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Republic of Hungary
Magyar Köztársaság
Flag Coat of arms
Mottonone
Historically Latin: Cum Deo pro Patria et Libertate ("With the help of God for Homeland and Freedom") or Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae ("Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"[1]
AnthemHimnusz ("Isten, áldd meg a magyart")
"Hymn" or "Anthem" ("God, bless the Hungarians")

Location of  Hungary  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Budapest
47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.25°E / 47.433; 19.25
Official language(s) Hungarian; Hungarian Sign Language
Ethnic groups  95% Magyar, 2% Roma, 3% other minority groups
Demonym Hungarian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President László Sólyom
 -  Prime Minister Gordon Bajnai
 -  Speaker of the National Assembly Béla Katona
Foundation
 -  Foundation of Hungary 896 
 -  Recognized as Christian Kingdom - First king: Stephen I of Hungary December 1000 
 -  Currently 3rd Republic October 23, 1989 
EU accession May 1, 2004
Area
 -  Total 93,030 km2 (109th)
35,919 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.74%
Population
 -  2009 July estimate 10,020,000[2] (83rd)
 -  2001 census 10,198,315 
 -  Density 107.7/km2 (94th)
279.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $186.054 billion[3] (51st (2008))
 -  Per capita $18,548[3] (44th (2009))
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $124.241 billion.[3] (52nd (2008))
 -  Per capita $12,386[3] (46th (2009))
Gini (2008) 24.96 (low) (3rd)
HDI (2007) 0.879 (high) (43rd)
Currency Forint (HUF)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date formats yyyy.mm.dd,
yyyy.mm.dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .hu1
Calling code 36
1 Also .eu as part of the European Union.
Hungary en-us-Hungary.ogg /ˈhʌŋɡəri/ (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ]  ( listen)), officially the Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság About this sound listen ), is a landlocked country in the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Its capital is Budapest. Hungary is a member of EU, NATO, OECD, V4 and is a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian, which is part of the Finno-Ugric family, thus one of the four official languages of the European Union that are not of Indo-European origin.[note 1]
Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (9 BC – c. 430) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian ruler Árpád, whose great-grandson Stephen I of Hungary was crowned with a crown sent from Rome by the pope in 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary lasted for 946 years,[note 2] and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. The Battle of Mohács resulted in Ottoman occupation, followed by an integration into the Habsburg Monarchy, and later constituting half of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy. A great power until the end of World War I, Hungary lost over 70% of its territory, along with one third of its population of Hungarian ethnicity,[4] under the Treaty of Trianon,[5] the terms of which have been considered excessively harsh by many in Hungary.[6] The kingdom was succeeded by a Communist era (1947–1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic (since 1989). Today, Hungary is a high-income economy,[7] and a regional leader regarding certain markers.[8][9][10][11]
Hungary is ranked 20th globally (out of 194 countries) on International Living's Quality of Life index (2010)[12] and 6th in an environmental protection index by GW/CAN.[13] Until recently, it was also listed as one of the 15 most popular tourist destinations in the world.[14][15] The country is home to the largest thermal water cave system[16] and the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (Hortobágy).

Contents

History

Before 895 AD

The treasure of Nagyszentmiklós illustrating the Álmos legend from the Hungarian mythology: Emese's dream of the Turul bird
From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire on a part of later Hungary's area. In the final stages of the expansion of the Roman empire, the Carpathian Basin fell for a while into the sphere of the Mediterranean, yet Greco-Roman civilization, its town centers, paved roads, and written sources were all part of the advances which the Migration of Peoples ended.
Among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun. Attila was regarded as an ancestral ruler of the Hungarians, however, this claim is rejected today by most scholars. After Hunnish rule faded away, the Germanic Ostrogoths and then the Lombards came to Pannonia, and the Gepids had a presence in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin for about 100 years. In the 560s the Avars founded the Avar Khaganate,[17] a state which maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries and had the military power to launch attacks against all its neighbours. The Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure and finally the Avars' 250 year rule ended when the Khaganate was conquered by the Franks under Charlemagne in the West and the Bulgarians under Krum in the East. Neither of these two nor others were able to create a lasting state in the region, and in the late 9th century the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs.[18]
It was King Arnulf I of Bavaria who invited the Hungarians to occupy Svatopluk's lands east of the Danube.[19] In 894, while Simeon I of Bulgaria attacked the Byzantine Empire, Svatopluk challenged Arnulf by invading Pannonia.[19] Both Arnulf and Leo VI the Wise sought help from the Hungarians who were well placed to attack the Bulgarians and the Moravians from the rear.[19] Arnulf maintained the alliance with the Hungarians until his death in 899.[19]
The freshly unified Magyars (Hungarians)[20] led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895.[18][21] According to linguists they are thought to have originated in an ancient Finno-Ugric population that originally inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains,[22] although the genetic relation of Hungarians to Finno-Ugric peoples is excluded. The force lead by Árpád contained seven Magyar, one Kabar, and other smaller tribes.[18]

Medieval Hungary (895–1526)

Hungarian raids in the 10th century. Most European nations were praying for mercy: "Sagittis hungarorum libera nos Domine" - "Lord save us from the arrows of Hungarians"
Detail of the cyclorama, Arrival of the Hungarians by Árpád Feszty, depicting the arrival to the Carpathian Basin in 895.
First Hungarian coin, by Duke Géza circa the end of 970s.
The Old Hungarian script, the so-called "Rovás alphabet"
Hungary is one of the oldest countries in Europe, settled in 896, before France and Germany became separate entities, and before the unification of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Árpád was the Magyar leader whom sources name as the single leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the "Covenant of Blood" (Hungarian: vérszerződés) forged one nation, thereafter known as the Hungarian nation[23] and led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century.[23] After an early seminomad Hungarian state, the Principality of Hungary was formed in this territory, the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids from Constantinople as far as today's Spain.[24] A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled an end to most campaigns on foreign territories. The ruling prince (Hungarian: fejedelem) Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who was the ruler of only some of the united territory, but the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes, intended to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe.[25] and the first Roman Catholic bishopric was established under his reign. Géza chose his first-born son (Vajk the later King Stephen I of Hungary) to be his successor. This was contrary to the then-dominant tradition of the succession of the eldest surviving member of the ruling family. (See: agnatic seniority) By ancestral right prince Koppány, - as the oldest member of the dynasty - should have claimed the throne, but the fight in the chief prince's family started after Géza's death, in 997. Duke Koppány took up arms, and many people in Transdanubia joined him. The rebels represented the old faith and order, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a decisive victory over his uncle Koppány in a large scale battle at Veszprém, and had him executed, thus firming Christian fate and ensuring the survival and prosperity of Hungary.

The Patrimonial Kingdom

Hungary in the 11th century
The Holy Crown of Hungary, the key symbol of Hungary
Romanesque church of Pécs
Gothic Church of Our Lady in Buda
Reliquary, Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary (c.1040–1095)
King Béla's III tomb
Andrew II in the Holy Land (After he defeated Sultan of Egypt)
Early renaissance Castle of Diósgyőr, which was one of the favourite rural hunting castles of Angevin kings

Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, the son of Géza[26] and thus a descendant of Árpád.
Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy. He was crowned in December 1000, in the capital, Esztergom. The papacy conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full administrative authority over bishoprics and churches. By 1006, Stephen had consolidated his power, eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old pagan traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a western feudal state, it has been asserted that the Christianisation was forced.[27] Stephen established a network of 10 episcopal and 2 archiepiscopal sees, and ordered the building of monasteries, churches and cathedrals. The country switched to using the Latin language and alphabet under Stephen, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. Previously Hungarian had been written with the Old Hungarian script, a runic script. Stephen followed the Frankish administrative model: The country was divided into counties (Hungarian: megye), each under a royal official called an ispán or count (Latin: comes) — later főispán (lord lieutenant or prefect) (Latin: supremus comes). This official represented the king’s authority, administered its population, and collected the taxes that formed the national revenue. Each ispán maintained at his fortified headquarters (castrum or vár) an armed force of freemen.
What emerged was a strong kingdom[28] that withstood attacks from German kings and Emperors, and nomadic tribes following the Hungarians from the East, integrating some of the latter into the population (along with Germans invited to Transylvania and the northern part of the kingdom, especially after the 13th century Battle of Mohi), and conquering Croatia in 1091.[29][30][31]
After the Great Schism (The East-West Schism /formally in 1054/, between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity.) Hungary determined itself as the Easternmost bastion of Western civilization. The Orthodox powers regarded Hungary as the main obstacle in their desire to introduce Orthodoxy into the Western World. However every such Eastern effort has been halted at the gates of Hungary.[32]
Important members of the Árpád dynasty
King Coloman (Kálmán), the "Book-lover" (1095–1116)
One of Coloman's most famous laws was half a millennium ahead of its time: De strigis vero quae non sunt, nulla amplius quaestio fiat (As for witches, they really do not exist; no further investigations or trials are to be held).
Béla III (1172–1192)
Béla III was the most powerful and wealthiest member of the dynasty: Béla disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver per year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.[33] He forced back the Byzantine domain in the Balkan region.
Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235)
In 1224, Andrew issued the Diploma Andreanum which unified and secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons. It is considered the first Autonomy law in the world.[34]
He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217. He set up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades (20,000 knights and 12,000 castle-garrisons). The Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. It limited the king's power. The Golden Bull — the Hungarian equivalent of England’s Magna Carta — to which every Hungarian king thereafter had to swear, had a twofold purpose: to reaffirm the rights of the lesser nobles of the old and new classes of royal servants (servientes regis) against both the crown and the magnates, and to defend the rights of the whole nation against the crown by restricting certain powers of the crown and legalizing refusal to obey its unlawful/unconstitutional commands (the ius resistendi). The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament, or Diet. Hungary became the first country where the parliament had supremacy over the crown. The most important legal ideology and legislative guideline was the Doctrine of the Holy Crown.
Important points of the Doctrine: The sovereignty belongs to the noble nation (the Holy Crown). The members of the Holy Crown are the citizens of the Crown's lands. None can reach full power in the kingdom. The nation shares political power with the ruler. "Politically minority opinions cannot rule over majority". (Which meant: The Doctrine was opposed to tyranny and oligarchy).
The Mongol attacks, consequences and reaction
In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion: after the defeat of the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohi,[35] Béla IV of Hungary fled, and a large part of the population died[36] in the ensuing destruction leading later to the invitation of settlers, largely from Germany. Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the Mongol invasion.[37] Only castles, strongly fortified cities and abbeys could withstand the assault.
During the Russian campaign, the Mongols drove some 40,000 Cumans, a nomadic tribe of pagan Kipchaks, west of the Carpathian Mountains.[38] There, the Cumans appealed to King Béla IV of Hungary for protection.[39] The Iranian Jassic people came to Hungary together with the Cumans after they were defeated by the Mongols. Cumans constituted perhaps up to 7-8% of the population of Hungary in the second half of the 13th century.[40] Over the centuries they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population, and their language disappeared, but they preserved their identity and their regional autonomy until 1876.[41]
As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. The Mongols returned to Hungary in 1286, but the new built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force.
These castles proved to be very important later in the long struggle with the Ottoman Empire. However the cost of building them indebted the Hungarian King to the major feudal landlords again, so the royal power reclaimed by Béla IV after his father Andrew II significantly weakened it. The countries of Balkan region and the territory of Russian states fell under Ottoman/Mongolian rule very rapidly, due to the lack of the network of stone/brick castles and fortresses in these countries.

Age of elected Kings

“The Hungarian Cannon,named after the Hungarian engineer Orban who cast the gun for the Ottoman besiegers of Constantinople.It was the world's biggest cannon until the second half of the 19th century.These types of cannons appeared in Siege of (Belgrade) too
Lands, countries kingdoms under Louis' control)
Gothic-renaissance Hunyad Castle in Transylvania.
Count John Hunyadi - One of the greatest warlords in Hungarian history, Matthias Corvinus's father
Árpád's direct descendants in the male line ruled the country until 1301. During the reigns of the Árpád dynasty, the Kingdom of Hungary reached its greatest extent, yet royal power was weakened as the major landlords (the Barons) greatly increased their influence. The most powerful landlords started to use royal prerogatives (coinage, customs, their own independent diplomacy, declaration of wars against foreign monarchs). After the destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary (reigned 1308–1342) - a descendant of the Árpád dynasty in the female line - successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so called "little kings". His new fiscal, customs and monetary policies proved successful during his reign. One of the primary sources of his power was the wealth derived from the gold mines of eastern and northern Hungary. Eventually production reached the remarkable figure of 3,000 lb. (1350 kg) of gold annually - one third of the total production of the world as then known, and five times as much as that of any other European state.[42][43] Charles also sealed an alliance with the Polish king Casimir. After Italy, Hungary was the first European country where the renaissance appeared.[44]
The second Hungarian king in the Angevin line, Louis the Great (reigned 1342–1382) extended his rule as far as the Adriatic Sea, and occupied the Kingdom of Naples several times. During his reign lived the most famous epic hero of Hungarian literature and warfare, the king's Champion: Nicolas Toldi. Louis had become popular in Poland because of his campaign against the Tatars and pagan Lithuanians. Two successful wars (1357–1358, 1378–1381) against Venice annexed Dalmatia and Ragusa and more territories on the Adriatic Sea. Venice also had to raise the Angevin flag in St. Mark's Square on holy days. Some Balkan states (Vallachia, Moldova, Serbia, Bosnia) became his vassals. Louis I established a university in Pécs in 1367 (by papal accordance). The Ottoman Turks confronted the Balkan vassal states ever more often. In 1366 and 1377, Louis led successful campaigns against the Ottomans (Battle of Nicapoli in 1366). From the death of Casimir III of Poland in 1370, he was also king of Poland. He retained his strong influence in the political life of Italian Peninsula for the rest of his life.
King Louis died without a male heir, and after years of anarchy the country was stabilized only when Sigismund (reigned 1387–1437), a prince of the Luxembourg line, succeeded to the throne by marrying the daughter of Louis the Great, Queen Mary. It was not for entirely selfless reasons that one of the leagues of barons helped him to power: Sigismund had to pay for the support of the lords by transferring a sizeable part of the royal properties. For some years, the baron's council governed the country in the name of the Holy Crown; the king was imprisoned for a short time. The restoration of the authority of the central administration took decades. In 1404 Sigismund introduced the Placetum Regnum. According to this decree, Papal bulls and messages could not be pronounced in Hungary without the consent of the king. Sigismund summoned the Council of Constance (1414–1418) to abolish the Avignon Papacy and the Papal Schism of the Catholic Church, which was resolved by the election of a new pope. In 1433 he even became Holy Roman Emperor. During his long reign the Royal castle of Buda became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. For a half year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas. (See: Budai Nagy Antal Revolt)
From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. In 1446, the parliament elected the great general John Hunyadi governor (1446–1453), then regent (1453–1456). He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. Hunyadi defended the city against the onslaught of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. During the siege, Pope Callixtus III ordered the bells of every European church to be rung every day at noon, as a call for believers to pray for the defenders of the city. However, in many countries, (like England and Spanish kingdoms), the news of the victory arrived before the order, and the ringing of the church bells at noon was transformed into a commemoration of the victory. The Popes didn't withdraw the order, and Catholic (and the older Protestant) churches still ring the noon bell in the Christian world to this day.[45]

Age of early absolutism

Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
The last strong king was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (king 1458–1490). Matthias was the son of John Hunyadi. András Hess set up a printing press in Buda in 1472, which was very unique at that time in Europe. This was the first time in the history of the Hungarian kingdom that a member of the nobility, without dynastic ancestry and relationship, mounted the royal throne. A true Renaissance prince, a successful military leader and administrator, an outstanding linguist, a learned astrologer, and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning.[46] Although Matthias regularly convened the Diet and expanded the lesser nobles' powers in the counties, he exercised absolute rule over Hungary by means of a huge secular bureaucracy. He set out to build a great empire, expanding southward and northwest, while he also implemented internal reforms. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates.[47] Like his father, Matthias desired to strengthen the Kingdom of Hungary to the point where it became the foremost regional power and overlord, strong enough to push back the Ottomans; to that end he deemed it necessary to conquer much of the Holy Roman Empire.[citation needed] In 1479, under the leadership of Pál Kinizsi, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Hungarian power was confirmed by the Treaty of Olomouc (1479). His mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of Bohemia. The king died without a legal successor. His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library which mainly contained Bibles and religious material. His renaissance library is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[48]

Decline of Hungary (1490-1526)

Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, the 20 years old king, who died at Battle of Mohács.
Dózsa's peasant war
The battle of Mohács, by Bertalan Székely
By the early 16th century, the Ottoman Empire had become the second most populous state in the world; this enabled the creation of the largest armies of the era.
The Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of Vladislaus II (reigned 1490–1516), king of Bohemia because of his notorious weakness: he was known as King Dobže, or Dobzse in Hungarian orthography (king "okay") from his habit of accepting without question every petition and document laid before him.[46] Under his reign the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties, mostly because of the enlargement of feudal lands at his expense. The magnates also dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country. The country's defenses sagged as border guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, and initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled.[49] Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked.
In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by János Szapolyai. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (modern Belgrade) fell to the Turks. The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarrelling with gentry class in the parliament, that they failed to heed the agonized calls of king Louis II against the Turks. The early appearance of protestantism further worsened internal relations in the anarchical country. In 1526, the Hungarian army was crushed at the Battle of Mohács by the Ottomans. The childless young king Louis II, and the leader of the Hungarian army, Pál Tomori died on the battlefield.
Through the centuries Hungary kept its old constitution, which granted special freedoms or rights to the nobility, the free royal towns such as Buda, Kassa (Košice), Pozsony (Bratislava), and Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) and groups such as the Jassic people and the Transylvanian Saxons.

Ottoman wars 1526–1699

Hungary around 1550
"Women of Eger"
The largest expansion of Turks (1683)
Turkish attack on a river fortress (Szigetvár 1566)
Siege of a town (Érsekújvár, 1663)
The siege of united Christian forces in Buda, 1686
After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans conquered parts of Hungary, and continued their expansion until 1556. The Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526. The next decades were characterised by political chaos; the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, 'Szapolyai János' (1526–1540) and Ferdinand Habsburg (1527–1540), whose feud for the throne further weakened the kingdom. With the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Turks, Hungary was divided into three parts. Even with a decisive 1552 victory over the Ottomans at the Siege of Eger, which raised the hopes of the Hungarians, the country remained divided until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part (see map) termed as Royal Hungary was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom (Partium and Transylvania), in turn, became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. The remaining central area (mostly present-day Hungary), including the capital of Buda was known as the Pashalik of Buda. A large part of the area became devastated by permanent warfare. Most smaller settlements disappeared.

Pozsony (today Bratislava) became the new capital (1536–1784), coronation town (1563–1830) and seat of the Diet (1536–1848) of Hungary. Nagyszombat (today Trnava) in turn, became the religious center in 1541. After the middle of the 16th century and the beginning of the Counter Reformation of Habsburgs, the strife between the Protestant Hungarians and the Catholic Habsburgs became increasingly violent.[50] The Turks were indifferent to the Christian religion of their subjects and the Habsburg counter-reformation measures could not reach this area. As a result, the majority of the population of the area became Protestant (Calvinist)[citation needed].

In 1558 the Transylvanian Diet of Turda declared free practice of both the Catholic and Lutheran religions, but prohibited Calvinism. Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expelling for his religion". Four religions were declared as accepted (recepta) religions, while Orthodox Christianity was "tolerated" (though the building of stone Orthodox churches was forbidden). Hungary entered the Thirty Years' War, Royal (Habsburg) Hungary joined the catholic side, until Transylvania joined the Protestant side.
There were a series of other successful and unsuccessful anti-Habsburg /i.e. anti-Austrian/ (requiring equal rights and freedom for all Christian religions) uprisings between 1604 and 1711, the uprisings were usually organized from Transylvania.
In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter the Hungarian capital. This time, the Holy League's army was twice a large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Croat, Dutch, Hungarian, English, Spanish, Czech, Italian, French, Burgundian, Danish and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers, artilleryman, and officers; with this force, the Christian forces reconquered Buda. The second Battle of Mohács (1687) and Battle of Zenta (1697) were crushing defeats for the Turks, in the next few years, all of the former Hungarian lands, except areas near Temesvár (Timişoara), were taken from the Turks. In the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz these territorial changes were officially recognized, and in 1718 the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule. The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the seventeenth century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The Hungarian aristocracy successfully preserved its former positions in the political and economic sphere.

Ethnic aftermath of Ottoman wars

As a consequence of the prolonged constant warfare between Hungarians and Ottoman Turks, population growth was stunted and the network of medieval settlements with their urbanized bourgeois inhabitants perished. The 150 years of Turkish wars fundamentally changed the ethnic composition of Hungary. As a result of demographic losses including deportations and massacres, the number of ethnic Hungarians in existence at the end of the Turkish period was substantially diminished.[51]
The Hungarian people (the vast majority of Hungarian lowborn people hated[citation needed] the Habsburg monarchs) were considered rebellious by Habsburg Monarchs. After the "liberation" of Hungary from the Turks, The Austrian — Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the south, allowed mass Vlach (Romanian) immigration into Transylvania and settled Germans in various areas, but not a single Hungarian person was allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the Great Plain.[52]

History of Hungary 1700–1919

BME, The oldest University of Technology in the World, founded in 1782
Széchenyi Chain Bridge in Buda and Pest, Until 1848, the bridge was the world's biggest suspension bridge(1839–1848) in its era. It was a technological experiment too.
The greatest Hungarian István Széchenyi, as said by Lajos Kossuth.
Artist Mihály Zichy's rendition of poet Sándor Petőfi reciting the Nemzeti dal to a crowd on March 15, 1848
Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary 19th century
Between 1703 and 1711 there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónód, took power provisionally as the "Ruling Prince" of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". After 8 years of war with the Habsburg Empire the Hungarian Kuruc army lost the last main battle at Battle of Trencin (Trencsény) (1711); however, they also had successful actions, for example when Ádám Balogh almost captured the Austrian Emperor with Kuruc troops. When Austrians defeated the uprising in 1711, Rákóczi was in Poland. He later fled to France, finally Turkey, and lived to the end of his life (1735) in nearby Rodosto. Ladislas Ignace de Bercheny who was the son of Miklós Bercsényi immigrated to France and created the first French hussar regiment. Afterwards, to make further armed resistance impossible, the Austrians blew up Hungarian castles (most of the castles on the border between the now-reclaimed territories occupied earlier by the Ottomans and Royal Hungary), and allowed peasants to use the stones from most of the others as building material. In this century lived one of the most famous Hungarian Hussars named Michael de Kovats who created the US cavalry in the American Revolutionary War. He has a statue now in Charleston.

The Period of Reforms (1825–1848)

During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades.[citation needed] In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, and thus a Reform Period (Hungarian: reformkor) began. Nevertheless, its progress was slow, because the nobles insisted on retaining their privileges (no taxation, exclusive voting rights, etc.). Therefore the achievements were mostly of national character (e.g. introduction of Hungarian as one of the official languages of the country, instead of the former Latin).
Count István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country recognized the urgent need of modernization and his message got through. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged in the Diet. The party focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth - famous journalist at the time - emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. Habsburg monarchs tried to preclude[citation needed] the industrialisation of the country. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernisation even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws about the human civil and political rights and economic reforms. Many reformers (like Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities.

Revolution and War of Independence

On March 15, 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Faced with revolution both at home and in Vienna, Austria first had to accept Hungarian demands. Later, under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned and the form of government was changed to create the first Republic of Hungary. After the Austrian revolution was suppressed, emperor Franz Joseph replaced his epileptic uncle Ferdinand I as Emperor. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government. The Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.[53] In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. Many members of the nationalities gained coveted the highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps. Initially, the Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Franz Joseph asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe," Czar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. The huge army of the Russian Empire and the Austrian forces proved too powerful for the Hungarian army, and General Artúr Görgey surrendered in August 1849. Julius Jacob von Haynau, the leader of the Austrian army, then became governor of Hungary for a few months, ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, as well as Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Following the war of 1848 – 1849, the whole country was in "passive resistance". Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen was appointed governor of the Kingdom of Hungary, and this time was remembered for Germanization pursued with the help of Czech officers.[citation needed]

Austria–Hungary (1867–1918)

Cutaway Drawing of Millennium Underground in Budapest (1894–1896) which was the first underground in Continental Europe
Automobile from 1904 (produced in Hungary) Between 1900 and 1918, there were 10 automotive factories in Hungary
King Charles IV of Hungary, with Zita and their child: Crown Prince Otto von Habsburg. Coronation portrait Budapest, 1916
Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable to secure the integrity of the Habsburg Empire. Major military defeats of Austria, like the Battle of Königgrätz (1866), forced the Emperor to concede internal reforms. To appease Hungarian separatism, the Emperor made a deal with Hungary, negotiated by Ferenc Deák, called the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary came into existence. The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Economically, the empire was a customs union. The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy. The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary.
Austria-Hungary was geographically the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire (239,977 sq. m in 1905 [54]), and the third most populous (after Russia and the German Empire).
The era witnessed an impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda(Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest grew into the country's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%). Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
Because of various reasons including migration of millions[citation needed], the census in 1910 (excluding Croatia) recorded the following distribution of population: Hungarian 54.5%, Romanian 16.1%, Slovak 10.7%, and German 10.4%. The largest religious denomination was the Roman Catholic (49.3%), followed by the Calvinist (14.3%), Greek Orthodox (12.8%) /Romanians Serbians Ruthenians), Greek Catholic (11.0%), Lutheran (7.1%), and Jewish (5.0%) religions. In 1910, 6.37% of the population were eligible to vote in elections through census.[55]

World War I

Hungarian built dreadnought class battleship SMS Szent Istvan at Pula (military dock)
A submarine from the U-27 series.
After the Assassination in Sarajevo the Hungarian prime minister, István Tisza and his cabinet (sole in Europe) tried to avoid the breaking out and escalating of a war in Europe, but his diplomatic attempts remained unsuccessful.
Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7,8 million) soldiers in World War I (4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary). In World War I Austria–Hungary was fighting on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania proclaimed war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. On November 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, the new monarch Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire. The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army could not make more successful progress against Italy after January 1918. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat in the more determinant Western front. By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements), and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In the capital cities (Vienna and Budapest), the Austrian and the Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leader politicians supported and strengthened the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary signed general armistice in Padua on 3 November 1918. In October 1918, the personal union with Austria was dissolved.

