|— City District —|
|- Nazim||Kanwar Naveed Jamil|
|- Naib nazim||Zafar Rajput|
|- Total||3,198 km2 (1,234.8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||13 m (43 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|- Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Hyderabad (help·info) (Sindhi/Urdu:حیدرآباد) Haidarābād) is the second largest city in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the sixth largest city in the country. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with river water.
The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.
Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.
Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to palaeontologists world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions. It is also home to one of the oldest universities in the region, the University of Sindh.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort.
After the death of the great Kalhoro, started the Talpur dynasty. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The Baloch Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annex Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed an peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobised his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When the General Napier heard that the Talpur Amir has demobilised his Baloch army he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss, their Fort was plundered, thousands were killed and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma - never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonia empire.
At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muslims faced communal violence and genocide in northern India and they escaped and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. This hostility translated into communal tension in Hyderabad between Muslim refugees and local Hindus. When the independence occurred, Sindhi Hindus expected to remain in Sindh. However were forced to flee due to communal violence, leaving behind everything. Sindhi Hindus had expected to return to their Sindh, once the violence settled but it was not possible.
The massive migration of Muslim refugees escaping genocide in India raised the population levels of the city to extremes and the Government proposed the creation of two new suburban towns, Latifabad and Qasimabad. The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the Sindhis and the Muhajirs. Chaos led to bloodshed and as a result Sindhis retreated to settlements in Qasimabad and the Muhajirs settled down in Latifabad. The city being scarred thenceforth is ethnically divided to date.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Located at 25.367°N latitude and 68.367°E longitude with an elevation of 13 m (43 ft) AMSL, Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 km away from Karachi, the capital of the province. Hyderabad is the second largest city in Sindh, eighth largest in Pakistan and 209th largest city of the world with respect to population. Its population estimates to 1,348,288 (as of 2000). Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 km, Jamshoro at 8.1 km, Hattri at 5 km and Husri at 7.5 km.
The city features a hot arid climate, with extremely hot summers and mild winters. Hyderabad has an extreme climate. The days are hot and dry usually going up to extreme highs of 40°C, whilst the nights are cool and breezy. Winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is pleasant and clean.
In recent years Hyderabad has seen spills of heavy downpour. In Feb 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres of rain in 12 hours contributing towards a sudden climate change welcomed only as Global Warming. Years 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death toll estimated in hundreds all together. Although on July 18, 2009 a total of 110mm rain lashed the city, setting a new record.
Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries include textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
Pakistani government recently discovered a large gas deposit in hydrabad
The city of Hyderabad is where the district headquarters are located and the district government is seated. The current nazim for the Hyderabad district is Kanwar Naveed Jamil. Since his election as the official mayor, he had been successful in initiating major development projects throughout the city. The primary concerns that he had targeted as a result of these development efforts in 2007 were that of traffic congestion, supply of fresh drinking water, sewerage and garbage management, medical aid and schools for the poor. The naib nazim is Zafar Ali Rajput.
The government of the city does not yet support fully functional e-governance and has no website but the District Government of Hyderabad liberally uses the television as a mode of communication with the people of the city instructing them on public issues and awareness about projects under way. As of 2008, the district Hyderabad enabled its e-governance platform to support people via the Internet and other new media platforms.
Before the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the District Hyderabad included in the present-day District of Badin, Matairi, Tando Allahyar and Tando Mohammad Khan. Then after about 30 years the District Hyderabad was again subdivided into four talukhas of its own. These four districts are the smallest districts of the Sindh province.
In light of the above development criteria, the Hyderabad Government has constructed flyover in Latifabad Unit # 7 to relieve the traffic congestion on the GCD road. Due to the success of this project, five more flyover projects has been started.
Two filter plants to filter fresh water have been installed costing about Rs. 80,000,000. Their inclusion in the water system would ensure continuous supply of clean drinking water. The filter plants at the time of writing are 90% complete and would be functional by mid-2008.
While 19 police stations along with three police stations with own web development team Like 1) Police station Cantonment(www.pscant.4t.com) .2)Police station GOR(www.psgor.4t.com). 3) Police station Makki shah(www.psmakkishah.4t.com)are valuable addition to district police Hyderabad. Two new police stations 1)PS Air Port 2)PS Bhudhani have been formed to combat crime.
