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Hyderabad
"City of Pearls", "City of Nizams"
Charminar
Hyderabad
Location of Hyderabad in India
Coordinates 17°00′31″N 78°50′27″E / 17.00861°N 78.84083°E / 17.00861; 78.84083
Country  India
Region Telangana
State Andhra Pradesh
District(s)
Founded 1592
Mayor Banda Kartika Reddy
Commissioner S.P.Singh
Planning Agency GHMC, HMDA
Population
Density
Metro
3637483 (6th) (2001)
5,852.9 /km2 (15,159 /sq mi)
6290397 (6th) (2009)
Official languages Telugu, Urdu, English[1]
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area
Elevation
Coastline
621.48 km2 (240 sq mi)
536 m (1,759 ft)
0 km (0 mi)
Climate
Precipitation
Temperature
• Summer
• Winter
Aw (Köppen)
     603 mm (23.7 in)
     26.0 °C (79 °F)
     35.9 °C (97 °F)
     23.5 °C (74 °F)
Website www.ghmc.gov.in

Hyderabad (Telugu: హైదరాబాద్, Urdu: حیدرآباد, pronounced [ˈhaiːd̪arɑːbɑːd̪]) is the capital and the most populous city of the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is known as the "City of Pearls" and the "City of Nizams".

Hyderabad has a population of over 4 million.[2] Hyderabad and Secunderabad both the cities are collectively known just as Hyderabad outside the state and together they form the fifth largest metropolis in India. The city has been classified as an A-1 city in terms of development priorities, due to its size, population and impact.[3]

Hyderabad has developed into a major hub for the Information technology industry in India. It is the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Capital of the Country. The city is home to the world's largest film studio, the Ramoji Film City as well as the Telugu Film Industry, the third-largest in India, known popularly as Tollywood. It is also a sporting destination with numerous sporting venues and stadia. Various national and international games are conducted here, and the city is the home of the Deccan Chargers, Indian Premier League team.

Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadis. The city is regarded as a blend of traditionality with modernity.[4]

Contents

Etymology

Theories explaining the origins and etymology behind Hyderabad's name differ. A popular theory suggests that after founding the city, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with and married a local Banjara girl known as Bhagmathi or Bhagyavathi, naming the city, Bhagyanagaram. Upon her conversion to Islam, she changed her name to Hyder Mahal and thus the city was named Hyderabad, which is a two worded Urdu phrase, Hyder-A'bad, meaning 'Long live Hyder'. But largely it is believed that the city is named after the son in law of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, Ali Ibn Abi Talib whose other name was Hyder.[5][6]

History

Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC.[7] Approximately 1000+ years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty the ruling family of the Golconda, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in 1512, founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591;[8] to relieve water shortage the dynasty had experienced at their old headquarters at Golconda.[9] He also ordered the construction of the Charminar.[10]

Tomb of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in Hyderabad, India.

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured Hyderabad in 1687[11] and during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy. In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad.[11][12] Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golkonda was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams which is a tourist attraction.The state was richest and the largest among the princely states of India.The land area of the state was 90,543 mi² its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £90,029,000.[13]

The Chowmahalla Palace was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizam.

Before 1947, Hyderabad was under the suzerainty of the British Crown but was not part of British India. In 1947, at the time of the independence of British India and its Partition into the Union of India and the new state of Pakistan, the British abandoned their claim to suzerainty over the Princely states and left them to decide their own future. The Nizam, because of Islamic leanings, wished either to remain independent or to accede to Pakistan. However, for the Indian Union, this was unacceptable from the strategic perspective. Nizam's efforts also triggered the largest agrarian armed rebellion in modern Indian history. To deter the Nizam, Indian union chose to implement an economic blockade which made the state of Hyderabad to sign a Standstill Agreement with it. Nizam's intransigence compelled Indian Union to use military force against the landlocked princely state of Hyderabad. This operation, termed Operation Polo, was successful and on 17 September 1948 the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession to the Union of India.[14]