Between the two world wars (1918–1941)

World War I Memorial in Solt, Hungary

The first Republic of Hungary

In 1918, as a political result of German defeat on the Western front in World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy collapsed. French troops landed in Greece to rearm the defeated Romania, Serbia and the newly formed Czech state. Despite the general armistice agreement, the Balkanian French army organized new campaigns against Hungary with the help of Czech, Romanian, and Serbian governments.
On October 31, 1918, the success of the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought the left liberal count Mihály Károlyi to power as Prime-Minister. Roving soldiers assassinated István Tisza.[56] Károlyi was a devotee of Entente from the beginning of the World War. By a notion of Woodrow Wilson's pacifism, Károlyi ordered the full disarmament of Hungarian Army. Hungary remained without national defense in the darkest hour of its history. On 5 November 1918 Serbian Army with French involvement attacked Southern parts of the country, on 8 November Czech Army invaded Northern part of Hungary (present-day Slovakia), on 12 November Romanian Army started to attack the Eastern (Transylvanian) parts of Hungary. The First Republic was proclaimed on 16 November 1918 with Károlyi being named as president. The Károlyi government pronounced illegal all armed associations and proposals which wanted to defend the integrity of the country. The Károlyi government also dissolved the gendarme and police, the lack of police force caused big problems in the country. By February 1919 the government had lost all popular support, having failed on domestic and military fronts. On March 21, after the Entente military representative demanded more and more territorial concessions from Hungary, Károlyi resigned. Károlyi (with a new Czechoslovakian passport and Czechoslovak diplomatic help) moved to Paris.

The Hungarian Soviet Republic

The multiethnic nature of Budapest in 1919: The Heroes Square of Budapest in red. The Communists wanted to destroy all Hungarian historical monuments, statues and national symbols.
The Communist Party of Hungary, led by Béla Kun, came to power and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. The Communists also promised equality and social justice. The Communists – "The Reds" – came to power largely thanks to being the only group with an organized fighting force, and they promised that Hungary would defend its territory without conscription. (possibly with the help of the Soviet Red Army). Hence: the Red Army of Hungary was a little voluntary army (53,000 men). Most soldiers of the Red Army were armed factory workers from Budapest. In terms of domestic policy, the Communist government nationalized industrial and commercial enterprises, socialized housing, transport, banking, medicine, cultural institutions, and all landholdings of more than 400,000 square metres. The support of the Communists proved to be short lived in Budapest. The Soviet Red Army was never able to aid the new Hungarian republic. Despite the great military successes against Czechoslovakian army, the communist leaders gave back all recaptured lands. That attitude demoralized the voluntary army. The Hungarian Red Army was dissolved before it could successfully complete its campaigns. The Communists had never been popular in country towns and countryside. In the aftermath of a coup attempt, the government took a series of actions called the Red Terror, murdering several hundred people (mostly intellectuals), which alienated much of the population. In the face of domestic backlash and an advancing Romanian force, Béla Kun and most of his comrades fled to Austria, while Budapest was occupied on August 6. Kun and his followers illegally took along numerous art treasures and the gold stocks of the National Bank.[57] All these events, and in particular the final military defeat, led to a deep feeling of dislike among the general population against the Soviet Union (which had not kept its promise to offer military assistance) and the Jews (since most members of Kun's government were Jewish).

The restored Kingdom of Hungary

Trianon memorial, Békéscsaba.
The new fighting force in Hungary were the Conservative Royalists counter-revolutionaries – the "Whites". These, who had been organizing in Vienna and established a counter-government in Szeged, assumed power, led by István Bethlen, a Transylvanian aristocrat, and rear-admiral Miklós Horthy, the former commander in chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Starting in Western Hungary and spreading throughout the country, a White Terror began by other half-regular and half-militarist detachments (as the police power crashed, there were no serious national regular forces and authorities), and many Communists and other leftists were tortured and executed without trial. The leaving Romanian army pillaged the country: livestock, machinery and agricultural products were carried to Romania in hundreds of freight cars.[58][59] The estimated property damage of their activity was so much that the international peace conference in 1919 did not require Hungary to pay war redemption to Romania.[citation needed] On November 16, with the consent of Romanian forces, Horthy's army marched into Budapest. His government gradually restored security police and gendarmee, stopped terror, and set up authorities, but thousands of supporters of the leftist-liberal Károlyi and communist Kun regimes were imprisoned (for "High treason" and "anti-Hungarian actions"). But radical rightist political movements were suppressed too. In March, the parliament restored the Hungarian monarchy but postponed electing a king until civil disorder had subsided. Instead, Miklos Horthy was elected Regent and was empowered, among other things, to appoint Hungary's Prime Minister, veto legislation, convene or dissolve the parliament, and command the armed forces.
The Treaty of Trianon: Hungary lost 72% of its territory, and lost its sea ports in Croatia, 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians found themselves separated from their motherland. Hungary lost 8 of its 10 biggest Hungarian cities.[60][61]
Hungary's signing of the Treaty of Trianon on June 4, 1920, ratified the country's dismemberment. The territorial provisions of the treaty, which ensured continued discord between Hungary and its neighbors, required Hungary to surrender more than two-thirds of its pre-war lands. However, nearly one-third of the 10 million ethnic Hungarians found themselves outside the diminished homeland. The country's ethnic composition was left almost homogeneous, Hungarians constituting about 90% of the population, Germans made up about 6%, and Slovaks, Croats, Romanians, Jews and Gypsies accounted for the remainder.[citation needed]
New international borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials and its former markets for agricultural and industrial products. Hungary lost 84% of its timber resources, 43% of its arable land, and 83% of its iron ore. Furthermore, post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% iron was retained. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public road, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, 100% of gold, silver, copper, mercury and salt mines, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbors.[62][63][64]
Because most of the country's pre-war industry was concentrated near Budapest, Hungary retained about 51% of its industrial population, 56% of its industry. Horthy appointed Count Pál Teleki as Prime Minister in July 1920. His government issued a numerus clausus law, limiting admission of "political insecure elements" (these were often Jews) to universities and, in order to quiet rural discontent, took initial steps toward fulfilling a promise of major land reform by dividing about 3,850 km2 from the largest estates into smallholdings. Teleki's government resigned, however, after, Charles IV, unsuccessfully attempted to retake Hungary's throne in March 1921. King Charles's return produced split parties between conservatives who favored a Habsburg restoration and nationalist right-wing radicals who supported election of a Hungarian king. Count István Bethlen, a non-affiliated right-wing member of the parliament, took advantage of this rift forming a new Party of Unity under his leadership. Horthy then appointed Bethlen prime minister. Charles IV died soon after he failed a second time to reclaim the throne in October 1921. (For more detail on Charles's attempts to retake the throne, see Charles IV of Hungary's conflict with Miklós Horthy.)
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya , Regent of Hungary
As prime minister, Bethlen dominated Hungarian politics between 1921 and 1931. He fashioned a political machine by amending the electoral law, providing jobs in the expanding bureaucracy to his supporters, and manipulating elections in rural areas. Bethlen restored order to the country by giving the radical counterrevolutionaries payoffs and government jobs in exchange for ceasing their campaign of terror against Jews and leftists. In 1921, he made a deal with the Social Democrats and trade unions (called Bethlen-Peyer Pact), agreeing, among other things, to legalize their activities and free political prisoners in return for their pledge to refrain from spreading anti-Hungarian propaganda, calling political strikes, and organizing the peasantry. Bethlen brought Hungary into the League of Nations in 1922 and out of international isolation by signing a treaty of friendship with Italy in 1927. The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda and the strategy employed by Bethlen consisted by strengthening the economy and building relations with stronger nations. Revision of the treaty had such a broad backing in Hungary that Bethlen used it, at least in part, to deflect criticism of his economic, social, and political policies. The Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. In 1932 Horthy appointed a new prime-minister, Gyula Gömbös, that changed the course of Hungarian policy towards closer cooperation with Germany. Gömbös signed a trade agreement with Germany that drew Hungary's economy out of depression but made Hungary dependent on the German economy for both raw materials and markets. Adolf Hitler appealed to Hungarian desires for territorial revisionism, while extreme right wing organizations, like the Arrow Cross party, increasingly embraced Nazi policies, including those related to Jews. The government passed the First Jewish Law in 1938. The law established a quote system to limit Jewish involvement in the Hungarian economy.
Pm. Imrédy's (a Jewish descendant) attempts to improve Hungary's diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom initially made him very unpopular with Germany and Italy. In light of Germany's Anschluss with Austria in March, he realized that he could not afford to alienate Germany and Italy for long; in the autumn of 1938 his foreign policy became very much pro-German and pro-Italian.[65] Intent on amassing a base of power in Hungarian right wing politics, Imrédy began to suppress political rivals, so the increasingly influential Arrow Cross Party was harassed, and eventually banned by Imrédy's administration. As Imrédy drifted further to the right, he proposed that the government be reorganized along totalitarian lines and drafted a harsher Second Jewish Law. The Parliament under the new government of Pál Teleki approved the Second Jewish Law in 1939, which greatly restricted Jewish involvement in the economy, culture, and society and, significantly, defined Jews by race instead of religion. This definition altered the status of those who had formerly converted from Judaism to Christianity.

Hungary in World War II (1941–1945)

The Germans and Italians granted to Hungary part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia in the First Vienna Treaty of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the Second Vienna Treaty of 1940.
In 1941 Hungary participated in its first military manoeuvres as part of the Axis. Thus the Hungarian army was part of the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some more territory. On June 22, 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa; Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union on June 26, and formally entered World War II on the side of the Axis. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman. By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the River Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On March 19, 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe. By then it was clear that Hungarian politics was suppressed by Hitler's intent to hold the country in war on the side of the Nazi Third Reich because of its strategic location. On October 15, 1944, Miklós Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war. This time the Germans launched Operation Panzerfaust and Horthy was replaced by a puppet government under the pro-German Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi. Szálasi and his pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party remained loyal to the Germans until the end of the war. In late 1944, Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front again experienced success at the Battle of Debrecen, but this was followed immediately by the Soviet invasion of Hungary and the Battle of Budapest. During the German occupation in May-June 1944, the Arrow Cross Party and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mostly to Auschwitz.[66] The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports, but when the soviets arrived he was arrested as a spy and disappeared.[67] Hundreds of Hungarian people were also executed by the Arrow Cross Party for sheltering Jews.
The war left Hungary devastated destroying over 60% of the economy and causing huge loss of life. Many Hungarians, including women and children, were brutally raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labour by Czechslovaks, Russian Red Army troops, Yugoslavs (mostly Serbian partisans and regular units), and the Romanian so-called "Munteanu Guard" paramilitary units — by the end of the war approximately 500,000-650,000 people.
On February 13, 1945, the Hungarian capital city surrendered unconditionally. On May 8, 1945, World War II in Europe officially ended. By the agreement between the Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš and Joseph Stalin the wild expulsions of Slovaks from Hungary and Magyars from Czechoslovakia started. 250,000 ethnic Germans were also transferred to Germany pursuant to article XIII of the Potsdam Protocol of 2 August 1945.[68]

Communist era (1947–1989)

Communist Statue Park
Vandalised fallen head of a statue of Joseph Stalin during the revolution
Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country and through their influence Hungary gradually became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union. Many of the communist leaders of 1919 returned from Moscow. After 1948, Communist leader Mátyás Rákosi established Stalinist rule in the country complete with forced collectivization and planned economy. Mátyás Rákosi now attempted to impose authoritarian rule on Hungary. An estimated 2,000 people were executed and over 100,000 were imprisoned. Approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956[69] Many people (freethinkers democrats) were secretly arrested and taken to inland or foreign concentration camps without any judicial sentence. (the deportation of some 600,000 Hungarians to Soviet labour camps after the Second World War and the death of at least 200,000 in captivity).[70] Hungary experienced one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.
Rákosi had difficulty managing the economy and the people of Hungary saw living standards fall. His government became increasingly unpopular, and when Joseph Stalin died in 1953, Mátyás Rákosi was replaced as prime minister by Imre Nagy. However, he retained his position as general secretary of the Hungarian Workers Party and over the next three years the two men became involved in a bitter struggle for power.
As Hungary's new leader, Imre Nagy removed state control of the mass media and encouraged public discussion on political and economic reform. This included a promise to increase the production and distribution of consumer goods. Nagy also released anti-communists from prison and talked about holding free elections and withdrawing Hungary from the Warsaw Pact. Nagy was removed by Soviets. Rákosi did manage to secure the appointment of his puppet and close friend, Ernő Gerő, as his successor.
The rule of the Rákosi government was nearly unbearable for Hungary's war-torn citizens. This led to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Hungary's temporary withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. The multi-party system was restored by Nagy. Soviets and Hungarian political police(AVH) shot at peaceful demonstrators, many demonstrators died throughout the country, which made the events irreversible. Spontaneous revolutionary militias arose and heavy street fights started against the Soviet Army and the fearful communist secret police (AVH) in Budapest. The roughly 3,000-strong Hungarian resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails (in the narrow streets of Budapest) and machine-pistols. The immense Soviet preponderance suffered heavy losses, by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrisons in the Hungarian countryside. The Soviet Union sent new armies to Hungary. On 4 November 1956, the Soviets retaliated massively with military force, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks.[71] During the Hungarian Uprising an estimated 20,000 people were killed, nearly all during the Soviet intervention. Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956.[72]

Kádár Era (1956-1988)

János Kádár (who was the appointed leader by the Soviets) reorganized the communist party as the puppet of the Soviets. Once he was in power, Kádár led an attack against revolutionaries. 21,600 mavericks (democrats, liberals, reformist communists alike) were imprisoned, 13,000 interned, and 400 killed. Imre Nagy, the legal Prime Minister of the country was condemned to death. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often satirically referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. As a result of the relatively high standard of living, and less restricted travel rights than those in force elsewhere in the Eastern Bloc, Hungary was generally considered one of the better countries in which to live in Eastern Europe during the Cold War. (See also Goulash Communism for a discussion of the Hungarian variety of socialism.) This was under the autocratic rule of its controversial communist leader, János Kádár. It was the so called Kádár era (1956–1988). The last Soviet soldier left the country in 1991 thus ending Soviet military presence in Hungary. With the Soviet Union gone the transition to a market economy began.

The Third Hungarian Republic (1989–present)

Choose, please! - A 1990 political poster by Fidesz, depicting Leonid Brezhnev and Erich Honecker performing a traditional and widely known communist-style kiss-greeting (archive photo, above) and a kissing contemporary young couple (below).
Former U.S. president George W. Bush speaks from Gellért Hill during the commemoration of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (Budapest, Hungary, Thursday, June 22, 2006)
"From this spot you could see tens of thousands of students and workers and other Hungarians marching through the streets. They called for an end to dictatorship, to censorship, and to the secret police. They called for free elections, a free press, and the release of political prisoners. These Hungarian patriots tore down the statue of Josef Stalin, and defied an empire to proclaim their liberty."
George W. Bush, Former President of the United States
In June 1987 Károly Grósz took over as premier. In January 1988 all restrictions were lifted on foreign travel. In March demonstrations for democracy and civil rights brought 15,000 onto the streets. In May, after Kádár's forced retirement, Grósz was named party secretary general. Under Grósz, Hungary began moving towards full democracy, change accelerated under the impetus of other party reformers such as Imre Pozsgay and Rezső Nyers. Also in June 1988, 30,000 demonstrated against Romania's communist Regime plans to demolish Transylvanian villages.
In February, 1989 the Communist Party's Central Committee, responding to 'public dissatisfaction', announced it would permit a multi-party system in Hungary and hold free elections. In March, for the first time in decades, the government declared the anniversary of the 1848 Revolution a national holiday. Opposition demonstrations filled the streets of Budapest with more than 75,000 marchers. Grósz met Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow, who condoned Hungary's moves toward a multi-party system and promised that the USSR would not interfere in Hungary's internal affairs. In May, Hungary began taking down its barbed wire fence along the Austrian border – the first tear in the Iron Curtain. June brought the reburial of Prime Minister Nagy, executed after the 1956 Revolution, drawing a crowd of 250,000 at the Heroes' Square. The last speaker, 26-year-old Viktor Orbán publicly called for Soviet troops to leave Hungary. In July U.S. President George Bush visited Hungary. In September Foreign Minister Gyula Horn announced that East German refugees in Hungary would not be repatriated but would instead be allowed to go to the West. The resulting exodus shook East Germany and hastened the fall of the Berlin Wall. On October 23, Mátyás Szűrös declared Hungary a republic.
At a party congress in October 1989 the Communists agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for free elections in March 1990. The party's name was changed from the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party to simply the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and a new programme advocating social democracy and a free-market economy was adopted. This was not enough to shake off the stigma of four decades of autocratic rule, however, and the 1990 election was won by the centre-right Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), which advocated a gradual transition towards capitalism. The liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), which had called for much faster change, came second and the Socialist Party trailed far behind. As Gorbachev looked on, Hungary changed political systems with scarcely a murmur and the last Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991.
In coalition with two smaller parties, the MDF provided Hungary with sound government during its hard transition to a full market economy. József Antall, the first democratically elected prime minister of Hungary, died in December 1993 and was replaced by the Interior Minister Péter Boross.
Protesters in Budapest
The economic changes of the early 1990s resulted in declining living standards for most people in Hungary. In 1991 most state subsidies were removed, leading to a severe recession exacerbated by the fiscal austerity necessary to reduce inflation and stimulate investment. This made life difficult for many Hungarians, and in the May 1994 elections the Hungarian Socialist Party led by former Communists won an absolute majority in parliament. This in no way implied a return to the past, and party leader Gyula Horn was quick to point out that it was his party that had initiated the whole reform process in the first place (as foreign minister in 1989 Horn played a key role in opening Hungary's border with Austria). All three main political parties advocate economic liberalisation and closer ties with the West. In March 1996, Horn was re-elected as Socialist Party leader and confirmed that he would push ahead with the party's economic stabilisation programme.
In 1997 in a national referendum 85% voted in favour of Hungary joining the NATO. A year later the European Union began negotiations with Hungary on full membership. In 1999 Hungary joined NATO. Hungary voted in favour of joining the EU, and joined in 2004.

Science

As of 2009, 13 Hungarians (who were born in Hungary) had received a Nobel prize, more than China, India, Australia or Spain.[73] Further eight Nobel prize laureates of Hungarian origin on both sides were born outside of Hungary.
The world's first institution of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Hungarian Kingdom (today Slovakia) in 1735. Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institution of technology in the world, which has university rank and structure. The legal predecessor of the university was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II.
Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include János Bolyai, designer of modern geometry (non-Euclidean geometry) in 1831. Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked;[74] and John von Neumann, Quantum Theory, Game theory a pioneer of digital computing and a key mathematician in the Manhattan Project. Many Hungarian scientists, including Erdős, von Neumann, Leo Szilard, and Edward Teller immigrated to the United States. The other cause of scientist emigration was the Treaty of Trianon, that "little Hungary" amputated by the Trianon treaty was unable to support the large-scale costly scientific researches, therefore some Hungarian scientists made their most famous contributions in the United States.

Most famous Hungarian inventions

Old times

Steel spring (medieval), coach (medieval) and coach suspension. The English word "coach" came from the Hungarian kocsi, a wagon from the village of Kocs, Hungary,[75] the noiseless match (János Irinyi)

Modern times

First electric motor (1827) and first electrical generator (Ányos Jedlik). David Schwarz invented and designed the first flyable rigid airship (aluminium-made), later he sold his patent for German Graf Zeppelin. Ottó Bláthy, Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky invented the transformer in 1885.[76][76] (Ottó Bláthy) invented the Turbogenerator and Wattmeter, Telephone exchange (Tivadar Puskás), Ford Model T and assembly line (therefore he is the inventor of industrial mass production) József Galamb, Tungsten electric bulb (1904) (Sándor Just) and the krypton electric bulb (Imre Bródy), Electronic Television and camera-tube (1926) and Plasma TV (1936) (Kálmán Tihanyi), Vitamin C and the first artificial vitamin Albert Szent-Györgyi, mathematical tools to study fluid flow and mathematical background of supersonic flight and inventor of swept-back wings "father of Supersonic Flight" (Theodore Kármán), ramjet propulsion Albert Fonó, Turboprop propulsion by (György Jendrassik), (Leó Szilárd): (nuclear chain reaction (therefore he was the first who realized the feasibility of an "atomic bomb". In August 1939, Szilard approached his old friend and collaborator Albert Einstein and convinced him to sign the Einstein–Szilárd letter, lending the weight of Einstein's fame to the proposal. The letter led directly to the establishment of research into nuclear fission by the U.S. government and ultimately to the creation of the Manhattan Project. Szilárd, with Enrico Fermi, patented the nuclear reactor). Other notable Hungarian inventions include holography (Dennis Gabor), the ballpoint pen (László Bíró), thermonuclear fusion and the theory of the hydrogen bomb (Edward Teller), and the BASIC programming language (John Kemeny, with Thomas E. Kurtz), Low level laser therapy or "light therapy" (Endre Mester), artificial blood (István Horváth), Rubik's cube (Ernő Rubik).[74]

Politics

The President of the Republic, elected by the members of the National Assembly every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, but he is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and his powers include the nomination of the Prime Minister who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic.
By the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-WWII Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.
The unicameral, 386-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the Prime Minister. Its members are elected for a four year term. 176 members are elected in single-seat constituencies, 152 by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, and 58 so-called compensation seats are distributed based on the number of votes "lost" (i.e., the votes that did not produce a seat) in either the single-seat or the multi-seat constituencies. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.
An 11-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality.

Regions, counties, subregions and cities

See also List of historic counties of Hungary
Regions of Hungary with their regional centres
Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties. In addition, the capital city (főváros), Budapest, is independent of any county government. The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary.
The counties are further subdivided into 173 subregions (kistérségek), and Budapest is its own subregion. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary.
There are also 23 towns with county rights (singular megyei jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English (although there is no such term in Hungarian). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.

Counties (County Capital)

Regions

Largest cities


Rank City County Population Metropolitan area
1 Budapest Pest 1,712,210 2,503,205
2 Debrecen Hajdú-Bihar 206,225 237,888
3 Miskolc Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 170,234 216,470
4 Szeged Csongrád 169,030 201,307
5 Pécs Baranya 156,974 179,215
6 Győr Győr-Moson-Sopron 130,476 182,776
7 Nyiregyháza Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 117,597 -
8 Kecskemét Bács-Kiskun 111,428 -
9 Székesfehérvár Fejér 102,035 -
10 Szombathely Vas 79,513 -
11 Szolnok Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 74,885 -
12 Tatabánya Komárom-Esztergom 70,333 -
13 Kaposvár Somogy 67,633 -
14 Békéscsaba Békés 64,787 -
15 Érd Pest 63,669 -
16 Veszprém Veszprém 63,405 -
17 Zalaegerszeg Zala 61,774 -
18 Sopron Győr-Moson-Sopron 59,036 -
19 Eger Heves 56,429 -
20 Nagykanizsa Zala 50,540 -

Economy

Hungary held its first multi-party elections in 1990, following four decades of Communist rule, and has succeeded in transforming its centrally planned economy into a market economy. Both foreign ownership of and foreign investment in Hungarian firms are widespread. The governing coalition, comprising the Hungarian Socialist Party and the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats, prevailed in the April 2006 general election. Hungary needs to reduce government spending and further reform its economy in order to meet the 2012–2013 target date for accession to the euro zone.
Hungary has continued to demonstrate economic growth as one of the newest member countries of the European Union (since 2004). The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Hungary gets nearly one third of all foreign direct investment flowing into Central Europe, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than US$185 billion since 1989. It enjoys strong trade, fiscal, monetary, investment, business, and labor freedoms. The top income tax rate is fairly high, but corporate taxes are low. Inflation is low, it was on the rise in the past few years, but it is now starting to regulate. Investment in Hungary is easy, although it is subject to government licensing in security-sensitive areas. Foreign capital enjoys virtually the same protections and privileges as domestic capital. The rule of law is strong, a professional judiciary protects property rights, and the level of corruption is low.
Highest value banknote of the Hungarian Forint (obverse)
Planned general government net lending 2005-2010.
The Hungarian economy is a medium-sized, structurally, politically, and institutionally open economy in Central Europe and is part of the EU single market. Like most Eastern European economies, it experienced market liberalisation in the early 1990s as part of a transition away from communism. Today, Hungary is a full member of OECD and the World Trade Organization. OECD was the first international organization to accept Hungary as a full member in 1996, after six years of successful cooperation.

