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.Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.^ Hydroelectric power (HEP) uses the force of moving water to create electricity.

^ At hydroelectric projects, this water is used as fuel to generate electricity.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydropower is the power of flowing water to create energy.
  • Hydroelectric-Renewable Energy Resources and Infrastructure GIS Data for the Gas-Oil Industry 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.rextagstrategies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.^ Hydroelectricity happens to be one of the most popular and widely-practiced forms of renewable energy .
  • Hydroelectricity Pros and Cons 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How renewable energy sources are used .

^ It is the most widely used form of renewable energy .
  • Hydroelectricity on Briteindustrial 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC briteindustrial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.^ Hydroelectric power-renewable energy source .
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric power produces no chemical or waste heat pollution.

^ Biofuels are liquid fuels produced from plants.
  • Renewable Energy Sources in the United States 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Worldwide, an installed capacity of 777 GWe supplied 2998 TWh of hydroelectricity in 2006.[1] This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources.^ Hydroelectric power-renewable energy source .
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric power supplies 20% of world electricity.
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.therenewableenergycentre.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source..

[2]

Contents

Electricity generation

Hydroelectric dam in cross section
.Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.^ Most hydroelectric power plants have a dam and a reservoir.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In the past, most of the hydroelectric power generation has been confined to waterfalls and dammed streams.
  • US Patent 7262517 - Hydro-electric power generating system 20 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most of this hydroelectric power is generated by large power stations.
  • Hydroelectric Power 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.argotrade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case the energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow.^ Hydro Electricity may be extracted from water but it depends not only on the volume of water but also on the difference in height between the top of the penstock and where the water spins the turbine.

^ The capacity of this energy depends on the height between the source and the water’s outflow, and the volume of the water in the reservoir.
  • Hydroelectric | ElementOne 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC elementone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of electricity extracted from the water depends on the volume of the water as well as the height between the source and the water’s outflow from the turbine, often referred to as the head .

.This height difference is called the head.^ This height difference is called the head .
  • Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference of the height is called the head.
  • Hydroelectric | ElementOne 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC elementone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This height difference is called the head.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydro electricity - explained 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.electricityforum.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head.^ From this "head", it can be determined the exact amount of potential energy that can be converted.

^ The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head.
  • Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of potential energy in water is directly proportional to the head.
  • hydro electricity - explained 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.electricityforum.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To obtain very high head, water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock.^ The reservoir then provides a 'head' of water that can be directed through a turbine.

^ When that happens, the very large amount of water, with considerable inertia, that was headed for the turbine via pipes called penstocks now has nowhere to go.
  • Slashdot News Story | Fatal Explosion At Russian Hydroelectric Dam 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC news.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ The water is falling (moving) from the reservoir towards the turbines through the penstock.
  • Dynamic Energy Transformations: Hydroelectric Power Plants 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Reference]

[3]
.Pumped storage hydroelectricity produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.^ This temperature difference can be used to produce electricity.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ When demand is low, electricity is used to pump water from an upper basin reservoir to a lower basin reservoir.
  • Hydroelectricity - RitchieWiki 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Does hydroelectricity produce most of the electricity?
  • Work natu 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.^ At hydroelectric projects, this water is used as fuel to generate electricity.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electricity can be generated when demand increases.

^ Electricity can be stored for later use by using excess production to pump water to a higher altitude facility until it is released again to generate electricity.
  • ENERGEX - Switched ON - Power up - Hydroelectric 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.energex.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.^ When water is released from the reservoir through the dam, the force of the water is used to spin the blades of a turbine.
  • Rezachek & Associates' Energy & Environmental Resources - Renewable Energy - Hydroelectric 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.sustainablehawaii.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back through a turbine to the lower reservoir to generate electricity.

^ The reservoir then provides a 'head' of water that can be directed through a turbine.

.Pumped storage schemes currently provide the only commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system.^ Pumped storage schemes currently provide the only commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily load factor of the generation system.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pumped storage plants currently provide the only commercially important means for energy storage on a scale useful for a utility.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illustration of a hydroelectric pumped-storage system 1 .
  • The Systems Realization Laboratory - Pumped-Storage Hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.srl.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then possible to store water.^ What if we could make a reservoir of water, like hydroelectric plants do?
  • Hydro Electric Power As a Viable Alternative? | FixingThePlanet.com 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fixingtheplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Water is stored behind a dam in a reservoir.

^ Hydroelectric power plants Water Power Thomas Edison Rivers .
  • Search Results Windows on Maine: Video and Multimedia about Maine for Students and Teachers 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC windowsonmaine.library.umaine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods.^ During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back through a turbine to the lower reservoir to generate electricity.

^ What if we could make a reservoir of water, like hydroelectric plants do?
  • Hydro Electric Power As a Viable Alternative? | FixingThePlanet.com 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fixingtheplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Underground springs supply the water used to generate power.
  • Idaho Power - About Us - Our Power Plants - Hydroelectric 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.idahopower.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels.^ Less common variations make use of water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as tidal power .
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where does hydroelectric energy come from? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ As water falls, it gains kinetic energy.
  • Alternative energy sources: Energy generation and storage using water 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.hk-phy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Calculating the amount of available power

.A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is: P = ρhrgk, where P is Power in watts, ρ is the density of water (~1000 kg/m3), h is height in meters, r is flow rate in cubic meters per second, g is acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m/s2, and k is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 1. Efficiency is often higher (that is, closer to 1) with larger and more modern turbines.^ Use of flowing water to create electricity is called hydroelectric energy.

^ The electrical power output has to take regard of the efficiencies of the turbine and generator.
  • Hydro Electric 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.devondare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wave power is determined by wave height, wave speed, wave length, and water density.
  • Work natu 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply.^ Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of that, the danger of melting of the greatest snow repositories after the polar regions could shut down the only water supply option available for Nepal.
  • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: News]

^ Small local hydro sites may also be economical, particularly if they combine storage of water during light loads with electricity production during peaks.
  • hydroelectric power -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.^ In some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, once a hydroelectric plant is built, its output cannot be increased or modified, because water energy power is determined by the weight of water as well as the rate of flow, and these factors cannot be changed later.
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence two quantities are required: a Flow Rate of water Q, and a Head H. It is generally better to have more head than more flow, since this keeps the equipment smaller.
  • Good Energy's information on hydro power and renewable electricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.goodenergy.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Industrial hydroelectric plants

.While many hydroelectric projects supply public electricity networks, some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises.^ Hydroelectric dams create and supply electrical power.
  • Dams and Hydroelectricity / Radio Scripts / Farm Radio International 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC farmradio.org [Source type: General]

^ While many hydroelectric schemes supply public electricity networks, some projects were created for private commercial purposes.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many supply public electricity networks, some projects were created for private commercial purposes.
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example.^ Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insulators 98 provide electrical insulation as needed.

^ For example, aluminium processing requires substantial amounts of electricity, and often dedicated hydroelectric projects are built to serve aluminium electrolytic plants.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Scottish Highlands of United Kingdom, there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber, constructed during the early years of the 20th century.^ For example, aluminium processing requires substantial amounts of electricity, and in Britain 's Scottish Highlands there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber , designed and constructed during the early years of the 20th century.
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aluminium processing requires substantial amounts of electricity, and in Britain's Scottish Highlands there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber, designed and constructed during the early years of the 20th century.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Scottish Highlands there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber, constructed during the early years of the 20th century.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Grand Coulee Dam, long the world's largest, switched to support Alcoa aluminum in Bellingham, Washington, United States for American World War II airplanes before it was allowed to provide irrigation and power to citizens (in addition to aluminum power) after the war.^ It provides a source of power, irrigation, and recreation.
  • The Making of a Dam 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC www.miamisci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Grand Coulee Dam is the third largest hydroelectric dam in the world.

^ World War II - - The postwar period .
  • Norway :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In Suriname, the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry.^ In Suriname, the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, the 'van Blommestein' lake, dam and power station were constructed in Suriname to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry.
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reservoir of water resulting from dam construction, which is essentially stored energy, can support fisheries and preserves, and provide various forms of water-based recreation for locals and tourists.
  • Renewable Energy, Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.altenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Zealand's Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point.^ Oldest hydro-electric power stations: .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Largest hydro-electric power stations .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity at AllExperts 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Zealand's Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2007 the Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project in Iceland remains controversial.^ As of 2007 the Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project in Iceland remains controversial.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technology remains highly controversial, however, given the broad impact on local land and water resources that often attend large dam projects.
  • Hydroelectric Power News - The New York Times 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ China’s plans for expanding its electricity capacity through large-scale hydropower projects are progressing, but international concern remains in the forefront of some of the more controversial plans.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Largest hydro-electric plants

The Yangtze River at Hubei, China showing the Three Gorges Dam (left), Gezhouba Dam (right).
.The Three Gorges Dam complex on the Yangtze River in Hubei, China, has the world's largest generating capacity and generates the most electricity in the world.^ Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity .
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The controversial Three Gorges Dam in China remains the world’s largest dam structure.