In 1955, Ambedkar was so impressed with amenities of Hyderabad that, he argued to make Hyderabad as second capital of India. He said "Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better City than Delhi. It has all the grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government of India can easily build."[15]

On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganized on linguistic grounds. The territories of the State of Hyderabad were divided between newly created Andhra Pradesh, Mumbai state (later Maharashtra), and Karnataka. The Telugu speaking area of Hyderabad state, also known as Telangana, was merged with the Telugu speaking state of Andhra state to create Andhra Pradesh. Thus, Hyderabad became the capital city of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[16]

Since '90s owing to liberalisation, the city has become a major hub of the IT industry which in turn brought changes in lifestyle and culture. The growth in IT sector and construction of International Airport witnessed rise in various other fields like real estate in 2000s although the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 has had a significant impact on construction activity.[13]

Geography

Statue of Buddha on the Hussain Sagar Lake

Situated on the Deccan Plateau, Hyderabad has an average elevation of about 489 metres above sea level (1,607 ft).[17] Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly. Crops are commonly grown in the surrounding paddy fields.[18]

The original city of Hyderabad was founded on the banks of river Musi.[19] Now known as the historic Old City, home to the Charminar and Mecca Masjid, it lies on the southern bank of the river. The heart of the city saw a shift to the north of the river, with the construction of many government buildings and landmarks there, especially south of the Hussain Sagar lake. The rapid growth of the city, along with the merging of Secunderabad, 12 municipal circles and the Cantonment has resulted in a large, united and populous area. Still so many villages near by are getting a facelift to merge in the twin cities in the near future.[20]

Climate

Hyderabad
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.2
 
29
15
 
 
5.2
 
32
17
 
 
12
 
35
20
 
 
21
 
38
24
 
 
37
 
39
26
 
 
96
 
34
24
 
 
164
 
31
23
 
 
171
 
30
22
 
 
182
 
30
22
 
 
91
 
30
20
 
 
16
 
29
16
 
 
6.1
 
28
14
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: World Weather Information Service

Hyderabad has a tropical savanna climate with hot summers from late February to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early October and a pleasant winter from late October to early February.[21] In the evenings and mornings the climate is generally cooler because of the city's good elevation. Hyderabad gets about 32 inches (about 810 mm) of rain every year, almost all of it concentrated in the monsoon months. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5 o C (113.9 °F) on 2 June 1966, while the lowest recorded temperature was 6.1o C (43 °F) on 8 January 1946.[22]

Demographics

Birla Mandir is a Hindu temple built entirely from white marble.

The city's population in 2001 was 3.6 million and it has reached over 4.0 million[2] by 2009 making it among the most populated cities in India, while the population of the metropolitan area was estimated above 6.3 million.[24] . Muslims constitute about 40% of the population, making Hyderabad's Muslim community the largest in Andhra Pradesh.[25] Muslims have substantial presence across the city and are predominant in and around Old City. Christians constitute a small amount of the city's population. Churches are located across the city and the popular ones are in Abids and Secunderabad areas.[26]

Telugu and Urdu are the principal languages spoken in the city. English has a strong presence among the educated people.[14]

Urdu spoken here is also unique, with influences of Turkish ,Persian and Telugu, giving rise to a dialect sometimes called Hyderabadi Urdu or Deccani. The official language, Telugu, varies a little across the state but the core language remains the same.[20]

Administration

AP High Court at Hyderabad, the supreme judicial body of the State of Andhra Pradesh

The city is administered by a nagar nigam called Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC),[27] whose titular head is the Mayor of Hyderabad who has few executive powers. In the past, the mayor was chosen by the legislative body of the corporation, but just before the last elections, the state government modified the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955, to stipulate that the mayoral election be held directly and simultaneously with the corporation elections. The real executive power of the corporation is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Andhra Pradesh state government. The Mayor and the Corporation legislative body can and have been in the past dismissed by the state government. For several years elections had not been held for the corporation. Recently the corporation completed its full term and elections are due to the GHMC and for the post of Mayor.