History of the Hungarian Economy

Hungarian economy prior to the transition

The Hungarian economy prior to World War II was primarily oriented toward agriculture and small-scale manufacturing. Hungary's strategic position in Europe and its relative high lack of natural resources also have dictated a traditional reliance on foreign trade. For instance, its largest car manufacturer, Magomobil (maker of the Magosix), produced a total of a few thousand units.[77] In the early 1950s, the communist government forced rapid industrialization after the standard Stalinist pattern in an effort to encourage a more self-sufficient economy. Most economic activity was conducted by state-owned enterprises or cooperatives and state farms. In 1968, Stalinist self-sufficiency was replaced by the "New Economic Mechanism," which reopened Hungary to foreign trade, gave limited freedom to the workings of the market, and allowed a limited number of small businesses to operate in the services sector.
Although Hungary enjoyed one of the most liberal and economically advanced economies of the former Eastern bloc, both agriculture and industry began to suffer from a lack of investment in the 1970s, and Hungary's net foreign debt rose significantly—from $1 billion in 1973 to $15 billion in 1993—due largely to consumer subsidies and unprofitable state enterprises. In the face of economic stagnation, Hungary opted to try further liberalization by passing a joint venture law, instating an income tax, and joining the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. By 1988, Hungary had developed a two-tier banking system and had enacted significant corporate legislation which paved the way for the ambitious market-oriented reforms of the post-communist years.

Transition to a market economy

[citation needed]
Duna Tower
After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet satellites had to transition from a one-party, centrally planned economy to a market economy with a multi-party political system. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc countries suffered a significant loss in both markets for goods, and subsidizing from the Soviet Union. Hungary, for example, "lost nearly 70% of its export markets in Eastern and Central Europe." The loss of external markets in Hungary coupled with the loss of Soviet subsidizing left "800,000 unemployed people because all the unprofitable and unsalvageable factories had been closed."[78] Another form of Soviet subsidizing that greatly affected Hungary after the fall of communism was the loss of social welfare programs. Because of the lack of subsidizing and a need to reduce expenditures, many social programs in Hungary had to be cut in an attempt to lower spending. As a result, many people in Hungary suffered incredible hardships during the transition to a market economy. Following privatization and tax reductions on Hungarian businesses, unemployment suddenly rose to 12% in 1991 (it was 1,7% in 1990 ), gradually decreasing till 2001. Economic growth, after a fall in 1991 to -11,9%, gradually grew until the end of the 1990s at an average annual rate of 4,2%. With the stabilization of the new market economy, Hungary has experienced growth in foreign investment with a "cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989."[79]
The Antall government of 1990–94 began market reforms with price and trade liberation measures, a revamped tax system, and a nascent market-based banking system. By 1994, however, the costs of government overspending and hesitant privatization had become clearly visible. Cuts in consumer subsidies led to increases in the price of food, medicine, transportation services, and energy. Reduced exports to the former Soviet bloc and shrinking industrial output contributed to a sharp decline in GDP. Unemployment rose rapidly to about 12% in 1993. The external debt burden, one of the highest in Europe, reached 250% of annual export earnings, while the budget and current account deficits approached 10% of GDP. The devaluation of the currency (in order to support exports), without effective stabilization measures, such as indexation of wages, provoked an extremely high inflation rate, that in 1991 reached 35% and slightly decreased till 1994, growing again in 1995. In March 1995, the government of Prime Minister Gyula Horn implemented an austerity program, coupled with aggressive privatization of state-owned enterprises and an export-promoting exchange raw regime, to reduce indebtedness, cut the current account deficit, and shrink public spending. By the end of 1997 the consolidated public sector deficit decreased to 4.6% of GDP—with public sector spending falling from 62% of GDP to below 50%—the current account deficit was reduced to 2% of GDP, and government debt was paid down to 94% of annual export earnings.
The Government of Hungary no longer requires IMF financial assistance and has repaid all of its debt to the fund. Consequently, Hungary enjoys favorable borrowing terms. Hungary's sovereign foreign currency debt issuance carries investment-grade ratings from all major credit-rating agencies, although recently the country was downgraded by Moody's, S&P and remains on negative outlook at Fitch. In 1995 Hungary's currency, the Forint (HUF), became convertible for all current account transactions, and subsequent to OECD membership in 1996, for almost all capital account transactions as well. Since 1995, Hungary has pegged the forint against a basket of currencies (in which the U.S. dollar is 30%), and the central rate against the basket is devalued at a preannounced rate, originally set at 0.8% per month, the Forint is now an entirely free-floating currency. The government privatization program ended on schedule in 1998: 80% of GDP is now produced by the private sector, and foreign owners control 70% of financial institutions, 66% of industry, 90% of telecommunications, and 50% of the trading sector.
Kőröshegy-Viaduct
After Hungary's GDP declined about 18% from 1990 to 1993 and grew only 1%–1.5% up to 1996, strong export performance has propelled GDP growth to 4.4% in 1997, with other macroeconomic indicators similarly improving. These successes allowed the government to concentrate in 1996 and 1997 on major structural reforms such as the implementation of a fully funded pension system (partly modelled after Chile's pension system but enclosing major modifications), reform of higher education, and the creation of a national treasury. Remaining economic challenges include reducing fiscal deficits and inflation, maintaining stable external balances, and completing structural reforms of the tax system, health care, and local government financing. Recently, the overriding goal of Hungarian economic policy has been to prepare the country for entry into the European Union, which it joined in late 2004.
Hungarian Police HQ (Police Palace)
Prior to the change of regime in 1989, 65% of Hungary's trade was with Comecon countries. By the end of 1997, Hungary had shifted much of its trade to the West. Trade with EU countries and the OECD now comprises over 70% and 80% of the total, respectively. Germany is Hungary's single most important trading partner. The U.S. has become Hungary's sixth-largest export market, while Hungary is ranked as the 72d largest export market for the U.S. Bilateral trade between the two countries increased 46% in 1997 to more than $1 billion. The U.S. has extended to Hungary most-favored-nation status, the Generalized System of Preferences, Overseas Private Investment Corporation insurance, and access to the Export-Import Bank.
With about $18 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) since 1989, Hungary has attracted over one-third of all FDI in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union. Of this, about $6 billion came from American companies. Foreign capital is attracted by skilled and relatively inexpensive labor, tax incentives, modern infrastructure, and a good telecommunications system.
By 2006 Hungary’s economic outlook had deteriorated. Wage growth had kept up with other nations in the region; however, this growth has largely been driven by increased government spending. This has resulted in the budget deficit ballooning to over 10% of GDP and inflation rates predicted to exceed 6%. This prompted Nouriel Roubini, a White House economist in the Clinton administration, to state that "Hungary is an accident waiting to happen."[80]

Hungarian economy today

In 2006 Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány was reelected on a platform promising economic “reform without austerity.” However, after the elections in April 2006, the Socialist coalition under Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany unveiled a package of austerity measures which were designed to reduce the budget deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008.
Hungary, as a member state of the European Union may seek to adopt the common European currency, the Euro. To achieve this, Hungary would need to fulfill the Maastricht criteria.
In foreign investments, Hungary has seen a shift from lower-value textile and food industry to investment in luxury vehicle production, renewable energy systems, high-end tourism, and information technology.
The fulfillment of the Maastricht criteria
Convergence criteria Obligation to adopt 4 Target date Euro coins design
Country 1 Inflation rate² Government finances ERM II membership Interest rate ³ set by the country recommended by the Commission
annual government deficit to GDP gross government debt to GDP
Reference value 5 max 3.2% max. 3% max. 60% min. 2 years max 6.5% NA NA NA NA
 Hungary 5.1% 4% 76.9% 0 years 7.0% yes 2014–2015 NA in progress
1 Current EU member states that have not yet adopted the Euro, candidates and official potential candidates.
² No more than 1.5% higher than the 3 best-performing EU member states.
³ No more than 2% higher than the 3 best-performing EU member states.
4 Formal obligation for Euro adoption in the country EU Treaty of Accession or the Framework for membership negotiations.
5 Values from May 2008 report.[81] To be updated each year.
The austerity measures introduced by the government are in part an attempt to fulfill the Maastricht-criteria.
The austerity measures include a 2% rise in social security contributions, half of which is paid by employees, and a large increase in the minimum rate of sales tax (levied on food and basic services) from 15 to 20%. While it was widely recognised that something needed to be done, investors have levelled criticism at the program for emphasizing tax increases as opposed to spending cuts.[citation needed]
The Hungarian Central Statistical Office reported a decrease in real wages in the first five months of 2007. Gross average income rose by 7%, while net average income increased by 1%. When adjusted for inflation, this corresponded to a 7% decline compared with real wages a year before. The drop was due mainly to the 2006 austerity package; however, state measures to combat the black economy may also have had an impact on pay developments.
Hungary's low employment rate remains a key structural handicap to achieving higher living standards. The government introduced useful measures in the key areas, namely early retirement, disability and old pensions.

2008–2009 Financial Crisis

Hungary, which joined the European Union in 2004, has been hit hard by the late-2000s recession because of its heavy dependence on foreign capital to finance its economy and has one of the biggest public deficits in the EU.[82][83]
On 10 October 2008, the Forint dropped by 10%.[84] Many loans are made in Euro or Swiss Francs in Hungary.
On 27 October 2008, Hungary reached an agreement with the IMF and EU for a rescue package worth about US$20 billion.[85]
Total government spending is high. Many state-owned enterprises have not been privatized. Business licensing is a problem, as regulations are not applied consistently.[86] According to the conservative think tank Heritage Foundation, Hungary's economy was 67.2 percent "free" in 2008,[86] which makes it the world's 43rd-freest economy. Its overall score is 1 percent lower than last year, partially reflecting new methodological detail. Hungary is ranked 25th out of 41 countries in the European region, and its overall score is slightly lower than the regional average.[86]
Magyar Suzuki plant in Esztergom, Hungary has over 6000 employees. (As of 2007)
The Hungarian sovereign debt's credit rating is BBB+ as of October 2008. However Standard & Poor's may downgrade Hungary's BBB+ sovereign credit rating because of mounting financial-sector funding pressures and their potential to raise general government debt materially from its current level of 67% of GDP (October 2008). Foreign investors' trust in the Hungarian economy has declined, as they deem that the stringency measures planned in the second half of 2006 are not satisfactory; their focus being mainly on increasing the income side rather than curbing government spendings.[citation needed] Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing are being addressed by the present government.
General government net lending was 9.2% in 2006, instead of estimated 10.1% (but still the largest in Europe) because of the austerity program of the government, and was 5.5% in 2007, and recent estimates of the government says 4% in 2008.[citation needed]
Audi TT sports car manufactured by Audi in Győr.
Because of the large austerity program, the real growth of the incomes was negative in 2007 at -5.5%, and the estimates say 1% increase in 2008. The GDP growth was only 1.4% in 2007, much lower than in 2006 because of the decreased government spending; in first quarter of 2008 the GDP growth was 1.7%, slightly stronger than last quarter of 2007 (0.9%). During the second quarter in 2008, the GDP growth was 2.0% annual, and because of the effects of the 2008 financial crisis on the Hungarian forint and on the bank system, the 3rd quarter growth was slowed to 0.8% annual.[87] The estimates for 2009 are 1-1.5% decline.[88]
The 2008 financial crisis hit Hungary mainly in October 2008. When the Forint declined quickly against the euro, the Hungarian National Bank raised interest rates from 3.0% to 11.5% on 22 October. As the Hungarian Government asked financial rescue package worth $25.1 billion from the International Monetary Fund, the European Union, and the World Bank, promising to IMF that recalculate the 2009 budget, as Hungary's GDP declines 1.0%, and slow down government spending, for example, stop the wage increase for state workers.[89] This way, the budget gap decline to 2.6% down from 5.5% of GDP in 2007 and will meet Maastricht criteria. In this circumstances, more and more economists estimate, that Hungary can join the ERM II, which gives the possibility that Hungary can adopt the euro 2 years after joining the ERM-II monetary system.

Geography

Landscape

Topographic map of Hungary
Hills in Baranya county
Sunset by Lake Balaton
Valley of Zagyva River, Western Mátra Mounts
Slightly more than one half of Hungary's landscape consists of flat to rolling plains of the Pannonian Basin: the most important plain regions include the Little Hungarian Plain in the west, and the Great Hungarian Plain in the southeast. The highest elevation above sea level on the latter is only 183 metres (600 ft).
Transdanubia is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Medium Mountains, in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres (2,894 ft).
The highest mountains of the country are located in the Carpathians: these lie in the northern parts, in a wide band along the Slovakian border (highest point: the Kékes at 1,014 m/3,327 ft).
Hungary is divided in two by its main waterway, the Danube (Duna); other large rivers include the Tisza and Dráva, while Transdanubia contains Lake Balaton, a major body of water. The largest thermal lake in the world, Lake Hévíz (Hévíz Spa), is located in Hungary. The second largest lake in the Pannonian Basin is the artificial Lake Tisza (Tisza-tó).
Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests.

Climate

Hungary has a Continental climate,[90] with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and frigid to cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Temperature extremes are about 42 °C (107.6 °F) in the summer and −29 °C (−20.2 °F) in the winter. Average temperature in the summer is 27 °C (80.6 °F) to 35 °C (95 °F) and in the winter it is 0 °C (32 °F) to −15 °C (5.0 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 mm (23.6 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the winter.

Military

Hungarian Ground Forces welcome the President of the United States. Mounted hussars can be seen along the top.
The Military of Hungary, or "Hungarian Armed Forces" currently has two branches, the "Hungarian Ground Force" and the "Hungarian Air Force." The Hungarian Ground Force (or Army) is known as the "Corps of Homeland Defenders" (Honvédség). This term was originally used to refer to the revolutionary army established by Lajos Kossuth and the National Defence Committee of the Revolutionary Hungarian Diet in September 1848 during the Hungarian Revolution. The term Honvédség is the name of the military of Hungary since 1848 referring to its purpose (véd in Honvéd) of defending the country. The Hungarian Army is called Magyar Honvédség. The rank equal to a Private is a Honvéd. The Hungarian Air Force is the air force branch of the Hungarian Army.
Hungary is a contributor of military troops to Eufor
Black Army of Hungary: The Black Army (Black Legion or Host) - named after their black armor panoply - is in historigraphy the common name given to the excellent quality of diverse and polyglot military forces serving under the reign of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. It is recognized as the first standing continental European fighting force not under conscription and with regular pay since the Roman Empire. Hungary's Black Army traditionally encompasses the years from 1458 to 1490.
Hussar: A type of irregular light horsemen was already well established by the 15th century in medieval Hungary. Hussar refers to a number of types of light cavalry created in Hungary[91] in the 15th century and used throughout Europe and even in America since the 18th century. Some modern military units retain the title 'hussar' for reasons of tradition.

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Hungary
(census 2001)
Hungarian
  
94.4%
Roma
  
2.02%
German
  
1.18%
Slovak
  
0.38%
Other
  
2.02%
For 95% of the population, the mother language is Hungarian, a Finno-Ugric language unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Khanty, Mansi, Finnish and Estonian. The main Minority group are the Roma (2.1% - 3.0%). Other groups include: Germans (1.2%), Slovaks (0.4%), Croats and Bunjevcis(0.2%), Romanians (0.1%), Ukrainians (0.1%), and Serbs (0.1%).[92]
For historical reasons (see Treaty of Trianon), significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, most of them in Romania (in Transylvania), Slovakia, Serbia (in Vojvodina). Sizable minorities live also in Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Croatia (mainly Slavonia) and Austria (in Burgenland). Slovenia is also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians, and Hungarian language has an official status in parts of the Prekmurje region. Today, more than two million ethnic Hungarians live in nearby countries.[93]
Ethnographic map of Hungary, 1910. (Hungarians in red)

Ethnic Germans

The largest wave of German-speaking immigrants into Hungary occurred after the Treaty of Karlowitz. Between 1700 and 1750, German-speaking settlers immigrated to the regions of Pannonia, Banat, and Bačka, which had been depopulated by the Ottoman wars. Prior to World War II, approximately 1.5 million Danube Swabians lived in Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia.[94] In 2001, 62,105 people declared to be German in Hungary.[95]

Religion in Hungary

Religious affiliation in Hungary (2001)[96]
Denominations Population  % of total
Christianity 7,584,115 74.4
Catholicism 5,558,901 54.5
Roman Catholics 5,289,521 51.9
Greek Catholics 268,935 2.6
Protestantism 1,985,576 19.5
Calvinists 1,622,796 15.9
Lutherans 304,705 3.0
Baptists 17,705 0.2
Unitarians 6,541 0.1
Other Protestants 33,829 0.3
Orthodox Christianity 15,298 0.1
Other Christians 24,340 0.2
Judaism 12,871 0.1
Other religions 13,567 0.1
Total religions 7,610,553 74.6
No religion 1,483,369 14.5
Did not wish to answer 1,034,767 10.1
Unknown 69,566 0.7
total 10,198,315 100.00

Religious history

Religions in Hungary
The majority of Hungarian people became Christian in the 10th century. Hungary's first king, Saint Stephen I, took up Western Christianity, although his mother, Sarolt, was baptized in the eastern rite. Hungary remained predominantly Catholic until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place and, as a result, first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism became the religion of almost the entire population. In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a successful campaign of counterreformation among the Hungarians. The Jesuits founded educational institutions, including Péter Pázmány Catholic University, the oldest university that still exists in Hungary, but organized so-called missions too in order to promote popular piety. By the 17th century, Hungary had once again become predominantly Catholic. Some of the eastern parts of the country, however, especially around Debrecen ("the Calvinist Rome"), still have significant Protestant communities. Orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of some national minorities in the country, notably, Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs.
Hungary has been the home of a sizable Armenian community as well. They still worship according to the Armenian Rite, but they have reunited with the Catholic Church (Armenian Catholics) under the primacy of the Pope. According to the same pattern, a significant number of Orthodox Christians became re-united with the rest of the Catholic world (Greek Catholics).
Faith Church, one of Europe's largest pentecostal churches is also located in Hungary. Faith Church accepts the results and spiritual, moral values of both early Christianity and the Reformation, as well as other revival movements serving the progress of the Christian faith. Based on the 1% tax designation to churches, Faith Church is the fourth most supported church in Hungary. The weekly Sunday service of the Church is regularly broadcast in live television.

Jewish Hungarians

Hungary has historically been home to a significant Jewish community, especially since the 19th century when many Jews, persecuted in Russia, found refuge in the Kingdom of Hungary. Most Jewish people live in the downtown of Budapest, especially in district VI. The largest synagogue in Europe is located in Budapest. The census of January 1941 found that 6.2% of the population, i.e. 846,000 people, were considered Jewish according to the racial laws of that time. From this number, 725,000 were Jewish by religion.[97] Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, although many were either deported to concentration camps or murdered by the Hungarian Arrow Cross fascists.
Fine Art Museum, Budapest

Culture

Architecture

Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), the one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest Early Christian Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).

Hungarian Art Nouveau
Lánchíd bridge in Budapest
The buildings display two noticeable styles, those of Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of 'Young People' (Fiatalok), which included Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture to achieve the same end. Besides the two principal styles, the town also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from Vienna, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the century. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896.

Music

Béla Bartók, the second prominent Hungarian composer.
The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt, Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály, and Rózsa. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary also has a number of internationally renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös and Zoltán Jeney among them. One of the greatest Hungarian composers, Béla Bartók was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.
Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong - since the 1920 Treaty of Trianon - to neighboring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, southern Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and the Transylvania: both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians.
Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries (thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history) and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and southern Poland".[98] It is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra.[99]
Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song".[100] Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style.[101] For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungary's most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, whilst Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style.
During the era of Communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989) a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular.

Art

Literature

Hungarian art
Jozsef Borsos Portrait of Kristóf Hegedűs 1844.jpg
List of Hungarian painters
List of Hungarian sculptors
Hungarian National Gallery
Museum of Fine Arts
Present-day regions in Europe where the Hungarian language is spoken.
The oldest survivng Hungarian (and Finno-Ugric) poem, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary
In the earliest times Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038).
The oldest remained written record in Hungarian language is a fragment in the founding document of the Abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea, "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin.
The oldest remained complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon.
The oldest remained poem in Hungarian is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary (Ómagyar Mária-siralom), also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving Finno-Ugric poem.
Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called Anonymus, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the Képes krónika (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great.
Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. The most important poets of the period was Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Balassi's poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic Szigeti veszedelem ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the Iliad, and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly, after the town where it was first published. (See Hungarian Bible translations for more details.)
The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French enlightenment. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). The greatest poets of the time were Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.
Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Some modern Hungarian authors have become increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially Sándor Márai, Péter Esterházy, Péter Nádas and Imre Kertész. The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002. The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. János Arany, a famous nineteenth century Hungarian poet is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of Ballads), among several other "true classics" like Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits, Dezső Kosztolányi, Attila József and János Pilinszky. Other well-known Hungarian authors are Ferenc Móra, Géza Gárdonyi, Zsigmond Móricz, Gyula Illyés, Albert Wass and Magda Szabó.

Comics

Cuisine

A nicely prepared Hortobágyi palacsinta served in Sopron
Dobos Cake
The Hungarian cuisine is a prominent feature of the Hungarian culture, just as much like the art of hospitality. Traditional dishes such as the world famous Goulash (gulyás stew or gulyás soup). Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation.[102] Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called tejföl is often used to soften the dishes flavour. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or halászlé is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Other dishes are Chicken Paprikash, Foie gras made of goose liver, pörkölt stew, vadas, (game stew with vegetable gravy and dumplings), trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like túrós csusza, (dumplings with fresh quark cheese and thick sour cream). Desserts include the iconic Dobos Cake, Strudels (rétes), filled with apple, cherry, poppy seed or cheese, Gundel pancake, plum dumplings (szilvás gombóc), somlói dumplings, dessert soups like chilled Sour cherry soup and sweet chestnut puree, gesztenyepüré (cooked chestnuts mashed with sugar and rum and split into crumbs, topped with whipped cream). Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries.
The csárda is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. Borozó usually denotes a cozy old-fashioned wine tavern, pince is a beer or wine cellar and a söröző is a pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery called cukrászda, while an eszpresszó is a cafeteria.
Drinks
A cold bottle of Unicum
Tokaji, "Wine of Kings, King of Wines" ("Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum")—Louis XIV of France
Pálinka: is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour.
Beer: Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Borsodi, Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher.
Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making. Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance of Hungarian wine-making. The choice of good wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of style: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér.
Tokaji: Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji. Louis XV and Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another in the excellence of the vintages they stocked when they treated guests like Voltaire to some Tokaji. Napoleon III, the last Emperor of the French, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji for the Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, never had any other wine to drink. In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth of Russia.
Zwack Unicum: For over 150 years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. The recipe is held secret by the Zwack family.

Spa culture

Rudas Baths is a thermal and medicinal bath that was first built in 1550
Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. It has been shown that Hungarian spa culture is multicultural. The basis of this claim is architecture: Hungarian spas feature Roman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements.[citation needed] Because of an advantageous geographical location thermal water can be found with good quality and in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary's territory. The Romans heralded the first age of spa in Hungary, the remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda, to this day. The spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion who used the thermal springs of Buda for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which are still functioning (Király Baths, Rudas Baths). In the 19th century the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such as Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary. About half of these are used for bathing. The spa culture has a nearly 2,000 year history in Budapest. Budapest has the richest supply of thermal water among the capitals of the world. The amount of thermal water used in Budapest is roughly equal to two million bath tubs per day.[citation needed] There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary. Nowadays the trend shows that bath operators are modernizing their facilities and expanding the services offered. A total of 50 of the 160 public baths are qualified as spas throughout the country. Services are offered for healing purposes. These spas provide every type of balneal and physical therapy. Throughout history bathing and spa tourism has always played an important role in Hungary.[citation needed]
The thermal lake of Hévíz
The thermal lake of Hévíz is the largest biologically active, natural thermal lake of the world.[citation needed] The oldest and most well-known bath of Hungary, in accordance with records from the Roman era, has a history of 2000 years. The Hévíz treatment, in its present sense, also dates back more than 200 years. The 4.4 ha lake is fed by its spring rushing up at a depth of 38 m (124.67 ft), containing sulphur, radium and minerals. Because of the high water output of the spring, the water of the lake is completely changed within 48 hours. The water of the Hévíz Lake is equally rich in dissolved substances and gases, combining the favourable effects of naturally carbonated medicinal waters and those containing sulphur, calcium, magnesium, hydrogen-carbonate, as well as those with a slightly radioactive content. The medicinal mud, which covers the bed of the lake in a thick layer, deserves special attention. The Hévíz mud, which is unique of its kind, contains both organic and inorganic substances and the radium-salts and reduced sulphuric solutions in it represent special medicinal factors. The medicinal water and mud originating from the several then thousand year-old Pannonian Sea, together with the complex physiotherapeutic treatments, are suitable for treating all kinds of rheumatic and locomotory diseases.[citation needed] The temperature of the water is 23-25 C in winter and 33-36 C in summer.

