the country’s enormous energy inefficiency.
  • Hot Topics on Eurasian Home - UKRAINE: CURRENT POLITICS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.eurasianhome.org [Source type: Original source]

French ascendancy under Charles V: 1369–1389

The reign of Charles V saw the English steadily pushed back. .Although the Breton war ended in favour of the English at the Battle of Auray, the dukes of Brittany eventually reconciled with the French throne.^ English war with Spain ends, and Spain never again rises to its former imperial dominance.

^ Battle of the Herrings at Rouvray results in an English victory when the French attack supplies bound for the siege of Orleans .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 5/11/98) 1747 Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Breton soldier Bertrand du Guesclin became one of the most successful French generals of the Hundred Years' War.^ One hundred years , 1836– 1936.
  • Economic and Social History - Industry and Trade, 1880-1960 | British History Online 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not one of his more successful releases in that year.
  • Queensland: September 2008 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.abc.net.au [Source type: General]

^ Santa Fe trade for six years at Franklin, Howard Co., then settled near Arrow Rock where he became a successful farmer.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Statue of Du Guesclin in Dinan
.Simultaneously, the Black Prince was occupied with war in the Iberian peninsula from 1366 and due to illness was relieved of command in 1371, whilst Edward III was too elderly to fight; providing France with even more advantages.^ You lend money to both sides to fund the war and then you lend them even more to rebuild their devastated countries.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Chances of a black hole actually staying open for more than a few nano seconds is even more slim than it just forming a black hole, which is small enough.
  • Large Hadron Collider nearly ready - The Big Picture - Boston.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the conference helped the government obtain a more supportive black press in the short term, an irony was that black publications became even more strident about racial grievances after the war.
  • LISTSERV 15.5 - AEJMC Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC list.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Pedro of Castile, whose daughters Constance and Isabella were married to the Black Prince's brothers John of Gaunt and Edmund of Langley, was deposed by Henry of Trastámara in 1370 with the support of Du Guesclin and the French.^ John Henry Avant and my grandfather, Benjamin Franklin Avant , were brothers.
  • http://www.warbington.net/WarbGen/Generation%20Four.htm 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.warbington.net [Source type: Academic]

^ After returning from the war he married Hariett Shirtliff, daughter of the late James Shirtliff, whose father was one of the first settlers in the village.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kane is survived by his wife , one sister, Mrs. John Halsbrook, and four brothers - James, Will and John of Emmetsburg and Henry of Oconomowoc, Wisconsin.
  • Descendants of James Brennan 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.celticcousins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.War erupted between Castile and France on one side and Portugal and England on the other.^ He had been an officer of character and rank in the late war between England and France.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France, and between England and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There had to be a victory for one side or the other.

.With the death of John Chandos, seneschal of Poitou, in the field and the capture of the Captal de Buch, the English were deprived of some of their best generals in France.^ In WWI he commanded the 156th Brigade, Field Artillery in U.S. and France, and was a member of the general staff, 1914-17.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patton's Generals General George S. Patton chose some of the best generals in the United States army to help carry out his missions.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will tend to mute some of the criticism of John Henry from those who claimed he was capitalizing on his father's death for financial gain.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Du Guesclin, in a series of careful Fabian campaigns, avoiding major English field armies, captured many towns, including Poitiers in 1372 and Bergerac in 1377. The English response to Du Guesclin was to launch a series of destructive chevauchées.^ Celebrate and honor their visionary films, including American Graffiti; the Indiana Jones series; the Star Wars series; and many more.
  • Film and Television History: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The scale of destruction visited upon Army Group Center dwarfed that visited within the Falaise Pocket upon Field Marshal Gerd Von Rundstedt's formations in the West.
  • Johnson's Russia List #5318 - June 23, 2001 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many a barn, throughout the towns of Palmyra and Macedon is standing today, that were built from heavy hewn timbers, and with proper care will stand for many years to come.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But Du Guesclin refused to be drawn in by them.
.With the death of the Black Prince in 1376 and Edward III in 1377, the prince's underaged son Richard of Bordeaux succeeded to the English throne.^ Henry was succeeded by his only son, Edward, but after he died at the age of 15, he was replaced by Henry’s daughter, Mary.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Metellanus, kinsman to Ederus, succeeded him in the throne, a prince no less dear to all for his excellent virtues than Evenus was hated by them for his flagitious vices.

^ Here you see how the English aristocracy and the monarchs on the English throne have in fact been the Black Nobility.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Then, with Du Guesclin's death in 1380, and the continued threat to England's northern borders from Scotland represented by the Battle of Otterburn, the war inevitably wound down to a truce in 1389. The peace was extended many times before open war flared up again.^ England , to PA before Rev. War.
  • Ropers in Virginia 1800-1899 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.roperld.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He served with distinction in the Civil War and was captured and imprisoned when he refused to leave his wounded men on the field after the battle of Bull Run .
  • History of Neurology: University of Minnesota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC kennedylab.med.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Second peace: 1389–1415

.Although Henry IV of England planned campaigns in France, he was unable to put them into effect due to his short reign.^ "England's Reformation, from the time of Henry VIII to the end of Oates's Plot," Canto iv, p.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then put them all in, the short-rooted ones in the sphagnum only, the other through into the peat.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In Arauca, "Soldiers for a Day" was put into practice as part of a campaign to reclaim a region effectively long abandoned by the government and considered an area supportive of guerrillas.
  • Watchlist Country Reports | Colombia 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.watchlist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the meantime, though, the French King Charles VI was descending into madness, and an open conflict for power began between his cousin, John the Fearless, and his brother, Louis of Orléans.^ Mary Tudor was warned that Edward VI was already dead and that she was walking into a trap set by John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, Edward’s regent.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While his brother, Charles, was king from 1859-72, Oscar was pro grand master of the Grand Lodge of Sweden, and upon his accession to the throne became grand master.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It next proceeded to impeach Danby for having been concerned in certain money transactions between Charles and the king of France.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.After Louis's assassination, the Armagnac family took political power in opposition to John.^ Focusing on achieving political power, Faraj gave priority to an immediate coup against the regime, seizure of political power, and the assassination of the "evil prince."
  • chron.Commons Forums | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not people's massive will and complaints that counts, nor corruption of family and close political aids that counts, not even personal honours that matters, it's the hold onto power and the support of his Party that matters.

^ So when people in power appear to have no blood links with these families, the opposite may be true.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.By 1410, both sides were bidding for the help of English forces in a civil war.^ In the English Civil War of 1642-1646, the Stuart king and Freemason, Charles I, was defeated and later executed.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A great affection existed between the brothers as they were both forced to flee Britian due to their participation in the rebellion on the Pretender's side.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 8 both sides had agreed that the FDD would occupy 40% of top posts in the armed forces.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

.England too was plagued with internal strife during this period, as uprisings in Ireland and Wales were accompanied by renewed border war with Scotland and two separate civil wars.^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles V renews the war with England .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During its reign, the states were separate powers often times at war with each other.

.The Irish troubles embroiled much of the reign of Richard II, who had not resolved them by the time he lost his throne and life to his cousin Henry, who took power for himself in 1399. This was followed by the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr in Wales which was not finally put down until 1415 and actually resulted in Welsh semi-independence for a number of years.^ He had been severely afflicted for a number of years with hernia, which finally terminated his life.
  • Cortland County Death Notices & Obituaries - 1876 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.usgennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They took His life--it was we who took Christ's life!
  • The Sanctuary Made Simple - Christian Library 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.stepstolife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was the Deer Creek Church, whose pastor for a long while was a slave who came over from Kentucky from time to time.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, Ed.. The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University; Together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Scotland, the change in regime in England prompted a fresh series of border raids which were countered by an invasion in 1402 and the defeat of a Scottish army at the Battle of Homildon Hill.^ The Jumayli tribe --with no prompting from the Coalition --turned on Al Qaida and engaged in a serious gun-battle with Al Qaida before formally joining with the coalition.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (M286) The day following the banquet the first regiments of the Scottish army crossed the Tweed, driving the royalists of the extreme north of England to take shelter in Newcastle.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. army purposely created a border incident to justify launching an invasion.

.A dispute over the spoils of this action between Henry and the Earl of Northumberland resulted in a long and bloody struggle between the two for control of northern England, which was only resolved with the almost complete destruction of the Percy family by 1408. Throughout this period, England was also faced with repeated raids by French and Scandinavian pirates, which heavily damaged trade and the navy.^ The effect of it was that Frederick Henry withdrew to his own country, and in 1636 the French northern army had to face the whole of the Cardinal Infante's forces.

^ Ownership of this farm by the Fletcher family spanned ninety-six years: David's son, Frink, lived here eighty-two years of that period.
  • Parker Hill Rural Historic District 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.crjc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There being no high school in the district she left school at the age of fourteen years and began what became a long period of service to the family.
  • Colin E. Curtis's The Life Story of Colin E. Curtis 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mun.ca [Source type: General]

These problems accordingly delayed any resurgence of the dispute with France until 1415.

Resumption of the war under Henry V: 1415–1429

.The final phase of warmaking that engulfed France between 1415 and 1435 is the most famous phase of the Hundred Years' War.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Most children taking part in the armed conflict are believed to be between 14 and 18 years of age, but the use of even younger children cannot be ruled out.
  • Worldwide Report on Child Soldiers : Global March Against Child Labour 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalmarch.org [Source type: News]

^ The most famous Grand Master of the Knights of Christ was Prince Henry the Navigator (another Prince Henry) who lived between 1394 and 1460.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Plans had been laid for the declaration of war since the rise to the throne of Henry IV, in 1399. However, it was his son, Henry V, who was finally given the opportunity.^ Indeed, it is we who have given them their royal thrones.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I will, however, add some enunciations from Gentiles of high standing, who have given the subject studious attention.
  • Excerpts -- Reminiscences of Early Utah by R. N. Baskin 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.signaturebooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the end, Crean became the only Labor leader since the war denied the opportunity to take his party to a general election.
  • Inside Canberra - News 2006 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.busicom.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.In 1414, Henry turned down an Armagnac offer to restore the Brétigny frontiers in return for his support.^ And at that time after a little interval Zion will again be builded, and its offerings will again be restored, and the priests will return to their ministry, and 6, 7 also the Gentiles will come to glorify it.
  • THE APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC goodnewsinc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus receiving the permission of Lord Krsna, the demigod Sudarsana circumambulated Him, bowed down to offer Him homage and then returned to his heavenly planet.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Market turns down high street offer 17/01/09 .