Hyderabad is noteworthy in Sindh and Pakistan generally for its relative tolerance towards religious and ethnic affairs. During the partition 1947 a large number of Muslim refugees migrated to Hyderabad. Nowadays, native Sindhis and non-Sindhi speaking Sindhis live in harmony after a brief history of conflict. A large influx of Pakhtuns and Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis mixed with the local population however most Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station and its vicinity. The city therefore has ben regarded to have a sizeable diaspora.
Hindus account for the largest minority forming 10% of the total population of the city. While Christians account for just 2% of the total population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches and a cathedral.
Despite its strategic location and thrifty people the city is under the shadow of Karachi and yet to make its mark economically. One reason for this is the artificial factional and sectarian isolation imposed after the riots of late 1980s and early 1990s which cleft the urban population.
Hyderabad has a cricket stadium called the Niaz Stadium, with a seating capacity of 25,000 known for the first ever hat-trick taken by a bowler in a one-day international (ODI) match in 1982. Many cricket test matches were played at Niaz Stadium. Nowadays many visiting test playing countries refuse to play in Hyderabad because of lack of 5 star hotel. Hyderabad also has a hockey stadium. There is another stadium in Latifabad called Board Stadium mostly catering to school sports under the supervision of BISE (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education) Hyderabad.
The pre independence days were horrible educationwise for Muslims of Hyderabad. As there was only one school where Muslim students could study was Noor Mohammad High School. Which was founded by famous Sindhi educationist Noor Mohammad. All other schools admitted only Hindu students.
The city being a gateway between the rural Sindh and the Greater Sindh, attracts students from the lesser developed regions of Sindh. Hyderabad has a huge number of schools, colleges and Universities.
A nerve center of Sindh nationalist and literary movements, the city now have better education facilities and new universities, colleges and school established. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to sub-continental society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.
The University of Sindh  is the dominant player in educational reforms since its inception in 1947. The University of Sindh,the second oldest university of the country, was constituted under the University of Sindh Act. No. XVII of 1947 passed by the Legislative Assembly of Sindh. It was founded in Karachi and relocated to Hyderabad in 1951, only because the city was re-enacted as the capital of the province of Sindh. It has 32 colleges affiliated with it. Other universities like the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences serve the interests of a wide range of other specialized subjects. Whilst people prefer to go to this technological and medical universities in the city, universities like the Sindh Agriculture University in Tando Jam focusing primarily on agriculture and horticulture, are highly preferred as well. Other universities in the private sector include University of East and Isra University.
Most of the colleges are affiliated with the universities above but some enjoy repute built of time like the oldest being the Government Degree College now renamed Government College of Technology with its high- and secondary-school affiliations with the Government High School who celebrate alumni like Mirza Kalich Beg & best Collage in Hyderabad is Muslim Science Collage at Tower Market area.
Hyderabad is home to a few museums that store the cultural heritage of this land of religious and ethnic diversity. The Institute of Sindhology Museum and the Sindh Museum are a haven for Sindhi enthusiasts in ethnological contexts. Sindh Museum also hosts archæological treasures from Amri. Whilst there are a few libraries in the city, most of them are in a sad state. There is a children's library opposite Lady Duffrin Hospital on Station road, very few people know about its existence. Work is going on Moullana Hasrat Mohani library near pukka kila main gate in the homestead hall building. Allama Daudpota Library near Sindh Museum in Qasimabad stores literary work dating back to the earliest Sindhi text.
Serving as a socio-economic crossroad to the lesser developed cities and towns in Sindh and linking and networking them with the bigger towns and cities in the nation, Hyderabad holds importance as a vital transportation link via every service. It can be reached by every mean of transportation, be it air, land, water or rail.
The city has a modestly good airport. The operation was stopped for some years but the airport has started operating again from late 2008. There are 2 flights every week from Hyderabad. Currently the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines, operates prop aircraft into the city with flights to other cities within Pakistan.
Hyderabad has a decent road network, but most of the roads are being redone by the National Highway Authority. Hyderabad is deemed the most important milestone on the National Highway which passes through the city. The highway divides into Route N5 going southwest and M9 going north while it forks into the KLP (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Faislabad) Road and the Hala Road. Over the years, the M9 has had massive construction work to include six lanes across its 136 km span being the most used highway in Pakistan while the N5 has two lanes to cater to its lesser traffic needs. However, the public has stressed to improve the conditions of the roads within Hyderabad.