Folk art

Folk dance

Romanesque Church in village Ócsa
Ugrós (Jumping dances): Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.
Karikázó: a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folksongs.
Csárdás: New style dances developed in the 18-19th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages.
Verbunkos: a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army.
The Legényes: is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is performed freestyle usually by one dancer at a time in front of the band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side and sing/shout verses while the men dance. Each lad does a number of points (dance phrases) typically 4 to 8 without repetition. Each point consists of 4 parts, each lasting 4 counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations).

Embroidery

Woman's folk Costume
It was in the beginning of the eighteenth century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color - red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow cases and sheets. In Hungary proper Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations.

Black pottery

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.

Herend Porcelain

Herend Porcelain's "kinai" pattern
Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production. After the fall of communism in Hungary the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world.[103]

Hungarian public holidays and special events

Fixed public holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Újév  
March 15 National Day Nemzeti ünnep Márciusi ifjak ("March youths"), memorial day of the 1848 Revolution. There are usually speeches and music pieces performed; several people wear a cockade with the national colours (red, white and green).
Moveable Easter Sunday Húsvétvasárnap Good Friday work-free for Protestants
Moveable Easter Monday Húsvéthétfő Men visit women and ask for permission for sprinkling by reciting a little Easter poem, they sprinkle them with some perfume (or sometimes a bucket of cold water in the countryside), and they get eggs (mostly of chocolate) in exchange. Children get chocolate bunnies and eggs (from the Bunny), and sometimes fruits, nuts etc. as well. They sometimes have to look for these presents in the garden or in their room. (Living bunnies are not infrequent, either.) Mothers often prepare ham, eggs, and sweetbreads for dinner.
May 1 Labour day;
anniversary of the accession to the EU
A munka ünnepe The countries of the EU are represented with special programmes, bridges are decorated and exhibitions are arranged.
Moveable Pentecost Sunday Pünkösdvasárnap Sunday, 50 days after Easter
Moveable Pentecost Monday Pünkösdhétfő Monday after Pentecost
August 20 Saint Stephen Day Szent István ünnepe St. Stephen's Day, Foundation of State, "the day of the new bread" as well. St. Stephen of Hungary (Szent István király in Hungarian) (ca. 975 – August 15, 1038), was the first king of Hungary.
Celebrated with a half-hour fireworks on the bank of the Danube in the evening, attended by several hundreds of thousands of people.
October 23 National Day Nemzeti ünnep The day of the Republic (since 1989), 1956 Revolution memorial day. Celebrated with speeches and exhibitions.
November 1 All Saints Day, Day of the Dead Mindenszentek, Halottak napja It is a day to remember the lost ones. On this day people generally visit all their lost relatives' graves which they decorate with flowers.
December 24 evening,
December 25
Christmas "Szenteste", Karácsony People buy (or make) presents for their relatives and friends in the preceding couple of weeks (so this period is the absolute boom of the year for most stores). Public transport stops operating at about 4 p.m. Families reunite and people prepare their (labelled) presents under the Christmas tree. It is made of a fir which is decorated by one or two people in the family so nobody else can see it before they signal with a little bell for the rest to come in. The family sings Christmas songs together and everyone unwraps their presents.
On 25th and the 26th, people usually visit their relatives (e.g. aunts, uncles and grandparents) and exchange presents.
December 26 Second Day of Christmas Karácsony másnapja  

Holidays not endorsed by the state

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
December 6 Santa Claus, Saint Nicholas Day Mikulás, Télapó Children get various chocolate pieces from the Santa Claus by morning. If they were bad, they might get (birch) rods exclusively or beside their presents.
December 31 New Year's Eve Szilveszter Young people go partying until morning. Streets are noisy with paper trumpets, hoots and champagne cracks; people often wear masks and throw petards. Those who stay home usually watch the comedies made for this occasion; at midnight they drink champagne and wish each other good luck for the new year. National television channels broadcast the orchestral and choral national anthem at midnight, and then the speech of the current President. After midnight they often use fireworks. With these finished, further comedies and various movies follow. The next day streets are as empty as ever, and people sleep long (or sleep themselves sober).
Moveable Carnival Farsang A six day regional carnival, originally celebrated by the Šokci (ethnic-Croatians) living in the town of Mohács. Traditions include folk music, masquerading, parades and dancing.

Hungarian domestic animals

White Puli
There are special Hungarian breeds of domestic animals which are seen as national symbols in Hungary, and there are "gene banks"[citation needed] to ensure their survival, especially in national parks.
  • Long-horn Hungarian Grey Cattle- Hungarian breed, traditionally kept in the open full year. Nowadays they are raised for infant food because of the natural, healthy meat.
  • Magyar Vizsla - one of the oldest hunting dogs of the world. The ancestors of this dog came into the Carpathian Basin with the nomadic Hungarian tribes.
  • Hungarian Puli - small shepherd dog
  • Hungarian Komondor - large shepherd dog, was brought to Hungary a thousand years ago by nomadic Magyars.
  • Hungarian Kuvasz - large shepherd dog.
  • Hungarian Pumi - small shepherd dog.
  • Magyar Agár (Hungarian Greyhound) is already known in the 8th century, it is as old as the Vizsla.
  • Transylvanian Bloodhound - Hungarian hound.
  • Hungarian Mudi shepherd dog.
  • Hungarian thoroughbred horses - a mid-19th century mixture of the best Arab and English race horse characteristics.
  • Mangalica, a breed of pigs, characterised by their long curly hair and relatively fatty meat which makes them ideal for making sausages and salami.

Special events

Hungary's most outstanding annual events include the Budapest Spring Festival (mid-March to mid-April), Hortobágy Equestrian Days (late June), Sopron Early Music Days (late June), Festival in Budapest (late June), Miskolc Opera Festival (late June), Miskolc Kalálka International Folk Festival (July), Győr Summer Festival (late June), Győr Summer Cultural Festival (late June to late July), Pannon Festival in Pécs (July and August), Szentendre Summer Festival (July), Kőszeg Street Theatre Festival (late July), Savaria International Dance Competition in Szombathely (July), Debrecen Jazz Days (July), Szeged Open Air Festival (mid-July to August), Diáksziget (shorter: "Sziget" or "Sziget Festival", Student Island or Pepsi Island) north of Budapest (August), Eger Wine Harvest Festival (September), and Budapest Autumn Arts Festival (mid-September to mid-October).
St Stephen's Day (August 20) is celebrated with sporting events, parades and fireworks nationwide. On the same day there is a Floral Festival in Debrecen and a Bridge Fair in nearby Hortobágy. Formula 1 car races are held in early August at the Hungaroring near Mogyoród, 18 km northeast of Budapest.

Budapest Spring Festival

Designed to fit the needs of Budapest's cultural heritage and its requirements as a modern Central European centre, this metropolitan festival was instituted in 1981. By presenting and disseminating cultural assets it boosts the city's image and encourages dynamic development of its cultural tourism. This "festival of festivals", traditionally covering a range of artistic fields, presents a series of homogeneous artistic activities to which international professional symposia are linked. The Budapest Spring Festival takes place in the last two weeks of March. Its main emphasis is on those symphony orchestra concerts, opera and ballet performances which will appeal to the widest audience, but the program also includes open-air events and an Operetta Festival. The performances take place in the capital's most important concert halls and theatres, and often near historic monuments. Over the years a number of regional towns have been included in the Budapest Spring Festival - Debrecen, Gödöllő, Győr, Kaposvár, Kecskemét, Sopron, Szentendre and Szombathely - and thus it has more or less expanded into a national festival. The list of events always includes renowned foreign guests as well as distinguished artists and groups from the Hungarian musical life. Highlights include classical concerts, productions at the Opera House, open air events, the Operetta Festival, the Dance House Convention, the Dance Panorama, and what are considered to be the real treat, the exhibitions.

Haydn Festival in Eszterháza

Palace of Eszterháza
Haydn at Eszterháza: During its first quarter century, the palace was the primary home of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn, who wrote the majority of his symphonies for the Prince's orchestra. Starting in 1768, the theater was a major venue for opera, often with more than a hundred performances per year. The palace was geographically isolated, a factor which led to loneliness and tedium among the musicians. This is seen in some of Haydn's letters, as well as in the famous tale of the Farewell Symphony
The basic aim of the festival is to evoke the musical paradise that Eszterháza was in Haydn's time, within the original walls, with the help of period instruments and performing practice. The programmes focus mainly on the works composed during the Eszterháza period of Haydn's creative life, and among these, on compositions belonging to the most important genres (symphonies, string quartets, keyboard sonatas and trios). In addition, however, the concert programmes regularly include works by the "unknown Haydn" (baryton pieces, rarely heard church compositions, wind divertimenti, etc.). The festival aims to provide opportunities for the world's most outstanding Haydn performers to meet here, to gain inspiration from the atmosphere and acoustics of the place, and to inspire one another through shared music-making. The majority of the performers play only compositions by Joseph Haydn, but also in exceptional cases other works closely connected, either directly or through their composers, with Haydn, Eszterháza or the family of the Esterházy princes - such as, for example, the string quartets dedicated to Haydn by Mozart, and certain pieces by Michael Haydn (the composer's younger brother), Luigi Tomasini (leader of the Eszterháza orchestra) and others. The venue for most of the concerts is the enchantingly beautiful ceremonial hall of the palace, which has superb acoustics. Some of the more intimate, solistic performances are given in the sala terrena, the central hall of the original, smaller, Renaissance hunting palace. Some concerts of church music take place in one or other of the churches in the nearby villages.

Győr Summer Festival

Győr centre
This festival is held annually, from the second week in June to the second week in July. The Győr Summer International Cultural Festival, which displays Győr's cultural heritage, has a history of over three decades. The list of events, which covers a wide range of genres, is based on a series of separate activities. Every year, for a month in June and July, the Baroque decorations of the city centre, its atmospheric courtyards and the banks of the Rába river are home to the International Ballet Festival, the International Puppet and Street Theatre Convention, the International Folk Dancing and Folk Music Festival, and the International Handcraft Fair and Exhibition. In addition to the performances of the hosts - the Győr Ballet, the Győr National Theatre, and the Győr Philharmonic Orchestra - visitors can also see those of the visiting theatre companies and musical groups.

Sport

Only seven countries (USA, USSR, UK, France, Italy, China and Germany) have won more Summer Olympic gold medals than Hungary. Hungary has the most Olympic gold medals per capita. At the all time total medal count for Olympic Games, Hungary reaches the 9th rank out of 211 participating nations, with a total of 465 medals. See All-time Olympic Games medal table (2008 data)
One of the most famous Hungarians is the footballer Ferenc Puskás (1927–2006). He scored 84 goals in 85 internationals for Hungary, and 511 goals in 533 matches in the Hungarian and Spanish leagues. Puskás played the 1954 World Cup final against West Germany. In 1958, after the Hungarian Revolution, he emigrated to Spain where he played in the legendary Real Madrid team that also included Alfredo Di Stéfano, and Francisco Gento.
Hungarians are also known for their prowess at water sports, mainly swimming, water polo (See: Water polo at the Summer Olympics) (in which they have defeated the Soviet team in 1956) and canoeing (they have won multiple medals); this can be said to be surprising at first, since Hungary is landlocked. On the other hand, the presence of two major rivers (the Duna and the Tisza) and a major lake (Balaton) give excellent opportunities to practice these sports. Some of the world's best sabre fencing athletes have historically hailed from Hungary. The Hungarian national ice hockey team have also qualified for their first IIHF World Championship in more than seventy years.
The Hungarian national football team represents Hungary in international football and is controlled by the Hungarian Football Federation. It has a rich and proud pedigree in the game and a rightful place in football annals as one of the first original footballing nations in continental Europe and an innovator in the sport in the 1950s. In recent times the team's strength has diminished greatly, failing to qualify for any major tournament since 1986. However they hold the record for going the most number of consecutive games unbeaten, 32.
Hungarian football is best known for one of the most formidable and influential sides in football history, which revolutionized the play of the game. Centered around the dynamic and potent quartet of strikers Ferenc Puskás, Sándor Kocsis, attacking half-back József Bozsik and withdrawn striker Nándor Hidegkuti, the "Aranycsapat" (Hung. lit Golden Team) of the "Magnificent Magyars", captivated the football world with an exciting brand of play drawn from new tactical nuances and amassed, barring the 1954 World Cup Final, a remarkable record of 43 victories, 7 ties, and no defeats from the 15th of June 1952 to the end of its historic unbeaten run on February 18, 1956. Hungary has the unique distinction of posting the highest ever Elo football rating of 2173 points in June (1954) along with the second highest with 2153 (1956); surpassing that of Brazil, England, Argentina and Germany in all-time competition.
Ferenc Puskás
The Hungarians were runners-up twice in the World Cup, losing to Italy 4–2 in 1938 and 3–2 to West Germany in 1954, despite beating them 8–3 earlier in the competition. The team, built around the legendary Ferenc Puskás, led early 2–0 in that match, but ended up 3–2 losers in a game the Germans subsequently christened "The Miracle of Bern". Two highly controversial calls surround this final game: firstly when Puskas apparently equalized the match in the 89th minute only to have the goal disallowed for offside, the second being a blatant foul on Kocsis in the penalty area which would have given Hungary a penalty in the final minute.
Hungary has won gold at the Olympic three times, in 1952, 1964, and 1968. The under-23 team, which was the age limit for Olympic teams, won the UEFA U-23 Championship in 1974. Since the 1976 reshuffle by UEFA, the under-23s are now classified with the under-21s.
The match between Austria and Hungary in Vienna in 1902 was the first international match played between two non-British European countries.
Hungary was the first team from outside the United Kingdom and Ireland to beat England at home, famously winning 6–3 at Wembley on November 25, 1953. This victory had worldwide significance as it effectively ended England's 90 year old mythical reign since the creation of association football in 1863 against all sides outside the United Kingdom and Ireland. They beat England 7–1, this time in Budapest a year later, in 1954. This still ranks as England's record defeat.
Hungary holds the longest consecutive run of matches unbeaten with 33 international games between 14 May 1950 and 4 July 1954, when they lost the World Cup final to Germany. Argentina and Spain jointly hold the second longest string of 31 unbeaten matches (Argentina from 1991 to 1993 and Spain from 1994 to 1998).
Hungary remained a force in European football for two to three decades after the era of the "Magnificent Magyars". Reaching the quarter-finals of both 1962 and 1966 World Cups, Hungary was blessed with a dazzling array of talent including Ferenc Sipos, Lajos Tichy, Ferenc Bene, Flórián Albert, János Farkas, Gyula Rákosi, Zoltán Varga, János Göröcs, Károly Sándor and Máté Fenyvesi. They also reached the semi-finals of the European Championship in 1964 and 1972.
Returning to the World Cup in 1978 and 1982, Hungary did not reach the same heights but nonetheless performed respectably—indeed, the talents of László Fazekas, Tibor Nyilasi and László Kiss inspired Hungary to a 10–1 win over El Salvador in 1982, which remains a World Cup record. The 1986 World Cup is seen by many fans as the final confirmation of Hungary's decline. Expectations were very high, but poor performances in defeats to the Soviet Union and France were a bitter blow, despite the presence of talent like Lajos Détári. Since then, Hungary has continued to produce fine individual talent- notably Béla Illés and Krisztián Lisztes – but further success as a team has eluded them.
Most recently, in Euro 2004 qualifiers, Hungary found themselves within sight of qualification with two games remaining, but was scuppered by defeats to Latvia and Poland.
Today, Hungary are a lesser force and haven't qualified for a World Cup since 1986, or for the European Championship finals since 1972.

Miscellaneous

Hungarian folk art, including dances, music, cross stitchings, embroideries, costumes, potteries, wood carvings, basket wavings, porcelains etc. has a long and rich history which play a significant role in local folk traditions and customs.

Transport

Freedom bridge, Budapest
Republic of Hungary is located in the central part of the Pannonian Vale, and is a landlocked country, which is conducive to the development of all forms of traffic.
Hungary has developed road, railway, air and water traffic. Budapest, the capital of the state, to the measures is an important node in the public transport network, to say that "all roads lead to Budapest".

Railways

Train entering the Keleti Railway Station
  • Total: 7,606 km
    • Broad gauge: 36 km 1,524 mm (5 ft)  gauge
    • Standard gauge: 7,394 km 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge (2,270 km electrified; 1,236 km double track)
    • narrow gauge: 176 km 760 mm (2 ft 5+78 in) gauge (1998)
Note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway between GyőrSopronEbenfurt (GySEV/ROeEE), a distance of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria.
In Budapest, the three main railway stations are the Eastern (Keleti), Western (Nyugati) and Southern (Déli), with other outlying stations like Kelenföld. Of the three, the Southern is the most modern but the Eastern and the Western are more decorative and architecturally interesting.
Other important railway stations countrywide include Szolnok (the most important railway intersection outside Budapest), Tiszai Railway Station in Miskolc and the stations of Pécs, Győr, Szeged and Székesfehérvár.
Four Hungarian cities (Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged and Pécs is becoming the fifth) have tram network.
The only city with an underground railway system is Budapest with its Metro.
In Budapest there is also a suburban rail service in and around the city, operated under the name HÉV.

Motorways

Motorways (Hungarian: Autópálya) : M0 - M1 - M15 - M2 - M3 - M30 - M35 - M5 - M6 - M7 - M70
  • Total: 188,490 km
    • Paved: 81,950 km (including 1013 km of motorways, 2007)
    • Unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
New motorway sections are being added to the existing network, that already connects many major economically important cities to the Capital City.

Ports and Harbours

The most important port is Budapest, the capital. Other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja.

Airports

There are 43-45 airports in Hungary, including smaller, unpaved ones too. (1999 est.) The five international ones are Budapest-Ferihegy, Debrecen Airport, Sármellék Airport (also called FlyBalaton for its proximity to Lake Balaton, Hungary's number one tourist attraction), Győr-Pér and Pécs-Pogány. MALÉV Hungarian Airlines operates flights to over 60, mostly European cities.

Metro

The Budapest Metro (Hungarian: Budapesti metró) is the metro system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. It is the third-oldest underground metro system in the world, and its iconic Line 1 (dating from 1896) was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002.
It consists of three lines, each designated by a number and a colour. Metro Line 4 is currently under construction; the first section is to begin operation in 2011. A fifth line has also been included in medium to long-term plans. The Budapest Metro trains start running at 4:30 in the morning, and the last train leaves at 11:10 p.m. from the terminus. The rush hours are between 6 and 8 a.m. and between 2 and 5 p.m. on workdays, when trains run every two or three minutes. Early morning and night trains run every 10 or 15 minutes. On Christmas Eve (December 24) trains usually run only until about 3:00 in the afternoon, and may also stop running early on other holidays, as advertised beforehand. Service time may be extended on New Year's Eve.

International Rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [4] Global Peace Index[104] 27 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 43 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 46 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 58 out of 133
International Living Magazine Quality of Life 20 out of 194

See also

Lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ The other three being Estonian, Finnish and Maltese
  2. ^ The form of government was at times changed, or ambigious causing short interruptions
  1. ^ European State Mottos
  2. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
  3. ^ a b c d "Hungary". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=944&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=64&pr.y=1. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ "The plain facts - History". MTI. http://english.mti.hu/default.asp?cat=36&menu=6. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  5. ^ "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century". The New York Times. 2003-08-09. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B07E3D91531F93AA3575BC0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  6. ^ "Hungary". Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761559741_11/Hungary.html#p68. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  7. ^ World Bank Country Classification, 2007
  8. ^ "Index - Belföld - A magyar kamasz iszik, dohányzik és könnyen teherbe esik". Index.hu. http://index.hu/belfold/2009/09/16/a_magyar_kamasz_iszik_dohanyzik_es_konnyen_teherbe_esik/. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  9. ^ "PowerPoint bemutató" (PDF). http://www.amcham.hu/events/2008/20060326ICEG/Panel%201/Presentation_Retfalvi.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
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  11. ^ http://www.itdh.com/engine.aspx?page=Itdh_Priority_Sectors_Logistics
  12. ^ http://hvg.hu/gazdasag/20100107_vilag_eletminoseg_rangsor_2010
  13. ^ http://www.caboodle.hu/nc/news/news_archive/single_page/article/11/hungary_rank-1/
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  33. ^ A concise history of Hungary - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?ct=result&id=y0g4YEp7ZrsC&dq=%22B%C3%A9la+III%22+annual+revenue&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&sig=ACfU3U2STdXJyC_RFJp9Ipb3Rw4SmsrWww&q=ladis#PPA28,M1. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
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  35. ^ "The Daco-Roman Legend". Hungarianhistory.com. http://www.hungarianhistory.com/lib/kos/kos05.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  36. ^ http://www.kulugyminiszterium.hu/NR/rdonlyres/C9FDF041-86A7-4B20-8B73-94C568E448E5/0/Culture_en.pdf
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  38. ^ Autonomies in Europe and Hungary. (PDF). By Józsa Hévizi.
  39. ^ Mongol Invasions: Battle of Liegnitz, HistoryNet
  40. ^ "At the gate of Christendom: Jews, Muslims, and "pagans" in medieval Hungary ". Nóra Berend (2001). p.72. ISBN 0521651859
  41. ^ cs. "National and historical symbols of Hungary". Nemzetijelkepek.hu. http://www.nemzetijelkepek.hu/onkormanyzat-jaszbereny_en.shtml. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
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  49. ^ "About.com: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/hutoc.html". Geography.about.com. http://geography.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/hutoc.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  50. ^ http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=212344
  51. ^ "The changing facets of Hungarian nationalism - Nationalism Reexamined | Social Research | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. 2009-06-02. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_n1_v63/ai_18501094/. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  52. ^ "Ch7-1" (PDF). http://www.hungarian-history.hu/lib/unmaking/part1-7.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  53. ^ Géza Jeszenszky: From "Eastern Switzerland" to Ethnic Cleansing, address at Duquesne History Forum, November 17, 2000, The author is former Ambassador of Hungary to the United States and was Foreign Minister in 1990 – 1994.
  54. ^ "Austria-Hungary". 1911 Encyclopedia. LoveToKnow. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Austria-Hungary. 
  55. ^ Vol. 3, p.825 in Magyarország Történelmi Kronológiája, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1982.
  56. ^ Library of Congress country study on Hungary
  57. ^ "FIND RED LEADERS' LOOT.; Bela Kun and Szamuely Hid Valuables They Had ... - Article Preview - The". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A05E4D91338EE32A25750C1A96E9C946896D6CF. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  58. ^ "Magyar Tudomány 2000. január". Epa.niif.hu. http://epa.niif.hu/00700/00775/00014/109-113.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  59. ^ Ignác Romsics: Magyarország története a XX. században, 2004, p. 134
  60. ^ Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 online
  61. ^ Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359-360 online
  62. ^ Flood-light on Europe: a guide to the next war By Felix Wittmer Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 Item notes: pt. 443 Original from Indiana University Digitized Nov 13, 2008 p. 114
  63. ^ History of the Hungarian Nation By Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center Published by Danubian Press, 1969 Original from the University of California Digitized Jun 19, 2008 p. 222
  64. ^ The European powers in the First World War: an encyclopedia By Spencer Tucker, Laura Matysek Wood, Justin D. Murphy Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1996 ISBN 0815303998, 9780815303992 p.697 [1]
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  66. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Holocaust Encyclopedia". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?ModuleId=10005458. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
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  68. ^ Alfred de Zayas "A Terrible Revenge" (Palgrave/Macmillan 2006)
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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Parliament in Budapest
Location
Location
Flag
Flag of Hungary
Quick Facts
Capital Budapest
Government Parliamentary democracy
Currency Forint (HUF)
Area total: 93,030 km2
water: 690 km2
land: 92,340 km2
Population 10,049,000 (2008 est.)
Language Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Religion Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Electricity 230/50Hz (European Plug)
Calling Code +36
Internet TLD .hu
Time Zone UTC +1
Hungary (Magyarország) [1] is a country in Central Europe. Member of the European Union and the Schengen Border-less Europe Agreement. The country offers many diverse destinations: relatively low mountains in the north-west, the Great Plain in the east, lakes and rivers of all sorts (including Balaton - the largest lake in Central Europe), and many beautiful small villages and hidden gems of cities. Top this off with Hungary's great accessibility in the middle of Europe, a vivid culture and economy, and you get a destination absolutely not worth missing if you're in the region.

Understand

Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (9 BC - c. 4th century) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late Ninth Century by the Magyar chieftain Árpád, whose great grandson István ascended to the throne with a crown sent from Rome in 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary existed with minor interruptions for more than 900 years, and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of Europe. It was succeeded by a Communist era (1945-1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is Parliamentary Republic (1989-). Hungary's current goal is to become a developed country by IMF standards, already being considered "developed" by most traditional measures, including GDP and Human Development Index (world ranking 36th and rising).
Hungary is one of the 15 most popular tourist destinations in the world, with a capital regarded as one of the most beautiful in the world [2]. Despite its relatively small size, the country is home to numerous World Heritage Sites, UNESCO Biosphere reserves, the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grassland in Europe (Hortobágy). In terms of buildings, Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), the third largest church in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), the second largest Baroque castle in the world (Gödöllő), and the largest Early Christian Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).
You can expect to find safe food and water, good safety and generally political stability.
Hungary doesn't attract terrorists and keeps drug and crime levels moderate.
Hungary has been ethnically diverse since its inception, and while over 90% of the population are ethnically Hungarian, pockets of ethnic and cultural Slovaks, Romanians, Germans and others dot the country. Due to the frequent border shifts in Eastern European history, over 2 million ethnic and cultural Hungarians live in bordering countries, as well.