^ Use a stream or river to generate electricity .
  • Small scale hydro power - Mini & micro hydro power systems - Energy Saving Trust 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.energysavingtrust.org.uk [Source type: General]

.It includes 2 generating stations.^ This facility which is generally located near the power station includes transformers for changing the voltage for transmission though the power grid and connecting cables to the transmission system.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The method may include placing the generating station above the water level of the water body.
  • Hydroelectric power plant and method of generating power - Patent application 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The generating station 18 includes at least one electrical generator 19, such as a generator that converts rotational energy to electricity, as known in the art.
  • Hydroelectric power plant and method of generating power - Patent application 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.They are the Three Gorges Dam (22,500 MW when completed) and Gezhouba Dam (3,115 MW).^ Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilisu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest by far is the Three Gorges Dam project in China which created a reservoir for over 400 miles.
  • Large Hydroelectric Systems 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC energybible.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, historically and culturally important sites can be lost, such as the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilisu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2009, the total generating capacity of this complex is 21,515 MW. The whole project is planned to be completed in 2011, when the total generating capacity will be 25,615 MW. In 2008, this complex generated 97.9 TWh of electricity.^ The total generating capacity is 25.615MW is not done get it will be completed in 2011.
  • Work natu 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It accounted for 6% of total U.S. electricity generation and 67% of generation from renewables in 2008.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ This will provide a total of 18,200 MW of electricity generating capacity [2] .
  • Alternative energy sources: Energy generation and storage using water 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.hk-phy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.The Itaipu power plant on the Paraná River on the Brazil-Paraguay border currently produces second most hydroelectricity in the world.^ Most hydroelectric power plants have a dam and a reservoir.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Canada is the world's largest hydroelectric power producer.
  • Hydroelectric Power - dam, building, river, percentage, largest, hydro, system, plants, source, human, Pacific 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.waterencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Hydroelectric power plants -- China -- Yangtze River .

.With 20 generator units and 14,000 MW of installed capacity, in 2008 the Itaipu power plant reached a new historic record for electricity production by generating 94.68 terawatt-hours (340,800 TJ).^ Assumes an average new coal plant generating capacity of 600 MW. .
  • How Hydrokinetic Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia launches new power plant .
  • Hydroelectric Power News - The New York Times 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Ontario Power Generation has reached its maximum diversion capacity.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Small-scale hydro-electric plants

.Although large hydroelectric installations generate most of the world's hydroelectricity, some situations require small hydro plants.^ Most of this hydroelectric power is generated by large power stations.
  • Hydroelectric Power 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.argotrade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although large hydroelectric installations generate most of the world's hydroelectricity, small hydro schemes are particularly popular in China, which has over 50% of world small hydro capacity.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small-scale hydro-electric plants .
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are defined as plants producing up to 10 megawatts, or projects up to 30 megawatts in North America.^ Other hydroelectric projects planned by the government are huge — the $4bn Belo Monte dam further north along the Xingu river from Pavuru would be the third biggest plant of its kind on earth, producing over 11,000 megawatts of electricity.
  • Blocked rivers threaten livelihood of Brazilian tribes | Environment | The Guardian 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ For a presentation on Comparison of Generating Options visit the Sustainable Development page of Hydro Québec , North America’s major producer of hydroelectricity.
  • IEAHydro :: Hydropower FAQ 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ieahydro.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Founded in 1983, NHA represents 61% of domestic, non-federal hydroelectric capacity and nearly 80,000 megawatts overall in North America.
  • Rezachek & Associates' Energy & Environmental Resources - Renewable Energy - Hydroelectric 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.sustainablehawaii.com [Source type: Reference]

.A small hydro plant may be connected to a distribution grid or may provide power only to an isolated community or a single home.^ A small hydro plant may be connected to a distribution grid or may provide power only to an isolated community or a single home.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P. Méderic) Small scale hydro power .

^ Small-scale hydro-electric plants .
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small hydro projects generally do not require the protracted economic, engineering and environmental studies associated with large projects, and often can be completed much more quickly.^ And small hydro has been generally neglected because of the large hydro development.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small hydro projects generally do not require the protracted economic, engineering and environmental studies associated with large projects, and often can be completed much more quickly.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such projects generally require less engineering and environmental studies prior to construction and do not cost as much to build.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small hydro development may be installed along with a project for flood control, irrigation or other purposes, providing extra revenue for project costs.^ The dams also provide a secondary benefit in flood control and irrigation.

^ A small hydro development may be installed along with a project for flood control, irrigation or other purposes, providing extra revenue for project costs.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently 37 hydro projects provide ...
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy – Web Listings 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.business.com [Source type: News]

.In areas that formerly used waterwheels for milling and other purposes, often the site can be redeveloped for electric power production, possibly eliminating the new environmental impact of any demolition operation.^ Its primary purpose is irrigation with power production a by-product.
  • Idaho Power - About Us - Our Power Plants - Hydroelectric 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.idahopower.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas that formerly used waterwheels for milling and other purposes, often the site can be redeveloped for electric power production, possibly eliminating the new environmental impact of any demolition operation.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even in Newfoundland & Labrador, which has enough electricity to supply its domestic needs, there is the potential to displace power generated by the less-environmentally-friendly oil-fired generation at Holyrood, not to mention facilitating the operations of large industrial projects.
  • TD Economics - Current Developments - Special Reports 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.td.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small hydro can be further divided into mini-hydro, units around 1 MW in size, and micro hydro with units as large as 100 kW down to a couple of kW rating.^ Divide students into small groups.
  • Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons - Lesson Plans 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.readinga-z.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW).
  • Hydroelectric Information 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.nooutage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micro hydro power, which has a capacity of 100 kW or less, allows such communities to generate their own electricity.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Small hydro schemes are particularly popular in China, which has over 50% of world small hydro capacity.^ Although large hydroelectric installations generate most of the world's hydroelectricity, small hydro schemes are particularly popular in China, which has over 50% of world small hydro capacity.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small local hydro sites may also be economical, particularly if they combine storage of water during light loads with electricity production during peaks.
  • hydroelectric power -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, Hydro notes, the power lines themselves already run at capacity in winter, particularly along border connections.
  • BC Hydro electricity system is 'maxed out' 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

[2]
.Small hydro units in the range 1 MW to about 30 MW are often available from multiple manufacturers using standardized "water to wire" packages; a single contractor can provide all the major mechanical and electrical equipment (turbine, generator, controls, switchgear), selecting from several standard designs to fit the site conditions.^ Apart from lighting, the water used to generate electricity is also used for irrigation.
  • WWF - Micro-hydro electricity project lights up Nepal's Terai Arc Landscape 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC nepal.panda.org [Source type: News]

^ At hydroelectric projects, this water is used as fuel to generate electricity.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commercially available turbines and generators are usually sold as a package.
  • Renewable Resources Micro Hydroelectric Systems 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Micro hydro projects use a diverse range of equipment; in the smaller sizes industrial centrifugal pumps can be used as turbines, with comparatively low purchase cost compared to purpose-built turbines.^ Micro hydro projects use a diverse range of equipment; in the smaller sizes industrial centrifugal pumps can be used as turbines, with comparatively low purchase cost compared to purpose-built turbines.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The completed micro-hydro turbine.
  • Hydroelectric Generator 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small hydro can be further divided into mini-hydro, units around 1 MW in size, and micro hydro with units as large as 100 kW down to a couple of kW rating.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advantages

.
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog pumped storage scheme.
^ The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog pumped storage scheme .
  • Hydroelectricity Advantages and Disadvantages 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a storage scheme, a dam impounds a reservoir that feeds turbines and a generator.
  • Hydroelectricity - RitchieWiki 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales .The power station at the lower reservoir has four water turbines which can generate 360 megawatts of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

360 megawatts of electricity can be generated within 60 seconds of the need arising.

Economics

.The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel.^ The major advantage of hydro systems is elimination of the cost of fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief advantage of hydro systems is elimination of the cost of fuel.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity Advantages and Disadvantages 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and no imports are needed.^ The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conventional power technologies burn carbon or hydrocarbon fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
  • Hydroelectric On GlobalSpec 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.globalspec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydroelectric plants also tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service which were built 50 to 100 years ago.^ All the big hydroelectric plants have been built by now.
  • .: Eniscuola :. 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.eniscuola.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Service 50 to 4,999 kW .

^ Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago.
  • Hydroelectricity Advantages and Disadvantages 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation.^ Labor cost also tends to be low since plants are generally heavily automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labor cost also tends to be low since plants are generally heavily ...

