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- ← hydrogenhelium
-

H

Li
Appearance
colorless gas
General properties
Name, symbol, number hydrogen, H, 1
Pronunciation /ˈhaɪdrɵdʒɨn/,[1] HYE-dro-jin
Element category nonmetal
Group, period, block 11, s
Standard atomic weight 1.00794(7)g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s1
Electrons per shell 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Color colorless
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.08988 g/L
Melting point 14.01 K, -259.14 °C, -434.45 °F
Boiling point 20.28 K, -252.87 °C, -423.17 °F
Triple point 13.8033 K (-259°C), 7.042 kPa
Critical point 32.97 K, 1.293 MPa
Heat of fusion (H2) 0.117 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (H2) 0.904 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (H2) 28.836 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 15 20
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, -1
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.20 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1312.0 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 31±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 120 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[2]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.1805 W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 1310 m/s
CAS registry number 1333-74-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of hydrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
1H 99.985% 1H is stable with 0 neutrons
2H 0.015% 2H is stable with 1 neutron
3H trace 12.32 y β 0.01861 3He
.Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H.^ Chemical symbol for hydrogen.

^ [A84] (b) The second lightest (atomic number two) and second most common element in the universe.

With an atomic weight of 1.0079u, hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75 % of the Universe's elemental mass.[3] Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. .Naturally occurring elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth.^ It occurs principally in the form of water and petroleum products; traces of molecular hydrogen are found in some natural gases and in the upper atmosphere.

.The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons.^ Hydrogen-1 (one proton and no neutrons) is the most common isotope; hydrogen-2 (one proton and one neutron), or deuterium, is rarer; and hydrogen-3 (one proton and two neutrons), or tritium, is radioactive.

^ The proton and neutron are the most familiar baryons.

^ It has two stable isotopes, helium-3 (two protons and one neutron) and helium-4 (two protons and two neutrons).

In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively-charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. .Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds.^ Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe, the primary process on the Sun being nuclear fusion of hydrogen to give helium.

^ It occurs principally in the form of water and petroleum products; traces of molecular hydrogen are found in some natural gases and in the upper atmosphere.

^ Element which, after hydrogen, is the second lightest and second most abundant in the Universe.

It plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. .As the simplest atom known, the hydrogen atom has been of theoretical use.^ Hydrogen occupies a unique position among the elements as hydrogen atoms are the simplest of all atoms.

.For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.^ The oxygen atoms will bond to the metal forming a metal oxide, freeing the hydrogen.

.Hydrogen gas (now known to be H2) was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with strong acids.^ (OTCBB : HYDP ) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen Now TM .

^ Hydrogen Now involves a chemical reaction between water, aluminum, and an environmentally friendly catalyst to cleanly and efficiently produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand.

^ The first hydrogen station was opened at Forus in Stavanger in 2006, the second in Porsgrunn in 2007, and now the two new stations are open in Oslo and Lier.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1766-81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produces water when burned, a property which later gave it its name, which in Greek means "water-former". At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result is hydrogen suspension and the only ingredient left is pressure and heat to release its full energy from the combustion.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

^ (OTCBB : HYDP ) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen Now TM .

.Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water [4].^ The chemical plants produce more than 1000 kg/hr of hydrogen resulting form the production of sodium chlorate and clor-alkali by electrolysis of salt water.

^ Production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water requires even more energy and using the current technology of making it from natural gas would require too much of this resource to be used to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to run our cars using fuel cells.

^ This is dramatically less than alternative renewable sources, such as wind and solar, and very competitive with mature, capital intensive hydrogen production methods such as natural gas reformation, coal gasification or electrolysis.

.Most hydrogen is employed near its production site, with the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.^ A hydrogen production process has been developed using solar refined zinc.

^ This is a national transition strategy to stimulate the production and use of hydrogen fuel in the near term.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to increase the use of hydrogen fuel it must be priced competitively against gasoline and diesel.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen is important in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals[5 ], complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks[6].^ Combine with lightweight composite materials, Riverside said the vehicle maximizes efficiency, cutting the need for a large hydrogen storage tank.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen has increasingly received attention as an energy-storage medium which burns in a less-polluting way than do fossil fuels.^ Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and hydrogen boosted engines among others.
  • Hydrogen Fuel Stations Locations - Locate Hydrogen Fuel Stations Near You with Mapmuse's Hydrogen Fuel Stations Locator 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem is that zinc is produced by either electolysis or smelting, both processes having a high energy consumption and concurrent pollution resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels used to oproduce the energy.

^ Increasingly, expensive oil, coal and global warming are causing an energy revolution by requiring fossil fuels to be supplemented by alternative energy sources and by requiring changes in lifestyle.

Contents

Properties

Combustion

A black cup-like object hanging by its bottom with blue glow coming out of its opening.
The Space Shuttle Main Engine burns hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly-invisible flame at full thrust.
.Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen[7]) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume.^ The AquaTunePlus unit creates both hydrogen suspension and flammable gas .
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

^ In a hydrogen economy, natural gas will become very expensive and other uses of natural gas than for vehicle transportation will be given a higher priority.