The GHMC is in charge of the civic needs and the infrastructure of the city. Hyderabad is divided into 150 municipal wards, each overseen by a corporator. The corporators of the administration are elected through popular vote, and almost all the political parties field candidates.The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are in three districts, Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak. The administration of each district is headed by a District Collector who is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central government. The district collectors also oversees the elections held in the city.[28]

Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in Hyderabad

Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA), a planning agency chaired by the Chief Minister along with an IAS cadre officer has been formed to undertake developmental activities in a jurisdiction of above 6,250 km².[29] The Hyderabad Metropolitan area[30] falls under the following districts each headed by a collector: Hyderabad district- full (16 Mandals), Medak district- part (10 Mandals), Rangareddy district-part (22 Mandals), Mahboobnagar district- part (64 Mandals), Nalgonda district-part (4 Mandals)

Hyderabad voters send 24 members to the Legislative Assembly, whose constituencies come under 5 Lok Sabha segments. The new Assembly segments and their respective parliamentary constituencies(PC) are: Malkajgiri, Kukatpally, Uppal, Lal Bahadur Nagar (LB Nagar), Secunderabad Cantonment, Quthbullapur under Malkajgiri PC; Musheerabad, Amberpet, Khairatabad, Jubilee Hills, Sanathnagar, Nampally, Secunderabad under Secunderabad PC; Malakpet, Karwan, Goshamahal, Yakutpura, Charminar, Chandrayanagutta, Bahadurpura under Hyderabad PC; Maheswaram, Rajendranagar, Serilingampally under Chevella PC and Patancheru under Medak PC.

The city is divided by the state police into Hyderabad Police and Cyberabad Police which come under the state Home Ministry and are headed by Police Commissioners, who are IPS officers. Basheerbagh houses important government offices such as the Police Commissioner's office, Police Control room, Income tax Commissioner's office, Central Excise and customs office, Central Reservation office etc. The city is divided into five police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad and Cyberabad commissionerates.[31]

Hyderabad is the seat of the Andhra Pradesh High Court, and also has two lower courts - the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The High Court and Legislature are heritage buildings built by Nizam.

Economy

See also: Industries in Hyderabad, India, Companies based in Hyderabad, India

Somajiguda, one of the areas in the city where urbanization is on the rise.
Modern Street with offices on both sides of the road

Hyderabad is the financial, economic and political capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product, state tax and excise revenues. The workforce participation is about 29.55%[citation needed]. Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city has changed from being a primarily service city to being one with a more diversified spectrum, including trade, transport, commerce, storage, communication etc. Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.[32]

Hyderabad is known as the city of pearls, lakes and, lately, for its IT companies. The bangles market known as Laad Bazaar is situated near Charminar. Products such as silverware, saris, Nirmal and Kalamkari paintings and artifacts, unique Bidri handcrafted items, lacquer bangles studded with stones,silk ware, cotton ware and handloom-based clothing materials are made and traded through the city for centuries.

Hyderabad is a major centre for pharmaceuticals with companies such as Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Matrix Laboratories, Hetero Drugs Limited, Divis Labs, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Lee Pharma and Vimta Labs being housed in the city. Initiatives such as Genome Valley, Fab City and the Nano Technology park are expected to create extensive infrastructure in bio-technology.[33]

A store at Laad Bazaar selling bangles and jewellery. The Laadbazar and the Charminar market area are famous for pearls.

Like many Indian cities, Hyderabad has witnessed a high growth in the real estate business[34], thanks to a information-technology-driven boom in the 1990s[35] and the retail industry growth over the last few years which have spurred hectic commercial activity. A number of mega malls have come up or are being built in the city.[36] Real estate demand in the suburban and rural areas surrounding Hyderabad has gone up exponentially leading to reckless increase in prices over the past few years.[37]

The retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise. Many international and national brands have set up retail chains here. The city has multiple Central Business Districts (CBDs) spread across the city. There are many major business/commercial districts from the older Charminar area to newer Kothaguda. For the advancement of infrastructure in the city, the government is building a skyscraper business district at Manchirevula, near Rajendranagar with a 450 m supertall structure APIIC Tower at its centre. Also, the Lanco Hills near Gachibowli presents the tallest structure in India for residential and commercial purposes.