^ Operating labor cost is usually low since plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation.
  • Hydroelectricity Advantages and Disadvantages 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation.^ The annual operating costs for the micro-hydroelectric system are very low.
  • Quest Alternate Energy Research 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.lcs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cost of generating hydroelectric power lies almost entirely in the construction of the dam and power plant.
  • Energy Report - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The construction of these dams may interfere with plant and animal habitats.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation.^ It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cost of the electricity they generate is falling.

^ BBB Reliability Reports generally cover a three-year reporting period.
  • Hydro Electric | BBB Review | Bellvue, CO 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.bbb.org [Source type: News]

[6]

Greenhouse gas emissions

.Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas).^ Circle when fossil fuels burn .
  • Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons - Lesson Plans 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.readinga-z.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbon dioxide, which is produced when these fuels are burned, is a major cause of the greenhouse effect.

^ New Scientist report on greenhouse gas production by hydroelectric dams.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation.^ At hydroelectric projects, this water is used as fuel to generate electricity.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By burning the fuel, the power generation apparatuses are enabled to operate and generate electricity.
  • Circulating hydroelectricity generating and energy storing apparatus - Patent application 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This gets the generator turning and producing electricity.
  • Liquid Energy 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC colquitt.k12.ga.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One measurement of greenhouse gas related and other externality comparison between energy sources can be found in the ExternE project by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Stuttgart which was funded by the European Commission.^ Hydropower is one of the oldest sources of energy.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • EIA Energy Kids - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydropower vs. Other Sources of Energy .
  • Liquid Energy 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC colquitt.k12.ga.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil has 2 main disadvantages as an energy source: Deposits will run out soon Burning oil produces 'greenhouse gases' and other pollutants .
  • Energy Crisis in the U.S.: a WebQuest 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC gladstone.vsb.bc.ca [Source type: General]

[7] .According to this project, hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and externality of any energy source[8].^ Hydroelectric power-renewable energy source .
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's the amount of energy produced by a small hydroelectric plant.
  • Hydroelectric Power - Blogrunner 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coming in second place was wind, third was nuclear energy, and fourth was solar photovoltaic[8].^ There are two common ways to convert solar energy into electricity: photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies.
  • Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy | Clean Energy | US EPA 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ How Hydroelectric Energy Works - Information on renewable energy, including wind and solar power; nuclear-power safety issues and work of the Union of Concerned Scientists to switch America to clean, safe, renewable, and affordable power.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Book Summary Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons informs readers about the major sources of energy consumed in the world today: fossil fuels, hydroelectric energy, solar and wind energy, and nuclear power.
  • Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons - Lesson Plans 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.readinga-z.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extremely positive greenhouse gas impact of hydroelectricity is found especially in temperate climates.^ A selling feature of the proposed hydroelectric project is the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • TD Economics - Current Developments - Special Reports 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.td.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Scientist report on greenhouse gas production by hydroelectric dams.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas).
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The above study was for local energy in Europe; presumably similar conditions prevail in North America and Northern Asia, which all see a regular, natural freeze/thaw cycle (with associated seasonal plant decay and regrowth).^ Monorail , Monorail - Background , Monorail - Types and technical aspects , Monorail - Power , Monorail - Switching , Monorail - Systems similar in appearance , Monorail - Advantages and disadvantages , Monorail - Partial list of monorail systems , Monorail - Asia , Monorail - Europe , Monorail - North America , Monorail - South America and Australia , Monorail - Future monorail projects .

^ North America , deals , water Scottish and Southern Energy seeks approval for two hydroelectric schemes .

^ North America Europe Asia Middle East Latin America Australasia Africa by type policy deals companies funds features profiles knowledge events Posts Tagged ‘hydroelectric’ .

Related activities

.Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves.^ Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide excellent leisure facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Completed in 1992, this project supplies now water to 170,000 acres of farmland, provides recreation, and has a small hydroelectric site.
  • Town of Pincher Creek Alberta 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.pinchercreek.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some countries, aquaculture in reservoirs is common.^ In some countries, farming fish in the reservoirs is common.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply.^ Multi-use dams installed for irrigation can support the fish farm with relatively constant water supply.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reservoir of water resulting from dam construction, which is essentially stored energy, can support fisheries and preserves, and provide various forms of water-based recreation for locals and tourists.
  • Renewable Energy, Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.altenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The generator is meant to be a very small, cheap, low impact generator designed to be used with existing gravity fed irrigation, fresh water, or waste water systems.
  • Make: Online : Bucket-borne hydroelectric generator 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Make: Online : Bucket-borne hydroelectric generator 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project.^ Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, it was stated that the flood submerged 260,000 km 2 of land and affected 230 million people.
  • Forestry, Floods and Hydroelectricity 1999 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.danielwinkler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Disadvantages

.
Recreational users must exercise extreme care when near hydroelectric dams, power plant intakes and spillways.
^ What are the parts of hydroelectric power plant?
  • Leaky Clues to Dam Design: How Reservoir Height Affects Hydroelectric Power Production 20 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.sciencebuddies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micro-hydroelectric power plant   Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 .
  • US Patent 4629904 - Micro-hydroelectric power plant 20 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydroelectric power plants .
  • Hamilton Public Library Catalogue 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC ohip.hpl.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Franklin Subject Browse Demo 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC devplw.library.upenn.edu [Source type: Reference]

[9]

Failure Hazard

.Dam failures have been some of the largest man-made disasters in history.^ Northwest history ; Bonneville dam ; Columbia river ; Jacob J. Weinstein ; blind man .
  • WSU Libraries : Search Results 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC kaga.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the time a project is built, man-made and natural erosion of lands adjacent to a reservoir can lead to sediment build-up behind a dam.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dam fills with silt and you wind up with a man made water falls over the top of the dam - And no power production.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Also, good design and construction are not an adequate guarantee of safety. .Dams are tempting industrial targets for wartime attack, sabotage and terrorism.^ Finally, breakage could also result from war or terrorism, as dams have been considered potential military targets in the past.
  • How Hydroelectric Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless.^ Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the Three Gorges Dam in China floods an area which is larger than the entire state of Nebraska to fill its reservoir.
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While flooding is typically a consequence of intense rainfall, it may also result from failure of landslide dams which have created temporary impoundments.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

Also, the creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters like the one of the Vajont Dam in Italy, where almost 2000 people died, in 1963. [10]
.Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities create less risk, but can form continuing hazards even after they have been decommissioned.^ Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable to these threats.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micro hydro power, which has a capacity of 100 kW or less, allows such communities to generate their own electricity.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is mainly due to less evaporation and seepage loss due to reduced submergence area for smaller dam heights.

For example, the small Kelly Barnes Dam failed in 1967, causing 39 deaths with the Toccoa Flood, ten years after its power plant was decommissioned in 1957. [11]

Large Power Outages caused by dam failures

.Large dams, whilst generally reliable can suffer catastrophic failure to the dam itself, or the connections and substations, leading to extremely large and sudden loss of output, which can plunge an entire network off line, for hours or even months depending on the damage.^ The dam itself did not sustain any damage.
  • Slashdot News Story | Fatal Explosion At Russian Hydroelectric Dam 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC news.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants depend on a large water-storage reservoir upstream of a dam where water flow can be controlled and a nearly constant water level can be assured.
  • IEAHydro :: Hydropower FAQ 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ieahydro.org [Source type: Reference]

.Hence whilst these are regarded as "firm" or "despatchable" sources, in reality duplication or back up has to be provided.^ Airdale-don't get me started,the sooner these places shut down the sooner we can get back to reality,and even though I have relatives working in these places I really, really don't care.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However wind works well with NG and hydro as back-up, saving these more valuable resources(water and NG) for times of lower wind.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples are:
These are very large losses of power; for comparison, the average UK power demand is around 37 GW.

Limited Service Life

Almost all rivers convey silt. .Dams on those rivers will retain silt in their catchments, because by slowing the water, and reducing turbulence, the silt will fall to the bottom.^ This was a water engine so designed that the loss of energy due to the turbulent impact of water on its blades was reduced to a minimum.
  • The Wonders of Cheap Hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.techhistory.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elimination of habitat by these two dams has reduced wild fish populations in the entire North Umpqua River.

^ The spillways being open and provided with overflow pipes send any excess water to the river when the load is suddenly reduced and this prevents any dangerous rise in pressure.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Siltation reduces a dam's water storage so that water from a wet season cannot be stored for use in a dry season.^ Since run-of-the-river systems do not usually have reservoirs and cannot store substantial quantities of water, power production from this type of system depends on seasonal changes and stream flow.
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Storage plants These plants have enough storage capacity to off-set seasonal fluctuations in water flow and provide a constant supply of electricity throughout the year.

^ Run-of-river plants These plants use little, if any, stored water to provide water flow through the turbines.