Regions


Southern Great Plain
Northern
Great Plain
Lake Tisza
Northern Hungary
Northern
Great Plain
Great Plain
Western
Transdanubia
Central
Trans-
danubia
Southern
Transdanubia
Pest
Map of Hungary
Map of Hungary
  • Debrecen - the second largest city in the country
  • Eger - famous for its baroque buildings, castle and wines, especially Bull's Blood (Bikavér).
  • Esztergom - The first capital, the seat of Constitutional court and the Roman catholic Church of Hungary, home of the biggest church in Central Europe.
  • Kecskemét - a town famous for its vibrant music scene, plum brandy, and Art Nouveau architecture
  • Miskolc - with the unique cave bath in Miskolc-Tapolca, the third largest city in the coutry, located near the Bükk hills
  • Nyíregyháza - a small city with a busy water resort, museum village, and annual autumn festival
  • Pécs - a pleasant cultural centre and university town
  • Szeged - the sunniest city in Hungary
  • Székesfehérvár - Former royal seat, currently famous for its baroque architecture and museums
  • Szombathely - Former Roman colony, Centre of Western Danubia and county Vas
  • Aggtelek - beautiful caves with dripstones and stalagmites
  • Bükk - a section of the Carpathian Mountain range
  • Gödöllő a town east of Budapest most famous for its former royal palace.
  • Hollókő - a beautiful old preserved village
  • Lake Balaton - the major lake of Hungary and the biggest lake in Central Europe
  • Nyirtass
  • Tokaj - a famous wine town producing high quality white wines
  • Salgótarján a modern mining town situated in the hills with two castle ruins.
  • Siófok popular holiday resort at Lake Balaton.
  • Szentendre - picturesque town on the Danube just north of Budapest
  • Szépasszonyvölgy - another great place for wine tasting in Eger
  • Vác a small town on the Danube bend with several churches and lots of baroque architecture.

Climate

Temperatures in Hungary vary from -20°C to 39°C through the year. Distribution and frequency of rainfall are unpredictable due to the continental clime of the country. Heavy storms are frequent after hot summer days, and so do more days long still rainfalls in the Autumn. The western part of the country usually receives more rain than the eastern part, and severe droughts may occur in summertime. Weather conditions in the Great Plain can be especially harsh, with hot summers, cold winters, and scant rainfall.

Get in

Hungary is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.
Citizens of Croatia can also enter the country by showing their identity card.

By plane

Hungary's international airports are Budapest Ferihegy Airport [3] in Budapest, Airport Debrecen [4] in Debrecen (non operating in winter 2008-2009) and FlyBalaton Airport [5] in Sármellék (non operating in winter 2008-2009). The Hungarian national carrier is Malév (Hungarian Airlines) [6]. There are also several low cost carriers operating to Budapest: for example Ryanair [7], Wizzair [8], Easyjet [9], Germanwings [10].
Air Europa [11] operates a daily fly from Madrid and is a good choice from Latin America with stop in Madrid.
See also: Get around:By train
There are direct connections to Hungary from:
You can search for international train connections at official schedule site [12] of MÁV, national train company.
See also: Get around:By car
To enter the country, ensure that your International Motor Insurance Card is valid for Hungary(H) along with the Vehicle Registration and a Power of Attorney from the owner if the car is not yours. The border guards are very strict about allowing cars through without these documents.
The Hungarian border control is very strict and thorough. They will not hesitate to conduct a full vehicle search if necessary.
Entry from non-Schengen countries can take quite a long time, in particular in the summer months on the weekends when EU-Nationals are returning north along the E75 corridor from Belgrade, Serbia. The wait lines to get through the border have been as long as 7 km with a wait time of up to 6 hours. Alternative border points in Hungary or Croatia can be used to by-pass.
When driving into Hungary, ensure that the border crossing on the route you choose allows the passage of foreigners. Also some smaller crossings close in the afternoon for the night. It is also required to buy a vignette for driving on highways. Domestic (Budapest) car hire: [13] and International car rental supplier: [14].

By bus

Several international bus lines go in or through Hungary. You can find timetables and book tickets on the homepage of Volánbusz [15], which is the national bus company and also the local Eurolines representation. On the southern border with Serbia you shouldn't be surprised when there in the bus a collection is being held for a donation to the border-guards, to let the bus pass faster.

By ship

It is possible to enter Hungary by international shipping lines on Danube (Duna) or Tisza rivers. There is a scheduled hydrofoil service on the Danube to and from Vienna and Bratislava daily between early April and early November operated by Mahart. [16]

Get around

By plane

Hungary presently has no regular domestic flights. As Budapest lies in the center of the country and pretty much any point can be reached within three hours by train or bus, there isn't much need for scheduled domestic flights.
However there are many opportunities for people with a valid pilot's license to rent a plane and explore by air.
  • A Pilot's Academy of Malev Flying Club [17] +36(20)565-6467, Dunakeszi. Lightweight gliders and other stuff.
Buying train tickets on-line in Hungarian
You can purchase domestic train tickets on the web, but only in Hungarian. It will certainly be a nightmare if you don't speak the language, but if you believe that it's worth the hassle, the following instructions will help you. 1. First of all, you have to register at MÁV's site [18]. 2. Click on the blue underlined 'Regisztráció' (registration) word at the bottom of the page. Type your e-mail address next to 'e-mail', choose a password, enter it next to 'Jelszó', then repeat your password next to 'Jelszó ismét' (repeat password). Tick the box below, and click on the orange 'Regisztráció' button. 3. Check your e-mail account; you should have received an e-mail from MÁV, containing a blue link. Click on it. 5. Return to MÁV's schedule page by clicking here [19]. 6. Wow, this section is in English! Use your common sense, select the train you need, then click on 'Tickets'. 7. On the next page type your e-mail address next to 'E-mail', enter your password chosen in step 2 next to 'Jelszó'. Click on the orange 'Bejelentkezés' (enter) button. 8. Almost done! On the next page, if you click on 'Jegy a kosárba' (add to basket), you will have one piece of full fare 2nd class ticket in your basket. Need more tickets? Click again on 'Jegy a kosárba'. Rather prefer a 1st class ticket? Tick '1. osztály' (1st class). Want to finally buy your tickets? Click on the orange 'Helyfoglalás és fizetés' or 'Fizetés' (proceed to payment) button (depending on which one you have). 8. At the bottom of the next page click on the orange 'Fizetés' (pay) button. 9. On the next page click on the orange 'Banki fizetés' (payment through bank server) button. 10. On the next page enter your bank card data: 'Tehelendő bankkártyaszám' (bank card number), 'Lejárati dátum' (date of expiry mmyy), Érvényesítési kód (authorisation code, the last three digits of the serial on the flip side of your card). Click on 'Elküld' (send data) button. 11. On the next page click on 'Elküld' (send data) button again. 12. After a few seconds a new page will appear, containing a huge 10-digit blue serial number. The number itself doesn't allow you to board the train. You will have to go to a major Hungarian railway station, find a pre-purchased ticket issuing machine (consult this page [20] about where to find the nearest), and input the serial number in order to get the tickets.
The Hungarian National Railway is MÁV [21] and GYSEV [22] (some lines in the west of the country). MÁV has online schedule and pricing site [23]. See boxed text about how to use its online booking system, available only in Hungarian.
The train network is star-shaped (hub-and-spoke), fanning out from the centre at Budapest. This is caused by history because half of the once complete train system went to the neighbor countries after World War I. If neither the starting or ending point is Budapest, expect to travel for a long time often with change in Budapest.
Intercity (IC) trains are the fastest, and they're up-to-date, well maintained and clean. They link the major cities with Budapest. Expect to pay about 550 Forints (= 2 EUR) extra fee independently from the distance for the manditory seat reservation (not in international ICs, ECs). In some cases the extra charge can be lower. Compared to the majority of Western European ticket prices, Hungary's IC trains are amongst the cheapest, with an excellent record of speed and comfort. In almost all cases they also have a restaurant car. At the weekends many students use these IC trains to commute between Budapest and other cities, so an early advance booking is recommended on Friday afternoons for the trains leaving Budapest and on Sunday evenings for trains towards Budapest. Working with a notebook is generally safe, unless it's heavy overcrowded.
Other train lines usually are not that fast, and not always cleaned up to the high standards (even in the 1st class), and often vandalised (mostly in Budapest region); however quality standards are improving. During summer trains linking Balaton to Budapest are sometimes overcrowded with the IC usually being sold out. The next choice is the gyorsvonat, or the old fast train. Pricing depends only on the distance and on the car class. Cash desks assume 2nd class by default for non-IC trains (at least in Budapest for English speakers), so if you didn't catch your IC, consider asking 1st class, paying small extra for much more comfort. When in the train, keep in mind that there are smoking and non-smoking cars--check a sign over a door inside a car.
Young people (under 26 years) may travel with 33% reduction at the weekends (Friday afternoon included). Children (under 6 years) and retired (citizens from EU countries over 65 years) can travel free except on InterCity trains where the extra fee (reservation) must be paid.
It is possible to buy Inter Rail pass for Hungary. Check whether buying tickets for each journey is cheaper.
How to check the domestic long-distance bus timetable
It's possible to plan your travel checking Volán’s online timetable[24]. It is available only in Hungarian, but easy to use: “honnan” means ‘from’, “hová” is ‘to’; write your departure date in format year/month/day after “mikor”; leave the other parameters alone and press “keresés”, ‘search’. The results appear on the next page. (“Autóbusz állomás” will mean ‘bus station’, “naponta” is ‘daily’, while “munkanapokon” is ‘on workdays’ ).
Hungary’s national bus network is operated by 28 state run companies, united in Volán Association [25].Connections are frequent, prices are identical to those on non-Intercity trains. Bus lines often are more complete than train lines, the speed is quite similar. Long-distance buses are clean and safe, but often subject to delays. Buy your ticket at the station ticket desk before boarding; if you do not take your bus at a main station, purchase a ticket from the driver. It is a good idea to reserve your tickets for national holidays, Friday and Sunday evenings beforehand. Online booking is available only in Hungarian [26]. See boxed text about how to check the timetable.

By boat

These are not used very often (since Hungary has limited amount of waterways). Although from April to October there is a good hydrofoil boat connection [27] between Vienna and Budapest.
There are some ferries on Danube and Tisza but their undetermined working hours make them non-recommended. You can trust the ferry on Lake Balaton, though, for a modest price.

By car

Most roads in Hungary are two lane apart from modern motorways. Main roads are mostly in good shape, however cracks, potholes and bumpy roads are common on minor roads and in major cities though they are constantly being repaired. Usually you can travel by using a map and the road signs.
Expressways are not free, but there are no other toll roads or tunnels. A vignette system is used, similar to that in neighboring Austria and Slovakia, but as of 2008 the vignette is stored electronically and checked for using gantries that read license plate numbers. You can purchase them in intervals of 4 days, 7 days, 1 month, or 1 year. The vignette is very important and it is a good idea to buy it even if you don't plan to use the highway. Control is automatic with videocameras and you will get a high ticket (70 000 HUF) automatically without any warning.
if you travel by normal roads the speed limit is 90 km/h between cities and 50 km/h inside, which slows you to the average around 60km/h. Roads often have high traffic (especially main roads like #8 to the west, #6 to the south and #4 to the east). On highways, travel is the same as in Germany, and on the inside lane it is very common to have someone speed by you.
When you cross the country from the west to the east (or vice versa), take into account that there are only a few bridges crossing the Danube outside Budapest. There are some ferries available though.
It is a legal requirement to drive with headlights on, even during the day -- a requirement that is becoming more common across the EU.
Hungary has a policy of zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol. If you are caught driving even after only having a couple of units of alcohol you are most likely to be arrested.

Highways

There is a fast growing highway network in Hungary (1,480 km in total). Each highway starts at Budapest.
  • M0 - Motorway ring around Budapest. The north-western section is under construction, planned to be ready at the end of 2012.
  • M1 - connection to Győr, Austria and Slovakia (west)
  • M2 - connection to Vác, planned to reach the border to Slovakia by 2015 (north)
  • M3/M30/M35 - connection to Miskolc, Debrecen, planned to reach Nyíregyháza in 2007 (east)
  • M5 - connection to Serbia, via Kecskemét and Szeged (south-east)
  • M6/M56 - Connection to Dunaújváros, section to Pécs is planned to be ready in 2009 (south)
  • M7 - connection to Lake Balaton, Croatia and Slovenia (south-west)
Planned:
  • M4 - will provide connection to Romania via Szolnok by the year 2015 (east)
  • M44 - will provide connection between the M5 at Kecskemét and the Romanian border via Békéscsaba (east)
  • M8/M9 - will cross the country east-west by 2015
A single vignette is required to use all highways, except for M0 and short sections around major cities, which are free. Vignettes can be purchased online with bankcard on [28], at filling stations and at ÁAK (State Motorway Management Co.) offices. A 4-day vignette for a passenger car costs HUF 1520 (~EUR 6) during summertime. Vignettes are controlled automatically through a camera system. See [29] or [30] for details.

By taxi

Inspect the change that taxi drivers give you. Cabbies commonly rip off tourists by giving them change in outdated Romanian currency, which looks similar to Hungarian currency, but is worthless and cannot be redeemed.
See also: Budapest#By taxi.
See also: Hungarian phrasebook
Hungarians are rightly proud of their unique, complex, sophisticated, richly expressive language, Hungarian (Magyar pronounced "mahdyar"). It is a Uralic language most closely related to Mansi and Khanty of western Siberia. It is further sub-classified into the Finno-Ugric languages which include Finnish and Estonian; it is not at all related to any of its neighbours: the Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages belonging to the Indo-European language family. Although related to Finnish and Estonian, they are not mutually intelligible. Aside from Finnish, it is considered the most difficult "European" language for English speakers to learn with the vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation being radically different. So it is not surprising that an English speaker visiting Hungary understands nothing from written or spoken Hungarian. Hungary did adopt the Roman alphabet after become a Catholic country in the middle ages, but most of the root words have nothing to do with Latin.
English-speakers tend to find most everything about the written language tough going, including a number of unusual sounds like gy (often pronounced like the d in "during" or as the j injury) and ű (vaguely like a long English e as in me with rounded lips), as well as agglutinative grammar that leads to fearsome-looking words like hozzáadottérték-adó (value-added tax) and viszontlátásra (goodbye). Also, the letters can very well be pronounced differently than in English: the "s" is always has an "sh" sound, the "sz" has the "s" sound, and the "c" is pronounced like the English "ts", to name a few. On the upside, it is written with the familiar Roman alphabet (if adorned with lots of accents), and--unlike English--it has almost total phonemic orthography. This means that if you learn how to pronounce the 30 letters of the alphabet and the digraphs, you will be able to pronounce almost every Hungarian word properly. Just one difference in pronunciation, vowel length, or stress can lead to misinterpretation or total misunderstanding. The stress always falls on the first syllable of any word, so all the goodies on top of the vowels are pronunciation cues, and not indicators of stress, as in Spanish. Diphthongs are almost-nonexistent in Hungarian (except adopted foreign words). Just one of many profound grammatical differences from most European languages is that Hungarian does not have, nor need to have the verb "to have" in the sense of possesion - the indicator of possesion is attached to the possesed noun and not the possesor, e.g. Kutya = dog, Kutyam = my dog, A kutyam van = I have a dog, or literaly "dog-my is". Hungarian has a very specific case system, both grammatical, locative, oblique, and the less productive; for example a noun used as the subject has no suffix, while when used as an direct object, the letter "t" is attached as a suffix, with a vowel if necessary. One simplifying aspect of Hungarian is that there is NO grammatical gender, even with the pronouns "he" or "she", which are both "ő", so one does not have to worry about the random Der, Die, Das sort of thing that occurs in German, "the" is simply "a". When writting their name or introducing themselves, they say their surname before their given name as they do in asian languages. And the list of differences goes on and on, such as the definite and indefinate conjugational system, vowel harmony, etc. Attempting anything beyond the very basics will gain you a great deal of respect since so few non-native Hungarians ever attempt to learn any of this small, seemingly difficult, but fascinating language.

Foreign languages

Since English is now obligatory in schools, if you address people in their twenties, possibly carrying a schoolbag, you stand a good chance that they will speak English well enough to help you out.
However, due to Hungary's history, the older generation had less access to foreign language tuition, so your chances are worse. A minority of Hungarians speaks Russian, which was obligatory in the Communist era (although most Hungarians are quite happy to forget it) so try it only as a last resort. German is understood in areas frequented by German tourists (mostly near lake Balaton and the west, around Sopron) and partly because of Hungary's historical ties to Austria and later with East Germany.
Basically, in Hungary, you will have a much better chance finding someone speaking a foreign language in larger cities, especially in those with universities such as Budapest, Szeged, Pécs, and Debrecen. In rural areas the chance is rather low.

See

Hungary has several World Heritage sites. These are:
  • Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue
  • Baroque town and castle of Eger.
  • Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings
  • Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst
  • Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment
  • Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta
  • Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)
  • Fertő/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape
  • Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape
Other major tourist destination is Lake Balaton, with winehills, thermal spa in Hévíz around.
There are also some amazing things to see.
  • Tiszavirágzás. In mid-June the Tisza produces swarms of mayflies which are likened to flowers. Once decimated by pollution, the population is rebounding. (They're famous for living only for 1-2 days.)

Do

Birdwatching
Hungary is an excellent destination for birdwatching (aka birding) holiday. There are wooded hills, vast fish-pond systems and grasslands, the puszta. Particularly good areas include the Kiskunsag and Hortobagy National Parks and the Aggtelek, Bukk and Zemplen Hills.
Horse riding
Vast areas of open countryside coupled with the long traditions of horsemanship make Hungary an ideal country for riding. Wide open plains in the south and forested hills in the north offer varied riding terrain.
See also: New Year holidays in Hungary.

Baths

Thermal waters abound in Hungary with over 1000 thermal springs in the country many of which have been turned into baths and spas. The most famous being the Szechenyi baths in Budapest. There are, however, hundreds of individual baths all around the country. The cave baths at Miskolc-Tapolca and the spa at Egerszalók are some nice examples.
See Budapest#Baths, Nyíregyháza#Do for details. More thermal bath and spa from Hungary: [31] [32]

Buy

Money

The unit of Hungarian currency is known as the Forint (HUF). The Hungarian "cent" (Fillér) is long since obsolete. Bills come in 20000, 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, 500, 200(until November 2009) HUF denominations, coins are 200 (two colored, similar to €1), 100 (two colored, similar to €2), 50, 20, 10, 5 HUF. As of March 1, 2008, the 2 and 1 HUF coins have been withdrawn, too.
Euro is now accepted at most hotels and some of the restaurants and shops. Make sure you check the exchange rate though, sometimes even well known places (like McDonald's) will exchange at unrealistic rates. Forint is scheduled to disappear around 2012-2013, but no date is fixed yet.
You can use major credit cards (EuroCard, Visa) in major shops and larger restaurants, but never expect that without checking first. Small places cannot afford to handle cards. ATMs are available even in small cities, the coverage is good.

Money Exchange

There are 192 forints to the USD and 274 forints to the EUR (04 Sept 2009).
Exchange rates for EUR and USD are roughly the same within downtown (at least in Budapest and Eger). Rates may be much worse in airports and large train stations - so change exactly what you need to reach downtown. Official exchange offices always give a receipt and normally have a large glass between client and a cashier making all steps transparent for client.
Travellers report that unofficial money changers operating nearby an official money changing booth offer unfavourable rates--and recommend to use official exchange offices.
If you arrive to Budapest at late nights it is quite likely you won't be able to find any working bank or exchange office. In this case you may attempt to exchange your money with any random taxi driver. They will rip you off by 100-200 forints (around 1 EUR), but it's better than nothing. There is an ATM in the arrival hall at Budapest Ferihegy, and the rates for using ATMs with a card are often better than the bureau de change.
Adventurous locals in Budapest report they change EUR unofficially with Arabs on a train station, but they don't recommend it to unaccompanied travellers.

What to buy?

Apart from classical tourist souvenirs like postcards and trinkets, here are some things unique to Hungary or just hard to find elsewhere.
  • Cold-smoked sausages
  • Gundel set of cheese: aged in Gundel wines or with walnut pieces or seasonings. Most easily found in 350gr sets of three kinds in duty-free of Ferihegy Airport in Budapest (at least in Terminal 2), but is likely available in Gundel 1894 Food & Wine Cellar (see Pest#Eat). Keep in mind that shelf life for this cheese is only 2 months.
  • Wines: Tokaji, Egri Bikavér, red wine from Villány area etc.

Eat

Main courses in menu are normally 2500..3000HUF in touristy places in Budapest, 1500..1800HUF outside it, in towns like Eger and Szentendre (Jan 2007).
A lunch in Budapest is from 1000 to 8000 HUF per person, and half or third of that outside Budapest (Chinese fast food menu is around 500 HUF).
In restaurants, a service charge is frequently included into bill, 10% or even 12%, but this has to be clearly pointed out on the menu. If it's not mentioned, the place has no right to include a service charge in the bill.
Even if there's no service charge, unless the service was preposterous most Hungarians tend to leave a generous tip (10% minimum). Unlike in most western countries, tip is usually not left on the table, but rather the amount is specified to the waiting staff when you pay.
There were some places (mainly in downtown Pest) that tried to rip off drunk tourists at night by charging ridiculously high prices for drinks. Most of these places are closed now, but it's still a good idea to always check the prices on the menu before ordering.
In major cities and next to the highways you can find restaurants of the major international chains such as KFC, McDonald's, Burger King, Pizza Hut, Subway and TGI Friday's.
A fancy serving of gulyás soup
A fancy serving of gulyás soup
Hungarians are quite proud of their cuisine (Magyar konyha), and most of the time not without a reason. Food are usually spicy (but not hot by general standards), and it's tasty rather than healthy — many dishes are prepared with lard or deep-fried. The national spice is paprika, made from ground sweet bell peppers and which actually has some flavor when fresh. The national dish is, of course, goulash, but Hungarians call the thick paprika-laden stew known as goulash elsewhere by the term pörkölt and reserve the term gulyás for a lighter paprika-flavored soup.
Less well known in the rest of the world are paprikás csirke, chicken in paprika sauce, and halászlé, paprika fish soup often made from carp.
Goose is also quite popular in Hungary. While tourists gorge on goose liver (libamáj), still cheap by Western standards, probably the most common dish is sült libacomb, roast goose leg. Stuffed (töltött) vegetables of all kinds are also popular, and Hungarian pancakes (palacsinta), both savoury and sweet, are a treat. Common snacks include kolbász, a Hungarianized version of the Polish kielbasa sausage, and lángos, deep-fried dough with a variety of toppings (mostly sour cream, cheese and/or garlic).
A Hungarian meal is almost always — even at breakfast — accompanied by Hungarian pickles called savanyúság, literally "sourness". These are often dubbed saláta on menus, so order a vitamin saláta if you want fresh veggies. Starch is most often served as potatoes, rice or dumplings (galuska' or nokedli), the primary Hungarian contribution in this field is an unusual type of small couscous-like pasta called tarhonya.
It is worth to visit a "Cukrászda" if you are in Hungary. These are very popular with delicious cakes and coffee. Try the traditional Krémes (with vanila cream), Eszterházy (lots of nuts) or Somlói Galuska.

Vegetarian food

Vegetarians and Vegans will have about as much ease eating out as in any other western country. Budapest is not a problem, as there is a wide variety of restaurants to choose from, but in an ordinary Hungarian restaurant the non-meat mains on the menu are pretty much limited to rántott sajt (fried cheese) and gombafejek rántva (fried mushrooms).
However, in recent years, Italian food has become a lot more popular, so as long as you don't mind a pasta heavy diet as a vegetarian you will find a wider choice.
If one self-caters from supermarkets or local shops and markets, however, the selection of fruits and vegetables is quite good, especially in summer.
There are plenty of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, and a lot's of healthfood stores that offer all sorts of vegetarian/vegan products (including cosmetics). Regular stores like Groby among other brands sell everything from vegan sausages to mayonaise. A good place to start is looking at Budaveg[33] and Happy Cow[34] for specific information.
Over all, apply the same rules as you do at home, and you should be well fed.
Hills, grape plantations and wine cellars near Villány, southern Hungary.
Hills, grape plantations and wine cellars near Villány, southern Hungary.
Hungary has several famous vine regions, most known are Villány, Eger, Badacsony, Tokaj, Szekszárd. Prices are reasonable.
  • Egri Bikavér (Bull's Blood of Eger) is a strong red Hungarian wine which supposedly saved a clever Hungarian girl from her fate with a Turkish sultan. During the time of the Turkish occupation, it is said a young girl was summoned to become a member of the local sultan's harem. Not wanting this fate for his daughter, her father gave her a bottle of Egri Bikavér to take to the sultan. He told her to tell the ruler it was bull's blood, and would make him invincible. The sultan, being Muslim, was unaccustomed to alcohol, and proceeded to pass out, leaving the daughter unharmed. There is another story connected to why Bull's Blood is called so, and it also comes from the Turkish era. According to that one, the defenders of the different castles used to drink this red wine. When they saw the color on the mouths of the Hungarians, they thought that it must have been from a bull, thus the name.
  • Tokaj is known for its sweet dessert wines (Tokaji aszú), which acquire their distinctive taste from grapes infected by the "noble rot" Botrytis cinerea. The favorite tipple of aristocracy, past fans of Tokaji include Louis XIV (who called Tokaj as "The king of the wines, the wine of the kings"), Beethoven, Napoleon III and Peter the Great — which is still reflected in the steep pricing of the best varieties. Almost uniquely among white wines, Tokaj keeps very well for long time.
If new to Hungarian wine, be aware that both champagne ("pezsgő") and wine, red or white, are quite likely to be sweet ("Édes"). If dry wine is your preference, look for the word "Száraz" on the label. When buying bottled wine, don't bother with types cheaper than 6-700 HUF, as these are usually very low quality (maybe not even produced from grapes). In wine cellars, however, high quality may be available at surprisingly low prices.

