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The Hungry Generation (Bengali: হাংরি আন্দোলন) was a literary movement in the Bengali language launched by what is known today as the Hungryalist quartet, i.e. Shakti Chattopadhyay, Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roychoudhury and Debi Roy (Haradhon Dhara), during the 1960s in Kolkata, India. Due to their involvement in this avante garde cultural movement, the leaders lost their jobs and were jailed. Dr Uttam Das, Reader, Calcutta University, in his dissertation 'Hungry Shruti and Shastravirodhi Andolan' has explained how they challenged and significantly changed the language and the vocabulary used by contemporary writers to express their feelings in literature and painting.[1]

The approach of the Hungryalists was to confront and disturb the prospective reader's preconceived colonial canons. According to Pradip Choudhuri, a leading philosopher and poet of the generation,whose works have been extensively translated in French, their counter-discourse was the first voice of post-colonial freedom of pen and brush. Besides the famous four mentioned above, Utpalkumar Basu, Binoy Majumdar, Sandipan Chattopadhyay, Basudeb Dasgupta, Falguni Roy, Subhash Ghosh,Saileshwar Ghosh, Tridib Mitra, Alo Mitra, Arunesh Ghosh, Ramananda Chattopadhyay, Anil Karanjai, Karunanidhan Mukhopadhyay, Subo Acharya,were among the leading writers and artists of the movement.

Contents

Origins

The movement was launched in November 1961 from the Patna residence of Malay Roychoudhury and his elder brother Samir Roychoudhury. They took the word Hungry from Geoffrey Chaucer's line " In Sowere Hungry Tyme" and they drew upon Oswald Spengler's idea of Non Linear Time in a particular culture for philosophical inspiration. The movement was to last from 1961-1965. It is wrong to suggest that the movement was influenced by the Beat Generation, since Ginsberg did not visit Malay until April 1963, when he came to Patna. Poets Octavio Paz and Ernesto Cardenal were to visit Malay later during the sixties.

History

This movement is characterized by expression of closeness to nature and sometimes tenets of Gandhianism and Prudhonianism. Although it originated at Patna, Bihar and was initially based in Kolkata, it had participants spread over North Bengal, Tripura and Benares.According to Dr Shankar Bhattacharjee, Dean, Assam University,as well as Aryanil Mukherjee, Editor of Kaurab literary periodical,the movement influenced Allen Ginsberg[citation needed] as much as it influenced American poetry[citation needed] through the Beat poets who visited Calcutta, Patna, Chaibasa And Benaras during the Sixties decade. Arvind Krishna Mehrotra, now a professor and editor, was associated with the Hungry Generation movement. Shakti Chattopadhyay, Sandipan Chattopadhyay, Saileshwar Ghosh, Subhas Gosh left the movement in 1964.

More than 100 manifestos were issued during 1961-1965. Malay's poems have been published by P. Lal from his Writers Workshop publication. Howard McCord published Malay Roychoudhury's controversial poem Prachanda Boidyutik Chhutar(প্রচন্ড বৈদ্যুতিক ছুতার) i.e. Stark Electric Jesus from Washington State University in 1965. This poem has been translated in several languages of the world. In German by Carl Weissner, in Spanish by Margaret Randall, in Urdu by Ameeque Hanfee, in Assamese by Manik Dass, in Gujarati by Nalin Patel, in Hindi by Rajkamal Choudhury, in English by Howard McCord.

Impact

The works of these participants appeared in Citylights Journal 1, 2 and 3 published between 1964 and 1966, edited by Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and in special issues of American magazines including Kulchur edited by Lita Hornik, Klactoveedsedsteen edited by Carl Weissner, Elcorno Emplunado edited by Margaret Randall, Evergreen Review edited by Barney Rosset, Salted Feathers, Intrepid, and San Francisco Earthquake, during the Sixties.(See references) Hungry Generation also known as Hungryalism challenged the mainstream literary genres. The group wrote poetry and prose in completely different forms and experimented with the contents. The movement changed the literary atmosphere of Bengal altogether. It had influences in Hindi, Marathi, Assamese, Telugu & Urdu literatures.(See references)

Sources

(1)The autobiography of Malay Roy Choudhury is available in Vol 215 of "Contemporary Authors" published by Thomson Gale. (ISBN 0-7876-6639-4) There are Hungry Generation Archives in Northwestern University in Illinois as well as Bangla Academy in Dhaka, Bangladesh. At Kolkata the Little Magazine Library and Research Centre run by Sandip Dutta has a separate section on the Hungryalist publications as well as trial papers of the famous Hungry Generation case in which some of the colleagues of Malay turned against the movement and gave undertakings to have withdrawn from the movement. Trial papers archived in Bankshal Court, Kolkata ( 9th Court of Presidency Magistrate, Case No. GR. 579 of 1965; State of West Bengal Vs Malay Roy Choudhury)

(2)Hungry Kimbadanti written by Malay Roy Choudhury and published by De Books, Kolkata (1997)

(3)Hungry Andolon issue of Haowa#49 magazine (2003) edited by Samir Roychoudhury and Murshid A.M.