Often at or slightly after that point, the dam becomes uneconomic. .Near the end of the siltation, the basins of dams fill to the top of the lowest spillway, and may cause the dam to fail during any season.^ The creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters like the one of the Vajont Dam in Italy, where almost 2000 people died, in 1963.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recreational users must exercise extreme care when near hydroelectric dams, power plant intakes and spillways.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dams will cause sediment accumulation filling in reservoirs and thus terminating the actual function of a dam.
  • Forestry, Floods and Hydroelectricity 1999 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.danielwinkler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some especially poor dams can fail from siltation in as little as 20 years.^ As a New York Times editorial recently pointed out, in the past 10 years some 430 dams have been removed.
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] Larger dams are not immune. .For example, the Three Gorges Dam in China has an estimated life that may be as short as 70 years.^ China has several large projects under way, including Three Gorges, which will provide 18,200 MW of hydroelectricity capacity by 2009, and India is adding over 13,000 MW in the next few years.
  • Energy Report - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilisu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • Greatest Planet - Offset A-Z - H - Hydroelectricity 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC greatestplanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, historically and culturally important sites can be lost, such as the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilisu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Dams' useful lives can be extended with sediment bypassing, special weirs, and forestation projects to reduce a watershed's silt production, but at some point most dams become uneconomic to operate.^ The project is scheduled to become operational in 2003.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some dams, the powerhouse is constructed on one flank of the dam, part of the dam being used as a spillway over which excess water is discharged in times of flood.
  • hydroelectric power -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have to flood a valley to build a big dam there is a big impact on the environment possible loss of habitat for some species initial costs are .
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Environmental damage

.Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site.^ Concerns have been raised by environmentalists that large hydroelectric projects might be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric projects do affect the ecosystems of rivers and their surrounding areas.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A warning for boaters at O'Shaughnessy DamHydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed.^ For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dam that Fish ladder.
  • Renewable Energy Sources in the United States 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ For instance, some hydroelectric companies are building dams with special structures or channels so that fish can swim freely without their life cycles being disrupted.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Salmon spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines.^ Salmon smolt are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water passed into the forebay and down through 10.5 feet diameter steel penstocks to the turbines.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tunnels would have been too hazardous and expensive to continue as they passed through the glacial silt of the buried St. David's Gorge.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has led to some areas transporting smolt downstream by barge during parts of the year.^ This has led to some areas barging smolt downstream during parts of the year.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases where the movement of gravel downstream is part of establishing spawning areas for fish, important habitat conditions can be affected.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the next four years, a 1,550 long (472m) Hydro Control Dam was built 250 feet (76m) downstream from the submerged weir.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases dams have been demolished (for example the Marmot Dam demolished in 2007)[15] because of impact on fish.^ For instance, some hydroelectric companies are building dams with special structures or channels so that fish can swim freely without their life cycles being disrupted.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, dams may affect fish migration but may also create wildlife habitat.
  • Renewable Energy Sources in the United States 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of other non-hydropower related impacts include grazing, logging, agricultural activities, mining, land development, and the harvesting of fish.
  • http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.fwee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research.^ Submarine turbine power plant .
  • Hydro-electric farms - Google Patent Search 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Plant EngineerCharlotte, NCParticipate in power plant feasibility studies and due diligence reviews,existing facility condition assessment, design of electrical...
  • Hydroelectric jobs on Care2 JobFinder 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC jobs.care2.com [Source type: General]

.Mitigation measures such as fish ladders may be required at new projects or as a condition of re-licensing of existing projects.^ Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilısu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Required mitigation, restoration and rehabilitation may include measures to restore or replace the benefits of historic resource conditions in order to meet resource goals contained in standards, plans, guidelines and policies adopted by rule by the State Fish and Wildlife Commission and in rules adopted by other state agencies with regulatory or advisory responsibility for the project.
  • Chapter 543A � Reauthorizing and Decommissioning Hydroelectric Projects 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ However, since only 2,400 of the nation's 80,000 dams are currently used for hydropower, new projects do not necessarily require building new damsmany existing dams can be retrofitted to produce electricity.

.Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment.^ Generation of hydroelectric power impacts on the downstream river environment.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generation of hydroelectric power can also have an impact on the downstream river environment.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectricity Electricity generated by water power.

.Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.^ First, water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as there is sufficient water to run the turbines, electricity can be produced very cheaply.
  • Energy Report - Hydropower 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.^ Since turbines are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, since turbines are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you install a gate valve on the pipeline just above the turbine and a pressure gauge on a "T" fitting just above the gate valve, you will read the static pressure on the gauge when the valve is closed and the dynamic pressure when the valve is opened.
  • Hydroelectric Information 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.nooutage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in the Grand Canyon, the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars.^ For example, in the Grand Canyon, the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Grand Canyon, the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The snow-fed rivers from the high Cordilleras, where impounded (as at the Grand Coulee, Hoover, Glen Canyon, Fort Peck, and Garrison dams), also provide an immense amount of power.
  • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from pre-construction conditions.^ Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from pre-construction conditions.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from preceding conditions.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Construction work started in May 1917 and water was turned into the canal on 24 December 1921.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on the location, water exiting from turbines is typically much warmer than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species, and prevent natural freezing processes from occurring.^ Finally, water exiting from turbines is typically much colder than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species.
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water exiting from turbines is typically much colder than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some hydroelectric projects also use canals to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme.^ Hydroelectricity uses a dam on a river.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some hydroelectric projects also utilize canals, typically to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Hydroelectric - PESWiki 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is likely that Ontario Power Generation will construct a third tunnel to increase their capacity to divert additional water when supplies in the Niagara River are more plentiful.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed.^ In some cases, the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some hydroelectric projects also utilize canals, typically to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Run of river projects( see links for MORE EXAMPLES) either do not divert any water, or divert some stream flow for a few kms and return it to the river.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples include the Tekapo and Pukaki Rivers in New Zealand.^ Encyclopedia - Clyde Dam The Clyde Dam is New Zealand's largest hydroelectric dam and was built along the Clutha River, near the town of Clyde.

^ Examples include the Tekapo and Pukaki Rivers.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Greenhouse gas emissions

Bonnington hydroelectric power station, River Clyde, Scotland.
.Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions, as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane and carbon dioxide.^ The reservoirs of hydroelectric power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane and carbon dioxide.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The generated energy is a renewable (hydroelectric power) and clean (no carbon dioxide footprint) a major advantage in light of the current global calls to ...
  • The (Alternative) Energy Source - Your source of Alternative Energy News and Press Releases 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.theenergysource.org [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, the solar power will reduce 540 tons of carbon dioxide, 27,000 pounds of nitrogen oxides, and 5,183 pounds of carbon monoxide emissions annually.
  • Alternatives to hydroelectric energy - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas.^ This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is due to plant material in newly flooded and re-flooded areas being inundated with water, decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas .
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric involves flooding valleys to form lakes, and these valleys frequently are forested, and the flooded trees and plants decay in the absence of oxygen, releasing methane, a strong greenhouse gas.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the World Commission on Dams report[17], where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant.^ According to the World Commission on Dams report, where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2 to 8% of any kind of conventional thermal generation.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, hydropower is a popular way to generate electricity, supplying the world with nearly one-fourth of what it needs, and reaching more than 1 billion people.
  • Leaky Clues to Dam Design: How Reservoir Height Affects Hydroelectric Power Production 20 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.sciencebuddies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Although these emissions represent carbon already in the biosphere, not fossil deposits that had been sequestered from the carbon cycle, there is a greater amount of methane due to anaerobic decay, causing greater damage than would otherwise have occurred had the forest decayed naturally.^ Hydroelectric involves flooding valleys to form lakes, and these valleys frequently are forested, and the flooded trees and plants decay in the absence of oxygen, releasing methane, a strong greenhouse gas.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of these emissions can vary widely, depending on the waste from which the landfill gas was created.
  • Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy | Clean Energy | US EPA 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ There’s nothing wrong with harnessing energy which would otherwise go to waste, so long as we’re keeping the Bigger Picture in mind.
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pipes supplying water from the River Clyde to Bonnington hydroelectric power station, Scotland.
.In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2% to 8% of any kind of conventional fossil-fuel thermal generation.^ In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2 to 8% of any kind of conventional thermal generation.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, because there is no fuel combustion, there is little air pollution in comparison with fossil fuel plants and limited thermal pollution compared with nuclear plants.
  • EIA Renewable Energy-Hydroelectric Data and Information 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new class of underwater logging operation that targets drowned forests can mitigate the effect of forest decay.^ The contributive effect of forest decay can be mitigated by a new class of underwater logging operation targeting drowned forests.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.In 2007, International Rivers accused hydropower firms for cheating with fake carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), for hydropower projects already finished or under construction at the moment they applied to join the CDM. These carbon credits – of hydropower projects under the CDM in developing countries – can be sold to companies and governments in rich countries, in order to comply with the Kyoto protocol.^ It is not a major option for the future in the developed countries because most major sites in these countries having potential for harnessing gravity in this way are either being exploited already or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Canada still has several projects planned or under construction for further expanding its hydroelectric resource base, hydropower generation in the United States is, overall, expected to decline—both because most of the best sites for hydro development have already been exploited and because of the recent emphasis on the adverse impact that large-scale hydroelectric facilities may have on the environment.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project qualifies under USIJI as a carbon dioxide reduction project, and the project developer Hidroelectrica Boliviana SA will be able to offer carbon trading credits under an international greenhouse gas reduction program.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Population relocation

.Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned.^ Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is essential that hydroelectric companies be located near a dam or a large reservoir, and be equipped with hydraulic turbines and electric generators that help to create power from dams.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contingency planning needs to be extended to potentially impacted areas downstream, paid for by the dam operator.
  • Gilgel Gibe III dam Ethiopia: technical, engineering and economic feasibility study report. 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February 2008, it was estimated that 40-80 million people worldwide had been physically displaced as a direct result of dam construction.^ The cost of direct losses resulting from the attack are estimated at more than $2 million; indirect losses were estimated at considerably more because port and commercial operations in Buenaventura were stopped for several days as a result of the blackout.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ilisu alone will cost an estimated $2 billion to construct and will be the fifth largest dam in the world.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project will cost an estimated $100 million and will be undertaken between 2001 and 2008.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .In many cases, no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population.^ Hydrogen systems have an enviable safety record; in many cases, hydrogen is safer than the fossil fuel it replaces.
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additionally, historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost. .Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilısu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.^ Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilısu Dam in Southeastern Turkey.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was considerable controversy when the dam was planned as to whether it was needed, and also because it would flood many houses and orchards upstream at Cromwell, as well as the scenic Cromwell Gorge, which was a highlight of the then young but growing New Zealand tourism industry.

^ For example, the Three Gorges Dam in China floods an area which is larger than the entire state of Nebraska to fill its reservoir.
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Affected by flow shortage

.Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam.^ Flow tubes for producing electric energy .
  • Hydro-electric farms - Google Patent Search 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Baglihar hydroelectric dam on the river Chenab, which flows from Indian-controlled Kashmir into Pakistan .
  • The Baglihar hydroelectric dam on the river Chenab, which flows from Indian-c... 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the location of the dam and the amount of power it produces, PVs have the potential either by themselves or in combination with other alternatives to alleviate the need for an existing or proposed hydropower dam.
  • Alternatives to hydroelectric energy - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lower river flows because of drought, climate change or upstream dams and diversions will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity.^ A hydroelectric power system for use in a flowing body of water comprising: a.
  • US Patent 7262517 - Hydro-electric power generating system 20 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First system , water accumulates in reservoirs created by the use of dams.
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectricity uses a dam on a river.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power.^ The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin ...

^ Since run-of-the-river systems do not usually have reservoirs and cannot store substantial quantities of water, power production from this type of system depends on seasonal changes and stream flow.
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of hydroelectric power in South America has had a significant effect on indian populations in the area.
  • Hydroelectric Power in South 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Comparison with other methods of power generation

The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam, Egypt
Hydroelectric reservoir in Vianden, Luxembourg
.Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal.^ Content words: carbon dioxide, energy, environmentalists, fossil fuels, geothermal, global warming, hydroelectric, natural gas, nuclear, pollutants, sediment, turbines, uranium Before Reading  .
  • Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons - Lesson Plans 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.readinga-z.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, because there is no fuel combustion, there is little air pollution in comparison with fossil fuel plants and limited thermal pollution compared with nuclear plants.
  • EIA Renewable Energy-Hydroelectric Data and Information 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions.^ Where the effects of a natural hazard cannot be avoided, this pre-project approach ensures that this consequence is known.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like most hazard reduction situations, it is far more cost-effective to avoid or limit natural hazard effects by incorporating this information into the project design.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Buildings such as powerhouses are more commonly addressed in established codes for avoiding the effects of natural hazards.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste, has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks.^ Hydroelectricity Electricity generated by water power.

^ Leak prevention in underwater power generation .
  • Hydro-electric farms - Google Patent Search 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Hydro-electric farms - Google Patent Search 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Yet, in the United States, hydroelectric power represents only a small percentage of the total electricity generated, nearly all the rest coming from coal-, gas-, or oil-fired thermal plants and from nuclear-power stations.
  • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike uranium, hydroelectricity is also a renewable energy source.^ Hydroelectric power-renewable energy source .
  • Hydroelectric | Going Green 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC alternate-power.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric renewable energy provides the largest percentage of renewable energy sources in the country.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric dams provide a source of renewable energy all over the world.
  • Hydroelectric Power News - Topix 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

.Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have a more predictable load factor.^ In 2001, hydroelectric power shortages forced the shutdown of aluminum plant smelters in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in the loss of 8000 jobs.
  • The (Alternative) Energy Source - Your source of Alternative Energy News and Press Releases 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.theenergysource.org [Source type: General]

^ And they could cover the higher cost of wind and solar power compared ...
  • The (Alternative) Energy Source - Your source of Alternative Energy News and Press Releases 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.theenergysource.org [Source type: General]

^ Provide books with photographs of coal mines, dams, solar panels, wind turbines, nuclear power plants, and oil rigs.
  • Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons - Lesson Plans 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.readinga-z.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the project has a storage reservoir, it can be dispatched to generate power when needed.^ Vs is the storage volume of the reservoir and d the excess quantity available for generation.

^ As completed, Phase 1 of the project has a generation capacity of over 10,000 megawatts of power and cost an estimated $16 billion.
  • JAMES Case 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This page contains general information on Bhutan's power projects and news related to power projects.
  • Hydro-Electric Power Projects of Bhutan: Bhutannewsonline.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.bhutannewsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand.^ In 2001, hydroelectric power shortages forced the shutdown of aluminum plant smelters in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in the loss of 8000 jobs.
  • The (Alternative) Energy Source - Your source of Alternative Energy News and Press Releases 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.theenergysource.org [Source type: General]

^ The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin ...

^ Non-hydroelectric renewable energy refers to electricity supplied from the following renewable sources of power: solar, geothermal, biomass, landfill gas, and wind.
  • Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy | Clean Energy | US EPA 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike fossil-fueled combustion turbines, construction of a hydroelectric plant requires a long lead-time for site studies, hydrological studies, and environmental impact assessment.^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Cree believe the utility company has violated the agreement by not performing environmental impact assessments and by beginning the construction of more plants despite low demand.
  • JAMES Case 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrological data up to 50 years or more is usually required to determine the best sites and operating regimes for a large hydroelectric plant.^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • iENERGY Inc. - Hydroelectric Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.ienergyinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The routine operation of coal plants kill over 20,000 Americans each year, more than five Chernobyl’s per year in the U.S. alone.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike plants operated by fuel, such as fossil or nuclear energy, the number of sites that can be economically developed for hydroelectric production is limited; in many areas the most cost effective sites have already been exploited.^ In some areas, wind power is already cost competitive with fossil fuels.
  • Alternatives to hydroelectric energy - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Energy development - - Fossil fuels .
  • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • hydroelectricity 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New hydro sites tend to be far from population centers and require extensive transmission lines.^ It is believed that the oldest Hydro Power site in the United States is located on Claverack Creek, in Stottville, New York.
  • Hydroelectric Power 29828 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmission lines may not exist in rural areas where farms would need to be sited and would take three to five years to install even a regional network.
  • Alternatives to hydroelectric energy - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 22 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some excess transmission capacity (AK hydro may fill in more "shoulder" demand and less peak demand if major new transmission from Grand Coulee is not built).
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydroelectric generation depends on rainfall in the watershed, and may be significantly reduced in years of low rainfall or snowmelt.^ Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advantages and disadvantages 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project will generate 322 MUs in a "90 percent dependable year".
  • Bhutan-India Relations: Bhutannewsonline.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.bhutannewsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burundi is dependent on hydroelectric power generation for its supply of electricity.
  • The (Alternative) Energy Source - Your source of Alternative Energy News and Press Releases 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.theenergysource.org [Source type: General]

.Long-term energy yield may be affected by climate change.^ Energy Loan Program Low-interest, fixed rate, long-term loans are available to businesses and others that develop any size hydroelectric project in Oregon.
  • Renewable Resources Micro Hydroelectric Systems 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are here: EPA Home Climate Change Clean Energy Energy and You How does electricity affect the environment?
  • Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy | Clean Energy | US EPA 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Kiashu on April 6, 2009 - 8:25pm First up, the article completely fails to mention climate change in affecting prospects for hydroelectric.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Utilities that primarily use hydroelectric power may spend additional capital to build extra capacity to ensure sufficient power is available in low water years.^ Hydroelectricity Electricity generated by water power.