There are seven large bus terminals within the city. Some of the most busiest are the Badin Bus Stop near SITE, Tando Bago Coach Stop, Jacobabad-Larkana Bus Stop at Pathan Colony, Nawab Shah Bus Stand at Halla Nakka, Sanghar Coach Stop near Civil Hospital, Karachi Bus Stand near Qasim Chowk and Sammi Daewoo Bus Service To Karachi at Auto-Bhan Road and Latifabad U7.
Hyderabad has a rich rail history. From the starting days of the Scinde Railways to the purchase of the private railway company by the North-Western Railway now Pakistan Railways, Hyderabad has been a major junction on the rail-line, where railway lines proceed in at least three directions: northwards (up-country), southwards (down-country) and eastwards. The railway station is called the Hyderabad Junction. It was built under the British rule in 1890. The city with increasing need of transport facility is still facing a real trouble with respect to the rail transport. One full fledged while two little stations in detha and tando jam are not satisfying the demands for rail travel.
With the city at the banks of the Indus River, the fishermen tend to use riverboats to fish and travel across the waters. Riverboats are not accessible to general public but local fishermen, in attempts of making money for their daily ration, sail people aboard their fishing ferries at Al-manzar, a restaurant at the banks of the Indus.
As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders. Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Dr. Syed Mehboob and Ghulam Mustafa Khan also hail from Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention are the dailies Kawish, Ibrat, and Daily Sindh.
With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.
A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad's richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh. Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.
Whilst radio was gaining popularity, bulky television screens showed the broadcast of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon. Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television. Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a broadcasting station in Hyderabad.
While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.
As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002, and Daily Kawish, a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premièring Sindhi content.
Prof:Syed Qavi Ahmed,renewed educationist, S.K.Rahim, Founder of City College,Hyderabad.
The Hyderabad city takes its name from word ‘Hyder’ the title of Prophet Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, Ali. Kalhora ruler, Mian Ghulam Shah built fort at the site of the old town of ‘Nirun Kot’ and gave it its name – Hyderabad in mid 18th century. The city was made capital of Sindh under Kalhoras. It expanded, progressed and flourished more under the later Talpur rulers.
Traditionally, old city buildings are topped by ‘Manghu’ or ‘badgir’ which looks like chimneys on roof tops. They catch the cool breezes which blow steadily from south-west to north-east during the hot summer days beginning in late April. In few old sections of the town, cows still roam the streets giving it a distinctly medieval atmosphere.
Hyderabad can be reached from Karachi, where the international airport is located by (1) buses, (2) rented cars and taxis, (3) trains. Travel time by road through better and preferred ‘Super Highway’ is about two hours, whereas travel time through the road via Thatta is about three and half hours. Some travelers may prefer to come Hyderabad via Thatta as this picturesque historical city of Sindh is included in World Heritage List of UNESCO. Trains to Hyderabad start from ‘City’ and ‘Cant’ Train Stations of Karachi.
Travelers, coming from the north of Pakistan can come through (1) trains or (2) by road (buses or cars) through National Highway (on left side of River Indus) or Indus Highway (on right side of the River Indus). Travelers coming from Lahore, Punjab, would prefer to come through National Highway or by Lahore - Karachi trains, whereas travelers coming from Quetta, Balochistan would prefer to use Indus Highway or Quetta - Karachi trains.
Travelers from India can reach Hyderabad through train. The train from Indiain town of Monabao would enter Sindh near Khokhrapar and then reach Hyderabad via Mirpurkhas. Or one can stop at Mirpurkhas and then travel by road to Hyderabad.
In Hyderabad one can go to different parts of the city and suburbs by rented cars or taxis. Within city auto rickshaws provide cheap and quick transportation. Local buses are alternate cheap way to go to different areas, however, the bus system is not well developed and difficult for outside visitors to follow. Visitors should preferably take taxi for city tour and for going from one place to another auto rickshaws are fine (provided one is not afraid of dusty environment as there are no doors in auto rickshaws). Suzuki passenger pick-ups are yet another means of transport within city limits. This is however, more preferred way for going to Jamshoro, where University of Sindh, Institute of Sindhology and its museum and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) is located. The main and the largest tertiary care hospital of Sindh, outside Karachi, the LUMHS Hospital or the Jamshoro Hospital, as it is commonly known as, is also located in Jamshoro and accessible through these passenger pick-ups.
Hyderabad Fort (Packo Qilo): The fort built by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro is the best landmark of the Hyderabad and a 'must see' for visitors.
Rani Bagh is the most famous park of the city.
In the north of the city are the tombs of the Talpur Mirs and the Kalhora rulers. The tomb of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro is one of the finest, although its dome collapsed and has now been replaced by a flat roof.