The largest employers in Hyderabad are the Andhra Pradesh Government and the Government of India with 113,098[38] and 85,155[39] employees respectively.

Information technology industry

Hyderabad has established itself as the leading destination for IT and IT-enabled services, pharmaceuticals call centres and entertainment industries. Many computer software companies, software consulting firms, business process outsourcing (BPO) firms, dealing with IT and other technological services firms have established their offices and facilities in the city since the 1990s.

Microsoft R&D Campus in Gachibowli, Hyderabad.

The development of a township with related technological infrastructure called HITEC City prompted several IT and ITES companies to set up operations in the city. An aggressive promotion of growth in this area has led civic boosters to call the city Cyberabad.[40] There have been extensive investments in digital infrastructure within the city promoting the setting up of several campuses by a vast array of companies within the city. This list includes several multinational corporations having established their development centres in the city. Major areas where such campuses have been set up are Madhapur, Kondapur, Gachibowli and Uppal.

CA R&D Campus in Gachibowli, Hyderabad.

Several Fortune 500 corporations, mostly related to IT or BPO services industry. Microsoft (with its largest R&D campus outside the US), Accenture, ADP, Agilent, Alcatel Lucent, Amazon, AMD, AT&T, Bank of America, Computer Associates, CSC, Convergys, Dell, Deloitte, DuPont, Fidelity Investments, Franklin Templeton, GE, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Honeywell, Hyundai, IBM, Motorola, Nvidia, Oracle Corporation, Qualcomm, Rockwell Collins, SAP AG, UBS AG, Verizon, Virtusa, Wells Fargo have a significant presence in Hyderabad.

Major Indian IT Corporations such as Mahindra Satyam, HCL, Infosys, Wipro, Patni Computer Systems, Cognizant Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services ,Persistent Systems and Polaris Software Lab Limited also have development centres in the city.

Facebook is setting up an office in the city soon.[41]

Transport

Road

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation, which runs the world's largest fleet of buses,[42] connects Hyderabad with neighboring cities and states.

Hyderabad is connected to the rest of the country by National HighwaysNH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Hyderabad is also well connected to the remaining parts of the state. Like other cities, Hyderabad suffers from traffic congestion. Completion of the Inner Ring Road and construction of the Outer Ring Road encircling Hyderabad city is also underway and is touted to make travel in the city easier. Many flyovers and underpasses are also being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.[43]

Local transport

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation[44] runs a fleet of 19,000 buses, the largest in the world.[42] Hyderabad has the third largest bus station facility in Asia, with 72 platforms for 89 buses to load passengers at a time. Officially named as the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, it is locally known as the Imlibun Bus Station, Jubilee Bus Station at Secunderabad runs buses to various parts of the state and to some parts of South India.

The yellow colored Auto Rickshaw usually referred to as an auto, is the most widely used transport service and has flag down minimum fare of Rs 12 for first 1.5 km and then Rs 7 per km. Radio Taxis and cabs by private players have provided an easy travel in the city.[43]

Rail

MMTS at the Necklace Road Station

Hyderabad has a light rail transportation system known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS) which offers connectivity between rail and road transport for the facility of the commuters. MMTS provides connectivity to most of the major parts of the city, and is a suitable alternative for those who want to avoid road traffic.[45] The Hyderabad Metro is a proposed rapid transit for the city.

Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways and is the largest railway station serving Hyderabad. The station is located in Secunderabad and is one of the major railway junctions in the Indian Railways. The other major railway stations serving the city are Hyderabad Railway Station (Nampally) and Kachiguda Railway Station. These stations provide connectivity within the city and the rest of the country. A modern railway terminal is being planned to be constructed near HITEC City railway station to facilitate passengers in the western parts of the city.[46] There are also proposals to build a fourth railway terminal[47] to handle the excess inter-city railway transportation in the city due to an increase in rail traffic.

Air

The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad has a passenger terminal capacity of 40 mn per annum.

There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of passengers leading to increased air traffic[48][49] The Airport at Begumpet was unable to cope up with the situation and was shut down on 2008-03-22.[50] The new Rajiv Gandhi International Airport was opened in March 2008 by Sonia Gandhi at Shamshabad, southwest of the city[51] The airport has the longest runway in India[52] and caters to the high passenger and cargo volumes it experiences. There are flights to many destinations, both domestic and international from this airport.[53]

The PV Narasimha Rao Expressway was constructed at an elevated level from Mehdipatnam to Rajendranagar along with an underpass and trumpet interchange for providing dedicated high speed travel to the airport. It is the longest flyover in India.[54] There are three wide roads leading to the new airport from the city and modern taxis and buses can shuttle passengers between the city and the airport. The Nehru Outer Ring Road serves as an expressway between Gachibowli and Shamshabad.

Culture

Historically, Hyderabad has been the city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North India and South India meet. Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim traditions. A typical Hyderabadi could be either a Telugu or a Urdu speaking Muslim or Marathi or Marwari or one of numerous ethnic groups that has decided to make Hyderabad its home.[55]

Women of all cultures and faiths in Hyderabad typically wear either the traditional Indian dress, the sari, or, increasingly, the Salwar kameez especially among the younger population. The traditional Hyderabadi garb for females are the Khara Dupatta, the Shalwar Qamis and muslims wear burkha (religious), and for the males, it is the Sherwani.[56] This is one of the more visible cultural attributes of Hyderabad.[57]

One of Hyderabad's public carnivals is the annual immersion of Lord Ganesh idols after the 10 day Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations on Ananta Chaturdashi (locally known as the Ganesh Nimajjanam). Bonalu is a vernacular festival that is celebrated with great fervour.The Muslims fast for 30 days during their holy month of Ramzan, observed in piety and charity,and celebrated at the end by Eid ul-Fitr, three days of festivities with greetings and joy by everyone. At Eid a traditional sweet is made known as Sheer Qorma. An annual procession takes place every 10th Muharram (1st month of Islamic calendar)by the Shia Muslims at Charminar where participants mourn by beating their chests and shedding their own blood by bleeding their heads, chest and back with sharp edge weapons (knives, swords and knives attached to chains).[58]

Cuisine

Hyderabadi cuisine is a blend of Traditional South Indian Mughal and Persian cuisine. Hyderabadi Biryani is an iconic dish of the region.[59] Other native preparations include Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha, Phirni, Nahari Kulche also known as paya and Haleem (a meat dish traditionally eaten during the holy month of Ramzan), Kaddu Ki Kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd), Sheer Qorma (a sweet liquid dish cooked with vermicelli and milk), Mirchi ka saalan, Bagaare baigan, Khatti dal, Khichdi and Khatta, Til ki chutney, baigan ki chutney, Til ka khatta, Aam ka achaar, Gosht ka achaar, Peosi (a sweet prepared with egg whites and milk), Shahi tukde, Kheema aaloo etc.[60][61]

Indian sweets are known for their ghee-based items. Famous sweet shops include the traditionally made. Pulla Reddy and Rami Reddy sweets are the two famous Pure Ghee Sweet Multi location chain in Hyderabad. Widely found on street-corners are Irani café's that offer Irani chai, Irani samosa and Osmania biscuit.

Italian, Mexican, Chinese and Continental cuisine are all popular in the city along with typical Andhra and other South Indian cuisine[62]. Pubs are also getting popular in Hyderabad.