^ This river has been used for years as a transportation corridor, and has been used to generate hydroelectric power.
  • Hydroelectric Development on Trent Campus 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.trentu.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water wheels have been used for thousands of years for industrial power.

.In parts of Canada (the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador) hydroelectricity is used so extensively that the word "hydro" is often used to refer to any electricity delivered by a power utility.^ Hydroelectric is certainly very useful as part of our electricity generation.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oldest hydro-electric power stations: .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Largest hydro-electric power stations .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .The government-run power utilities in these provinces are called BC Hydro, Manitoba Hydro, Hydro One (formerly "Ontario Hydro"), Hydro-Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro respectively.^ The government-run power utilities in these provinces are called BC Hydro, Manitoba Hydro, Hydro One (formerly "Ontario Hydro"), Hydro-Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro respectively.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parts of Canada (the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador) hydroelectricity is used so extensively that the word "hydro" is used to refer to any electricity delivered by a power utility.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific NW has so much wind and hydro electricity that utilities are actually paying customers to use up power.
  • FARK.com: (3699040) When it rains, it pours. Pacific NW has so much wind and hydro electricity that utilities are actually paying customers to use up power. Can't we get anything right anymore? 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

.Hydro-Québec is the world's largest hydroelectric generating company, with a total installed capacity (2007) of 35,647 MW, including 33,305 MW of hydroelectric generation[23].^ Hydro-Québec is the world's largest hydroelectric generating company, with a total installed capacity (2005) of 31,512 MW. .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Country, total annual hydroelectricity production, total capacity installed .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Africa, Egypt and Congo (Kinshasa) have the largest volumes of hydroelectric capacity, but other countries, including Ivory Coast, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, are almost entirely dependent on hydropower for their electricity.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity

.The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by actual annual energy production or by installed capacity power rating.^ Country, total annual hydroelectricity production, total capacity installed .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oldest hydro-electric power stations: .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full power rating over a full year; the ratio between annual average power and installed capacity rating is the capacity factor.^ Check out our full profile for: Power Plant Operators .
  • Hydroelectric Operator Career Profile, Video, Earnings, Education, Prospects - Careers.org 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC occupations.careers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oldest hydro-electric power stations: .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Largest hydro-electric power stations .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The installed capacity is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings.^ Of course will need all of today's hydro for day-time peak power and will have to build x20 the pumped storage capacity to replace natural gas peak power.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is likely that Ontario Power Generation will construct a third tunnel to increase their capacity to divert additional water when supplies in the Niagara River are more plentiful.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As completed, Phase 1 of the project has a generation capacity of over 10,000 megawatts of power and cost an estimated $16 billion.
  • JAMES Case 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sources came from BP Statistical Review - Full Report 2009[24]
.The top six dams, in descending order of their annual electricity generation, are: the Three Gorges Dam in China, the Itaipu Dam on the border of Paraguay and Brazil, the Guri Dam in Venezuela, the Tucurui dam in Brazil, the Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam in Russia and the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam, also in Russia (see List of the largest hydroelectric power stations).^ Oldest hydro-electric power stations: .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternating current is the electric current generated by water-powered turbines in hydroelectricity.
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Largest hydro-electric power stations .
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brazil, Canada, Norway, Switzerland and Venezuela are the only countries in the world where the majority of the internal electric energy production is from hydroelectric power, while Paraguay not only produces 100% its electricity from hydroelectric dams, but exports 90% of its production to Brazil and to the Argentine.^ Canada is the world's largest producer of hydro power and produces over 70% ...

^ Hydroelectricity Electricity generated by water power.

^ Hydroelectricity is energy produced from falling water.
  • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Norway produces 98–99% of its electricity from hydroelectric sources.^ Presently 38% of this electricity is produced from carbon free sources (nuclear 19%, hydro 18% and wind energy 1.7%).
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One question I have is whether there are inexpensive things that can be done to raise electrical production from existing hydroelectric sources--does anyone know?
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transform water into environmentally safe electricity with hydroelectric renewable energy sources and tools .
  • Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Information | Business.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
Country Annual Hydroelectric
Energy Production (TWh)
Installed
Capacity (GW)
Capacity
Factor
Percent of
all electricity
 China (2008)[26] 585.2 171.52 0.37 17.18
 Canada 369.5 88.974 0.59 61.12
 Brazil 363.8 69.080 0.56 85.56
 United States 250.6 79.511 0.42 5.74
 Russia 167.0 45.000 0.42 17.64
 Norway 140.5 27.528 0.49 98.25[25]
 India 115.6 33.600 0.43 15.80
 Venezuela 86.8 - - 67.17
 Japan 69.2 27.229 0.37 7.21
 Sweden 65.5 16.209 0.46 44.34
 Paraguay (2006) 64.0 - -
 France 63.4 25.335 0.25 11.23

Old hydro-electric power stations

Australia

.
  • A small hydroelectric station, generating 650 kW, opened at Waratah, Tasmania in 1885.
  • Duck Reach, Launceston, Tasmania.^ Yet, in the United States, hydroelectric power represents only a small percentage of the total electricity generated, nearly all the rest coming from coal-, gas-, or oil-fired thermal plants and from nuclear-power stations.
    • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Compared to the amount of steam power being generated, these were small contracts; hydroelectric companies made no major breakthroughs in Montreal's industrial world.
    • Alain Gelly | A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries | The Journal of The Society For Industrial Archeology, 29.1 | The History Cooperative 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This was originally planned so that Tasmania could sell hydroelectric-generated power to Victoria, to raise money for Tasmania and lessen Victoria's dependence on brown coal.
    • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Completed 1895. The first publicly owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere.^ The first publicly owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere.
    • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It became the worlds first publicly owned power authority.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first large plant was not completed until 1905.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Supplied power to the city of Launceston for street lighting.
  • The Snowy Mountains Scheme has turbines all along the tunnel so it, in some perspectives it is also another hydroelectric station.^ Supplied power to the city of Launceston for street lighting.
    • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet, in the United States, hydroelectric power represents only a small percentage of the total electricity generated, nearly all the rest coming from coal-, gas-, or oil-fired thermal plants and from nuclear-power stations.
    • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Appleton, Wisconsin, USA completed 1882, A waterwheel on the Fox river supplied the first commercial hydroelectric power for lighting to two paper mills and a house, two years after Thomas Edison demonstrated incandescent lighting to the public.
    • Hydroelectricity – Hydro-electricity Production, Applications Reference 25 September 2009 4:14 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, it only operates during peak hours of the day and mostly during the evening and early night.^ Reduce hours & days of max spill flow, reduce the max spill flow, reduce the overnight spill flow, enlarge Sir Adam Beck (Ontario) even more and enlarge Robert Moses (New York).
    • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It specified that a minimum 100,000 cubic feet of water per second would flow over the Falls during the day, while at night this flow would be reduced to a minimum 50,000 cubic feet per second.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It supplies electricity to all over the regions of New South Wales.

Canada

  • Decew Falls 1, St. Catharines, Ontario completed 25 August 1898. Owned by Ontario Power Generation. Four units are still operational. Recognized as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering & Computing by the IEEE Executive Committee in 2002.
  • The oldest continuously-operated hydroelectric generator in Canada is located in St. Stephen, New Brunswick. .Part of the construction of the Milltown Cotton Mill, this rope-driven generator originally powered the electric lights for the mill when it opened in 1882, and in 1888 started providing power to homes in the town.^ The Sir Adam Beck Generating Stations and the Robert Moses Generating Station together form the largest generators of hydro electric power in North America.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thus it can be viewed as direct power in which the electric generator coupled with a steam engine furnished the means to transmit energy to light lamps or to power a machine by way of an electric motor.
    • Alain Gelly | A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries | The Journal of The Society For Industrial Archeology, 29.1 | The History Cooperative 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Don't see any mention of electric power( providing power for XXX thousand homes).
    • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    NB Power now owns and operates this as part of the Milltown Dam hydroelectric station.

Chile

.
  • Chivilingo was the first hydroelectric plant in Chile and the second in South America.^ The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin ...