.Instead, he demanded a return to the territorial status during the reign of Henry II.^ Also during this prayer meeting John Paul II allowed the Dalai Lama to put a Buddhist statue on top of the tabernacle in the Church of St. Francis.
  • Has Rome Become the Seat of the Antichrist? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the reign of Henry V (1413-1422) an Act was confirmed by which: .
  • The True Bible Code: The Bible Code 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.truebiblecode.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See examples of these, in the reigns of Henry III., and John II, (Recop.

.In August 1415, he landed with an army at Harfleur and took it.^ This expectation occasioned a general anxiety until the latter part of August, when the fleet appeared in the Chesapeak, and the army soon after landed at the head of the river Elk.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although tempted to march on Paris directly, he elected to make a raiding expedition across France toward English-occupied Calais.^ Towards March 2006 tensions rose high again, although, officially it was about the alleged Iranian plans for nuclear weapons and not about the Oil Bourse.
  • Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market - Secrets behind world events - Researches and analyses 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courtfool.info [Source type: News]

^ They were very patient, although my journey compelled them to make a long and hard march for which they received no extra pay.

^ The plumbers, though aware of the evil, are not so directly the losers by it as to induce them to make a strong effort towards its cure.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a campaign reminiscent of Crécy, he found himself outmanoeuvred and low on supplies, and had to make a stand against a much larger French army at the Battle of Agincourt, north of the Somme.^ When the earth had become light in the early morning (of the next day), the warriors of his Majesty advanced (21) against them, and army joined in battle with army.
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The warriors of the Shasu, driven out of their own land, attempted to make head against King Seti and his army, after they had marched on northwards, and had made a stand in the territory of the Phoenicians or Kharu.
  • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His armies come on together, they make their road high against me, and put up their tents round mine.

.In spite of his disadvantages, his victory was near-total; the French defeat was catastrophic, with the loss of many of the Armagnac leaders.^ Victory at Yorktown Helps End the American Revolution A two pronged attack by French & American forces defeats General Cornwallis in Virginia.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No contingencies that had arisen among the nations for near a century, appeared so likely to produce this effect, as an alienation from, and a total loss of their colonies.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wars may be started or stopped, but once war starts, it simply would not stop until a total victory or defeat is finally evident.

Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the Battle of Agincourt
.Henry took much of Normandy, including Caen in 1417 and Rouen on January 19, 1419, making Normandy English for the first time in two centuries.^ Executive Summary Essay The first half of the twentieth century was marked by two world wars and a global depression.
  • Hoover Institution - Essays in Public Policy - The Case against the International Monetary Fund 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twentieth First Century Space-Age people tend to look at problems (including the issues of life and death) as if they were the first to face them!
  • Edgar Powell : Three Reformed Worthies: Joseph Irons, William Bengo Collyer and C. H. Spurgeon - Quodlibet Journal 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.quodlibet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This session was held at the Temperance House in Elyria, on the first of January, 1835, at the time of the Winter vacation.
  • OBERLIN Its Origin, Progress and Results By J. H. Fairchild. ALUMNI OF OBERLIN COLLEGE 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC truthinheart.com [Source type: Original source]

.He made formal alliance with the Duchy of Burgundy, who had taken Paris, after the assassination of Duke John the Fearless in 1419. In 1420, Henry met with the mad king Charles VI, who signed the Treaty of Troyes, by which Henry would marry Charles' daughter Catherine and Henry's heirs would inherit the throne of France.^ And who controlled King John?
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This marriage produced one daughter, Elizabeth, who was to marry John .

^ The Duke and Duchess lived there after the duke, as King Edward VIII, abdicated the British throne when the government and establishment would not accept his marriage to the America divorcee, Wallis Simpson.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Dauphin, Charles VII, was declared illegitimate.^ The Dauphin Charles declares himself Regent .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dauphin assumes the title of King of France as Charles VII .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Henry formally entered Paris later that year and the agreement was ratified by the Estates-General.^ A year later, he was back in Siberia as governor general of Irkutsk and Kolyvan.
  • Cairn.info - Proconsular ambitions on the Chinese border 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cairn.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is partially removed because a son would on average be born .5 years later that his father, but up to one year per generation could be added back.
  • A JUBILEE FRAMEWORK FOR HISTORY 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tckillian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inf., and two years later hewas a major general commanding the 14th Army Corps.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry's progress was now stopped by the arrival in France of a Scottish army of around 6,000 men.^ Now, some 5,000 Israeli police are mounted around the old city.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of 25 he commanded an army corps of 26,000 men.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But both armies together numbered hardly 17,000 men when Enghien and Turenne united at Breisach on the 2nd of August.

.In 1421, the Earl of Buchan crushed a larger English army at the Battle of Bauge, killing the English commander, Thomas, 1st Duke of Clarence, and killing or capturing most of the English leaders.^ He raised the 2nd South Carolina regiment for the Confederate Army and commanded it in the first Battle of Bull Run in July, 1861.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1800 he commanded the Army of the Rhine and won the battle of Hohenlinden.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Powhatans younger brother, Opechancanough, captured John Smith, the most capable Jamestown leader, as Smith tried forming an alliance with a tribe independent of Powhatan.

.The French were so grateful that Buchan was immediately promoted to the High Constable of France.^ Coordination SUD As the national coordinator of French NGOs, Coordination SUD has the double mission of supporting and strengthening the NGOs, as well as representing and promoting the values of French NGOs to public or private institutions in France and abroad.
  • Community approach to peacebuilding - GMANews.TV - Jun Mercado Blog 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ FRENCH PRICES STILL HIGH.; Improvement in Franc Is Net Yet Reflected in Cost of Living.
  • Pay Articles from April 1924 Part 2 - Site Map - The New York Times 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC spiderbites.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Soon after this setback Henry V died at Meaux in 1422. Soon, Charles too had died.^ Charles Henry Eastman was born in New Hampshire and died at Oakland, California.
  • Pioneer Days in Sparks and Vicinity (1924) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here he soon after died; if we are to believe Brantôme, being privately despatched by command of Charles V., or, as other writers intimate, by his own hand.

.Henry's infant son, Henry VI, was immediately crowned king of England and France, but the Armagnacs remained loyal to Charles' son and the war continued in central France.^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Father changed his stripes, while the son remained loyal to the Crown.

^ The object of the meeting was to dissipate any doubt that had been entertained as to the infant prince being actually the king's son.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.The English continued to attack France and in 1429 were besieging the important French city of Orleans.^ (M422) Matters were made worse by the continued ill-feeling between the City and the English army, whose pay was still largely in arrear.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the meeting, the minister also raised the arson attack against a Jewish school which happened on the same day in the southern France’s port city of Marseille.
  • I CARE - News - Internet Centre Anti Racism Europe 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.icare.to [Source type: News]

^ During the last half of the 17 th century, the Asian trade route was the scene of continual battles between the Portuguese, Dutch, French and English traders.

.An attack on an English supply convoy led to the skirmish that is now known as Battle of the Herrings when John Fastolf circled his supply wagons (largely filled with herring) around his archers and repelled a few hundred attackers.^ A surprise attack killed 347 of the 1240 English settlers, including the few women and children that lived there.

^ If I was on a coast line, or a Nigerian oil filled delta, and an Islamist, I'd be looking for a few good large 2-stroke outboards, so long as it is reasonably safe and profitable.
  • India navy defends piracy sinking 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Frenchman, known in English as John Calvin, also produced his version of Protestant Christianity, another extreme and arrogant creed called Calvinism.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Later that year, a French saviour appeared in the form of a peasant girl from Domremy named Joan of Arc.^ Just two of the famous names of history to whom he was connected were Christopher Columbus and Joan of Arc.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Later a colored family by the name of Baxter lived here several years until it was sold to give way for the present garage.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus it was not until seven years later (1869) that this complete sketch of his travels "from the point of view of the philosophic naturalist" appeared.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

French victory: 1429–1453

.
Hundred Years' War evolution.
^ However, the war between Iraq and Iran would last 10 years and cost hundreds of thousands of lives.
  • Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market - Secrets behind world events - Researches and analyses 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courtfool.info [Source type: News]

^ As Europeans honed their craft in the Reconquest, Crusades, Hundred Years War and countless other conflicts, they refined the art of violence.

^ War in Texas a hundred years ago was total war.
  • SHQ Online :: Volume 46 Number 2 :: Issue View 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

French territory: yellow; English: grey; Burgundian: dark grey.
.By 1424, the uncles of Henry VI had begun to quarrel over the infant's regency, and one, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, married Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, and invaded Holland to regain her former dominions, bringing him into direct conflict with Philip III, Duke of Burgundy.^ Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I did not bring him into Umno.
  • tBlog - TUN : Saya Zalim Anwar 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC tvceramah.tblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, it is plain from our Lord's reply, that they thought the intrusion a useless one, as infants were not capable of receiving anything from Him.
  • Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary: Luke. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.biblestudyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

.By 1428, the English were ready to pursue the war again, laying siege to Orléans.^ The opportunities for free land and dreams of estates lay on the frontiers of English/British encroachment, and was pursued by the losers of colonial life.

.Their force was insufficient to fully invest the city, but larger French forces remained passive.^ In the 19th century the city was blockaded twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by a joint Anglo-French expedition from 1845 to 1848.
  • Top40-Charts.com - 40 Top 20 & Top 40 Music Charts from 25 Countries 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.top40-charts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeing that a French force might any day be expected in England, the government, as was its wont, turned to the city of London.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonel Steve Zodiac and a French doctor named Venus lead the forces of the World Space Patrol at Space City against invading aliens .

.In 1429, Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin to send her to the siege, saying she had received visions from God telling her to drive out the English.^ During the Middle Ages, when she was tried by the English as a witch, Joan of Arc claimed that it was Michael, among other supernatural personalities, who emboldened her to drive the English out of France during the Hundred Years' War.
  • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

^ Oliver was thrilled with his work, and that evening wrote enthusiastically to the Whitmers saying that he was fully convinced that it was all that it had been represented to be, and that God had again revealed Himself to the children of men.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His whereabouts cannot be accounted for between the years 1429-1431, the very years when Joan of Arc was at the peak of her military career.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.She raised the morale of the local troops and they attacked the English Redoubts, forcing the English to lift the siege.^ Umayyad troops streamed out to put the rising down, a task they brutally and successfully accomplished, after a siege of Husayn's camp (which included women and children).

^ We afterwards learned that they were only the retainers of the local Kiao-chou yamen to see us to the border of the hinterland, which Governor Yuan's troops were not permitted to cross.

^ Hollywood Canteen: Dinah Shore takes the viewer on a tour of a typical war canteen where Hollywood stars mingled with the troops and special performances helpted lift morale.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inspired by Joan, the French took several English strong points on the Loire.^ (MC, 4/26/02) 1558 Jun 22, The French took the French town of Thioville from the English.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French and English , virtually alone on the world imperial stage during the 1700s, had several full-fledged wars in North America, beginning as early as 1689.