Education and research

Osmania University in Hyderabad

Many notable educational institutions are based in Hyderabad.The city is home to three central universities, two deemed universities, and six state universities. Among them is the Osmania University, established in 1917, which is the seventh oldest university in India and the third oldest in South India.[63] Hyderabad Central University (University of Hyderabad), National Academy of Legal Studies & Research (Nalsar), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, English and Foreign Languages University and Dr. BR Ambedkar Open University are other famous universities which are present in the city.[64] Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, a well known educational institution in the field of Agriculture is located on the outskirts of the city.

The Indian School of Business, a top ranking business school which attracts students from all over the world is present at Gachibowli, Hyderabad.

Indian School of Business at Hyderabad, ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010[65]

There are many engineering colleges in and around Hyderabad. Among the pre-eminent engineering colleges located in the city are the Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, International Institute of Information Technology, Osmania University College of Engineering (OUCE), a campus of BITS Pilani,Osmania University's College of Technology (OUCT), CBIT,VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology,JNTU, M.V.S.R College of Engineering,Vasavi College of Engineering, Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,University of Hyderabad a premier institute of higher education & research and GITAM University Hyderabad Campus are located in this city. Important medical institutions include Gandhi Medical College, Osmania Medical College and several other private medical colleges, such as Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Shadan medical college. Fly-Tech Aviation Academy and Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy are those amongst the best institutes in the aviation field.

Hyderabad is home to numerous research institutes, including the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), National Geophysical Research Institute(NGRI)(NGRI), IRISET for railway signal engineering and ICRISAT. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) along with DRDL and DERL has research centres in Hyderabad to develop communication and radar systems and for the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Nuclear energy sector has a large presence with three organisations under Department of Atomic Energy (India) including the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) and Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL).[43]

Hyderabad can host the international conferences at a large scale. Hyderabad has been chosen to host the prestigious International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM),[66] in August, 2010. It is expected that more than 4000 Mathematicians from all over world will be participating in this conference.

Media

Prasads IMAX Theatre houses the largest IMAX-3D in the world.[67]
Ravindra Bharathi, a well known center for arts and theatre in the city

Hyderabad is home to the largest film industry in India by sheer number of films it produces, Telugu cinema, also known as Tollywood which produces approximately three hundred movies every year. Saradhi Studios, Annapurna Studios, Ramanaidu Studios, Ramakrishna Studios, Padmalaya Studios, Ramoji Film City (the largest Film Studio in India) are some of the notable film studios in the city. The first Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF) was organised in 2007 by the Hyderabad Film Club and Andhra Pradesh Film Directors Association.The largest IMAX 3D Theatre in the Asia and has powerful projector in the world with24 optical focus is Prasads IMAX along with 4D Simulator at Hyderabad, India. Inox, PVR Cinemas, Cine Planet, Cinemax, BIG Cinemas and Talkie Town are some other multiplexes in Hyderabad. In the near future 17 more multiplexes are coming up in the areas like Kukatpally, Kacheguda etc.[68]

Ravindra Bharati located at Saifabad, is an important and well known center for theatre and performing arts in the city. Many artists from around the world perform here regularly. Lalithakala Thoranam, Shilpakala Vedika are also similar centers for arts and theatre. State-of-the-art Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC) or simply HITEX is the first of its kind in South Asia and is comparable to the world's best convention centers.[69]

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR Vividh Bharathi FM (102.8 MHz), AIR Rainbow FM (101.9 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM (91.1 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (107.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial television channels and one satellite television channel from Hyderabad. Some prominent private regional television channels broadcasting from Hyderabad are ABN - TV9, MAA TV, I-News, Andhrajyothy news, ETV,ATV,Gemini, Teja, Zee Telugu, ETV Urdu, ETV2, Sakshi TV, NTV, TV5, RTV, Bhakthi TV, Local TV.[70]

Hyderabad has three print media groups that publish several newspapers and magazines in Telugu, Urdu, Hindi and English. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu, Sakshi, Suryaa, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Bhoomi and Praja Shakti. The major English dailies are The Times of India, The Hindu, The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The New Indian Express and The Economic Times. Hyderabad publishes more number of Urdu dailies than any other Indian city. The major Urdu dailies are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, Etemaad, Rehnuma-e-Deccan, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara and The Daily Milap

Hyderabad is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are four fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Tata Indicom, Reliance and Airtel. There are ten mobile phone companies in which GSM players include Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Idea, Tata DoCoMo, Reliance, Aircel; CDMA services offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance currently, with Spice Telecom soon to launch its services.