    ^ Although it is important for the U.S. engineering community to realize what has been, is being or could be, done in that region [South America], no comprehensive work on the subject [hydroelectric power] has yet been published.
    • Hydroelectric Power in South 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the following paragraphs, an assessment is made of the literature on hydroelectric power in South America and small-scale hydroelectric power in Andean America.
    • Hydroelectric Power in South 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .With first power produced in 1897, it has two Pelton wheel turbines each turning a 215 kW generator.^ In 1897 Canadian Electrical News indicated that the Belding Paul silk manufacturers had ordered a 25 kW generator from the Canadian General Electric Company (CGE).
    • Alain Gelly | A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries | The Journal of The Society For Industrial Archeology, 29.1 | The History Cooperative 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The ten generators of Sir Adam Beck #1 Power Station produces 403,900 kilowatts of electricity.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The 25 cycle power that had been produced at the Rankine Station is now being produced at the Sir Adam Beck Hydro-Electric Power Generating Station #1 in a more economical manner.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It was installed to provide power to mines and the city of Lota, Chile.^ The plan is to install the small hydroelectric systems to provide power in 600 rural counties by 2001, to be expanded by another 400 between 2001 and 2005 and another 400 between 2005 and 2010.
    • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [27]

Ukraine

.
  • Dnestrovskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant; launched in commercial operation December 2009. It is designed to be the biggest such plant in Europe.^ The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin ...

    ^ In case you require more information on Studio Frosio's activities as hydroelectric plant works and hydroelectric power plants , be so kind to fill the following form.
    • hydroelectric plant and hydroelectric power plants on Studio Frosio. 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.studiofrosio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In one aspect, the hydroelectric power plant comprises a plurality of fluid exhausts and a plurality of fluid accelerating devices, each fluid accelerating device approximately shaped as a portion of a cone and located adjacent to at least one of the plurality of fluid exhausts.
    • Hydroelectric power plant and method of generating power - Patent application 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    [28]

United States

.
  • Appleton, Wisconsin completed 1882, A waterwheel on the Fox river supplied the first commercial hydroelectric power for lighting to two paper mills and a house, two years after Thomas Edison demonstrated incandescent lighting to the public.^ The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin ...

    ^ It was completed in October of 1910 when the first public power was switched on.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That year Redpath's administrators were confronted with three choices to light their premises and to provide motive power.
    • Alain Gelly | A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries | The Journal of The Society For Industrial Archeology, 29.1 | The History Cooperative 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Within a matter of weeks of this installation, a power plant was also put into commercial service at Minneapolis.
  • Niagara Falls, New York.^ It is the last of the low head power stations remaining at Niagara Falls.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The New York State Power Authority wanted to expropriate 1,350 acres of the 6,300 acre Indian Reservation.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dominion power recently won the right to build a new coal plant in Wise, Virginia.
    • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Operation began locally in 1895 and power was transmitted to Buffalo, New York, in 1896.
  • Claverack Creek, in Stottville, New York, believed to be the oldest hydro power site in the United States.^ It could not be transmitted to the nearest population center in Buffalo, New York.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The New York State Power Authority wanted to expropriate 1,350 acres of the 6,300 acre Indian Reservation.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Robert Moses was the head of the New York Power Authority and would oversee the building of this new plant.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The turbine, a Morgan Smith, was constructed in 1869 and installed 2 years later. .It is one of the earliest water wheel installations in the United States to generate electricity.^ Yet, in the United States, hydroelectric power represents only a small percentage of the total electricity generated, nearly all the rest coming from coal-, gas-, or oil-fired thermal plants and from nuclear-power stations.
    • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Niagara generating stations supply one quarter of all power used in New York State and Ontario.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Water is pumped into the reservoir at night by use of 6 - 30 megawatt pumping/generating units.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is owned today by Edison Hydro.
  • The oldest continuously-operated commercial hydroelectric plant in the United States is built on the Hudson River at Mechanicville, New York.^ If we continue to build and operate hydroelectric plants, the world will be doomed.
    • Slashdot News Story | Fatal Explosion At Russian Hydroelectric Dam 16 September 2009 23:26 UTC news.slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Yet, in the United States, hydroelectric power represents only a small percentage of the total electricity generated, nearly all the rest coming from coal-, gas-, or oil-fired thermal plants and from nuclear-power stations.
    • North America :: Hydroelectricity -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ At the current time both New York State Power Authority - Niagara Project and Sir Adam Beck Power Group continue to refit generators with plans to increase efficiency and power generation capacity.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The seven 750 kW units at this station initially supplied power at a frequency of 38 Hz, but later were increased in speed to 40 Hz.^ Yet two years later Merchants began building an electric power station anyway.
    • Alain Gelly | A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries | The Journal of The Society For Industrial Archeology, 29.1 | The History Cooperative 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Trafalgar power station contains two 1700 kw horizontal axis Pelton turbines with associated switchgear.
    • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is likely that Ontario Power Generation will construct a third tunnel to increase their capacity to divert additional water when supplies in the Niagara River are more plentiful.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It went into commercial service 22 July 1898. It is now being restored to its original condition and remains in commercial operation.^ Generators: Unit #10 went into service in July of 1930.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In late 2000, a $56 million, 50-megawatt wind farm went into operation at Koudia el Beida near the Straits of Gibraltar.
    • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Generators: Units # 8 and #9 went into service on December 5 th 1925.
    • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [29]

Major schemes under construction

.Only projects with generating capacity greater than or equal to 2,000 MW are listed.^ The project is the subject of international criticism because of the displacement of more than 30,000 people.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The THPC has an installed capacity of 1,020 MW. It is a run-of-the-river project on the Wangchu river, downstream of Chukha Hydroelectric project .
  • Bhutan-India Relations: Bhutannewsonline.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.bhutannewsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally, the project was supposed to transmit 12,000 megawatts of the capacity to central China, 4,200 megawatts to eastern China, and 2,000 megawatts to western Chongqing.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Name Maximum Capacity Country Construction started Scheduled completion Comments
Xiluodu Dam 12,600 MW China December 26, 2005 2015 Construction once stopped due to lack of environmental impact study.
Siang Upper HE Project 11,000 MW India April, 2009 2024 Multi-phase construction over a period of 15 years. Construction was delayed due to dispute with China.
TaSang Dam 7,110 MW Burma March, 2007 2022 Controversial 228 meter tall dam with capacity to produce 35,446 Ghw annually.
Xiangjiaba Dam 6,400 MW China November 26, 2006 2015
Longtan Dam 6,300 MW China July 1, 2001 December 2009
Nuozhadu Dam 5,850 MW China 2006 2017
Jinping 2 Hydropower Station 4,800 MW China January 30, 2007 2014 To build this dam, 23 families and 129 local residents need to be moved. It works with Jinping 1 Hydropower Station as a group.
Laxiwa Dam 4,200 MW China April 18, 2006 2010
Xiaowan Dam 4,200 MW China January 1, 2002 December 2012
Jinping 1 Hydropower Station 3,600 MW China November 11, 2005 2014
Pubugou Dam 3,300 MW China March 30, 2004 2010
Goupitan Dam 3,000 MW China November 8, 2003 2011
Guanyinyan Dam 3,000 MW China 2008 2015 Construction of the roads and spillway started.
Lianghekou Dam[30] 3,000 MW China 2009 2015
Boguchan Dam 3,000 MW Russia 1980 2012
Chapetón 3,000 MW Argentina
Dagangshan 2,600 MW China August 15, 2008[31] 2014
Jinanqiao Dam 2,400 MW China December 2006 2010
Guandi Dam 2,400 MW China Novermber 11 2007 2012
Liyuan Dam 2,400 MW China 2008[32]
Tocoma Dam Bolívar State 2,160 MW Venezuela 2004 2014 This new power plant would be the last development in the Low Caroni Basin, bringing the total to six power plants on the same river, including the 10,000MW Guri Dam.[33]
Ludila Dam 2,100 MW China 2007 2015 Construction halt due to lack of the evnironmental assessment.
Bureya Dam 2,010 MW Russia 1978 2009
Shuangjiangkou Dam 2,000 MW China December, 2007[34] The dam will be 314 m high.
Ahai Dam 2,000 MW China July 27, 2006
Subansiri Lower Dam 2,000 MW India 2005 2012

Proposed major hydroelectric projects

.Only projects with generating capacity greater than or equal to 2,000 MW are listed.^ The project is the subject of international criticism because of the displacement of more than 30,000 people.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The THPC has an installed capacity of 1,020 MW. It is a run-of-the-river project on the Wangchu river, downstream of Chukha Hydroelectric project .
  • Bhutan-India Relations: Bhutannewsonline.com 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.bhutannewsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally, the project was supposed to transmit 12,000 megawatts of the capacity to central China, 4,200 megawatts to eastern China, and 2,000 megawatts to western Chongqing.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Name Maximum Capacity Country Construction starts Scheduled completion Comments
Red Sea dam 50,000 MW Africa/Middle East Unknown Unknown Still in planning, would be largest dam in the world
Grand Inga 40,000 MW Democratic Republic of the Congo 2010 Unknown
Baihetan Dam 13,050 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Wudongde Dam 7,500 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Rampart Dam 4,500 MW United States Canceled
Maji Dam 4,200 MW China 2008 2013
Songta Dam 4,200 MW China 2008 2013
Liangjiaren Dam 4,000 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Jirau Dam 3,300 MW Brazil 2007 2012
Pati Dam 3,300 MW Argentina
Santo Antônio Dam 3,150 MW Brazil 2007 2012
Dibang Dam 3,000 MW India
Lower Churchill 2,800 MW Canada 2009 2014
HidroAysén 2,750 MW Chile 2020
Lenggu Dam 2,718 MW China 2015
Changheba Dam 2,200 MW China 2009 2015
Subansiri Upper HE Project 2,500 MW India 2012 Unknown
Banduo 1 Dam 2,000 MW China 2009