.Shortly afterwards, a French army, some 8000 strong, broke through English archers at Patay with 1500 heavy cavalry, defeating a 3000 strong army commanded by John Fastolf and John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury.^ John was an army commander and never married.

^ French defeat English at Patay .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I think some time about the end of 1777 during the war under the command of Col. John THOMAS....and Capt.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This victory opened the way for the Dauphin to march to Reims for his coronation as Charles VII.
.After Joan was captured by the Burgundians in 1430 and later sold to the English and executed, the French advance stalled in negotiations.^ Burgundian troops capture Joan of Arc .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the English Civil War of 1642-1646, the Stuart king and Freemason, Charles I, was defeated and later executed.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mendoza executed these orders so promptly that he brought up his horse, which were somewhat in advance of the foot, on the rear-guard of the French, before it had got many miles from Barleta.

.But, in 1435, the Burgundians under Philip III switched sides, signing the Treaty of Arras and returning Paris to the King of France.^ Richelieu had unified France under the single authority of the king, and his strategy, like his policy, was masterful and clear.

^ Signed in Paris on September 3, 1783, the agreement - also known as the Paris Peace Treaty - formally ended the United States War for Independence.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He arrived in England in February 1804 with the former royal paymaster of France, George Payseur, and was protected by King George III, the monarch at the time of the American War of Independence.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Burgundy's allegiance remained fickle, but their focus on expanding their domains into the Low Countries left them little energy to intervene in France.^ These countries have made many of the reforms advocated by external parties, but have either seen little growth response or have not seen growth translate into rapid poverty reduction.
  • Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance: Lessons from World Bank Experience, The 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tradeobservatory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (M113) There was little to hope for from raw levies such as these were, transported into a hostile country under the leadership of a foreigner.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There, the mandate in the early 1990s was explicitly to help transform these countries into market economies, rather than to focus directly on reducing poverty.
  • Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance: Lessons from World Bank Experience, The 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tradeobservatory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The long truces that marked the war also gave Charles time to reorganise his army and government, replacing his feudal levies with a more modern professional army that could put its superior numbers to good use, and centralising the French state.^ Only the uses to which it is put are good or evil.
  • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. government may be trying to replicate its success in prosecuting several people accused of being members of the long disbanded Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA).
  • 4strugglemag: Issue 06 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.4strugglemag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are steam boilers and pressure receptacles used; if so state their: Number Serial No.
  • Sudan Constitution 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

A repetition of Du Guesclin's battle avoidance strategy paid dividends and the French were able to recover town after town.
.By 1449, the French had retaken Rouen, and in 1450 the count of Clermont and Arthur de Richemont, Earl of Richmond, of the Montfort family (the future Arthur III, Duke of Brittany) caught an English army attempting to relieve Caen at the Battle of Formigny and defeated it, the English army having been attacked from the flank and rear by Richemont's force just as they were on the verge of beating Clermont's army.^ Just after Christmas of 1778, however, Savannah fell to British forces, and Georgia's government fled the city, attempting to reorganize in Augusta, 127 miles to the north.
  • Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military and intelligence officials say Al Qaeda and its affiliates now have a haven to plan attacks, just as they used camps in Afghanistan before the attacks of Sept.
  • Bay Area United Against War 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bauaw.org [Source type: News]

^ They were treated as brutes by their owners, who counted on their increase, as a Negro woman said to me bitterly, "just like we count for our chickens."
  • W. E. B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, Ed.. The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University; Together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The French proceeded to capture Caen on July 6 and Bordeaux and Bayonne in 1451. The attempt by Talbot to retake Gascony, though initially welcomed by the locals, was crushed by Jean Bureau and his cannon at the Battle of Castillon in 1453 where Talbot had led a small Anglo-Gascon force in a frontal attack on an entrenched camp.^ French capture Bayonne .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 1/8/99) 1745 May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome To The Stix (B+) A funny French film about a post-office manager who is forced to accept a promotion in a small northern town with a poor reputation.
  • Queensland: September 2008 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.abc.net.au [Source type: General]

.This is considered the last battle of the Hundred Years' War.^ This has been true until within the last two or three hundred years.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Persian monarchy, which from Cyrus, the first, to Darius, the last, flourished no longer than about two hundred and thirty years.
  • Marchamont Nedham: Commonwealth of England (1650) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What America has experienced the last 7 years or so is an act of theft, specifically the Treasury being robbed by high industry, aided by the government, under the guise of war.
  • Inflation in Zimbabwe | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

Significance

.The Hundred Years' War was a time of military evolution.^ Instead, YOU are one that contributed to the "cost of the U.S. war and occupation of Iraq", you "occupied" our military for HOW many years with NO inclination to SERVE? .
  • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islam is currently passing through one of its most dynamic times since its rise fourteen hundreds years ago.
  • Allahu Akbar but don’t blame Islam: 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC islammonitor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Attributing that information to US officials "with direct knowledge" of the controversial policy, the Times added that hundreds of thousands of dollars have been channelled to the warlords over the past year.
  • Jonathan Freedland: Like a deluded compulsive gambler, Bush is fuelling a new cold war | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Weapons, tactics, army structure, and the societal meaning of war all changed, partly in response to the demands of the war, partly through advancement in technology, and partly through lessons that warfare taught.^ The lessons taught are the voice of God to all.

^ Broad anti-war solidarity and unity should not mean everyone has to adhere to a single weak or homogenized position and set of demands.
  • 4strugglemag: Issue 06 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.4strugglemag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All Soldiers can now wear the U.S. flag insignia on the right shoulder of their utility uniform, as a continued reminder that the Army is engaged in a war at home and abroad.
  • Stryker Brigade News: February 2004 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.strykernews.com [Source type: General]

.England was what might be considered a more modern state than France.^ The Bonapartes, elected as they were, were no more held in check by the public opinion of France or of the world, than they would have been if they had been hereditary monarchs.
  • The American system of government. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hti.umich.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people might also receive dividends from more sources than others.
  • Contents 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cog.kent.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Second World War was the first modern conflict in which millions more civilians died than soldiers.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It had a centralised authority—Parliament—with the authority to tax. .As the military writer Colonel Alfred Burne notes, England had revolutionised its recruitment system, substituting a paid army for one drawn from feudal obligation.^ One part of the military equipment will require U.S. training of the Nepalese Army, which could lay the foundation for United States military presence in the kingdom of the Himalayas.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the wardens in this lodge was Lieutenant Colonel Edward Cornwallis, another of the top British Army commanders in the war with the American colonies.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was by education strongly impressed with high ideas of canon and feudal law, and fond of a system of government that had been long obsolete in England, and had never had an existence in America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Professional captains were appointed who recruited troops for a specified (theoretically short) period.^ This process requires professional speculators who have the ability to average risks, both over broad sectors of the economy and over a period of time.
  • Contents 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cog.kent.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patents were purchased by others, within a short period after the present, who planted the thirteen American colonies with a successful hand.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TAYLOR being the Captain, joined the troops commanded by Col. Charles MCDOWELL who retreated across the mountains to Watauga.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To some extent, this was a necessity; many barons refused to go on a foreign campaign, as feudal service was supposed to be for protection of the realm.^ I guess some risk is essential for progress and increase of knowledge (Daniel's prophecy: Many will go to and fro and knowledge will increase).
  • Large Hadron Collider nearly ready - The Big Picture - Boston.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

^ It is therefore reasonable to suppose that some particular circumstances prevented many from marrying in this diocese, so bringing about this break in the normal course of things.
  • Eilert Sundt - On Marriage in Norway 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rhd.uit.no [Source type: Original source]

^ CIVIC ATTITUDES IN TEXTBOOKS Among the heroic figures of the war is Baron von Steuben, whose services are extolled in many books.
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Before the Hundred Years' War, heavy cavalry was considered the most powerful unit in an army.^ Islam is currently passing through one of its most dynamic times since its rise fourteen hundreds years ago.
  • Allahu Akbar but don’t blame Islam: 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC islammonitor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Five years into the Iraq war, most details of the architecture and execution of the Pentagon’s campaign have never been disclosed.
  • Bay Area United Against War 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bauaw.org [Source type: News]

^ The violence, which regularly racks the area and has over the last year killed hundreds and displaced thousands, is a classic example of a war over resources.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

.But by the war's end, this belief had shifted.^ Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a strong shift in the direction of better allocation of aid, and better tailoring of assistance to country needs and circumstances.
  • Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance: Lessons from World Bank Experience, The 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tradeobservatory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heavy horse was increasingly negated by the use of the longbow (and, later, another long-distance weapon: firearms) and fixed defensive positions of men-at-arms—tactics which helped lead to English victories at Crécy and Agincourt.^ I was born in 1980 and later on I became heavy in Science,Space, Gravity, Blackholes and ect...I use to imagine things like this when I was a kid.
  • Large Hadron Collider nearly ready - The Big Picture - Boston.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

^ Caesar used water as a weapon on another occasion.
  • Rome Italy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If he ever used any profanity -- you read about it all the time -- it was either something that developed later or he might have used it when he was talking to men, you know.
  • Truman Library - Mildred Lee Dryden (Mrs. William J.) Oral History Interview 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

.Learning from the Scots, the English began using lightly armoured mounted troops—later called dragoons—who would dismount in order to fight battles.^ The Romans would later call it Londinium.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Who would win in a fight?
  • Naruto Manga 413 Translation! + Discussion – The 8 tails beast finally comes out! + Why is Kakashi always sick? (updated) + One reader predicts the End of the world as we know it! « I ARE AWESOMENESS… 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC iareawesomeness.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ We used to call him Fatty Tom to distinguish him from the Tom Bishop who is with us.

.By the end of the Hundred Years' War, this meant a fading of the expensively-outfitted, highly-trained heavy cavalry, and the eventual end of the knight as a military force and the nobility as a political one.^ In the intervening years the balance of forces, political and military, was materially altered.