Sports

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket stadium

Cricket and Field hockey are the most popular sports in the city. Hyderabad Sultans won the inaugural Premier Hockey League championship in 2005. The city took pride in hosting National Games and Afro-Asian Games. Hyderabad 10k Run is a marathon event conducted every year.[29]

The earliest stadium built in the city is the Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium. Formerly known as Fateh Maidan, it was, till recently, the city's only stadium that could conduct International cricket matches. The first cricket match played here was on 19 November 1955. The stadium is currently being used to conduct ICL matches. The new Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium at Uppal has a capacity of approximately 55,000 spectators and is being enhanced to have world class facilities. It houses an ultra-modern gymnasium along with a swimming pool.[71]

Famous sports persons of International stature from Hyderabad include Ghulam Ahmed, Mohammed Azharuddin,VVS Laxman (Cricket), Syed Abdul Rahim,[72], Sania Mirza (Lawn Tennis), Pullela Gopichand, Jwala Gutta, Saina Nehwal, Chetan Anand (Badminton),Mukesh Kumar(Hockey).

Hyderabad's Deccan Chargers franchise in the Indian Premier League was bought by Deccan Chronicle for USD 107 million. Deccan Chargers won the title for the year 2009. The city also has an ICL team named Hyderabad Heroes.[26]

The city houses the Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex, the G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium at Gachibowli for hockey and football and a sophisticated Velodrome for cycling at Osmania University. The city has state-of-the-art venues for gymnastics, archery and sepak takraw, shooting at Saroornagar Indoor Arena and University of Hyderabad respectively. The Aquatics Complex Stadium at Gachibowli, with a capacity of 3000 spectators hosts swimming, diving, water polo and synchronized events. Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Reddy Indoor Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium with a capacity of 2500 spectators and wooden flooring with temperature control. SAAP Tennis Complex has a central court that holds 5000 spectators and has seven courts with synthetic surface. Water games like rowing, yachting, kayaking and canoeing are conducted at Hussain Sagar lake. The city also has five Go-Karting tracks and a Paint Ball Field. There are venues for table-tennis, basketball, equestrianism, boxing, weight-lifting with world class facilities. Hyderabad is fast becoming the hub of motosports events in AP, the Andhra Pradesh motor sports club (APMSC) which was started way back in 1977, has been instrumental in organising popular events like the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag, TSD Rallies, 4x4 Off road in the recent past which received participation from all corners of India.

The city is well known for Horse racing. The Hyderabad Race Club formerly known as the Nizam Race Club is located at Malakpet. The Hyderabad race club attracts jockeys from all over the country by conducting various derbys/events here. The Deccan derby, a popular annual event is a regular feature here. The winter races also were conducted here recently. Badminton events take place at the Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Stadium and also at Gachibowli stadiums, and also played by youth and veterans in locality parks.