Cost

United States

.In the United States, a study is required before constructing a hydroelectric project.^ The $13.5 billion project is being constructed by the Sarawak Hydroelectric Corporation.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State project means an existing project for which the authority to operate is a time-limited water right for the use of water for hydroelectric purposes and that is not licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
  • Chapter 543A � Reauthorizing and Decommissioning Hydroelectric Projects 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Potential sites for hydroelectric power have already been largely established in the United States and environmental concerns are expected to prevent the development of any new sites in the future.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008, a study could cost up to $50,000 for a 100 feet (30 m) run of a stream.^ This treaty limited the amount of water that could be diverted from above the Falls for power generation to 56,000 cubic feet per second.
  • Niagara Falls History of Power 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.niagarafrontier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fixing all the dams that need repair - estimated at over 4,000 - would run closer to $50 billion.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cost is estimated to be about $30,000 EC. Neither repair cost includes lost revenue related to power generation.
  • Natural Hazards Vulnerability of the Dominica Hydroelectric Expansion Project 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both federal and state licenses were required.^ State project means an existing project for which the authority to operate is a time-limited water right for the use of water for hydroelectric purposes and that is not licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
  • Chapter 543A � Reauthorizing and Decommissioning Hydroelectric Projects 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The expiration date of the federal license and state water right for the project; .
  • Chapter 543A � Reauthorizing and Decommissioning Hydroelectric Projects 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A proposed coordinated state response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, including any additional information requests and recommended conditions to be included in the federal license for the project; and .
  • Chapter 543A � Reauthorizing and Decommissioning Hydroelectric Projects 1 February 2010 2:28 UTC www.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

.A license typically cost between $150,000 and $1 million.^ The project will cost an estimated $100 million and will be undertaken between 2001 and 2008.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind generation with typical 25% capacity therfore will cost $8,000 / MW equivalent to a nuclear plant.
  • The Oil Drum | A North American Energy Plan for 2030: Hydro-electricity the forgotten renewable energy resource 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A project earns money from the sale of energy, the sale of capacity, and the sale of renewable energy credits.^ The IEO2001 reference case projects that consumption of energy from renewable sources in Mexico will increase by 2.2 percent per year, from 0.4 quadrillion Btu in 1999 to 0.7 quadrillion Btu in 2020.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Texas RPS requires that 2,000 megawatts of new renewable energy generating capacity be constructed in Texas by 2009, with increasing interim requirements and individual utilities’ shares assigned in proportion to their retail sales.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, most additional generating capacity is expected to be fired by natural gas rather than renewable energy sources.
  • International Energy Outlook 2001 - Hydroelectricity and Other Renewable Resources 15 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]

See also

Renewable energy
Wind Turbine
Topics:
Lists:
Categories:
Organisations:

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/ Energy Information Administration international statistics database
  2. ^ a b c Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update, REN21, published 2007, accessed 2007-05-16; see Table 4, p. 20.
  3. ^ http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Pearl_Street_Station Pearl Street Station: The Dawn of Commercial Electric Power
  4. ^ Summer of International dissent against Heavy Industry, Saving Iceland, published 2007, accessed 2007-05-17
  5. ^ Hydropower – A Way of Becoming Independent of Fossil Energy?
  6. ^ Beyond Three Gorges in China
  7. ^ "Final Technical Report, Version 2" (in English). Externalities of Energy: Extension of Accounting Framework and Policy Applications. European Commission. August 2005. http://www.externe.info/expoltec.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  
  8. ^ a b "External costs of electricity systems (graph format)" (in English). ExternE-Pol. Technology Assessment / GaBE (Paul Scherrer Institut). 2005. http://gabe.web.psi.ch/projects/externe_pol/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  
  9. ^ Stay Clear, Stay Safe, Ontario Power Generation
  10. ^ See the references for the articles in the list of Dam failures. Duplicating them here is wasteful.
  11. ^ Toccoa Flood USGS Historical Site, retrieved 02sep2009
  12. ^ Extreme Reservoir Siltation: A Case Study Retrieved 02sep2009
  13. ^ Three Gorges Project. Part IV: Siltation of TGP Retrieved 02sep2009
  14. ^ Siltation in Small Dams Retrieved 02sep2009
  15. ^ "Sandy River – Marmot Dam’s removal in 2007 has returned the Sandy River to a wild, free-flowing river". Portland General Electric. http://www.portlandgeneral.com/community_and_env/hydropower_and_fish/sandy/default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  
  16. ^ Sedimentation Problems with Dams
  17. ^ WCD Findal Report, Retrieved 7/10/2009
  18. ^ Hydroelectric power's dirty secret revealed
  19. ^ Inhabitat » “Rediscovered” Wood & The Triton Sawfish
  20. ^ Nick Davies (3 December 2007). "Power firms accused of emissions trade cheating". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/dec/03/climatechange.greenpolitics1. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  
  21. ^ Briefing of World Commission on Dams
  22. ^ http://archives.cbc.ca/economy_business/energy/topics/1750/
  23. ^ Hydro-Québec. 2007 Annual Report. Montreal, April 2008.
  24. ^ Consumption TWh'!A1
  25. ^ a b "Binge and purge". The Economist. 2009. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12970769. Retrieved 2009-01-30. "98-99% of Norway’s electricity comes from hydroelectric plants."  
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ Carl Sulzberger, The Chivilingo Plant- Early Hydropower in Chile, in IEEE Power & Energy, Volume 6, No. 4 July/August 2008, ISSN 1540-7977, pg. 60
  28. ^ Ukrainian Journal: Ukraine launches first hydropower unit at Dnister Power Plant, Kyiv Post (December 23, 2009)
  29. ^ The Historic Mechanicville Hydroelectric Station Part 1: The Early Days, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Jan/Feb. 2007
  30. ^ http://www.ehdc.com.cn/newsite/DisplayNewsMaster/ShowNews.aspx?Id=1175
  31. ^ http://www.cb600.cn/info_view.asp?id=1357280
  32. ^ http://zt.xxgk.yn.gov.cn/canton_model12/newsview.aspx?id=368628
  33. ^ Staff (2004). "Caroní River Watershed Management Plan" (PDF). Inter-America Development Bank. http://idbgroup.org/exr/doc98/pro/pvel1003-06eng.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  34. ^ http://www.cjwsjy.com.cn/News/Company/200808055706.htm
  35. ^ Gresser, Joseph (August 20, 2008). Panel considers small hydro power potential. the Chronicle.  

References

.

External links

.

Simple English

Hydroelectricity is electricity that is made by the movement of water. It is usually made with dams that block a river or collect water that is pumped there. When the water is "let go" the huge pressure behind the dam forces the water down shafts that lead to a turbine, this causes the turbine to turn, and electricity is produced.

File:Hydroelectric
The energy of falling water has been used by humans for thousands of years.[1]

Advantages of hydroelectricity

The way the electricity is produced does not harm the environment as much as fossil fuels like oil or coal. Hydroelectricity is immense and safe and produces no waste. Hydroelectricity can be made very quickly. This makes it useful for times when demand is high. Water that has been stored in a dam can be "let go" when needed, so the energy needed can be made quickly. Also hydroelectricity will not run out as long as there is a good water supply. Once the dam is built the electricity is free, no waste or pollution produced and electricity can be generated constantly.

Disadvantages of hydroelectricity

The building of large dams to hold the water can damage the environment. In 1983 Australian government stopped the Tasmanian state government from building a dam on the Gordon River in Tasmania after a huge public protest.[2] The dam would have flooded the beautiful Franklin River. The Three Gorges Dam in China will be the world's largest hydroelectricity project. The dam has flooded a huge area, meaning that 1.2 million people have had to be moved. Scientists are concerned about many problems with the dam, such as pollution, silt, and the danger of the dam wall breaking.[3]


[[File:|250 px| A hydroelectic power station in Germany]]

References

  1. Earth Science. United States of America: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 2001. pp. 211. ISBN 0-03-055667-8. 
  2. "History of the Franklin River Campaign 1976-83 — The Wilderness Society". www.wilderness.org.au. http://www.wilderness.org.au/articles/franklin. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  3. "Three Gorges Dam". internationalrivers.org. http://internationalrivers.org/china/three-gorges-dam. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hydroelectricity, which are similar to those in the above article.








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