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Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct.



As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War--and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997. Hungary became member of NATO in 1999, and member of the EU in 2004.

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.

The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project

This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and .was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary. After intensive campaign the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime. In 1989 Hungarian government decided to suspend it. In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008.

On March 19, 2008 Hungary recognized Kosovo as an independent country.[1]

Disputes - international: Ongoing Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams dispute with Slovakia

Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

Hungary and Central Asia

A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors.[2] The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea".[3]

After the dissolution of the USSR, this scholarly and cultural interest naturally led to Hungary's establishment of relations with the newly independent Central Asian states, in particular Kazakhstan. The Hungarian scholar Tibor Tot concluded, based on cultural and DNA evidence, that a certain subgroup of Kazakhs in Kostanay Province (known as the Madjars[4] or Turgay Magyars[5]) is the one Central Asian community with the closest genetic relation to the Hungarians. The news was enthusiastically met in official and diplomatic circles, and to celebrate this connection some events were held, including a Kazakh-Hungarian festival named "Meeting Across Centuries" (Russian: Встреча через века) that took place in 2007.[6]

Relations by region and country



Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria See Austria–Hungary relations

Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union. Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation.

 Belarus See Foreign relations of Belarus
 Belgium See Foreign relations of Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-04-10 See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Hungary relations
  • Hungary recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence on April 9, 1992.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sarajevo.[7]
 Bulgaria 1920 See Bulgaria–Hungary relations
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
 Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark See Foreign relations of Denmark
 Estonia See Foreign relations of Estonia
 Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
 France See Foreign relations of France
 Georgia See Foreign relations of Georgia
 Germany See Germany–Hungary relations
 Greece See Foreign relations of Greece
 Ireland 1976

Hungary recognized Kosovo on 19 March 2008.[15] Hungary has an embassy in Pristina.[16]

 Latvia 1921-07-21
 Malta 1964

Montenegro has an embassy in Budapest.[20]

 Norway 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947-1948.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates (in Stavanger and Sarpsborg).[23]
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest.[24]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.

Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. For a long time, they enjoy traditional close friendship. Hungary has an embassy in Warsaw, a general consulate in Krakow and 2 honorary consualtes (in Lódz and Poznan). Poland has an embassy in Budapest. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.

 Portugal 1974-07-01
 Romania 1920

Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. Until the end of World War I, Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş were part of the Kingdom of Hungary, after the war they became part of the Romanian territory.

 Serbia 1882-11-21 See Hungary–Serbia relations
 Slovakia 1993 See Hungary–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia See Hungary–Slovenia relations
 Spain 1938-01-13
 Sweden 1945-12-28
Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848-1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
 United Kingdom 1920


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  • Armenia is represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Hungary is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[41]
  • There are around 15,000 people of Armenia descent living in Hungary.
 Indonesia 1955
 Iran 1939 See Hungary–Iran relations
 Iraq See Hungary–Iraq relations
 Israel See Hungary–Israel relations
 Japan See Hungary–Japan relations
 Malaysia See Hungary–Malaysia relations
 Mongolia 1959-05-29
 North Korea See Hungary – North Korea relations
  • Relations between the two countries existed since the Korean War, but however have evolved into conflicts.
 Pakistan 1965-11-26
 People's Republic of China 1949-10-04 See People's Republic of China – Hungary relations
 South Korea 1988 See Hungary – South Korea relations
 Sri Lanka See Hungary – Sri Lanka relations

Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary[53] and has a consul in Budapest[54] Hungary maintains a consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[55] Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka.[56]

 Thailand 1973-10-24 See Hungary–Thailand relations
 Vietnam 1950-02-03

Rest of world

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972
 Brazil See Brazil–Hungary relations

Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo. The Hungarian Embassy in Brasília has consular jurisdiction over most of the Brazilian territory, except for the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, which fall under the jurisdiction of the Consulate General in São Paulo. Brazil has an embassy in Budapest. The Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement was singed in 1992, and ratified on January 12, 1996.

 Canada See Foreign relations of Canada
 Mexico 1901 See Hungary–Mexico relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1901, during the time of Austria–Hungary. Diplomatic relations were suspended between 1941 and 1974. They were re-established on May 14, 1974. The Mexican embassy in Budapest was opened on September 30, 1976.[64] Hungary has an embassy in Mexico City and 3 honorary consulates (in Guadalupe, Guadalajara and Cancún).[65]

  • Hungary has an embassy in Morocco. Morocco has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Latifa Akharbach, the Morocco's under-secretary of Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Hungary in 2007.
 United States See Hungary – United States relations

Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the U.S. were resumed in December 1945 when a U.S. ambassador was appointed and the embassy was reopened.