^ One hundred years , 1836– 1936.
  • Economic and Social History - Industry and Trade, 1880-1960 | British History Online 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the current president, Yoweri Museveni, was leading a rebel force there were approximately 3,000 children under 16 years in his ranks, and one sixth of them were girls.
  • Worldwide Report on Child Soldiers : Global March Against Child Labour 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalmarch.org [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.Although they had a tactical advantage, "nevertheless the size of France prohibited lengthy, let alone permanent, occupation," as the military writer General Fuller noted.^ Generally, they receive no pay, although if they were assigned to go to the front line, they received 500 baht (about US$13) a month.
  • Worldwide Report on Child Soldiers : Global March Against Child Labour 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalmarch.org [Source type: News]

^ Although many African-Americans were eager to don a uniform because of the possibility of advancement, they found repression on the military front as well.
  • LISTSERV 15.5 - AEJMC Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC list.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The existence of a personal God was not in general acceptance, although they would not have the arrogance of divine knowledge to deny it.
  • 'Gerald Massey: Chartist, Poet, Radical and Freethinker' - Chapter 6. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Covering a much larger area than England, and containing four times its population, France proved difficult for the English to occupy.^ Time in space may prove Einstein wrong.
  • ABC News Online - Archive 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: News]

^ For the first time in history, the United States Army had stationed a Black unit in an area with a substantial Black population within a large white population.
  • Blacks in Utah History 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC historytogo.utah.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time much of Australia was covered by rainforest, and that precursor of kangaroos lived in trees, like the marsupial koala does.
  • :: OZ Greetings :: - Geology Articles 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oz-greetings.com.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.An insoluble problem for English commanders was that, in an age of siege warfare, the more territory that was occupied, the greater the requirements for garrisons.^ Biedma is to a less degree helpful, though in more than one instance the correlation of his notes with those of the Fidalgo furnishes the key to an apparently insoluble problem.
  • SHQ Online :: Volume 46 Number 2 :: Issue View 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, more teeth than ever will be at risk for caries among persons aged greater than or equal to 60 years.
  • The Emperor Has No Clothes: A Critique of the CDC's Promotion of Fluoridation 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the years I have interviewed more than a dozen leaders inside and outside the occupied territories.

.This lessened the striking power of English armies as time went on.^ He served for a time in the Continental Army as an aide to General Nathanael Greene, q.v., and following the war went to England and France.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Washington found himself at this time unable to do much more, than to guard against the uncertain inroads of a powerful fleet and a hostile army.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the long negotiations between the landgravine of Hesse-Cassel and the various powers ended in her allying herself with France and raising an army in return for a subsidy .

.Salisbury's army at Orleans consisted of only 5,000 men, insufficient not only to invest the city but also numerically inferior to French forces within and without the city.^ They desired to explain the reasons for undertaking the work, and to show that in so doing the city had only acted within its rights.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (M458) Early in November parliament was again pressed for money and was forced to apply to the City for a further loan of L4,000 to enable it to proceed with the "Treaty."
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His protest was only met with a further levy of L50,000 on all strangers and aliens residing within the city.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.The French only needed to recover some part of their shattered confidence for the outcome to become inevitable.^ However, if he was really as culpable as represented by some of those letters, he soon recovered his firmness, his character, and the confidence of his country, and the commander in chief.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If Girsu-ki had been only a quarter of Shirpurla, would there not be some inconsistency on the part of the Assyrian scribe in saying: Such and such temples belong to Girsu-ki, such another to Shirpurla-ki?
  • RECORDS OF THE PAST 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some those warring and conquering powers had also brought slaves and colonial immigrants to become parts of their own society.

.At Orleans they were assisted by the death of Salisbury through a fluke cannon shot and by the inspiration of Joan of Arc.^ Or one of the Star Wars' Death Star cannon, maybe this can be use as planetary defense heavy cannon (only they need the earth rotation to point it to the target).
  • Large Hadron Collider nearly ready - The Big Picture - Boston.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

^ It is said that years could elapse with the six on death row before they are either pardoned, win a judicial review, or are shot by firing squad.
  • Inside Canberra - News 2006 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.busicom.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ If it be found, when the battle clears, Their death has set me free, Then how shall I live with myself through the years Which they have bought for me?
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Years Between, by Rudyard Kipling 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Furthermore, the ending of the Burgundian alliance spelled the end of English efforts in France, despite the campaigns of the aggressive John, Lord Talbot, and his forces to delay the inevitable.^ CHAPTER EIGHT Same face, different mask In the years before the Templars arrived in force from France, Robert the Bruce’s campaign against the English had been pretty disastrous.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The methodology used was such that the size of the committee grew as the fund raising effort expanded, thereby adding more force and impetus to the campaign.

^ Despite efforts by Taylor and Steeves to defend the plan, it was thoroughly repudiated, leaving the subordinates on the task force without any support for their positions from their agency heads.158 .
  • U.S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II, 1961-1964 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
The war also stimulated nationalistic sentiment. .It devastated France as a land, but it also awakened French nationalism.^ Belgium became a nation and combined French and Flemish-speaking lands.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He fled to France and became a member of the National Convention and a French citizen.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the national anthems of Palestine and of France were played as the coffin of Yasser Arafat entered the belly of the French military air force Airbus that brought him here.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralised state.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Middle Ages, when she was tried by the English as a witch, Joan of Arc claimed that it was Michael, among other supernatural personalities, who emboldened her to drive the English out of France during the Hundred Years' War.
  • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

^ The violence, which regularly racks the area and has over the last year killed hundreds and displaced thousands, is a classic example of a war over resources.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

.The conflict became one of not just English and French kings but one between the English and French peoples.^ King Leopold was just one of the gang.

^ You know, the one that farted just to get people to notice him?
  • CBS on Phelps Smoking Pot: ‘Should There Be Outrage?’ | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ English makes a great one except that its irrational spelling must be memorized, so I wrote a program to translate between regular spelling and reformed spelling.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were constant rumours in England that the French meant to invade and destroy the English language.^ English-language edition (French edition, 1994).
  • MHS - Museum of the History of Science, Oxford - Classifications 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mhs.ox.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Boarding, teaching English and French Languages, Embroidery and Needlework of al Kinds, and Tea, at sixteen Guineas per Annum and one Guinea Admission.

1782 Norfolk Chronicle newspaper Selections 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.foxearth.org.uk [Source type: Original source]


^ The 1808 and 1825 Codes were both drafted in French and translated into English, after which they were published in both languages, both versions being official.
  • Mixed Jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: Original source]

.National feeling emerged out of such rumours that unified both France and England further.^ We do call on them both to keep working for unified national and regional anti-war events.
  • 4strugglemag: Issue 06 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.4strugglemag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such nation would not be able to unify again in decades, if not centuries.

^ Prestwich, Joseph 1888 Further observations on the correlation of the Eocene strata in England, Belgium, and the north of France.

The Hundred Years War basically confirmed the fall of the French language in England, which had served as the language of the ruling classes and commerce there from the time of the Norman conquest until 1362.[4]
.The latter stages of the war saw the emergence of the dukes of Burgundy as important players on the political field, and it encouraged the English, in response to the seesawing alliance of the southern Netherlands (now Belgium, a rich centre of woollen production at the time) throughout the conflict, to develop their own woollen industry and foreign markets.^ Nothing, obviously, could be more impolitic than these various provisions directed against manufactures, which, under proper encouragement, or indeed without any, from the peculiar advantages afforded by the country, might have formed an important branch of industry, whether for the supply of foreign markets, or for home consumption.

^ At almost the same time, Laxton, developer Paul Chatham, banker Word Wood, and Duke executive W. S. Lee chartered the Mecklenburg Realty Company.
  • Plaza - Midwood Neighborhood Guide 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Avenue, a long-time city thoroughfare originally known as Lawyers Road, defines the neighborhood's southern boundary with a strip of commercial development.
  • Plaza - Midwood Neighborhood Guide 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Weapons

Self-yew English longbow, 2 m (6 ft 6 in) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force.
.The most famous weapon was the English longbow of the yeoman archer: while not a new weapon at the time, it played a significant role throughout the war, giving the English tactical advantage in the many battles and skirmishes in which they were used.^ They proved to have many useful features.
  • The Nightingales Are Singing Near, by Dennis Huston, 2003 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.seaempty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As in most wars, logistics plays a very big role.
  • NucNews - March 5, 2003 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC nucnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Divide and conquer, that's the tactic they are using.
  • Rage . Against . The . System: 55 Interesting Facts about Racism In Malaysia 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC twiart.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The French mainly relied on crossbows, often employed by Genoese mercenaries. .The crossbow was used because it took little training or skill to operate, and it had a tremendous firing power against both plate and chain mail.^ As such, the intervention took on the complexion of an "aid to civil power" operation by the military at the request of the Prime Minister, to restore stability and prevent the break-up of the country.
  • [========================================================] 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So the Lord sent against them the captains of the army of Assyria, who made Manasseh a prisoner and took him away in chains to Babylon.
  • Basic English Bible: 2 Chronicles 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Mitchell said that the U.S. will use incentives or sanctions against both countries Israel and Palestine.

.However, it was slow to reload, heavy, and vulnerable to rain-damage; and it lacked the accuracy of the longbow.^ Its natural character, however, was entirely changed at the period before us, in consequence of the unexampled heaviness and duration of the autumnal rains.

.The longbow was a very difficult weapon to employ, and English archers had to have practiced from an early age to become proficient.^ Advancing the Agenda becomes their indoctrinated mission from very early in their lives.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But the approach to the city gate was often designed so that the city was on the right side, so that it was very difficult for a right-hand archer or slingsman to have much of a shot at the soldiers on the walls.
  • Shoftim/Judges 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.1bread.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Samuel HANDLY, aged 80, states he was born in the state of Pennsylvania in 1752 and removed at a very early age to Augusta County, Virginia, later Rockbridge County.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also required tremendous strength to use, with a draw weight typically around 620–670 newtons (140–150 lbf) and possibly as high as 800 N (180 lbf).^ The weight of bronze required in this process is calculated at ten times that of the wax employed, and in this statue 3,000 kilograms of wax and 30 tons of bronze were used in the casting.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can do an excellent job in the cleaning but they also require a bit of skill to use safely and effectively, which doesn't make them the best of DIY projects around.
  • Free Article Directory - Submit Articles Free | Get Content | Article Directory|Articlebanker.com 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.articlebanker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Russia in 1998, the IMF insisted on maintaining an overvalued fixed exchange rate, which required raising interest rates as high as 150 percent.
  • Growth May Be Good for the Poor-- But are IMF and World Bank Policies Good forGrowth? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cepr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was its widespread use in the British Isles that gave the English the ability to use it as a weapon.^ Most famously opium was the weapon used by the ‘British’ (the London-based Babylonian Brotherhood) in the Opium Wars against China in 1840 and 1858.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a response to these threats, some British companies, including Heathrow airport, have banned the use of the English flag in advertising, which is a national disgrace.
  • Prophecy in the news 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.evenmore.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Government promised to act upon the findings, which showed that more widespread use of statins would dramatically cut rates of heart disease in diabetics.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was the strategic developments that brought it to prominence. .The English, in their battles with the Welsh and Scots, had learned through defeat what dismounted bowmen in fixed positions could do to heavy cavalry from a distance.^ The end of Spanish military dominance was further reinforced by the Dutch defeat of the Spanish fleet in the English Channel in 1639, and the French destruction of the Spanish army at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643.