Also worth to visit is the Institute of Sindhology Museum at the University of Sindh. It has dioramas which display many aspects of Sindhi history, heritage, music and culture. Some very interesting dioramas depict the lifestyles of the desert tribes of Thar and Kohistan.
Karakorum Explorers www.karakorumexplorers.com.pk
In Hyderabad one can do many things. Some of these include:
Hyderabad Fort or ‘Packo Qilo’: One of the 'must do' in Hyderabad is to see the historic Hyderabad Fort or ‘Packo Qilo’. Though the ‘Packo Qilo’ is not well maintained and in worst condition due to negligence, it is something one must not miss to see from outside. There is nothing to see inside as most of the area inside the compound has been inhabited by people who migrated from India in mass exchange of populations in 1947. The main gate of the fort and one building of the Talpur Mirs is still there for visitors to see and take photographs.
Sindh Museum: The Sindh Museum has many nice items on display which depict the history and heritage of Sindh and Indus Valley Civilization. Items from various ruling periods of Sindh, including Sama, Soomra, Kalhora and Talpur periods can be found in the museum.
Old Houses of Hirabad and Amil Colony: These areas are not well kept and victim of unorganized haphazard development in post-1947 period. However, one can still see the buildings or pre-1947 times with wonderful architecture and facades. The streets of these areas were washed with water containing rose and sandalwood essences in pre-1947 British times.
The River Indus: See the River Indus, especially in the months of late July and August, when it flows full and weather is cloudy due to Monsoon season. It is worth to go there and eat fried or grilled ‘Pallo’ fish.
Badshahi Bungalow (Kings Bungalow): It is wonderful palace of Prince Mir Hassan Ali Khan Talpur, the son of the last ruler of Hyderabad, His Highness Mir Naseer Khan Talpur. It is owned by one of his descendent. His permission and appointment is required to see it from inside. However, one can see it from outside anytime. It is located a Tando of Talpur Mir near Latifabad Unit No. 4. If one can get appointment, one can have chat with Talpur Mirs and also see the palace from inside.
Resham Ghiti and Shahi Bazaar: The visitor of Hyderabad must go to see and shop in these narrow lane bazaars which are several kilometers long . The word Shahi is derived from the word 'Shah' which means 'kings'. This bazaar is known as Shahi Bazaar because it was first established by Kalhora ruler who, when changed the capital of Sindh from Khudabad to Hyderabad, persuaded many traders to come and start trading at this bazaar. It starts from the very gate of the Packo Qilo Fort and extends up to the Naval Rai Clock Tower. The Reshm Ghati is lateral extension of Shahi Bazaar. Large variety of glass bangles, Sindhi 'Kundan' gold jewellery as well as imitation jewellery can be bought from Resham Ghiti.
A similar extension of Shahi Bazaar, albeit with different kind of shops is the Chhotki Ghiti, located at some distance from the ReshamGhiti. Electronics,electric items and crockery shops can be found in the Chhotki Ghiti.
The Bombay Bakery: In Hyderabad, a visit to the Bombay Bakery is 'a must'. Try its speciality cakes. The Macaroon cake is their speciality, however, plain cake, coffee and chocolate cakes are equally wonderful in taste. One can keep these cakes for two weeks or more. Many bakeries have tried to copy the flavor and taste of the Bombay Bakery cakes but failed. They also make three types of cookies. The Bombay Bakery is located at a very convenient place in the Cantonment Shopping area.
==Eat== * pan hyderabad famous pan at paka kila chowk
However, KFC, McDonalds and Pizza Hut are also available in the city
There are many cheap hotels in Hyderabad. Main hotels suited for foreign tourists are
For within country visitors, there are many very cheap hotels near train station and in 'Gaddi Khatto' area.
|This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!|
Hyderabad (Urdu, Sindhi: حیدرآباد; pronounced [Haidarābād]) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro on the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus River known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ).
Hyderabad used to be the capital of Sindh. Now it is the capital of the district of Hyderabad. Before the starting of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with perfumed rose-water every day and sandalwood incense would linger the air.
There are many prominent people who belong to Hyderabad Sindh. Among them Dr.Ghulam Mustafa, Filmstar Muhammad Ali, Dr.Amir Liaqauat, Speaker National Asembly fahmida Mirza, Qazi Asad Abid, Mustafa Qureshi, Dr.Syed Mehboob, a writer and columnist, also born and educated in Hyderabad.