  1. ^ "Croatia and Hungary recognize Kosovo". The Associated Press. International Herald Tribune. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-09-21.  
  2. ^ Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history. Central European University Press. pp. 409–410. ISBN 9639116483.  
  3. ^ ipos, János Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Ends of the Steppe
  4. ^ Bíró, A. Z., et al. A Y-chromosomal comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary)
  5. ^ Hungary considers Kazakhstan as a strategic partner in Central Asia: Ambassador
  6. ^ В Костанайской области прошел казахско-венгерский этнофестиваль (A Kazakh-Hungarian ethnic festival took place in Kostanay Province), Express K, No. 126 (16274), 13.07.2007 (Russian)
  7. ^ Hungarian embassy in Sarajevo (in Hungarian only)
  8. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Budapest
  9. ^ Hungarian embassy in Sofia (in Bulgarian and Hungarian only)
  10. ^ Hungarian embassy in Dublin
  11. ^ Irish embassy in Budapest
  12. ^ Hungarian embassy in Rome (in Hungarian and Italian only)
  13. ^ Hungarian general consulate in Milan (in Hungarian and Italian only)
  14. ^ Italian embassy in Budapest (in Hungarian and Italian only)
  15. ^ ""Hungary recognizes Kosovo’s Independence"". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-03-19.  
  16. ^ ""Embassy of the Republic of Hungary in Pristina"". Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2008-06-27.  
  17. ^ Hungarian embassy in Riga (in Hungarian and Latvian only)
  18. ^ Hungarian embassy in Vilnius (in Hungarian only)
  19. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Budapest
  20. ^ Montenegro office and relation with Hungary
  21. ^ Dutch embassy in Budapest
  22. ^ Hungarian embassy in The Hague
  23. ^ Hungarian embassy in Oslo
  24. ^ Norwegian embassy in Budapest (in Hungarian and Norwegian only)
  25. ^ Hungarian embassy in Lisbon
  26. ^ Hungarian honorary consulate in Tavira
  27. ^ Hungarian embassy in Ljubljana (in Hungarian and Slovenian only)
  28. ^ Slovenian embassy in Ljubljana
  29. ^ Hungarian embassy in Madrid (in Hungarian and Spanish only)
  30. ^ Hungarian general consulate in Barcelona (in Hungarian and Spanish only)
  31. ^ Hungarian honorary consulate in Málaga
  32. ^ Hungarian honorary consulate in Tenerife and the Canary Islands
  33. ^ Spanish embassy in Budapest (in Spanish only)
  34. ^ Hungarian embassy in Ankara
  35. ^ Turkish embassy in Budapest
  36. ^ Hungarian embassy in Kiev
  37. ^ Hungarian consulate general in Uzhhorod (in Hungarian and Ukrainian only)
  38. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Budapest
  39. ^ Hungarian embassy in London
  40. ^ British embassy in Budapest
  41. ^ Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Hungarian honorary consulate in Yerevan
  42. ^ a b Bilateral relations between Hungary and Indonesia
  44. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tehran
  45. ^ Iranian embassy in Budapest
  46. ^ Hungarian embassy in Amman (also accredited to Iraq
  47. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tel Aviv
  48. ^ Israeli embassy in Budapest
  49. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tokyo
  50. ^ Japanese embassy in Budapest (in Hungarian and Japanese only)
  51. ^ Hungarian embassy in Islamabad
  52. ^ Pakistani embassy in Budapest
  53. ^ "Embassy and Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka". Sri Lankan Embassy in Vienna. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  
  54. ^ "List of honorary consuls in Hungary" (in Hungarian). Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  
  55. ^ "Consulate of the Republic of Hungary". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  
  56. ^ "Bilateral Relations (Sri Lanka)". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  
  57. ^ Hungarian embassy in Bangkok
  58. ^ Thai embassy in Budapest
  59. ^ Thailand's embassy in Budapest
  60. ^
  61. ^ Hungarian embassy in Hanoi
  62. ^ Commonwealth of Australia. "About the Australian Embassy in Hungary". Retrieved 23 December 2008.  
  63. ^ Hungarian consulate general in Sydney
  64. ^ Mexican embassy in Budapest (in Spanish only)
  65. ^ Hungarian embassy in Mexico City

See also


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