^ (MC, 5/11/02) 1568 May 13, Mary Queen of Scots was defeated by English at battle of Langside.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hills covered the departure of the English, and the Scots were so pertinaciously intent in revenging themselves on the Picts that they could not follow them.

.Since the arrows shot from a longbow could kill or incapacitate armoured knights (and particularly their costly horses), a charge could be dissipated before it ever reached an army's lines.^ Before I could come to grips with the fact that I wasnt dead Hayden said " Ive tried to kill myself a few times."

^ Here I had a noble and costly dinner for them, dressed by a man-cooke , as that the other day was, and pretty merry we were, as I could be with this company and so great a charge.
  • November 1666 (Pepys' Diary) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that years could elapse with the six on death row before they are either pardoned, win a judicial review, or are shot by firing squad.
  • Inside Canberra - News 2006 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.busicom.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.The longbow enabled an often-outnumbered English army to pick battle locations, fortify them, and destroy opposing armies.^ Spanish Armada is destroyed in battle with English navy.

^ (Maggio) 1693 Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end of Spanish military dominance was further reinforced by the Dutch defeat of the Spanish fleet in the English Channel in 1639, and the French destruction of the Spanish army at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643.

.As the Hundred Years' War came to a close, the number of capable longbowmen began to drop off.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government claims military victories and cites numbers of hundreds of dead among the rebels ranks, but the war is very far from being won.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the children of Gad, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; .

.Given the training required to use such powerful bows, the casualties taken by the longbowmen at Verneuil (1424) and Patay (1429) were significant.^ The new powers which the Minister will eventually be given will be extremely useful to Development Areas.
  • DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY BILL (Hansard, 21 March 1945) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC hansard.millbanksystems.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Suppose a significant portion of government spending is used to subsidize items that are disproportionately consumed by the poor, such as public transportation or basic grains.
  • Growth May Be Good for the Poor-- But are IMF and World Bank Policies Good forGrowth? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cepr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the last two years, 27 states have passed laws requiring a shift to machines with paper trails, and 8 others do not have such laws but use the machines statewide.

.As a result, the longbow became less viable as a weapon since there were not enough men to wield them.^ Had there been enough resistance, had enough people passed the test, the suffering would have been far less.
  • Encounter, issue 3 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This meeting house has since become Hicksite from the fact that there arose theological differences in the society, sufficient to cause division, and resulted in the formation of the Hicksite branch.
  • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Webster and Pickering first argued, quite reasonably, that since the Congressional session was at an end, there was not enough time for proper consideration of the bill.

In addition, improvements in armour-plating from the 15th century meant that expensive armour was almost arrow-proof. .Only the most powerful longbows at close-range could stand a chance of penetrating.^ The individual, no matter how able and noble he or she may be, has no chance to serve the nation without the will and support of the most powerful party or parties.

^ Or could it be that this is the only explanation most of the common people have ever heard?
  • Encounter, issue 3 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Interference occurs only in a minority of phones, about 5%, and at a very close range of less than a metre", he added.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.A number of new weapons were introduced during the Hundred Years' War as well.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ EVER greater numbers of Australians are presenting to their doctor with mental health concerns each year, a new report reveals.
  • The Richmond Fellowship of NSW (RFNSW): RFNSW media relations: Mental health in the news 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rfnsw.org.au [Source type: News]
  • The Richmond Fellowship of NSW (RFNSW): Mental Health in News Archive 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rfnsw.org.au [Source type: News]

^ We have engaged in a number of legal actions during the past year.
  • Constitution of the National Federation of the Blind 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nfb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gunpowder for gonnes (an early firearm) and cannons played significant roles as early as 1375. The last battle of the war, the Battle of Castillon, was the first battle in European history in which artillery was the deciding factor.^ Several factors have played a role in the transformation.

^ Washington disdained the militias, while they were probably a deciding factor in the war.

^ The Templars also settled in the region called Dalnada, now Argyll, and they were soon to play a crucial part in the most famous battle in Scottish history.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

War and society

.The consequences of these new weapons meant that the nobility was no longer the deciding factor in battle; peasants armed with longbows or firearms could gain access to the power, rewards, and prestige once reserved only for knights who bore arms.^ Vernon No, but we could get them from the Suffragist, the Suffragist to which we do not have access.
  • Speaker for Suffrage and Petitioner for Peace, 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the efficiency is no longer the deciding factor.
  • The Intangible Economy: November 2005 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.athenaalliance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These new power supplies for the MacBook.
  • Velocity | Linda Park | The Courier-Journal 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The composition of armies changed, from feudal lords who might or might not show up when called by their lord, to paid mercenaries.^ The composition of the army changed in this late period too.
  • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have to come up and show who you are!
  • Rage . Against . The . System: 55 Interesting Facts about Racism In Malaysia 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC twiart.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For though the army of Aram was only a small one, the Lord gave a very great army into their hands, because they had given up the Lord, the God of their fathers.
  • Basic English Bible: 2 Chronicles 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of the war, both France and England were able to raise enough money through taxation to create standing armies, the first time since the fall of the Western Roman Empire that there were standing armies in Western or Central Europe (excluding the Eastern Roman Empire).^ Western Roman Empire falls.

^ Gibbon on the decline and fall of the Roman empire.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the first time in the history of western Europe Cossacks appeared on the Rhine.

.Standing armies represented an entirely new form of power for kings.^ The Salvation Army’s Major Brad Halse was quoted as saying - “This year the Salvation Army has helped an entirely new group of people at our emergency relief centres ...
  • Inside Canberra - News 2006 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.busicom.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The representatives of the committees of villages and tribes, however, have denied having had any meeting with the authorities, calling Bouteflikas declarations a new manipulation of power to drive a wedge in the movement.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ He introduced a severer discipline into his army, and an entirely new system of tactics.

.Not only could they defend their kingdoms from invaders, but standing armies could also protect the king from internal threats and also keep the population in check.^ Jacob vowed a vow: "If God stands by me and protects me on this journey on which I'm setting out, keeps me in food and clothing, 21.
  • This is The Phanara.com Bible Reading Room... Welcome! 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC phanara.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By leaving their "tables" standing, we could partake of something they had that we didn't.
  • Shoftim/Judges 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.1bread.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For though the army of Aram was only a small one, the Lord gave a very great army into their hands, because they had given up the Lord, the God of their fathers.
  • Basic English Bible: 2 Chronicles 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was a major step in the early developments towards centralised nation-states that eroded the medieval order.^ For they have held that "animosity toward the United States and friendship for the Confederacy were plainly displayed in England by the aristocracy, by the majority of the commercial and moneyed classes, and by news- papers."
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This crackdown marked a reversal of hesitant but encouraging steps toward democracy, including the election of a "nonpartisan" parliament in 1985 and the legalization of political parties in early 1986.
  • A Fortress Built on Quicksand: U.S. Policy Toward Pakistan 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the disappointment with the state-led approach, the 1980s and early 1990s saw a strong reaction that stressed the primacy of markets in development.
  • Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance: Lessons from World Bank Experience, The 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tradeobservatory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.At the first major battle of the war, the Battle of Crécy, it is said that the age of chivalry came to an end in that heavy-cavalry charges no longer decided battles.^ But the efficiency is no longer the deciding factor.
  • The Intangible Economy: November 2005 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.athenaalliance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The man said, "But no longer.
  • This is The Phanara.com Bible Reading Room... Welcome! 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC phanara.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the battle is now no longer for Webb.
  • The C.L.R. James Institute: Introduction to "Special Delivery: The Letters of C.L.R. James to Constance Webb, 1939-1948" (2) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.clrjamesinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, there was a revival of the mores of chivalry, and it was deemed to be of the highest importance to fight, and to die, in the most chivalrous way possible.^ Is it possible, then, that under such conditions there is the same proportion of old and young bridegrooms as in the good years?
  • Eilert Sundt - On Marriage in Norway 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rhd.uit.no [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is any criticism as to method in arousing and directing the religious consciousness it should be more severe as regards post-revival methods than revival methods.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, Ed.. The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University; Together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This letter is in every way very much like I Timothy, which is due to the fact that the two were written about the same time and were called forth by very similar situations.
  • Introduction to the New Testament (all) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.theologue.org [Source type: Original source]

.The notion of chivalry was strongly influenced by the Romantic epics of the 12th century, and knights imagined themselves re-enacting those stories on the field of battle.^ The nineteenth century witnessed, however, the growth of a class of intellectuals not themselves clergy, who proved more open to outside influences.

^ By the middle of the 12th century the Templars were second only to the Roman Church for wealth and influence.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the dynastic battle had been fought, Jiang Tai Gong, carried the envoy of the emperor to heaven where those who distinguished themselves the war were deified.
  • A Gift to Australia: Caodaism and the First Caodaist Temple of Australia 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www-personal.usyd.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Someone like Bertrand Du Guesclin was said to have gone into battle with one eye closed, declaring "I will not open my eye for the honour of my lady until I have killed three Englishmen." Knights often carried the colours of their ladies into battle.[citation needed]
.In France, during the captivity of King John II, the Estates General attempted to arrogate power from the king.^ John XXIII, who died during Vatican II, is listed as a saint in the Lutheran Church.
  • Has Rome Become the Seat of the Antichrist? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thai and Burmese kings to colonial powers, mainly Britain and France .
  • [========================================================] 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Estates General was a body of representatives from the three groups who traditionally had consultative rights in France: the clergy, the nobles, and the townspeople.^ In 1903 his daughter came to live with her parents, who generously allowed her to take three or four children as pupils.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It has become a general rule: When one's diet is right, the body can cope with infection—it rarely proves necessary to disinfect wounds.
  • ANOPSOLOGY (part one) — Instincto, Instinctive Nutrition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sunfood.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We had volunteers from three Central American countries working under the direction of a single Yankee; they were an ecumenical group who included Catholics, Protestants and Anglicans.
  • A House Divided, by Robert C. Harvey 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.oursaviouracc.org [Source type: Original source]

.First called together under Philip IV “the Fair”, the Estates had the right to confirm or disagree with the “levée”, the principal tax by which the kings of France raised money.^ Philip IV (1268-1314) King of France, 1285-1314.
  • 10,000 Famous Freemasons by William R. Denslow - Volume 3 "K tp P" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.phoenixmasonry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philip holds the first Estates-General for France .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Philip II., his descendants were raised to a Spanish dukedom, with the title of Dukes of Baena.