Liquor

In Hungarian, pálinka denotes strong brandy-like liquor distilled from fruit. Pálinka is a very social drink: just as the English drink tea, the Hungarians, especially in rural areas, will offer pálinka to guests upon arrival. The best-known varieties are barackpálinka, made from apricots, körtepálinka from pears, and szilvapálinka made from plums. Factory-made pálinka is widely available, but keep an eye out for homemade házipálinka. Pálinkas usually contain around or above 40% of alcohol, often more for the homemade ones. Pálinka bottles marked mézes will be heavily sweetened with honey.
Unicum is a strong digestif made from a secret mix of over 40 herbs. It comes in striking black bottles emblazoned with a red and white cross, and has a very strong and unusual taste. Unicum Next has a lighter, citrusy flavor, and is rather more palatable. Definitely worth trying, the bottle itself may also be used for decoration, and keeps very well for a long time.

Beer

Hungarian beer is quite average compared to other Central European countries like Germany and the Czech Republic as it has long been a wine culture. The most common beers are Dreher, Borsodi, Soproni and Arany Ászok, available in the styles világos (lager) and barna (brown). They cost about 200-300 Forints at a store and 400-600 at a bar.
Imported beers like Pilsner Urquell, Staropramen and Budweiser (the Czech variety) are widely available in bars and markets for not much more than the ubiquitous Hungarian brands.
When offering a toast with beer, be warned that most Hungarians will politely refuse. This is due to an old tradition due to remembering soldiers killed in the 1848 revolution, whereby it was decreed no Hungarian would toast with beer for 150 years. It's been so long, however, that most Hungarians no longer know the origins of this tradition or that they've been free to make toasts over beer for the past ten years.

Coffee

Cafe culture is alive and well in Hungary, although it may never recover the romance of its turn-of-the-century intellectual heyday. Unless asked, it's a good idea to specify what kind of coffee you prefer. The word kávé means the strong, espresso like coffee to most Hungarians, although American-style coffee (known as hosszú kávé in Hungarian, usually translated as "long coffee") is now also available at most places.

Tea

Tea houses are now getting popular in cities, especially among the young. There is a growing number of tea houses, mainly in Budapest and some bigger cities where people can buy several types of loose tea. As it is quite fashionable to spend time in a tea house, more and more people will be able to serve good tea even at home. The best teas to go for are the herbal and fruit varieties. In restaurants and cafes, lemon juice is frequently served in a small bottle. In traditional restaurants or cafes however, good teas are hard to find, as coffee and beverages are preferred.
When you ask for a black tea in a budget cafe, frequently Earl Grey is served instead--remember to specify if that does matter for you.

Mineral water

Widely available:
  • Theodora Kékkúti: distinctive mineral taste; available both still and sparkling
  • Parádi, sparkling only: neutral taste, strong smell.
It should be noted though that as it is the case of most European countries, in Hungary, it is safe to drink tap water anywhere, even 'remote' settings.

Sleep

Hostels

Prices vary greatly. For the cheapest room in a youth hostel in Budapest expect to pay between €10 and €12, but the normal rate in a hostel is €20-22 per person.

Farmhouses

Village Tourism is popular and very well developed in Hungary, and can be a remarkable experience. Start your research with 1Hungary [35], National Federation of Rural and Agrotourism [36] and Centre of Rural Tourism [37]. Near Budapest it is also possible to find rural houses to rent, for instance the Wild Grape Guesthouse [38], what makes a good combination to explore the capital and a National Park while staying at the same accommodation.

Camping

There are campgrounds available. See the city guides, including the Budapest guide.

Learn

Hungarian universities are open to all foreign students. Many European exchange students come through the EU's Erasmus program. There are quite a lot students from Asia and the Middle East as well, particularly because despite the high standard of education, fees are still considerably lower than in the more developed Western European countries. Interested should visit Study in Hungary [39] or University of Debrecen [40] websites.

Work

It could be very difficult for an individual to seek (legal) employment in Hungary because of the complexity, cost and time involved. Most foreign workers in Hungary have received their visas and other necessary documents through the company they are employed by. It is hoped, however, that since the joining of Hungary to the EU a reduction will follow in the amount of red tape involved.
Many students (usually on a gap year) work as second language teachers at one of Budapest's many language schools. Be advised that a qualification is required (ESL/TEFL/TESOL) and that experience is preferred.
An excellent option is to teach through the Central European Teaching Program [41]. For a reasonable placement fee they will take care of all your paperwork and set you up in a school in Hungary teaching English. Contracts are for one semester or a whole school year.

Stay safe

Watch your baggage and pockets on public transports. There is a danger of pickpockets. There are some reported cases when people got their baggage stolen while sleeping on the train, watch out for that. Generally, Hungary is rather quiet during the night compared to other European countries, and crime to tourists restricts to pickpocketing, and eventual cheating on prices and bills and taxi fares, see that section. Chances are slim, but Indian, South-American travellers might encounter hostility because of being misrecognized as the local gipsy minority, generally discriminated against in Hungary.

Stay healthy

Food and water is generally safe.
Private health care providers are good quality but limited in scope. Dentistry is cheaper here than in Western Europe (8-10000 HUF for an appointment and x-ray), and physiotherapy also (3000HUF for a half hour treatment), but check the price with the provider before you confirm the appointment. Outside Budapest you will need to speak Hungarian to communicate your needs clearly as fewer doctors will have good English or German.
Public health care is free for qualifying (insured) people, but varies in quality.
The country has joined the EU, so basic coverage is present for EU citizens, but check before entering the country how far are you insured and what you have to pay for. Do not expect at this time that the local doctor will know the EU rules, prepare to provide info.
The European Health Insurance Card is required from EU citizens applying for free treatment under this regulation; European health card for 1 June 2004 [42]
Pharmacies are everywhere, you may expect high prices, but very good pharmaceutical coverage. The only problem might be communicating with the pharmacist as most of them speak only Hungarian outside Budapest. Even some rusty Latin might come handy quite unexpectedly. For travellers from Eastern Europe, note that due to limited or abandoned trade of Hungary with Romania (as of Dec 2006), some of familiar medications are unavailable--so be prepared to find a substitute in advance.
  • The 1956 Revolution continues to be a sensitive subject with the right wing community and many of the elderly. You should also refrain from discussing the Treaty of Trianon (1920) with nationalists.
  • Open display of the Communist red star and hammer and sickle symbol, and --especially-- the Nazi swastika and SS symbols, and the Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross, is prohibited by law. Make sure your clothing does not have these symbols on it, even if it's just a joke. You can be fined for it. One possible exception is displaying shirts and symbols with Josip Tito's, Yugoslavia's best-known leader, known in Hungary for straying from Stalin's path.
  • Members of the Gypsy community may find the traditional Hungarian label 'Cigány' (pron. 'tzigan') slightly offensive, preferring to be labeled as Roma.
  • As a rural tradition, Hungarians affectionately refer to themselves as "dancing with tears in our eyes" ("sírva vígad a magyar"), as in a bittersweet resignation to the perceived unluck in their long history. Avoid mocking Hungarian history and Hungarian patriotism.
  • Talking loudly is generally considered rude. You will notice how most Hungarians tend to keep their voices down in public places.
  • When entering a home, shoes should be taken off at most of the times. Do not worry that your feet will get dirty - the floors are just as clean as the walls - Hungarians are very neat and clean people.
  • Tipping is more widespread than in many Western countries (though in decline). Don't be offended if hairdressers or taxi drivers expect a tip from you.
  • Even if you meet someone of the opposite sex for the first time, it's not unusual to kiss each other on the cheeks instead of shaking hands as a greeting.
  • It's an old tradition (although nowadays not held by everyone) that Hungarians do not clink beer glasses or beer bottles. This is due to the legend that Austrians celebrated the execution of the 13 Hungarian Martyrs in 1849 by clinking their beer glasses, so Hungarians vowed not to clink with beer for 150 years. Obviously this time period has expired, but old habits die hard.
  • Passengers are often clap on flights (especially on flights of Hungarian carriers like Malev Hungarian Airlines or W!Zzair) immediately after landing as a sign of respect for the flight crew and cabin crew members serving them.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarorszag), a country in the south-eastern pertion of central Europe, bounded E. by Austria (Bukovina) and Rumania; S. by Rumania, Servia, Bosnia and Austria (Dalmatia); W. by Austria (Istria, Carniola, Styria and Lower Austria); and N. by Austria (Moravia, Silesia and Galicia).^ Lake Balaton, the largest lake in Hungary and in central Europe, is a leading resort area.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It gained its independence in 1989 and soon attracted the largest amount of direct foreign investment in eastern and central Europe.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Eastern and Central Europe and FSU Balkan : .
  • REENIC: Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC reenic.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

It has an area of 125,402 sq. m., being thus about 4000 sq. m. larger than Great Britain and Ireland.
.Geography And Statistics The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolorn) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy.^ The compromise united two kingdoms under one head of state.
  • Austria-Hungary - MSN Encarta 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the suppression of the 1848 revolt, led by Louis Kossuth, against Hapsburg rule, the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was set up in 1867.
  • Hungary: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1241 the Mongols arrived in Hungary and swept through the country, burning it virtually to the ground and killing an estimated one-third to one-half of its two million people.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. .It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than loo m.^ By the end of 1995, almost all retail trade had been privatized and less than half of all economic output originated from state-owned enterprises.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the time spent by women in outside employment was not correspondingly shorter than that of men, averaging only 1.5 hours less than men.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of this, a little less than one-third has come from U.S. companies.

). .Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N.W., N., E. and S.E. the Carpathian mountains; on the S. the Danube, Save and Unna.^ The 1956 Boundary Treaty in part states : "[O]n sectors where it runs over water, the frontier line shall vary with the changes brought about by natural causes in the median line of the bed of rivers, streams or canals or on the main navigable channels of navigable rivers.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ancient Christian Necropolis in Pecs What is now the region of Transdanubia in modern Hungary was once a part of the Roman Empire, with the Danube River forming its natural border.
  • The Coin & Currency Institute, Inc. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.coin-currency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Plain ( Nagyalföld ) stretches east from the Danube to the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, to the mountains of Transylvania in Romania, and south to the Fruska Gora range in Croatia.
  • Hungary Overview | Hungary Tour Guide | iExplore 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: News]

.On the W. they are not so clearly marked, being formed partly by low ranges of mountains and partly by the rivers March and Leitha.^ Buda and Pest, situated on the two banks, are great, one being mountainous with castles and old mansions, and the other being low with parks, restaurants and nightlife.
  • Hungary Travel Guide - Travel to Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geckogo.com [Source type: General]

.From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.^ Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if: .
  • Republic of Hungary 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.revenue.ie [Source type: Original source]

Table of contents

General Division

.The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the " Realm of the Crown of St Stephen," comprises Hungary proper (Magyarorszdg), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia.^ Hungary became a Christian kingdom under St Stephen in the year 1000.
  • Hungary country profile — EU Business News - EUbusiness.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.eubusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ", situated between 14º 25' and 26º 25' E. longitude, and between 44º 10' and 49º 35' N. latitude, includes, besides Hungary Proper and Transylvania, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and a territory known as the Military Frontier.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the kingdom of Hungary ceased to exist in 1918, the crown continues to hold deeply meaningful national significance.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868. The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.^ Eli Wiesel visited Hungary for the first time since he was deported from his home town in 1944, under Horthy's Hungarian administration, to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
  • Hungary Travel News - Topix 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

^ A Dec., 2004, referendum on granting citizenship to ethnic Hungarians in other countries passed, but it was not legally binding because less than 25% of the Hungarian electorate voted for it.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The town of Sopiana¦­now the city of Pecs­was founded in the 1st century A.D. Thanks to its rapid development, when the province of Pannonia was divided up in 295, the town became the seat of the district of Valeria, and the administrative center for the entire province.
  • The Coin & Currency Institute, Inc. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.coin-currency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq.^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The total area is 125,430 square miles, of which 16,423 belong to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

m. and .Croatia-Slavonia 16,420 sq.^ The total area is 125,430 square miles, of which 16,423 belong to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

m. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. .In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.^ Some of the other notable cities in Hungary include Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged, Pecs, Gyor and Nyiregyhaza.
  • Cheap Flights to Hungary, Hungary Flights, Cheap Hungary Flights (HU) – OneTravel 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.onetravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Jun 1920 By the Treaty of Trianon Hungary formally surrenders Fiume; cedes Croatia, Slavonia, Vojvodina, western Banat, Bosnia-Hercegovia, and Prekmurje-Medjimurje to the Yugoslav state; Transylvania and eastern Banat ceded to Romania; Carpatho-Ruthenia, Slovakia and Pressburg (Bratislava) are ceded to Czechoslovakia; Burgenland is ceded to Austria.

^ The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ", situated between 14º 25' and 26º 25' E. longitude, and between 44º 10' and 49º 35' N. latitude, includes, besides Hungary Proper and Transylvania, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and a territory known as the Military Frontier.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

Mountains

.Orographically Hungary is composed of an extensive central plain surrounded by high mountains.^ Farm Lator is specialist and host in the mountains, wetlands and plains of NE Hungary.
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: General]

^ Western Transdanubia Southern Transdanubia Central Transdanubia Central Hungary Northern Hungary Northern Great Plain Southern Great Plain .
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These mountains belong to the Carpathians and the Alps, which are separated by the valley of the Danube. .But by far the greater portion of the Hungarian highlands belongs to the Carpathian mountains, which begin, to the north, on the left bank of the Danube at Deveny near Pressburg (Pozsony), run in a north-easterly and easterly direction, sway round south-eastward and then westward in a vast irregular semicircle, and end near Orsova at the Iron Gates of the Danube, where they meet the Balkan mountains.^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A spokesman for the Hungarian Banking Association said the body has not been consulted on the plans so far.
  • Hungary to tighten banking supervision -report By Reuters 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.forexpros.com [Source type: News]

^ The greater desire of both the Czechs and Slovaks was to obtain Hungarian territory on both sides of the Danube giving the new nation unilateral control of the river.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania (the Transylvanian Alps) and in the eastern portion of the Banat.^ Hungary borders on Slovakia in the north, on Ukraine in the northeast, on Romania in the east, on Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro in the south, and on Austria in the west.
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Szentes station broadcasts to the South East of Hungary.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungary (in Hungarian, Magyarorszg), republic, in central Europe, bordered on the north by Slovakia; on the north-east by Ukraine; on the east by Romania; on the south by Serbia (part of the federation of Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, and Slovenia; and on the west by Austria.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The highest peak, the Gerlsdorf or Spitze or Gerlachfalva, situated in the Tatra group, has an altitude of 8700 ft. .The portion of Hungary situated on the right bank of the Danube is filled by the Alpine system, namely, the eastern outlying groups of the Alps.^ Hungary 's only nuclear power plant, located right outside of Paks, a town on the Danube in the center ...
  • Hungary Energy News - Energy Industry Today 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC energy.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ List of cities in Hungary List of Hungarians List of Hungarian rulers List of Hungarian writers List of colleges in Hungary List of universities in Hungary Common Hungarian surnames Eastern name order used in Hungarian personal names .
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These groups are the Leitha mountains, the Styrian highlands, the Lower Hungarian highlands, which are a continuation of the former, and the Bakony Forest.^ In March 1919 a group of Hungarian communists under a former Transylvanian journalist called Béla Kun seized power.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Bakony Forest, which lies entirely within Hungarian territory, extend to the Danube in the neighbourhood of Budapest, the highest peak being KOroshegy (2320 ft.^ The greater desire of both the Czechs and Slovaks was to obtain Hungarian territory on both sides of the Danube giving the new nation unilateral control of the river.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, we wish to inform the people of Hungary that we are going to request the Government of the Soviet Union to withdraw Soviet troops completely from the entire territory of the Hungarian Republic.

^ Bohemia and Slovakia were joined, incorporating Hungarian territories within the Slovak side of the Danube.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .The south-western portion of this range is specially called Bakony Forest, while the ramifications to the north-east are known as the Vertes group (1575 ft.^ Hungary borders on Slovakia in the north, on Ukraine in the northeast, on Romania in the east, on Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro in the south, and on Austria in the west.
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hungary borders on Slovakia in the north, on Ukraine in the northeast, on Romania in the east, on Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia in the south, and on Austria in the west.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Africa Antarctica Asia Caribbean Central America Europe Middle East North America Oceania South America .
  • Hungary Travel Guide - Travel to Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.geckogo.com [Source type: General]

), and the Pilis group (2476 ft.). .The Lower Hungarian highlands extend between the Danube, the Mur, and Lake Balaton, and attain in the ] Mesek hills near Mohacs and Pecs an altitude of 2200 ft.^ "Fly Balaton Airport at Sármellék (western end of Lake Balaton) is to be back in business from April, Hungarian business daily Napi Gazdaság reported on Friday.
  • The Budapest Sun Online - Daily News and Views from Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.budapestsun.com [Source type: General]

^ Hungary's principal rivers are the Danube and Tisza, and the largest lake is Balaton.

^ As a result, foreign visitors rarely ventured beyond this splendid city on the Danube River, except on a day trip to the Danube Bend or to Lake Balaton .
  • Hungary Travel Information and Travel Guide - Lonely Planet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.The province of Croatia-Slavonia belongs mostly to the Karst region, and is traversed by the Dinaric Alps.^ The total area is 125,430 square miles, of which 16,423 belong to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

Plains

.The mountain systems enclose two extensive plains, the smaller of which, called the " Little Hungarian Alfdld " or " Pressburg Basin," covers an area of about 6000 sq.^ In the extreme northwest is the Little Hungarian Plain.
  • Hungary: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communication system: 4.5 The Hungarian communication system is excellent and covers all the area possible.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covering an area of 35,934 square miles (93,030 square kilometers), the country is in the Carpathian Basin, surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, and the Dinaric Alps.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m., and lies to the west of the .Bakony and Matra ranges, which separate it from the " Pest Basin " or " Great Hungarian Alfold."^ The Conquest (895) The Hungarian tribes arrived to the Carpathian Basin with the last wave of the Great Migration at the end of the IXth century (see their route on this map).
  • HUNGARY - Hungarian Online Resources (Magyar Online Forr�s) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungaria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hungarian tribes arrived to the Carpathian Basin with the last wave of the Great Migration at the end of the IXth century (see their route on this map).
  • HUNGARY - Hungarian Online Resources (Magyar Online Forr�s) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungaria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Alfold (Great Hungarian Plain), with fertile agriculture land, occupies nearly half of the country.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is the largest plain in Europe, and covers about 37,000 sq.^ Hungary still has the largest Jewish population in Central and Eastern Europe (100,000-120,000).
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The largest minority is the Roma, who make up about 5 percent of the population, numbering approximately 500,000.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m., with an average elevation above sea-level of from 300 to 350 ft. .The Pest Basin extends over the greater portion of central and southern Hungary, and is traversed by the Theiss (Tisza) and its numerous tributaries.^ (HN, 2/24/99) 1541 Suleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aug 1541 - 26 Jan 1699 Hungary partitioned between Austria and Ottoman Empire , Austria rules neighboring border areas, southern and central Hungary under Ottoman rule; on 2 Sep 1686 Austrian forces occupy Buda and Pest.

^ Aug 1541 - 26 Jan 1699 Partitioned between Austria and Ottoman Empire , (Austria rules neighboring border areas, southern and central Hungary under Ottoman rule); on 2 Sep 1686 Austrian forces occupy Buda and Pest.

.This immense tract of low land, though in some, parts covered with barren wastes of sand, alternating with marshes, presents in general a very rich and productive soil.^ Hungary has some limited natural resources (bauxite, coal, and natural gas), as well as fertile soils and arable land.
  • Hungary country profile — EU Business News - EUbusiness.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.eubusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1338 a part of the Hungarian episcopate sent a memorial to the Apostolic See, in which, with some exaggeration, they presented an account of the encroachments of the king.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1338 a part of the Hungarian episcopate sent a memorial to the Apostolic See , in which, with some exaggeration, they presented an account of the encroachments of the king.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The monotonous aspect of the Alfdld is in summer time varied by the deli-bdb, or Fata Morgana. Caverns. - The numerous caverns deserve a passing notice. The Aggtelek or Baradla cave, in the county of Gomor, is one of the largest in the world. In it various fossil mammalian remains have been found. The Fonacza cave, in the county of Bihar, has also yielded fossils. No less remarkable are the Okno, Vodi and Demenyfalva caverns in the county of Lipt6, the Veterani in the Banat and the ice cave at Dobsina in Gomor county. Of the many interesting caverns in Transylvania the most remarkable are the sulphurous Biidos in the county of Haromszek, the Almas to the south of Udvarhely and the brook-traversed rocky caverns of Csetate-Boli, Pestere and Ponor in the southern mountains of Hunyad county.

Rivers

.The greater part of Hungary is well provided with both rivers and springs, but some trachytic and limestone mountainous districts show a marked deficiency in this respect.^ The Ancient Christian Necropolis in Pecs What is now the region of Transdanubia in modern Hungary was once a part of the Roman Empire, with the Danube River forming its natural border.
  • The Coin & Currency Institute, Inc. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.coin-currency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, the city decided to build this memorial, which was consecrated by the Chief Rabbi of Hungary as a synagogue, making it both the first synagogue built in Hungary after the Holocaust as well as the smallest synagogue in the world.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

^ This shows that even though Hungary doesn`t have copyright laws in its constitution, it excepts and respects the idea of intellectual copyright.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Matra group, e.g., is poorly supplied, while the outliers of the Vertes mountains towards the Danube are almost entirely wanting in streams, and have but few water sources.^ With my new bottle of water in hand, we regrouped and headed back to the car, weaving through groups of tourists streaming into the park.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

^ I then walked over towards St. Stephen's Basilica, a gorgeous, imposing church that dominates a wide square a few blocks east of the Danube.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

.A relative scarcity in running waters prevails in the whole region between the Danube and the Drave.^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their penultimate migration brought them to what modern Hungarians call the Etelköz, the region between the Dnieper and lower Danube Rivers just north of the Black Sea.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The greatest proportionate deficiency, however, is observable in the arenaceous region between the Danube and Theiss, where for the most part only periodical floods occur.^ The Ancient Christian Necropolis in Pecs What is now the region of Transdanubia in modern Hungary was once a part of the Roman Empire, with the Danube River forming its natural border.
  • The Coin & Currency Institute, Inc. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.coin-currency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, most observers agreed that in the 1980s males were still viewed as the head of most households, if only because of their generally higher incomes.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their penultimate migration brought them to what modern Hungarians call the Etelköz, the region between the Dnieper and lower Danube Rivers just north of the Black Sea.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.But in the north and east of the kingdom rivers are numerous.^ The southern boundary of the kingdom is the River Save, which separates it from Bosnia and Servia as far east as the Rumanian frontier, from which point the artificial boundary of Rumania continues along the south, turning north-east, and then north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Credits : ZEFA] Central Budapest, looking north along the Danube River, with the Parliament Building on the east …[Credits : Jean S. Buldain/Berg & Assoc.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Owing to its orographical configuration the river system of Hungary presents several characteristic features.^ Although Hungary was a monarchy for nearly 1,000 years, its constitutional system preceded by several centuries the establishment of Western-style governments in other European countries.