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Dissertations

  • Hungry, Shruti And Shastravirodhi Movements by Dr Uttam Das, published by Mahadiganta Publishers, Baruipur, West Bengal, India. (1986).
  • Hungryalist Manifestoes by Ebadul Haque, published by Abar Eshechhi Phirey Publishers, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. (2007).
  • Hungryalist Movement And Anti-Establishment by Prof Swati Banerjee, from Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata, (2007).

US and South American periodicals

  • City Lights Journal #1 (1963)pp. 7–25;
  • El Corno Emplumado #9 (1964)pp. 153;
  • El Corno Emplumado #10 (1964)pp. 129–130;
  • City Lights Journal #2 (1964)pp. 117–130;
  • Kulchur #15 (1964)pp. 104–105;
  • TIME (November 20, 1964)pp. 44;
  • El Corno Emplumado #13 (1965)pp. 184–185;
  • Evergreen Review #35 (March 1965)pp. 10;
  • Salted Feathers #5 (May 1965)pp. 9;
  • Salted Feathers #8 & 9 (March 1967)pp. All pages;
  • City Lights Journal #3 (1966)pp. 21–45;
  • Trace #53 (1964)pp. 31–43;
  • El Rehilete #28 (1964)pp. 47–54;
  • Panaroma (February 1965);
  • Iconolatre#10 (1968).

Indian periodicals

  • Samprati #3 (1962);
  • Chatushparna #Winter (1963);
  • Mahenjodaro#Autumn (1963);
  • Link #June,2 (1963);
  • Link #June,30 (1963);
  • Gyanodaya #Winter (1963);
  • Darpan' #July, 18 (1964);
  • Jugantar July, 18 (1964);
  • Jugantar July, 19, (1964);
  • Jugantar September,7, Editorial, (1964);
  • Jugantar August, 7 (1965);
  • Jugantar September, 6 (1965);
  • Amrita Shravana,8 (1371);
  • Amrita August,7 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika September, 4 (1964);
  • Adhikaran #1 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika Septemcer, 5 (1964);
  • Dainik Basumati Sep0t0ember, 5 (1964);
  • Dainik Basumati September,7 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika September,7 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika September 8, Cartoon, (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika September,30 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika May, 4 (1965);
  • Blitz September, 19 (1964);
  • Jalsa September, 30 (1964);
  • Janata September,4 (1964);
  • Janata September, 18 (1964);
  • Janata October, Cartoon, (1964);
  • Bharatmail October, 22 (1964);
  • Desh Ashwin, 10 (1371);
  • Naranari Ashwin, (1371);
  • Now November, 20 (1964);
  • Darpan November, 27 (1964);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika December, 2 (1964);
  • Now December, 18 (1964);
  • The Statesman December, 20 (1964);
  • The Statesman December, 30 (1964);
  • Link December, 20 (1964);
  • Link May, 8 (1966);
  • Maral January (1965);
  • Lahar January, (1965);
  • Dharmayug January, 17 (1965);
  • Dharmayug February, 7 (1965);
  • Dharmayug February, 14 (1965);
  • Dharmayug March 7, (1965);
  • Dharmayug March, 18 (1965);
  • Dharmayug April, 18 (1965);
  • Dharmayug April, 25 (1965);
  • Dharmayug May, 23 (1965);
  • Dharmayug June, 27 (1965);
  • Krittibas (1965);
  • Jugantar April, 15 Editorial (1965);
  • The Statesman April, 20 (1965);
  • Sanmarg April, 20 (1965);
  • Gyanodaya April (1965);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika April, 20 (1965);
  • The Statesman May, 4 (1965);
  • Yugaprabhat May (1965);
  • Pratibimba May-August (1965);
  • Ananda Bazar Patrika May, 14 (1965);
  • Dinaman May, 16 (1965);
  • Dinaman June, 6 (1965);
  • Saptahik Hindustan June, 13 (1965);
  • Saptahik Hindustan June, 27 (1965);
  • Saptahik Hindustan July, 4 (1965);
  • Saptahik Hindustan August, 22 (1965);
  • Janasatta July, 4 (1965);
  • Hindustan Standard August 10 (1965);
  • The Statesman September, 26 (1965);
  • Ingeet October, 3 (1965);
  • Anima #2 (1965);
  • Anima #4 (1965);
  • Chatushparna Chaitra (1371);
  • The Searchlight December, 25 (1965);
  • Desh Chaitra (1373);
  • Nayee Dhara December (1966);
  • Yugaprabhat February (1967);
  • Karuj#7, (2003);
  • Disha Autumn, (2003);
  • Kabitirtha July, (2003);
  • Amritalok November, (2003);
  • Ekaler Raktakarabi June, (2004);
  • Digangan Autumn, (2004);
  • Ebang August-October, (2004);
  • Kabitamancha#5 (2006)

References

  1. ^ [1]

External links


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