.Under the leadership of a merchant named Etienne Marcel, the Estates General attempted to force the monarchy to accept a sort of agreement called the Great Ordinance.^ Under the new agreement, a member of the FDD will become second-ranking member of the general staff of the Armed Forces.
  • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The trained bands were ordered to their colours and placed under the command of Captain Philip Skippon, as sergeant-major-general of the forces of the city.
  • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not many days after this event, general Washington ordered a detachment of his most [151] active troops, under the command of general Wayne, to attempt the recovery of Stoney Point.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like the English Magna Carta, the Great Ordinance held that the Estates should supervise the collection and spending of the levy, meet at regular intervals independent of the king’s call, exercise certain judicial powers, and generally play a greater role in government.^ Regular combined prayer meetings were held.
  • Colin E. Curtis's The Life Story of Colin E. Curtis 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mun.ca [Source type: General]

^ Judicial power: The [SLORC] has the right to exercise it.
  • ELECTED MPs REMAINING BEHIND BARS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such powers as the States, without delegating them to the General Government, thought proper to exercise by direct agreement between themselves contained in the Constitution.
  • The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638-1870 / Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The nobles took this power to excess, however, causing in 1358 a peasant rebellion known as the Jacquerie.^ Now, directive power is not a known cause.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/contentblock?hitpage=1&viewtype=text&basepage=1&itemID=F1593 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC darwin-online.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Not entirely, because nobility always has something in reserve that no enemy, however powerful, can steal or smashyour integrity.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is certain, however, that, while in all her acts she confessed the influence of religion, she took more effectual means than any of her predecessors, to circumscribe the temporal powers of the clergy.

.Swarms of peasants furious over the nobles’ high taxes and forced-labour policies killed and burned in the north of France.^ Note how the low growth of labour force in the 1950s and high growth in the 1960s and 1970s echo the birth rate 20 years earlier....
  • Eilert Sundt - On Marriage in Norway 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.rhd.uit.no [Source type: Original source]

^ Javier Solana, the High Representative of the European Common, Foreign and Security Policy, will head this "anti-terrorism" task force, in accordance with his own " Recommendation 666 ".
  • Prophecy in the news 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.evenmore.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ ObamaCare's High Implicit Tax Rates for Low-Wage Workers Cato Policy Forum, Noon .
  • A Fortress Built on Quicksand: U.S. Policy Toward Pakistan 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of their victims proved to be Etienne Marcel, and without his leadership the Estates General divided.^ It has become a general rule: When one's diet is right, the body can cope with infection—it rarely proves necessary to disinfect wounds.
  • ANOPSOLOGY (part one) — Instincto, Instinctive Nutrition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sunfood.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This disaster was followed by the reduction of all Calabria, which the latter general, at the head of his French and Scottish gendarmerie, rode over from one extremity to the other without opposition.

^ If there are two sons by a Brahmana and one by a Sudra wife, the estate shall be divided into nine parts; and of these, the two sons of the Brahmana wife shall take two parts, the one son of the Sudra wife, a single part.
  • The Institutes of Vishnu Online - The Gold Scales 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

England and the Hundred Years' War

.The effects of the Hundred Years’ War in England also raised some questions about the extent of royal authority.^ Responding to some questions raised: .
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His comments raised some questions.
  • Blog of the Nation Blog : NPR 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ A boy treated with foetal stem cells for a rare genetic disease has developed benign tumours, raising questions about the therapy's safety.
  • Rockefeller Medical Library - what the papers say page 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ion.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Like the French, the English experienced a serious rebellion against the king during a gap in the succession caused by the death of Edward III when his grandson had not yet reached maturity.^ A rebellion against Edward begins in Gascony .
  • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Crown Jewels at the time of King John were kept at the Templar’s London Temple and under John, Henry II, Henry III and Edward I, it was also one of four royal treasuries.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They have been close associates of the House of Windsor and they controlled people like Edward VII, the Grand Master of English Freemasonry.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Called the Peasants' Revolt and also Wat Tyler’s Rebellion, the 1381 uprising saw some 100,000 peasants march on London to protest the payment of high war taxes and efforts by the nobility to reduce English peasants to serfdom.^ The year 1935 saw increased progressivity on both corporate and personal income taxes, with corporate rates ranging from 12.5% to 15% and individual rates as high as 75% on incomes over $5 million.
  • The SET Tax: A Tax System for Our Future 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nysscpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bombing Hamburg During World War II, especially in 1943, Hamburg was severely damaged by aerial bombardment, and some 55,000 persons were killed.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly 500 students demonstrated in front of Venice High School and another 1,000 students staged a protest at Santa Monica City College.
  • NucNews - March 5, 2003 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC nucnews.net [Source type: News]

.The mob murdered and burned the houses of government officials and tax collectors.^ Ports were blockaded, villages and farm houses were burned, churches looted, and in not a few in- stances the sick were murdered in their beds.
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, members of the royalty or government officials sometimes plunder mercantile men by forcing them to pay income tax and by other methods.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good Etiquette covering Australian official and social life, Government House, the Australian Army, Navy and Air Force and Women's Services plus titles of address.
  • Warrigal Press -- publishing since 1987 and rare books for sale 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.warrigalpress.com.au [Source type: General]

.The young king-to-be, Richard II, met the peasants outside his castle, defusing their violence by promising to meet their demands.^ King Richard II 22 13.
  • The Website of King Henry VIII - Ask Henry. Questions 400-500 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.henrytudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Olmert will meet with Jordan's King Abdullah II during his visit of several hours, Jordanian government spokesman Nasser Judeh told The Associated Press.
  • Prophecy in the news 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.evenmore.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert KING Carter John's young brother, was the 2nd Mrs. John Carter II .

.At the same time, agents of the throne murdered Wat Tyler, a key leader of the revolt, and Richard II sent the peasants back to their homes in the countryside.^ John Paul II loves pagans, prays with pagans, and exalts every false religion on Earth, while at the same time he excommunicates traditional Catholics.
  • Has Rome Become the Seat of the Antichrist? 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Captain soon after sent the king an inventory of his nephew's castles and estates, at the same time deprecating his wrath, in consideration of the youth and inexperience of the offender.

^ The Times, 27th Al)ril 1951 THESEUS ON WAY HOME H.MS. Theseu.@, the light fleet carrier, is on her way back to the United Kingdom from the Far East.
  • mem1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bkva.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After they left, however, he reneged on his promises and kept taxes high.^ (So far, they have not kept their promises.
  • Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market - Secrets behind world events - Researches and analyses 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courtfool.info [Source type: News]

^ However, after repeated Iranian requests it became clear, that the E3 countries had no intention of following through on the incentives they had promised.
  • Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market - Secrets behind world events - Researches and analyses 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courtfool.info [Source type: News]

^ To complete the cycle, however, they needed to ensure an endless supply of funds for the government and so they introduced a Federal Income Tax Bill, also in 1913.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Initially the success of the campaigns brought much wealth to English monarchy and the nobles.^ The ongoing success of the Gallic Wars brought an enormous amount of wealth to the Republic through spoils of war and new lands to tax.
  • Rome Italy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ssqq.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the war continued, the upkeep and maintenance of the region proved too burdensome and the English crown was essentially bankrupted, despite the wealth of France continuously being brought back by the nobles.^ He brought back great wealth from Syria.

^ The declaration by the French, Russian and German ministers came as the United States continued with preparations for war, including dispatching troops to the Persian Gulf region.
  • NucNews - March 5, 2003 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC nucnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Further, and despite the slide to civil war in Iraq (whilst a majority of Australians wanting to bring the troops back), Howard continues to prosper.
  • Inside Canberra - News 2006 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.busicom.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.The English monarchy began to seek truce, abandoning many of their subjects in France.^ Many began to fear they had only exchanged the petty annoyances of English rule for the slavery of French despotism and of the Spanish In- quisition."
  • Full text of "Civic attitudes in American school textbooks" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cherokee began fighting as English allies as early as 1689, in Englands imperial struggles with France.

^ Philip was in line for the Greek throne when, while he was still a child, another coup removed the Greek monarchy and the family headed for France where he began his education at a private school in Paris.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Many English subjects with claims and holdings were greatly disillusioned with the crowns.^ This is the real meaning of the woman with the sun crown holding the Scales of Justice which you see on so many court buildings.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, if you want to claim that NYT reporters & editors, as a class of people, hold certain assumptions that are in conflict with many Americans, I would not argue.
  • Juggernauts Don't Turn Well - Winds of Change.NET 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English tried reversing the political situation by crowning Powhatan the next year, and making him a subject of King James by doing so.

.The conflict became one of the major contributing factors to the Wars of the Roses.^ CORN. After the war was over CORN became a major.
  • Franklin County, Tennessee Revolutionary War Pensions 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.tngennet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While numerous factors contribute to this phenomenon, one of the most potent is the widespread belief that government has been taken over by powerful special interests....
  • Studies in the News: The Latest Issue 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.library.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, YOU are one that contributed to the "cost of the U.S. war and occupation of Iraq", you "occupied" our military for HOW many years with NO inclination to SERVE? .
  • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of the war, England was left an island nation, except for Calais.^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 4/10/02) 1784 May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
  • Timeline Netherlands 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Everett Hagen puts it, the war "destroyed a larger share of the nations physical wealth than was destroyed in any other country [except] perhaps Greece ".
  • [========================================================] 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

.Already on the fringe of Europe, it appeared destined for obscurity.^ According to this fantasy–some of which has already appeared in the comments–Albanians are the only pure race in Europe, descended from ancient Illyrians, and with a blood-claim on the Illyrian homeland.
  • “Refugees from the Former Yugoslavia” : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Already the inner suburbs, even recently-completed Plaza-Midwood, appeared unfashionable, destined to be replaced by offices, apartments, and factories.
  • Plaza - Midwood Neighborhood Guide 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the European discovery of the New World beyond the western boundary of the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 meant that seafaring nations like England were well-suited to take advantage of the new opportunities for trade, commerce and conquest it soon afforded.^ Columbus discovered the new world in 1492.

^ Obviously, he was well known in New England.
  • Truman Library - Grover W. Ensley Oral History Interview by Senate Historical Office 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The temerity of the viceroy soon afforded an opportunity.