^ The Barrage system was to consist of a reservoir, two diversion canals, and two hydroelectric power plants located in present-day Slovakia and Hungary (Gabcikovo and Nagymoros respectively).
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first consists in the parallelism in the course of its rivers, as the Danube and the Theiss, the Drave and the Save, the Waag with the Neutra and the Gran, &c.^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The second is the direction of the rivers, which converge towards the middle of the country, and are collected either mediately or immediately by the Danube.^ We also sat along a stone wall by the Danube, enjoying the view of the river as it flowed gracefully towards Budapest.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

^ Directing water to river-side forests and side-arms of the Danube would prevent desiccation of these areas.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only the Zsil, the Aluta and the Bodza or Buzeu pierce the Transylvanian Alps, and flow into the Danube outside Hungary.^ Hungary 's only nuclear power plant, located right outside of Paks, a town on the Danube in the center ...
  • Hungary Energy News - Energy Industry Today 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC energy.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Industry Sector: UTILities The Danube is the only major waterway linking Hungary with Northern Europe.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The European Commission has asked Slovakia to divert only a third of the Danube's flow and leave the remaining two-thirds of the water in the natural river bed.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another characteristic feature is the uneven distribution of the navigable rivers, of which Upper Hungary and Transylvania are almost completely devoid.^ The main result of the triple political division of Hungary was the almost complete disappearance of public order and of the systematic conduct of affairs; another was the evident decline of Catholicism and the rapid advance of the Reformation .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main result of the triple political division of Hungary was the almost complete disappearance of public order and of the systematic conduct of affairs; another was the evident decline of Catholicism and the rapid advance of the Reformation.
  • History of Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.historyofnations.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides Lutheranism , Calvinism also took root in Hungary at this time, and from 1547 were added the teachings of the Anabaptists , who won adherents in the western counties of upper Hungary and in Transylvania .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

But even the navigable rivers, owing to the direction of their course, are not available as a means of external communication. .The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic.^ Since the early 1990s, foreign The towns of Buda and Pest (shown in 1995), on opposite sides of the Danube River, joined to become Budapest in 1873.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Death to the former Soviet puppet dictator - now taking a 'cure' on the Russian Black Sea Riviera - whom the crowds blame for all the ills that have befallen their country in eleven years of Soviet puppet rule.

^ On the battlefield near this small town in Southern Transdanubia a relatively prosperous and independent medieval Hungary died, sending the nation into a tailspin of partition, foreign domination and despair that would be felt for centuries afterward.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of 585'.m. leaves it at Orsova by another narrow defile, the Iron Gate. Where it enters Hungary the Danube is 400 ft. above sea-level, and where it leaves it is 127 ft.; it has thus a fall within the country of 273 ft. .It forms several large islands, as the Great Schutt, called in Hungarian Czallokdz or the deceiving island, with an area of nearly 1000 sq.^ I consider it of great importance that a Government has been formed representing every shade and stratum of the Hungarian people that wants progress and socialism.

^ People outside Hungary call it "goulash," but the Hungarians have several different names for it, including pörkölt and tokány .

^ Young liberals formed the Federation of Young Democrats (Fidesz); a core from the so-called Democratic Opposition formed the Association of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), and the neopopulist national opposition established the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF).

m.; the St Andrew's or Szent-Endre island; the Csepel island; and the Margitta. island. .The principal tributaries of the Danube in Hungary, of which some are amongst the largest rivers in Europe, are, on the right, the Raab, Drave and Save, and, on the left, the Waag, Neutra, Gran, Eipel, Theiss (the principal affluent, which receives numerous tributaries), Temes and Cserna.^ Ice floes on the Danube, Hungary's largest river.

^ Hungary's principal rivers are the Danube and Tisza, and the largest lake is Balaton.

^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The total length of the river system of Hungary is about 8800 m., of which only about one-third is navigable, while of the navigable part only one-half is available for steamers.^ About half of Hungary's land is arable.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Transportation: 4.0 Hungary has about 188,203 km highway, 7,875 km railways, 1,373 km navigable waterways, and in total 49 airports.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1241 the Mongols arrived in Hungary and swept through the country, burning it virtually to the ground and killing an estimated one-third to one-half of its two million people.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

The Danube is navigable for steamers throughout the whole of its course in Hungary. .Regulating works have been undertaken to ward off the dangers of periodical inundations, which occur in the valley of the Danube and of the other great rivers, as the Theiss, the Drave and the Save.^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My two favorite restaurants were converted boats that no longer cruise, but are still located on the Danube River with great views.
  • Budapest Hungary Travel Guide Tips 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.johnnyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only would it harm all ecosystems that feed off the old river-bed, Hungarian critics charge water supplies to some ethnic Hungarian Danube villages will be cut off, while others would be flooded.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The beds of these rivers, as well as that of the Danube, are continually changing, forming morasses and pools, and rendering the country near their banks marshy, Notwithstanding the work already done, such as canalizing and regulating the rivers, the erection of dams, &c., the problems of preventing inundations, and of reclaiming the marshes, have not yet been satisfactorily solved.^ On the banks of the river Danube, facing Margaret Island on the Buda side of the Arpad Bridge, the distinguished Ramada ...
  • Hungary Hotels & Hotels in Hungary -- Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.lodging-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ancient Christian Necropolis in Pecs What is now the region of Transdanubia in modern Hungary was once a part of the Roman Empire, with the Danube River forming its natural border.
  • The Coin & Currency Institute, Inc. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.coin-currency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Canals

Hungary is poorly supplied with canals. They are constructed not only as navigable waterways, but also to relieve the rivers from periodical overflow, and to drain the marshy districts. The most important canal is the Franz Josef canal between Becse and Bezdan, above Zombor. It is about 70 m. in length, and considerably shortens the passage between the Theiss and the Danube. A branch of this canal called Uj Csatorna or New Channel, extends from Kis-Sztapar, a few miles below Zombor, to Ujvidek, opposite Petervarad. The Bega canal runs from Temesvar to Nagy-Becskerek, and thence to Titel, where it flows into the Theiss. .The Versecz and the Berzava canal, which are connected with one another, drain the numerous marshes of the Banat, including the Alibunar marsh.^ Outside one of the houses I spotted a large wooden pole, with another pole connected to it on a hinge, like a medieval crane.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

The Berzava canal ends in the river Temes. .The Sio and the Kapos or Zichy canal between Lake Balaton and the Danube is joined by the Sat-viz canal, which drains the marshes south of Sopron.^ We met out first local guide, Lazlo, and on our first afternoon in Hungary, hiked the canal banks and the marsh habitat at the southeast corner of Lake Ferto.
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: General]

.The Berettyo canal between the Koros and the Berettyo rivers, and the Kdrds canal along the White Kiirds were constructed in conjunction with the regulation of the Theiss, and for the drainage of the marshy region.^ Their penultimate migration brought them to what modern Hungarians call the Etelköz, the region between the Dnieper and lower Danube Rivers just north of the Black Sea.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Slovakia will also have the means to strangle Hungarian trade along the river if conflict does arise between the two countries.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lakes and Marshes

.Hungary has two large lakes, Balaton (q.v.^ On the other hand, the presence of two major rivers (the Duna and the Tisza ) and a major lake ( Balaton ) give excellent opportunities to practice those sports.
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungary's principal rivers are the Danube and Tisza, and the largest lake is Balaton.

^ Lake Balaton, the largest lake in Hungary and in central Europe, is a leading resort area.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

) or .Platten-See, the largest lake of southern Europe, and Ferto or Neusiedler See.^ Lake Balaton, the largest lake in Hungary and in central Europe, is a leading resort area.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Hungary - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lake Balaton , in the Transdanubian highlands, is the largest lake in central Europe.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Fertő lake lies in the counties of Moson and Sopron, not far from the town of Sopron, and is about 23 m. in length by 6 to 8 m. in breadth. .It is so shallow that it completely evaporated in 1865, but has filled again since 1870, at the same time changing its configuration.^ At the same time, we wish to inform the people of Hungary that we are going to request the Government of the Soviet Union to withdraw Soviet troops completely from the entire territory of the Hungarian Republic.

It lies in the marshy district known as the Hansag, through which it is in communication with the Danube. In the neighbourhood of this lake are very good vineyards. Several other small lakes are found in the Hansag. The other lowland lakes, as, for instance, the Palics near Szabadka, and the Velencze in the county of Feller, are much smaller. In the deep hollows. between the peaks of the Carpathians are many small lakes, popularly called " eyes of the sea." In the puszta are numerous small lakes, named generally Feher To or White Lakes, because they evaporate in the summer leaving a white crust of soda on their bed. The vegetation around them contains plants characteristic of the sea shores. The largest of these lakes is the Feller TO situated to the north of Szeged.
.As already mentioned large tracts of land on the banks of the principal rivers are occupied by marshes.^ But in a bid to appease the lesser nobility, he handed them large tracts of land.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government instituted a radical land reform and gradually nationalized mines, electric plants, heavy industries, and some large banks.

Besides the Hansag, the other principal marshes are the Sari-et, which covers a considerable portion of the counties of Jasz-Kun-Szolnok, Bekes and Bihar; the Escedi Lap in the county of Szatmar; the Szernye near Munkacs, and the Alibunar in the county of Torontal. .Since the last half of the 19th century many thousands of acres have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes.^ So on the occasion of the death of Queen Elizabeth in the last century it was flown because it had been flown on such occasions ever since people could remember not because it suddenly came to somebody's mind.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC flagspot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geology

.The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.^ Specialising in bird tours in The Carpathians, covering Hungary, Slovakia and Transylvania...
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: General]

^ The Danube, the Chain Bridge, the houses of Parliament and the northern parts of the city .

^ Friends, family members, and close acquaintances who have not seen one another for a while greet and part from one another with pecks on both the left and right cheeks.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great Hungarian plain is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, through which rise the Bakony-wald and the Mecsek ridge near Pecs (Funfkirchen).^ Some 43,000 square miles are occupied by the Great and the Little Hungarian Alföld, two great plains enclosed by the Alps and the Carpathians.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Duck, heron, crane, and stork are native to the country, and the Great Hungarian Plain, which is mostly steppe, is a resting spot for many migrating species.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the Great Hungarian Plain instead of villages, there was a loose network of huge agrotowns that were located far from one another, each with a population from 20,000 to 100,000.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are composed chiefly of Triassic beds, but Jurassic and Cretaceous beds take some share in their formation.^ Some touristic places take other currencies (US Dollar, German Mark), but these usually small souvenir-shops.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amongst the most interesting features of the Bakony-wald are the volcanic and the igneous rocks.
.The great plain itself is covered for the most part by loess and alluvium, but near its borders the Tertiary deposits rise to the surface.^ Heavy cancel: obliteration which spoils the appearance of the stamp by covering most its surface.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age. Five subdivisions may be recognised in the Miocene deposits, corresponding with five different stages in the evolution of southern Europe. .The first is the First Mediterranean stage of E. Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine.^ After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire during the last few months of the First World War , the leader of the Independent Party, Mihaly Karolyi , gained control.

The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum. .During the formation of the Schlier the plain was covered by an inland sea or series of salt lakes, in which evaporation led to the concentration and finally to the deposition of the salts contained in the water.^ Add the potatoes, 1 more teaspoon of salt, and enough water to cover.

.Towards the close of this period great earth movements took place and the gap between the Alps and the Carpathians was formed.^ Some 43,000 square miles are occupied by the Great and the Little Hungarian Alföld, two great plains enclosed by the Alps and the Carpathians.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The custom of sounding the noon bell is closely related to an important battle against the Ottomans that took place on June 29 , 1456 , at Nándorfehérvár .
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bistritz is described near the opening of the book as an old place close to the frontier between Hungary and the Austrian province of Bukovina .
  • Jewish Web Index - Make it easier for you to do your personal research 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC jewishwebindex.com [Source type: General]

.The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.^ I consider it of great importance that a Government has been formed representing every shade and stratum of the Hungarian people that wants progress and socialism.

^ During this period Protestantism entered Transylvania and soon gained ascendancy there.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was followed by the Sarmatian period, when Hungary was covered by extensive lagoons, the fauna being partly marine and partly brackish water.^ It was in this period that the Cistercians, Premonstratensians, and Knights of St. John settled in Hungary; in the thirteenth century these orders were followed by the Dominicans and Franciscans.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in this period that the Cistercians , Premonstratensians , and Knights of St. John settled in Hungary; in the thirteenth century these orders were followed by the Dominicans and Franciscans .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Finally, in the Pontian period, the lagoons became gradually less and less salt, and the deposits are characterized especially by the abundance of shells. which live in brackish water, especially Congeria.

Climate

.Hungary has a continental climate cold in winter, hot in summer - but owing to the physical configuration of the country it varies considerably.^ Hungary has cold winters and hot summers; springs and autumns are short.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Hungary has a continental climate , with cold, cloudy, humid winters and warm to hot summers.
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If Transylvania be excepted, three separate zones are roughly 'distinguishable: the " highland," comprising the counties in the vicinity of the Northern and Eastern Carpathians, where the winters are very severe and continue for half the year; the " intermediate " zone, embracing the country stretching northwards from the Drave and Mur, with the Little Hungarian Plain, and the region of the Upper Alfold, extending from Budapest to Nyiregyhaza and Sarospatak; and the " great lowland " zone, including the main portion of the Great Hungarian Plain, and the region of the lower Danube, where the heat during the summer months is almost tropical.^ Tourism continues to be a great Hungarian success.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some three decades before the start of the Christian era the Romans conquered the area west and south of the Danube River and established the province of Pannonia - later divided into Upper (Superior) and Lower (Inferior) Pannonia.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

In Transylvania the climate bears the extreme characteristics peculiar to mountainous countries interspersed with valleys; whilst the climate of the districts bordering on the Adriatic is modified by the neighbourhood of the sea. The minimum of the temperature is attained in January and the maximum in July. The rainfall in Hungary, except in the mountainous regions, is small in comparison with that of Austria. .In these regions the greatest fall is during the summer, though in some years the autumn showers are heavier.^ After Hunnish rule faded, the Lombards and the Gepids ruled in Pannonia for about 100 years, during which the Slavic tribes began migrating into the region.
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By LARRY ROHTER Some of the musicians who played in ostracism during the last gray years of Communist rule gathered for a festival in New York.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

Hail storms are of frequent occurrence in the Carpathians. On the plains rain rarely falls during the heats of summer; and the showers though violent are generally of short duration, whilst the moisture is quickly evaporated owing to the aridity of the atmosphere. The vast sandy wastes mainly contribute to the dryness of the winds on the Great Hungarian Alfold. .Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.^ WWF posits that two thirds of river bed erosion has been caused by excavation from 1976 to 1989 for industrial projects including the construction of Gabcikovo.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, percolation and natural filtering that occurs in the uppermost layer of river bed will be affected, polluting surface and ground water.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The European Commission has asked Slovakia to divert only a third of the Danube's flow and leave the remaining two-thirds of the water in the natural river bed.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the whole Hungary is a healthy country, excepting in the marshy tracts, where intermittent fever and diphtheria sometimes occur with great virulence.^ Hungary's turn was in 1956, when for about two weeks the country attracted the attention of the whole world.
  • HUNGARY - Hungarian Online Resources (Magyar Online Forr�s) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungaria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Historic Hungary is a term meaning the kingdom that occupied the whole Carpathian Basin since the Conquest, while the country within its current borders is usually referred to as Hungary of Trianon.
  • HUNGARY - Hungarian Online Resources (Magyar Online Forr�s) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungaria.org [Source type: Original source]

Feet
Mean Temperature
Rainfall
Stations.
above
Sea.
(Fahrenheit).
.- .4z,
.in
Inches.
Annual.
Jan.
July.
Selmeczbanya .
2037
46.2
27.9
6 4.8
79
35'29
Budapest. .
502
50.9
30.9
68.8
76
24.02
Keszthely .
436
5 2.5
30.0
71.4
78
26.67
Zagrab. .
534
5 2.3
34.3
7 0 '5
7 2
34.32
Fiume .
16
5 6.9
43.6
7 2 '7
75
70'39
Debreczen. .
423
50.2
28.6
70
79
22.26
Szeged.. .
312
51.6
31.1
71.1
80
25.58
Nagyszeben .
1 357
4 8.9
2 5.9
6 9.1
79
28'66
.The following table gives the mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall (including snow) at a series of meteorological stations during the years 1896-1900: Fauna.-The horned cattle of Hungary are amongst the finest in Europe, and large herds of swine are reared in the oak forests.^ Hungary's strategic position in Europe and its relative lack of natural resources also have dictated a traditional reliance on foreign trade.

^ Exports for Hungary to western and eastern trading partners are as follows: Table 1.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By NICHOLAS KULISH Over the past year, at least seven Roma — long among Europe’s most oppressed minority groups — have been killed in Hungary.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

The wild animals are bears, wolves, foxes, lynxes, wild cats, badgers, otters, martens, stoats and weasels. Among the rodents there are hares, marmots, beavers, squirrels, rats and mice, the last in enormous swarms. Of the larger game the chamois and deer are specially noticeable. Among the birds are the vulture, eagle, falcon, buzzard, kite, lark, nightingale, heron, stork and bustard. Domestic and wild fowl are generally abundant. The rivers and lakes yield enormous quantities of fish, and leeches also are plentiful. .The Theiss, once better supplied with fish than any other river in Europe, has for many years fallen off in its productiveness.^ Not only would it harm all ecosystems that feed off the old river-bed, Hungarian critics charge water supplies to some ethnic Hungarian Danube villages will be cut off, while others would be flooded.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shares a more acute sense of the threat than many other European countries and is watching events in the Balkans, Ukraine, and Russia with great interest.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest drinking water supply in central Europe originates from the several hundred meter deep gravel sediment on the river bed.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The culture of the silkworm is chiefly carried on in the south, and in Croatia-Slavonia.
.Flora.-Almost every description of grain is found, especially wheat and maize, besides Turkish pepper or paprika, rape-seed, hemp and flax, beans, potatoes and root crops.^ The chief crops are wheat and maize.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wheat, corn, sunflower seeds, potatoes, sugar beets, and grapes are the major crops.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

Fruits of various descriptions, and more particularly melons and stone fruits, are abundant. In the southern districts almonds, figs, rice and olives are grown. .Amongst the forest and other trees are the oak, which yields large quantities of galls, the beech, fir, pine, ash and alder, also the chestnut, walnut and filbert.^ Hungary is forested, mostly with oak, lime, beech, and other deciduous trees in the Transdanubian lands and mountains.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vine is cultivated over the greater part of Hungary, the chief grape-growing districts being those of the Hegyalja (Tokaj), Sopron, and Ruszt, Merles, Somlyo (Schomlau), Bellye and Villany, Balaton, Neszmely, Visonta, Eger (Erlau) and Buda.^ The chief source of anxiety to the government of Hungary in Sigismund's reign was the growing power of the Turks .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church in Hungary, in respect to organization, is divided into the three Archdioceses of Gran (Esztergom), Kalocsa, and Eger (Erlau).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic of Hungary shall take an active part in establishing a European unity in order to achieve freedom, well-being and security for the peoples of Europe.

.Hungary is one of the greatest wine-producing countries in Europe, and the quality of some of the vintages, especially that of Tokaj, is unsurpassed.^ Hungary is a landlocked country in the middle of Europe.

^ Hungary is a landlocked country in central Europe.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1241 the Mongols arrived in Hungary and swept through the country, burning it virtually to the ground and killing an estimated one-third to one-half of its two million people.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

A great quantity of tobacco is also grown; it is wholly monopolized by the crown. .In Hungary proper and in Croatia and Slavonia there are many species of indigenous plants, which are unrepresented in Transylvania.^ The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ", situated between 14º 25' and 26º 25' E. longitude, and between 44º 10' and 49º 35' N. latitude, includes, besides Hungary Proper and Transylvania, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and a territory known as the Military Frontier.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen", situated between 14º 25' and 26º 25' E. longitude, and between 44º 10' and 49º 35' N. latitude, includes, besides Hungary Proper and Transylvania , the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and a territory known as the Military Frontier.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Francis Joseph was crowned (1867) king of Hungary, which at that time also included Transylvania, Slovakia, Ruthenia, Croatia and Slovenia, and the Banat.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

Besides 12 species peculiar to the former grand-principality, 14 occur only there and in Siberia.
.Population.-Hungary had in 1900 a population of 19,254,559, equivalent to 153.7 inhabitants per square mile.^ Of a population of 19,254,559 (census of 1900) 51.5 per cent were Catholics.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of a population of 19,254,559 (census of 1900) 51.5 per cent were Catholics .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The country has an area of 35,919 square miles and a population of approximately 10 million.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great Alfold and the western districts are the most densely populated parts, whereas the northern and eastern mountainous counties are sparsely inhabited.^ One thing is certain: Magyars are part of the Finno-Ugric group of peoples who inhabited the forests somewhere between the middle Volga River and the Ural Mountains in western Siberia as early as 4000 BC. .
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign was coincident with a large part of the Great Western Schism , and the two great reforming Councils of Constance and Basle were held while he was on the throne.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign was coincident with a large part of the Great Western Schism, and the two great reforming Councils of Constance and Basle were held while he was on the throne.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.As regards sex, for every 1000 men there were 1011 women in Hungary, and 998 women in CroatiaSlavonia.^ Article 66  [] (1) The Republic of Hungary shall ensure the equality of men and women in all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.

^ Article 66 [Gender Equality, Mothers] (1) The Republic of Hungary shall ensure the equality of men and women in all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]

.The excess of females over males is great in the western and northern counties, while in the eastern parts and in Croatia-Slavonia there is a slight preponderance of males.^ Alongside the major denominations, there are an increasing number of small sects, religious movements, and Eastern religious practices, along with a growing number of followers of proselytizing Western missionaries.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His reign was coincident with a large part of the Great Western Schism , and the two great reforming Councils of Constance and Basle were held while he was on the throne.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign was coincident with a large part of the Great Western Schism, and the two great reforming Councils of Constance and Basle were held while he was on the throne.
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

1880.
1890.
1900.
Hungary proper. .
13,749,603
15,261,864
16,838,255
Croatia-Slavonia.. .
1,892,499
2,201,927
2,416,304
Total. .. .
15,642,102
1 7,4 6 3, 79 1
1 9, 2 54, 559
.The population of the country at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900 was: From 1870 to 1880 there was little increase of population, owing to the great cholera epidemic of 1872-1873, and to many epidemic diseases among children towards the end of the period.^ (The population of Hungary is 10 million and there are almost 5 million living in other countries who declare themselves as Hungarians.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of this and other settlements, the Catholic population rapidly increased, so that in 1805 there were 5,105,381 Catholics to 1,983,366 Protestants .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the large Magyar population in Slovakia, there is already tension between the two countries.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More normal conditions having prevailed from 1880 to 1890. the yearly increase rose from 0.13% to 1.09%, declining in the decade1890-1900to 1.03.
.If compared with the first general census of the country, decreed by Joseph II.^ Joseph II and Leopold II - - - Francis I: the reform generation .
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

in 1785, the population of the kingdom shows an increase of nearly 108% during these 116 years. .Recent historical research has ascertained that the country was densely peopled in the 15th century.^ The site includes current and historical trade-related releases, international market research, trade opportunities, and country analysis and provides access to the National Trade Data Bank .
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.^ Five years after Maria Theresa ascended the throne in 1740, the Hungarian nobility pledged their 'lives and blood' to her at the diet in Bratislava in exchange for tax exemptions on their land.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Hungarian taxpayer who operates his/her enterprise abroad has only had to pay 3% of the positive tax base.
  • Hungary - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visitors to Hungary do not appear to be targeted in the wave of race or ethnic-based violence associated with East and Central Europe.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The disastrous invasion of the Turks, incessant civil wars and devastation by foreign armies and pestilence, caused a very heavy loss both of population and of prosperity. In 1715 and 1720, when the land was again free from Turkish hordes and peace was restored, the population did not exceed three millions. Then immigration began to fill the deserted plains once more, and by 1785 the population had trebled itself. .But as the immigrants were of very different foreign nationalities, the country became a collection of heterogeneous ethnical elements, amid which the ruling Magyar race formed only a minority.^ Compared with the pre-war Kingdom, Hungary lost 71% of its territory, 66% of its population, and with the new borders about one-third of the Magyar population became minorities in the neighbouring countries.
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The laws of the Republic of Hungary shall ensure representation for the national and ethnic minorities living within the country.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most serious drain on the population is caused by emigration, due partly to the grinding poverty of the mass of the peasants, partly to the resentment of the subject races against the process of " Magyarization " to which they have long been subjected by the government.^ In their totality, the mistakes that I committed in the most important post of Party work have caused serious harm to our socialist development as a whole.

^ Consequently, the Magyars received their knowledge of Christianity partly from the Catholic population already existing in the country, and partly from the ecclesiastics whom they captured in their marauding expeditions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long, L-shaped building had a sizable courtyard, with a series of rooms used for various parts of the dyeing process.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

.This movement reached its height in 1900, when 178,170 people left the country; in 1906 the number had sunk to 169,202, of whom 47,920 were women.'^ Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956.
  • Hungary - World Wizzy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldwizzy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Altogether, since 1896 Hungary has lost about a million of its inhabitants through this cause, a serious source of weakness in a sparsely populated country; in 1907 an attempt was made by the Hungarian parliament to restrict emigration by law.^ Hungary lost more than half its population, including some 3 million Hungarians.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungary has lost population since the early 1980s.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1988 the country had about 10.6 million inhabitants.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flow of emigration is mainly to the United States, and a certain number of the emigrants return (27,612 in 1906) bringing with them much wealth, and Americanized views which have a considerable effect on the political situation.^ Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country because the situation is dangerous or unstable.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Establishment of American Legation in the United States, 1922.
  • Office of the Historian - Countries - Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.history.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations with United States throughout postwar period; since late 1970s, these relations have warmed considerably and in late 1980s have blossomed.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2 Of political importance also is the steady immigration of Magyar peasants and workmen into Croatia-Slavonia, where they become rapidly absorbed into the Croat population.^ The minority, or non-Magyar, population was small and included Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Romanians, Jews, Gypsies, and Greeks.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response, Soviet political officers, backed by the occupying Soviet army, forced three other parties - the Communists, Social Democrats and National Peasants - into a coalition.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
.This great emigration movement is the more serious in view of the very slow increase of the population through excess of births over deaths.^ Because the overall population had begun to age, the mortality rate also increased during this period, but it was counterbalanced by the higher rate of live births.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The birth rate minus the death rate, implying the annual rate of population growth without regard for migration.