Tourist attractions

  • Charminar - the major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets located in the south of the city. It was built in gratitude by the founder of Hyderabad Muhammed Quli Qutb Shah to mark the end of the plague epidemic and as a tribute to Hussain. It is in the midst of Charkaman which are four archaways leading to roads in all four directions of the Charminar monument.
  • Golconda Fort - Golkonda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India. Seated on a hill on one side and spiraling fort on the other, its location and internal design made it one of the strongest forts in the world.
  • Mecca Masjid - is one of the oldest mosques and the biggest mosque in Hyderabad.
  • Birla Mandir is Lord Venkateswara temple in the centre of the city and built entirely in white marble.
  • Qutb Shahi Tombs - Home to various Tombs dedicated to Rulers of Qutub Shahi dynasty, located at Shaikpet, near Golkonda Fort. These are an example of Deccan architecture with large minarets, huge domes, delicate marble designs and multiple inner passages.
  • Chowmahalla Palace- It was the seat of Asaf Jahi dynasty, where the Nizam entertained his official guests and royal visitors. Initiated in 1750 by Nizam Salabat Jung and designed along the lines of the Shah's palace in Isfahan, this actually consists of a group of palaces each used as a Durbar Hall. It has now been aesthetically renovated and is also venue for conferences.
  • Falaknuma Palace - Built by an Italian architect through one of the Paigah nobles, Nawab Viqar al-Umra', complete in Italian marble. It is a beautiful and stunning piece of architecture with Louis XIV-style decor, a lavish Mughal ambience, Italian marble staircases and ornate fountains. It has now been undertaken by Taj group to develop this as Heritage Hotel.
  • Hussain Sagar - It is a man-made lake built by Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali situated in the heart of the city and has a 19-metre tall Buddha statue on a platform island called Rock of Gibraltar present in the middle of the lake. Located on its banks is Tank Bund which consists of beautiful gardens and statues of famous personalities.
  • Hyderabad Pearls - Hyderabad has always been referred to as the “city of pearls” even though it is far away from the sea. The most famous pearl market in Hyderabad is at Pathergatti.
  • Necklace road - This popular boulevard lies on the other side of the lake, linking the IMAX theatre and Sanjeevaiah park. This has become the-place-to-be for the Hyderabadis in the evenings. This strip provides a scenic atmosphere with lush lawns and long rows of flower beds. Eat-Street, Water Front are popular restaurants located on this strip. The latest addition to this strip is the Jala Vihar, a mini water world designed to soothe your senses. PV Ghat is also situated in memory of PV Narasimha Rao.
  • Ramoji Film City (RFC) - It is the world’s largest integrated film studio cum theme park, at nearly 3,000 acres (8 km²). It is also one of Asia’s most popular tourism and recreation centres. Recently, it has made its way to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the largest film studio in the world. Opened in 1996, it is about 20 min. drive from Hyderabad on Vijayawada Highway.
  • Salar Jung Museum - The museum houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world. Collections includeThe Veiled Rebecca and other huge collection of artifacts dating back to a few centuries. A mere day is not enough to cover the whole museum.
  • Lumbini Park - Lumbini Park is a small public, urban park of 7.5 acres (0.030 km2; 0.0117 sq mi) adjacent to Hussain Sagar lake in the busy Necklace Road area. It has large tourist attractions. It is being maintained by Buddha Purnima Project Authority since 2000.[73] One of the major terrorist acts took place here on 25 August 2007 in which 44 people were killed.[74][75]
  • Taramati Baradari - Taramati Baradari is a palace located near Gandipet lake , that was built under the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah, the Seventh Sultan of Golconda as an ode to his favorite courtesan, Taramati. It is celebrated as an amalgam of the romance and grace of the Middle Ages.The baradari with 12 doorways were to allow cross ventilation, considered to be the most ingenious technique at the time.
  • Osman Sagar - Osman sagar was created by dam constructed on the Musi River in 1920, for providing drinking water source for Hyderabad, and also for saving the city from floods, which the city witnessed in 1908. It was constructed during the reign of the last Nizam of Hyderabad, Osman Ali Khan, hence the name. It is a popular tourist destination, especially after the rainy season when the reservoir is full, and its parks, resorts, amusement park are a major attraction. This lake had served drinking water for Hyderabad city but due to increase in population it is now unable to provide sufficient water supply to Hyderabad and so it is now just used for public recreation.

Sister cities

See also

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External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Hyderabad is the fifth largest city in india being a major train/road/air hub. Having many tourist places like Salarjung museum,golconda,falaknuma,chow mohalla palaces, and masjids.


This article uses material from the "Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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