Major battles

  • 1337, November—Battle of Cadsand: initiates hostilities. .The Flemish defenders of the island were thrown into disorder by the first use of the English longbow on Continental soil.
  • 1340, June 24—Battle of Sluys: Edward III destroys the Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI of France off the coast of Flanders ensuring England will not be invaded and that the majority of the war will be fought in France.
  • 1345, October 21—Battle of Auberoche: a longbow victory by Henry, Earl of Derby against a French army at Auberoche in Gascony.
  • 1346, August 26—Battle of Crécy: English longbowmen soundly defeat French cavalry near the river Somme in Picardy.
  • 1346, September 4–1347, August 3—Siege of Calais: Calais falls under English control.
  • 1350, August 29—Les Espagnols sur Mer: English fleet defeats Castilian fleet in a close fight.
  • 1351, March 26—Combat of the Thirty: Thirty French Knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir call out and defeat thirty English Knights under Pembroke and Robert Bramborough.
  • French army under De Nesle defeated by English under Bentley at Mauron in Brittany, De Nesle killed.
  • 1356, September 19—Battle of Poitiers: Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France, France plunged into chaos.
  • 1364, September 29—Battle of Auray: End of Breton War of Succession, Du Gueschlin captured.
  • 1367, April 3—Battle of Nájera (Navarette): Black Prince defeats a Castilian/French army at Nájera in Castile.
  • 1372, June 22—Battle of La Rochelle: Castilian-French fleet defeats the English fleet, leading to loss of dominance at sea and French piracy and coastal raids.
  • 1380—Castilian fleet commanded by Fernando Sánchez de Tovar sacks and burns English port towns.
  • 1385--Battle of Aljubarrota: Nuno Álvares Pereira, commanding a small Anglo-Portuguese army, defeats the Castillan-French forces in Portugal.
  • 1385—Jean de Vienne, having successfully strengthened the French naval situation, lands an army in Scotland, but is forced to retreat.
  • 1415, October 25—Battle of Agincourt: English longbowmen under Henry V defeat French under Charles d'Albret.
  • 1416—English defeat numerically greater French army at Valmont near Harfleur.
  • 1417—Naval victory in the River Seine under Bedford.
  • 1418, July 31–1419, January 19—Siege of Rouen: Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.
  • 1419—Battle of La Rochelle: Castilian fleet defeats Anglo-Hanseatic fleet.
  • 1421, March 22—Battle of Bauge: The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII commanded by the Earl of Buchan defeat an outmanoeuvred English force commanded by the Duke of Clarence.
  • 1423, July 31—Battle of Cravant: The French and Scottish army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.
  • 1424, August 17—Battle of Vernuil: The Scots forces are decisively defeated.
  • 1426, March 6—French besieging army under Arthur de Richemont dispersed by a small force under Sir Thomas Rempstone in "The Rout of St James" in Brittany.
  • 1428, October 12–1429, May 8—Siege of Orléans: English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Suffolk, and Talbot (Earl of Shrewsbury) lay siege to Orleans, and are forced to withdraw after a relief army accompanied by Joan of Arc arrives at the city.
  • 1429, February 12—Battle of the Herrings: English force under Sir John Fastolf defeats French and Scottish armies.
  • 1429, July 17—Battle of Patay: In a reverse of Agincourt/Crécy, a French army under La Hire, Richemont, Joan of Arc, and other commanders break through English archers under Lord Talbot and then pursue and mop up the other sections of the English army, killing or capturing about half (2,200) of their troops.^ Robert H. Bareham, June 22, 1906.
    • Joseph Smith Home Page: Local Histories: Wayne Co. 1900-1999 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC olivercowdery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The decision of the U.S. Trade Ministry has come into force February 1, 2006.
    • Hot Topics on Eurasian Home - UKRAINE: CURRENT POLITICS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.eurasianhome.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The promises of the French king proved fallacious and Mansfeld was forbidden to land his forces in France.
    • Free Ebooks - LONDON AND THE KINGDOM 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Earl of Shrewsbury (Talbot) and Hungerford are captured.
  • 1435—Battle of Gerbevoy: La Hire defeats an English force under Arundel.
  • 1435 : French forces take Paris.
  • 1450, April 15—Battle of Formigny: A French force under the Comte de Clermont defeats an English force under Thomas Kyriell.
  • 1451: French forces conquer Gascony.
  • 1453, July 17—Battle of Castillon: Jean Bureau defeats Talbot to end the Hundred Years' War.^ French defeat the English at Montargis .
    • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tour de Force 17/07/07 .

    ^ Philip announces the confiscation of Gascony; the Hundred Years War begins .
    • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

    This was also the first battle in European history where the use of cannon was a major factor in determining the victor.

Important figures

England
King Edward III 1327–1377 Edward II's son
King Richard II 1377–1399 Edward III's grandson
King Henry IV 1399–1413 Edward III's grandson
King Henry V 1413–1422 Henry IV's son
King Henry VI 1422–1461 Henry V's son
Edward, the Black Prince 1330–1376 Edward III's son
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster 1340–1399 Edward III's son
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford 1389–1435 Henry IV's son
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 1306–1361 Knight
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury 1384–1453 Knight
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York 1411–1460 Knight
Sir John Fastolf 1378?–1459 Knight
France
King Philip VI 1328–1350
King John II 1350–1364 Philip VI's son
King Charles V 1364–1380 John II's son
Louis I of Anjou 1380–1382 John II's son
King Charles VI 1380–1422 Charles V's son
King Charles VII 1422–1461 Charles VI's son
Joan of Arc 1412–1431 Saint
Jean de Dunois 1403–1468 Knight
Gilles de Rais 1404–1440 Knight
Bertrand du Guesclin 1320–1380 Knight
Jean Bureau 13??–1463 Knight
La Hire 1390–1443 Knight
Burgundy
Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy 1363–1404 Son of John II of France
John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy 1404–1419 Son of Philip the Bold
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy 1419–1467 Son of John the Fearless

The French "Reconquista"

.In 1557 France conquered Calais and its surroundings, which had been under English rule for two centuries.^ About two centuries later (B.C., 1600), occurred the Egyptian conquest under Thotmes and Kameses.
  • Full text of "American architect and architecture" 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maritime law is civilian in its origin and has benefited greatly, in the last two centuries at least, from the infusion of certain English common law principles and innovations.
  • Mixed Jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Portuguese captured, sacked and burnt Gwadar in 1581 and this was then followed by almost two centuries of local rule by the various Balochi tribes.
  • Discussions / Advertisements Page 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gwadarcorner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the aftermath, the region around Calais, then-known as the Calaisis or Calaysis, was renamed the Pays Reconquis ("Reconquered Country") in commemoration of its recovery by the French.^ Each year the country pays to CIS a contribution of around USD 1 million.
  • Hot Topics on Eurasian Home - UKRAINE: CURRENT POLITICS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.eurasianhome.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Isis/Semiramis is also known by a stream of other names in the various regions, cultures and countries.
  • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Laxton, J.L., and D.L. Ross nd The sand and gravel resources of the country around Newport-on-Tay, Fife Region: resource sheet NO 42 and parts of 32, 52.

.Since the French were well aware[citation needed] of the importance of the Reconquista in the history of their neighbours to the south, and since the French reconquest of Calais occurred in the context of a war with Spain (Philip II of Spain was at the time the consort of Mary I of England), French use of the term might have been intended as a deliberate snub to the Spanish.^ With this object he endeavoured to secure the higher officers of the army, but these were gradually won over by Spanish emissaries; the emperor, having decided to Dismissal cont nue the war in alliance with Spain, dismissed and his general for the second time.

^ From that time until since the year 1840, the governors of the States of New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, were elected by their State legislatures.
  • The American system of government. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hti.umich.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thach Weave Maneuver in World War II The Thach Weave is a move most fighter pilots use today in their day-to-day training.
  • http://www.history.com/media.do?action=searchTable&searchTerm=SEVEN+YEARS%27+WAR%2C 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.August 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, and just as likely, the term might have simply had a higher frequency of use at that time in Western Europe, in light of the Reconquista.^ And it seems like we are just going to have to get used to it.

^ It is their space, just like their house.
  • Dizzy Thinks: January 2007 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC dizzythinks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Parasurama then used his axe with great force to cut off Kartaviryarjuna's arms, just as one might lop off the hoods of a serpent.
  • Gita Verses: the 9 upanishads 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gita-society.com [Source type: Original source]

.And therefore, the French would have[citation needed] merely thought it to be a politically appropriate and authoritative word for their own reconquest of land.^ They mistakenly thought Jesus would immediately appear, but they needed to understand there were tests that must first be endured.

^ The order further stated that elected representatives had merely been given the duty of drafting a new constitution, a process that the regime would initiate at its own discretion.
  • ELECTED MPs REMAINING BEHIND BARS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's interesting to figure out the number of ordinary words that would be needed to communicate the same amount of information.
  • ANOPSOLOGY (part one) — Instincto, Instinctive Nutrition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.sunfood.net [Source type: Original source]

Memory and impact

.Lowe (1997) argues opposition to the war helped to shape England's early modern political culture.^ Another explanation emphasizes cultural politics and the cyclical nature of vice wars.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: Joseph E. Kennedy, Drug Wars In Black And White, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 153 (Summer 2003) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even thus early the struggle showed itself in the double aspect of a religious and a political war.

^ No effort was spared for providing adequate means for the vigorous prosecution of the war, and only in New England was a voice of serious opposition heard.
  • Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, Chapter XXXV - Civil Affairs in 1813 - Events on the Northern Frontier in 1814. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although anti-war and pro-peace spokesmen generally failed to influence outcomes at the time, they had a long-term impact.^ They’re anti-war and pro-civil liberties also.

^ They were going to be there a long time.

^ They had little time to develop long-term strategies.

.England showed decreasing enthusiasm for a conflict deemed not in the national interest, yielding only losses in return for the economic burdens it imposed.^ But national interest can't be imposed on others."
  • Democrats.com Archive: global warming 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC elandslide.org [Source type: News]

^ It is hard to tell, but only a couple of people out of those who attended my presentation showed a serious interest.
  • long_life : Messages : 12-41 of 76 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about twenty of these ships regularly returned to England.
  • The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638-1870 / Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.In comparing this English cost-benefit analysis with French attitudes, given that both countries suffered from weak leaders and licentious soldiers, Lowe notes that the French understood that warfare was necessary to expel the foreigners occupying their homeland.^ For the costs of inspection, sampling, analysis, and other expenses necessary for the administration of chapters 192, 194, and 195: $ 651,220 3.
  • House Journal: Monday, April 22, 1996 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The leaders of seven of the country's nine black homelands i.e.
  • 1976 - The O'Malley Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.nelsonmandela.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The command of this little band had been given to colonel Arnold, a young soldier of fortune, who held in equal contempt both danger and principle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of course, Joan of Arc had a higher and more durable charisma quotient than Henry V. Furthermore French kings found alternative ways to finance the war - sales taxes, debasing the coinage - and were less dependent than the English on tax levies passed by national legislatures.^ Of course, his research was less than rigorous.
  • Daniel Gross: November 2005 Archives 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danielgross.net [Source type: News]

^ Not less than 7 years nor more than 30 years and $50,000.
  • Daily Kos: BUSTED! GOP Rising Star Nailed for Cocaine! 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, sailors with dependents will collect more entitlements than those who are single.
  • GAO-05-348, Military Personnel: More DOD Actions Needed to Address Servicemembers' Personal Financial Management Issues 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English anti-war critics thus had more to work with than the French.^ If there is any criticism as to method in arousing and directing the religious consciousness it should be more severe as regards post-revival methods than revival methods.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, Ed.. The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University; Together with the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903. 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But the war ended more quickly than they expected on 20 July 1815.