.The birth-rate is indeed high (40.2 in 1897), but with the spread of culture it is tending to decline (38. 4 in 1902), and its effect is counteracted largely by the appalling death-rate, which exceeds that of any other European country except Russia.^ Subsequently, until the mid-1960s the birth rate declined, but the mortality rate was also low.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Rail Journeys also offer holidays by train to other European countries.
  • How to travel by train from London to Budapest & Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1980s, the average educational attainments of Hungarians ranked in the middle, in comparison with those of citizens of other European countries.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this respect, however, matters are improving, the death-rate sinking from 33.1 per thousand in1881-1885to 28.1 per thousand in 1896-1900. The improvement, which is mainly due to better sanitation and the draining of the pestilential marshes, is most conspicuous in the case of Hungary proper, which shows the following figures: 33.3 per thousand in 1881-1885, and 27.8 per thousand in 1896-1900.
At the census of 1900 fifteen towns had more than 40,000 inhabitants, namely: Budapest, 732,322; Szeged, 100,270; Szabadka (Maria-Theresiopel), 81,464; Debreczen, 72,351; Pozsony (Pressburg), 61 ,537; Hodmezo-Vasarhely, 60,824; Zagrab (Agram), 61,002; Kecskemet, 56,786; Arad, 53,9 0 3; Temesvar, 53,033; Nagyvarad (Grosswardein), 47,018; Kolozsvar (Klausenburg), 46,670; Pecs (Fiinfkirchen), 42,252; Miskolcz, 40,833; Kassa, 35,856.
Census.
Towns.
Inhabitants.
Perceopulaof
Total Population.
1880
93
2,191,878
15.94
1890
106
2,700,852
17.81
1900
122
3,525,377
21.58
.The number and aggregate population of all towns and boroughs in Hungary proper having in 1890 more than 10,000 inhabitants was at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900: Thus the relative increase of the population living in urban districts of more than io,000 inhabitants amounted in 1900 to nearly 4% of the total population.^ Yes, Hungary was living on credit more than the others.
  • Hungary on the ‘brink of ruin’ - World Blog - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC worldblog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ But there is a difference: a true performer, Beáta brings more to her stage appearances than simply a live rendition of her albums.
  • The Budapest Sun Online - Daily News and Views from Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.budapestsun.com [Source type: General]

^ Hungary Delivery My daughter's wedding was just spectacular, and more than a few tears were shed.
  • Hungary Send Flowers to Hungary and Anywhere Around the World 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungary.flowers-worldwide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Croatia-Slavonia only 5.62% of the population was concentrated in such towns in 1900.
.Races.-One of the prominent features of Hungary being the great complexity of the races residing in it (see map, " Distribution of ' See the table in Seton-Watson's Racial Problems in Hungary, Appendix xiii.^ A look at the table below describes Hungary's direction of trade as a share of 1992 exports and imports (see Table III-34-2).
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovakia runs a trade surplus now with Hungary (see Table 34-1).
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

p. 470, and Drage, Austria-Hungary, p. .289. Of the emigrants in 1906, 52,121 were Magyars, 32,904 Slovaks, 30,551 Germans, 20,859 Rumanians and 16 0 016 Croats.^ (MC, 2/20/02) 1973 Apr 16, Istvan Kertesz (b.1929), Hungarian-born German conductor, drowned.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The officially recognized minorities are Armenians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Romanians, Roma (Gypsy), Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2 Racial Problems, p. 202.
GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS]
Races," in the article Austria), the census returns of 1880, 1890 and 1900, exhibiting the numerical strength of the different nationalities, are of great interest. .Classifying the population according to the mother-tongue of each individual, there were, in the civil population of Hungary proper, including Fiume: The censuses show a decided tendency of change in favour of the dominating nationality, the Magyar, which reached an absolute majority in the decade 1890-1900. This is also shown by the data relating to the percentage of members of other Hungarian races speaking this language.^ Hungarian, also called Magyar, is the official language of Hungary.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol consumption worldwide ) flag history ( in Hungary, flag of ) history ( in Hungary, history of ) language ( in Hungarian language ) law ( in criminal law: Common law and code law ) agriculture .
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Hungarian language is classified as a member of the Ugric branch of the Uralic languages; as such it is most closely related to the Ob-Ugric languages, Khanty and Mansi, which are spoken east of the Ural Mountains.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus in 1900 out of a total civil population of 8,132,740, whose mother-tongue is not Magyar, 1,365,764 could speak Magyar.^ A large number of the conspirators were Protestant ; thus it came about that the civil war that broke out after the discovery of the conspiracy soon became a religious war .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This represents a percentage of 16.8, while in 1890 the percentage was only 13.8. In Croatia-Slavonia the language of instruction and administration being exclusively Croat, the other races tend to be absorbed in this nationality.^ The total area is 125,430 square miles, of which 16,423 belong to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

The Magyars formed but 3 . 8%, the Germans 5.6% of the population according to the census of 1900.
.The various races of Hungary are distributed either in compact ethnographical groups, in larger or smaller colonies surrounded by other nationalities, or-e.g. in the Banat-so intermingled as to defy exact definition.'^ The country also contained smaller groups of Uniates (Catholics of the Eastern Rite), Greek Orthodox, various small Protestant sects, and Jews.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Bank of Hungary shall define the country's monetary policy in accordance with the provisions of specific other legislation.

^ In western Hungary, on the farther side of the Danube, larger or smaller centres of Lutheranism sprang up under the protection of the nobility and distinguished families .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Magyars occupy almost exclusively the great central plain intersected by the Danube and the Theiss, being in an overwhelming majority in 19 counties (99'7% in Hajdu, east of the Theiss).^ The country's terrain consists largely of plains and hill country and is divided into three major geographic areas: the Great Plain, covering the central part of the country, the Transdanube in the west, and the Northern Hills along the northern border.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 43,000 square miles are occupied by the Great and the Little Hungarian Alföld, two great plains enclosed by the Alps and the Carpathians.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Hungary - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Credits : ZEFA] Central Budapest, looking north along the Danube River, with the Parliament Building on the east …[Credits : Jean S. Buldain/Berg & Assoc.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

With these may be grouped the kindred population of the three Szekel counties of Transylvania. .In 14 other counties, on the linguistic frontier, they are either in a small majority or a considerable minority (61.6% in Szatmar, 18.9% in Torontal).^ There are small minorities of Gypsies, Germans, Serbs, and other groups.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.^ While demonstrations have occurred throughout the country, the most vocal demonstrations occurred at Budapest’s Kossuth Lajos Square, outside the Hungarian Parliament Building and very close to the U.S. Embassy.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are endeavouring to loosen the close friendly relations between our nation, the Hungarian People's Republic, and other countries building socialism, especially between our country and the socialist Soviet Union.

^ When the Hungarians took possession of the country where they now live, they found a strong Slavonic Catholic Church already in existence in the western part, in Pannonia, where the Christian Faith had been spread partly by German and partly by Italian priests .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Excluding the above counties these settlements form three groups: (I) central and northern Hungary, where they form considerable minorities in seven counties (25 i % in Szepes, 7% in Komarom); (2) the Swabians of southern Hungary, also fairly numerous in seven counties (35.5% in Baranya, 32. 9% in Temes, 10.5% in Arad); (3) the Saxons of Transylvania, in a considerable minority in five counties (42.7% in Nagy Khkiillo, 17.6% in Kis Kiikiillo).^ May: overprinted occupation stamps of Hungary for Arad region, Debrecen, Temesvar, Transylvania, 1919, June 14: stamps issued for regime of Bela Kun, Serbian occupation (Baranya, Temesvar, Banat), 1919, June 28: overprinted stamps issued for new republic, 1919, Nov.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 granted Hungary considerable autonomy over its internal affairs and control over its non-Magyar ethnic groups.
  • Office of the Historian - Countries - Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.history.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 2/24/99) 1541 Suleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans are most numerous in the towns, and tend to become absorbed in the Magyar population.^ The minority, or non-Magyar, population was small and included Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Romanians, Jews, Gypsies, and Greeks.
  • Map Zones : Hungary Map 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sla y s, the most numerous race after the Magyars, are divided into several groups: the Slovaks, mainly massed in the mountainous districts of northern Hungary; the Ruthenians, established mainly on the slopes of the Carpathians between Poprad and Maramaros Sziget; the Serbs, settled in the south of Hungary from the bend of the Danube eastwards across the Theiss into the Banat; the Croats, overwhelmingly preponderant in Croatia-Slavonia, with outlying settlements in the counties of Zala, Vas and Sopron along the Croatian and Styrian frontier.^ The capital is divided into districts.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Arminius Vámbéry and his supporters hold to a Turkish origin of the Magyars, while Pál Hunfalvy and his followers place them in the Finno-Ugrian division of languages of a Ural-Altaic stem and look for the original home of the race in the region of the Ural mountains, or the district between the rivers Obi, Irtysh, Kama, and Volga.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of these the Slovaks are the most important,, having an overwhelming majority in seven counties (94'7% in Arva, 66.1% in Saros), a bare ma j ority in three (Szepes, Bars and Poszody) and a considerable minority in five (40.6% in Gomor, 22.9% in Abauj-Torna). .The Ruthenians are not in a majority in any county, but in four they form a minority of from 36 to 46% (Maramaros, Bereg, Ugocsa, Ung) and in three others (Sáros, Zemplen, Szepes) a minority of from 8.2 to 19.7%.^ While the Government makes provisions for minority religions to engage in religious education in public schools, the four historic religions provide the majority of after-hours religious instruction.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Serbs form considerable minorities in the counties of Torontal (31.2%), Bacs-Bodrog (19.0%) and Temes (21.4%). .Next to the Slav races in importance are the Rumanians (Vlachs), who are in an immense majority in ten of the eastern and south-eastern counties (90.2% in Fogaras), in eight others form from 30 to 60% of the population, and in two (Maramaros and Torontal) a respectable minority.'^ The candidate who receives a majority of two-thirds of the votes of the Members of Parliament in the first round of voting is elected President of the Republic.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Those of the Cumans who lived apart from the others were soon converted, but the majority held to paganism and did not become Christians until the middle of the fourteenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Slovakia was finally accepted on June 30, 1993 on the condition that it respected the rights of national minorities.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Jews in 1900 numbered 851,378, not counting the very great number who have become Christians, who are reckoned as Magyars.^ From Germany came large numbers of priests , nobles, and knights , who settled in Hungary and aided Stephen in converting the country to Christianity .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those of the Cumans who lived apart from the others were soon converted, but the majority held to paganism and did not become Christians until the middle of the fourteenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourists who become victims of a crime in Hungary are strongly encouraged to call a 24-hour multilingual crime-reporting telephone number.
  • Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.^ When the Hungarian government took steps to withdraw from the war and protect its Jewish population, German troops occupied the country (Mar., 1944).
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ All persons who work have the right to an income that corresponds to the amount and quality of work they carry out.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The only thing which doesn't seem clear is how he expects to pay for all these, especially since he doesn't anticipate a serious return to growth before 2013.

.Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0. Of these, however, only 82,000 gave Romany as their language, while 104,000 described themselves as Magyars and 67,000 as Rumanians.^ A Dec., 2004, referendum on granting citizenship to ethnic Hungarians in other countries passed, but it was not legally binding because less than 25% of the Hungarian electorate voted for it.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The Hungarian bishops protested against these laws and sent a memorial to the king requesting him not to sanction them; they were, however, unsuccessful.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 560,000 people in Slovakia declare themselves to be of Hungarian nationality (10.8 of the population) compared to about 10,000 Slovaks living in Hungary.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are scattered in small colonies, especially in Gomor county and in Transylvania. .Only some 9000 are still nomads, while some 20,000 more are seminomads.^ He had saved more than 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other races, wh i ch are not numerous, are Armenians, Greeks, Bulgars, Albanians and Italians.
.The ethnographical map of Hungary does much to explain the political problems of the country.^ It was also home to Hungary's open air ethnographic museum, featuring acre upon acre of historic buildings from around the country.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Hungary Archives 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

.The central plains, which have the most fertile soil, and from the geographical conditions of the country form its centre of gravity, are occupied almost exclusively by the Magyars, the most numerous and the dominant race.^ First, the taxi drivers -- as in most Central European countries -- are crooks.
  • Budapest Hungary Travel Guide Tips 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.johnnyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Great Alfold (Great Hungarian Plain), with fertile agriculture land, occupies nearly half of the country.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.But all round these, as far as the frontiers, the country is inhabited by the other races, which, as a rule, occupy it in large, compact and uniform ethnographical groups.^ Kdr became premier and sought to win popular support for Communist rule and to improve Hungary's relations with Yugoslavia and other countries.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Nothing would be more erroneous, however, than to consider these experiences of Yugoslavia applicable to all countries of Eastern Europe.

^ To these two opposing elements should be added the Ottoman power, which after the conquest of Buda (1541) ruled a large part of the land.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only exception is formed by the Banat, where Magyars, Rumanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats and Germans live mixed together.^ Louis also sought to bring about the conversion of the Slavonic peoples living to the south of Hungary, who held to the Greek Church , the Serbs, Wallachians, and Bulgarians .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PEOPLE AND HISTORY Ethnic groups in Hungary include Magyar (nearly 90%), Romany, German, Serb, Slovak, and others.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The officially recognized minorities are Armenians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Romanians, Roma (Gypsy), Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another important fact is that these races are all in direct contact with kindred peoples living outside Hungary: the Rumanians in Transylvania and Banat with those in Rumania and Bukovina; the Serbs and Croats with those on the other bank of the Danube, the Save and the Unna; the Germans in western Hungary with those in Upper Austria and Styria; the Slovaks in northern Hungary with those in Moravia; and lastly the Ruthenians with the Ruthenians of Galicia, who occupy the opposite slopes of the Carpathians.^ Peoples of Austria-Hungary in 1914.
  • Hungary -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Those living in Hungary who claimed to be of Slovak origin were transferred to Slovakia.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is drained by the Danube and its tributaries the Save and Drave, on the right bank, and, on the left, the Theiss, which in its turn receives the waters of the Maros.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The centrifugal forces within the Hungarian kingdom are thus increased by the attraction of kindred nationalities established beyond its borders, a fact which is of special importance in considering the vexed and difficult racial problem in Hungary.^ The 2008 global financial crisis led to a sharp drop in the value of the Hungarian currency in October, forcing Hungary to seek a €20 billion rescue package.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Psychological problems, particularly depression, increased significantly between 1988 and 1996, and, although the number of suicides has been declining, Hungary continues to have the highest rate of suicide in the world.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I consider it of great importance that a Government has been formed representing every shade and stratum of the Hungarian people that wants progress and socialism.

Hungary
Proper.
Croatia-
Slavonia.
By area in acres-
Arable land
29,714,382
13,370,540
Gardens. .. ... .
928,053
136,354
Meadows
7,075,888
1,099,451
Vineyards. .. .. .
482,801
65,475
Pastures
9,042,267
1,465,930
Forests
18,464,396
3,734,094
Marshes
199,685
7,921
By percentage of the total area-
Arable land
42.81
32.26
Gardens
1.34
I 31
Meadows
10.19
10 52
Vineyards
o 69
o 63
Pastures
13.03
11.03
Forests
26.60
35.74 -
Marshes
0.28
0.08
..
.Agriculture.-Hungary is pre-eminently an agricultural country and one of the principal wheat-growing regions of Europe.^ During the Communist era, Hungary was considered one of the most prosperous and open countries in Ea »» More Family...
  • Hungary Country Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1241 the Mongols arrived in Hungary and swept through the country, burning it virtually to the ground and killing an estimated one-third to one-half of its two million people.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before World War II, Hungary was an agricultural country.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the census of 1900 nearly 69% of the total population of the country derived their income from agriculture, forestry, horticulture and other agricultural pursuits.^ Nearly 70 percent of its historical territory and 58 percent of its former population were ceded to neighboring countries.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, more than half the population does some agricultural work for household use and supplemental income.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief industry is agriculture (including forestry), which supports nearly 13,000,000 persons .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The agricultural census taken in 1895 shows the great progress made in agriculture by Hungary, manifested by the increase in arable lands and the growth of the average production.^ About half of Hungary's land is arable.
  • Hungary News - Breaking World Hungary News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ According to a census of this year, there were in Hungary 3570 male religious, including 191 hermits ; this number was made by law the maximum which was not to be exceeded.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, transportation costs will increase because Hungary will need new lorries and it will take much longer to transport products by ground.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The increase of the arable land has been effected partly by the reclamation of the marshes, but mostly by the transformation of large tracts of puszta (waste prairie land) into arable land.^ But in a bid to appease the lesser nobility, he handed them large tracts of land.
  • History of Hungary - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.This latter process is growing every year, and is coupled with great improvements in agricultural methods, such as more intensive cultivation, the use of the most modern implements and the application of scientific discoveries.^ Piles of old junk soon to be taken away by the local council make downtown life even more 'colourful' for a few weeks every year .

.According to the agricultural census of 1895, the main varieties of land are distributed as follows: The remainder, such as barren terr tory, devastated vineyards, water and area of buildings, amounts to 5.1% of the total.^ According to the Hungarian census of 1900 the adherents of the different religions number as follows: .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The chief agricultural products of Hungary are wheat, rye, barley, oats and maize, the acreage and produce of which are shown in the following tables: Seton -Watson, op.^ The production of barley, corn, potatoes, wheat, sugar beets, and sunflower seeds, along with grapes and wine making, is important.
  • Culture of Hungary - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism,architecture, and the use of space, Food and economy 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exports for Hungary to western and eastern trading partners are as follows: Table 1.
  • Hungary Dam 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture/forestry (2008 est., 3.4% of GDP): Products-- meat, corn, wheat, sunflower seeds, potatoes, sugar beets, dairy products.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

cit.
pp. 1 73, 188, 252; Drage, Austria-. Hungary, pp. 280, 588; Gonnard, La Hongrie, p. 72.
Census.
Hungarians
(Magyars).
Germans
(Nemet).
Slovaks
(Tot).
Rumanians
(Oldh).
Ruthenians
(Ruthen).
Croatians
(Horvat).
Servians
(Szerb).
Others.
1880
6,404,070
1, 8 7 0 ,77 2
1, 8 55,45 1
2 ,4 0 3, 0 4 1
353,229
223,054
639,986
1890
7,357,936
1,990,084
1,896,665
2 ,5 8 9, 0 79
379,786
194,412
495, 1 33
259,893
1900
8 ,5 88, 8 34
1,980,423
1,991,402
2 ,7 8 4,7 26
423,159
188,552
1 434,641
329,837
i.e. in percentages of the total population:
1880
46.58
13.61
13'49
17'48
2.57
4.65
1.62
1890
48'53
13 12
12.51
17.08
2.50
1.28
3.27
1 71
1900
51.38
II.88
II.88
16.62
2.52
I 17
2.60
I
1.95
The colouring of ordinary ethnographical maps is necessarily somewhat misleading. When an attempt is made to represent in colour the actual distribution of the races (as in Dr Chavanne's Geographischer and statistischer Handatlas) the effect is that of occasional blotches of solid colour on a piece of shot silk.
2 The distribution of the races is analysed in greater detail in Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems, p. 3 seq.
Cereal.
Average per Annum.
1900
1907.
1881-85.
1886-90.
1891-95.
Wheat. .
6 ,4 8 3, 8 7 6
7, 01 4, 8 9 1
7,55 1 ,5 8 4
8, 1 4 2 ,3 0 3
8,773,440
Rye. .
2 ,475,3 01
2 ,7 2 7, 0 7 8
2 ,5 10, 0 93
2 ,54 6 ,73 8
2,529,350
Barley. .
2 ,4 20 ,393
2 ,49 1 ,4 22
2 ,4 0 7,4 6 9
2,485,117
2,885,160
Oats. .
2,460,080
2,546,582
2 ,339, 2 97
2 ,3 2 4,992
2,898,780
Maize .
4,567,186
4, 681 ,37 6
5, 222 ,538
5,4 6 9, 0 5 0
7,017,270
Cereal.
Average per Annum.
1900.
2907.
1881 - 85.
1886-90.
1891-95.
Wheat. .
99'8
121.3
144.9
137.3
128.5
Rye. .
41 8
42'1
46'5
39'2
38.0
Barley. .
46'2
43'7
53'6
49'7
51.0
Oats. .
53.9
52.3
64'9
63.6
43'7
Maize .
92.4
86.4
.118.0
121 7
158.7
.'[[[Geography And Statistics]] ' Area Acres in Hungary Proper.^ PROFILE OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Hungary Geography Area: 93,030 sq.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Produce in Millions of Bushels.
In Croatia-Slavonia no crop statistics were compiled before 1885. Subsequent returns for maize and wheat show an increase both in the area cultivated and quantity yielded.^ The chief crops are wheat and maize.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public debt is expected to increase to 83% of GDP in 2009 before fiscal tightening returns it to more sustainable levels.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total area is 125,430 square miles, of which 16,423 belong to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The former is the principal product of this province. Certain districts are distinguished for particular kinds of fruit, which form an important article of commerce both for inland consumption and for export. .The principal of these fruits are: apricots round Kecskemet, cherries round Koros, melons in the Alfold and plums in Croatia-Slavonia.^ The Eastern European brandy, made from fermented fruit pears, plums, apricots or grapes, has been produced in the region under different names.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vineyards of Hungary, which have suffered greatly by the phylloxera since 1881, show since 1900 a tendency to recover ground, and their area is again slowly increasing.^ Since 1389 when Servia was conquered by the Osmanli power at the battle of Kosova (also called Amselfeld , "Field of the Blackbirds"), the Turks had slowly but steadily advanced against Hungary.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hungary has been slowly modernizing and downsizing its armed forces since it left the Warsaw Pact in 1990.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forests

Of the productive area of Hungary 26.60% is occupied by forests, which for the most part cover the slopes of the Carpathians. .Nearly half of them belong to the state, and in them forestry has been carried out on a scientific basis since 1879. The exploitation of this great source of wealth is still hindered by want of proper means of communication, but in many parts of Transylvania it is now carried on successfully.^ The State Audit Office shall carry out its review and control activities bearing in mind the aspects of legality, expediency and efficiency.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The State Audit Office shall present the Parliament with a report on the auditing activities it has carried out.
  • Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.dredf.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ICL - ## 16 September 2009 1:13 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

The forests are chiefly composed of oak, fir, pine, ash and alder.
Animal.
1884.
1895.
Horses .
1,749,302
1,972,930
Cattle .
4,879,334
5,829,483
Sheep. .
10 ,594, 86 7
7,5z6,783
Pigs .
4, 80 3,777
6,447,134

Live Stock

.The number of live stock in Hungary proper in two different years is shown in the following table: - In Croatia-Slavonia the live stock was numbered in 1895 at: horses, 309,098; cattle, 908,774; sheep, 595,898; pigs, 882,957. But the improved quality of the live stock is more worthy of notice than the growth in numbers.^ Such reductions could put Hungary on the path to join the Euro zone by 2012, two years later than its original target.

^ Hungary Delivery My daughter's wedding was just spectacular, and more than a few tears were shed.
  • Hungary Send Flowers to Hungary and Anywhere Around the World 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hungary.flowers-worldwide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bilateral trade between the two countries has increased to more than $1 billion per year.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The small Magyar horse, once famous for its swiftness and endurance, was improved during the Turkish wars, so far as height and beauty were concerned, by being crossed with Arabs; but it degenerated after the 17th century as the result of injudicious crossbreeding.^ A turf war between Russian, Ukrainian, Romania, Turkish and Arab gangs had led to 140 bombings since 1991.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The breed has, however, been since improved by government action, the establishment of state studs supported since 1867 by annual parliamentary grants, and the importation especially of English stock. The largest of the studs is that at Mezohegyes (founded 1785) in the county of Csanad, the most extensive and remarkable of those " economies," model farms on a gigantic scale, which the government has established on its domains.' In 1905 it had 2224 horses, including 27 stallions and 422 blood mares. .The next most important stud is at Kisber (founded 1853), with 731 horses; others are at Babolna (founded 1798), with 802 horses, and Fogaras (founded 1874), with 400 horses.'^ In this region were founded their first towns, the most important of the country, namely, Gran , Székes-Fehérvar, and Buda.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Besides these there are several large depots of state stallions, which are hired out or sold at moderate rates; but buyers have to guarantee not to export them without permission of the government.^ (Econ, 3/29/08, p.67) 2008 Apr 1, Hungary’s coalition partner pulled out of the government leaving the Socialists without a parliamentary majority.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large numbers of horses are exported annually, principally to Austria, Germany, Italy, France and Rumania.^ From Germany came large numbers of priests , nobles, and knights , who settled in Hungary and aided Stephen in converting the country to Christianity .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hungary 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SS, 3/23/02) 1902 Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
  • Timeline Hungary 25 September 2009 4:13 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany is Hungary's most important trading partner, followed by Italy and France.
  • Hungary (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]