^ The Second World War was the first modern conflict in which millions more civilians died than soldiers.
  • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Don O'Reilly. "Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans". TheHistoryNet.com.
  2. ^ As noted in, e.g., Gregory D. Cleva, Henry Kissinger and the American Approach to Foreign Policy, Bucknell University Press, 1989; p. 87 ("the English Channel gave the nation a sense of geographical remoteness" while its "navy fostered a sense of physical unassailability" that lasted until the early 20th century).
  3. ^ The Salic Law was not invoked until the 1380s - see Robin Neillands, The Hundred Years' War, Routledge.
  4. ^ French as a mother-tongue in Medieval England
  5. ^ Ben Lowe, Imagining Peace: A History of Early English Pacifist Ideas, 1340-1560 (1997)

Bibliography

.
  • Allmand, Christopher, The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c.1300-c.1450, Cambridge University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-521-31923-4
  • Bell, Adrian R., War and the Soldier in the Fourteenth Century, The Boydell Press, November 2004, ISBN 1-843-83103-1
  • Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 (in French 1979).
  • Burne, Alfred, The Agincourt War, Wordsworth Military Library, ISBN 1-84022-211-5
  • Crane, Susan.^ Cameramen at war: Documentary on the cameramen of the British military film units and the newsreel companies that documented battles of both World Wars.
    • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Instead, YOU are one that contributed to the "cost of the U.S. war and occupation of Iraq", you "occupied" our military for HOW many years with NO inclination to SERVE? .
    • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reed had publickly announced his regret that a letter written by him to general Lee, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, * had been published to the world.
    • Online Library of Liberty - History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution vol. 1 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The Performance of Self: Ritual, Clothing, and Identity During the Hundred Years War (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Curry, Anne, The Hundred Years War, Macmillan Press, (2nd ed.^ Here is where you will find most of the events relating to the Hundred Years War, as well .
    • France in the Late Middle Ages - Knox 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the Middle Ages, when she was tried by the English as a witch, Joan of Arc claimed that it was Michael, among other supernatural personalities, who emboldened her to drive the English out of France during the Hundred Years' War.
    • ARCHANGEL MICHAEL'S ADVENTURES, 2nd Edition 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The violence, which regularly racks the area and has over the last year killed hundreds and displaced thousands, is a classic example of a war over resources.
    • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

    .2003)
  • Dunnigan, James F., and Albert A. Nofi.^ See James Dunnigan and Albert Nofis Dirty Little Secrets of World War II , pp.

    .Medieval Life & The Hundred Years War, Online Book.
  • Green, David.^ So is the idea of the King David-Jesus bloodline being taken to France by ‘Mary Magdalene’ to become the Merovingians as suggested in many books over recent years.
    • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The violence, which regularly racks the area and has over the last year killed hundreds and displaced thousands, is a classic example of a war over resources.
    • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the life of Sarah.

    The Battle of Poitiers, 1356 (2002). ISBN 0-7524-1989-7.
  • Keegan, John. .The Face of Battle (1976), covers the battle of Agincourt, comparing it to modern battles
  • Neillands, Robin, The Hundred Years War, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 978-0415261319
  • Nicolle, David, and Angus McBride.^ In fact, after hundreds of years of practice, modern democracy is still not true democracy as it was in the days of historic democracy in Athens or in the legacy of ancient Chinese Tang dynasty.

    ^ The violence, which regularly racks the area and has over the last year killed hundreds and displaced thousands, is a classic example of a war over resources.
    • http://esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es/observatorio/mostrarPastillas_i.htm?tipo=descriptores&descriptor=tema&valor=Democracy 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC esiweb1a.esi.tsai.es [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tarqa, 210 (the king of) Kush, when he had heard in the city of Memphis of the approach of my army, numbered his host to make war and battle, and drew up his army in the face of my army.
    • A HISTORY OF EGYPT  UNDER THE PHARAOHS 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.masseiana.org [Source type: Original source]

    .French Armies of the Hundred Years War: 1328-1429 (2000) Men-At-Arms Series, 337 excerpt and text search
  • Perroy, Edouard, The Hundred Years War, Capricorn Books, 1965.
  • Rogers, Clifford J. "The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years War," The Journal of Military History 57 (1993): 241-78. in Project Muse
  • Ross, Charles, The Wars of the Roses, Thames and Hudson, 1976.
  • Seward, Desmond, The Hundred Years War.^ Instead, YOU are one that contributed to the "cost of the U.S. war and occupation of Iraq", you "occupied" our military for HOW many years with NO inclination to SERVE? .
    • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (CSUCS, Africa Report, April 1999) * All men of 21 years of age are liable for a military service.
    • Worldwide Report on Child Soldiers : Global March Against Child Labour 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalmarch.org [Source type: News]

    ^ However, the war between Iraq and Iran would last 10 years and cost hundreds of thousands of lives.
    • Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market - Secrets behind world events - Researches and analyses 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.courtfool.info [Source type: News]

    .The English in France 1337–1453
    , Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 0140283617 excerpt and text search
  • Stone, John.^ Another work of interest is the book Hitlers Pope by John Cornwell (1999) in which the author examines the actions of Pope Pius XII during the Nazi era.
    • The Last Pope: Examining Nostradamus and Malachy (No. 288) 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.holocaustrevealed.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Foxes Book of Martyrs, by John Fox, Whitaker House, ISBN: 0-88368-095-5 .

    ^ Vermes, Geza, The Dead Sea Scrolls In English (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1990).
    • Biggest Secret 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ."Technology, Society, and the Infantry Revolution of the Fourteenth Century," The Journal of Military History 68.2 (2004) 361-380 in Project Muse
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War I: Trial by Battle, University of Pennsylvania Press, September 1999, ISBN 0812216555
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War II: Trial by Fire, University of Pennsylvania Press, October 2001, ISBN 0812218019
  • Villalon, L. J. Andrew, and Donald J. Kagay, eds.^ Shows the Russian defense against the Nazi invasion during World War II, focusing on the Battle of Stalingrad.
    • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cameramen at war: Documentary on the cameramen of the British military film units and the newsreel companies that documented battles of both World Wars.
    • Peace and Conflict Studies: Videotapes in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Instead, YOU are one that contributed to the "cost of the U.S. war and occupation of Iraq", you "occupied" our military for HOW many years with NO inclination to SERVE? .
    • Russia Comments and User Feedback | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 16 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Hundred Years War: A Wider Focus (2005) online edition; also excerpt and text search
  • Wagner, John A., Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, August 2006. ISBN 031332736X

External links

.
Hundred Years' War
BattlesSiegesChevauchées
French and English kings • Peace treatiesPeople
Armagnacs and BurgundiansJacquerie
Breton War of SuccessionCastilian Civil War


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Hundred Years' War
Plural
-
  1. A conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453.

Translations


Simple English

File:Hundred years war.gif
Time scaled map of the war.

The Hundred Years' War was fought between France and England during the late Middle Ages. It lasted 116 years from 1337 to 1453.[1] The war started because Charles IV of France died in 1328 without a son. Edward III of England then believed he had the right to become the new king of France through his mother.[2]

The French did not want a foreign king, so Philip VI of France said he ought to be king because women could not transmit the right to rule to their sons. The two countries went to war because of this disagreement.

At the beginning of the war France was the stronger of the two countries. France had about 17 million people while England had only about 4 million people. France had an alliance with Scotland against England, and England tried to ally with parts of the Low Countries. The English won a great victory at sea in the Battle of Sluys in 1340 which prevented France from invading England. After that the war was fought almost totally in France. England won again at the Battle of Crécy in 1346: the English longbow was part of the reason for the victory.

From 1348 to 1356 there was very little fighting because of the Black Death. Then Edward, the Black Prince won the Battle of Poitiers for England. King John II of France was captured during the battle. The English invaded France again but were not able to take any more cities. A truce gave England about one quarter of France.

The new king Charles V of France was more successful, with Bertrand du Guesclin as his best knight. The Black Prince was busy at another war and Edward III was too old to lead an army again. So France allied with Castile against England and Portugal. France won back many French towns from the English during this time. A peace followed from 1389-1415.

Then the most famous part of the war began. Henry V of England invaded France and won the Battle of Agincourt with many bowmen. King Charles VI of France was insane and unable to rule, and nearly all his sons died young. The queen of France Isabeau of Bavaria married one of her daughters to Henry V and signed the Treaty of Troyes to make Henry V the next king of France. Both Henry V and Charles VI died at almost the same time. So the English believed Henry VI of England was the new king of France and many French people agreed. Charles VI's last son Charles VII of France said he ought to be the new king, but many people said he did not deserve to be king because somebody else had probably been his father.

The English continued to capture land in France until Joan of Arc led the army to success at the Siege of Orleans and the Battle of Patay in 1429. She regained many cities and brought Charles VII to his coronation, but she did not recover Paris. Her enemies captured and killed her. After her death the French continued to take back territory, although more slowly. France had a diplomatic win in 1435 with the Treaty of Arras. The war ended in 1453.

References

Bibliography

  • Allmand, Christopher, The Hundred Years War: spain and France at War, c.1300-c.1450, Cambridge University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-521-31923-4
  • Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, vol III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 (in French 1979).
  • Burne, Alfred, The Agincourt War, Wordsworth Military Library ISBN 1-84022-211-5
  • Seward, Desmond, The Hundred Years War. The English in France 1337-1453, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 0-14-028361-7
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War I: Trial by Battle, University of Pennsylvania Press, September 1999, ISBN 0-8122-1655-5
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War II: Trial by Fire, University of Pennsylvania Press, October 2001, ISBN 0-8122-1801-9
  • Dunnigan, James F., and Albert A. Nofi. Medieval Life & The Hundred Years War, online book.
  • Wagner, John A. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, August 2006. ISBN 0-313-32736-X
  • Bell, Adrian R. War and the Soldier in the Fourteenth Century, The Boydell Press, November 2004, ISBN 1-84383-103-1

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Up to date as of December 25, 2010

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