^ The generator creates large concentrations of hydrogen on demand making the injection a very high potency injection.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

[8] The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen is −286 kJ/mol:[9]
2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)[note 1]
.Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air in the concentration range 4-74% (volume per cent of hydrogen in air) and with chlorine in the range 5-95%.^ All 22 Passat Lingyus are roadworthy, with a range of 186 miles per hydrogen top-up.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The mixtures spontaneously detonate by spark, heat or sunlight. The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F).[10] .Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle main engine compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster.^ U sing newly designed hydrogen engines optimized for NH3, little difference is expected between the performance of anhydrous ammonia compared to gasoline or diesel fuel.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector; such leaks can be very dangerous. .The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was an infamous example of hydrogen combustion; the cause is debated, but the visible flames were the result of combustible materials in the ship's skin.^ The result is hydrogen suspension and the only ingredient left is pressure and heat to release its full energy from the combustion.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

[11] .Because hydrogen is buoyant in air, hydrogen flames tend to ascend rapidly and cause less damage than hydrocarbon fires.^ Introducing a small amount of hydrogen to an engine enhances the flame velocity and thus permits the engine to operate with a leaner air to fuel ratio than otherwise possible.

.Two-thirds of the Hindenburg passengers survived the fire, and many deaths were instead the result of falls or burning diesel fuel.^ Yet the Department of Energy proposed to eliminate funding for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and for fuel cell deployment activities, cutting the program overall by two-thirds.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding hydrogen halides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which are also potentially dangerous acids.[13]

Electron energy levels

Drawing of a light-gray large sphere with a cut off quarter and a black small sphere and numbers 1.6 and 1.7x10-5 illustrating their relative diameters.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale).
.The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 92 nm wavelength.^ Powered by hydrogen fuel cells, with a network hybrid design and made from carbon composites, it has been designed to achieve over 300 mpg (energy equivalent).
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ StatoilHydro sells hydrogen in Norway at around 40 Norwegian crowns ($6.28) per kilo, which it says is roughly equal in energy terms to the price of petrol.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the last twenty years Mr. Haberman has contributed to hydrogen energy activities in 22 states and in 13 countries.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the sun.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the electromagnetic force attracts electrons and protons to one another, while planets and celestial objects are attracted to each other by gravity. Because of the discretization of angular momentum postulated in early quantum mechanics by Bohr, the electron in the Bohr model can only occupy certain allowed distances from the proton, and therefore only certain allowed energies.[15]
.A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation or the equivalent Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton.^ Georgia Tech settled on a hydrogen-fueled vehicle for its carbon capture plan because pure hydrogen produces no carbon emissions when it is used as a fuel to power the vehicle.

^ (NasdaqNM: FCEL ), has developed a cost-efficient system to separate pure hydrogen from a gas mixture that then can be sold as fuel for hydrogen vehicles or industrial uses.

^ Ng defined four key things that people look for when it comes to hydrogen storage: safety, hydrogen storage density, low cost and manufacturability.

[16]

Elemental molecular forms

Two bright circles on dark background, both contain numerous thin black lines inside.
First tracks observed in liquid hydrogen bubble chamber at the Bevatron
There exist two different spin isomers of hydrogen diatomic molecules that differ by the relative spin of their nuclei.[17] In the orthohydrogen form, the spins of the two protons are parallel and form a triplet state with a molecular spin quantum number of 1 (½+½); in the parahydrogen form the spins are antiparallel and form a singlet with a molecular spin quantum number of 0 (½-½). .At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen gas contains about 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form, also known as the "normal form".[18] The equilibrium ratio of orthohydrogen to parahydrogen depends on temperature, but since the ortho form is an excited state and has a higher energy than the para form, it is unstable and cannot be purified.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result is hydrogen suspension and the only ingredient left is pressure and heat to release its full energy from the combustion.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

^ Jonathon Fahey Hydrogen Gas Forbes April 25, 2005 .
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At very low temperatures, the equilibrium state is composed almost exclusively of the para form. The liquid and gas phase thermal properties of pure parahydrogen differ significantly from those of the normal form because of differences in rotational heat capacities, as discussed more fully in Spin isomers of hydrogen.[19] .The ortho/para distinction also occurs in other hydrogen-containing molecules or functional groups, such as water and methylene, but is of little significance for their thermal properties.^ It makes other water injection systems and hydrogen producing systems obsolete.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

^ Syngas is made up mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but also contains nitrogen, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, plus trace amounts of other gases.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.The uncatalyzed interconversion between para and ortho H2 increases with increasing temperature; thus rapidly condensed H2 contains large quantities of the high-energy ortho form that converts to the para form very slowly.^ The generator creates large concentrations of hydrogen on demand making the injection a very high potency injection.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

[21] .The ortho/para ratio in condensed H2 is an important consideration in the preparation and storage of liquid hydrogen: the conversion from ortho to para is exothermic and produces enough heat to evaporate some of the hydrogen liquid, leading to loss of liquefied material.^ Success in this project will lead to further fleet conversions at some or all of Anheuser-Buschs other 11 U.S. facilities.
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^ Success at this distribution center will lead to further fleet conversions at some or all of Syscos other 169 distribution centers.
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^ Success at this service center will lead to further fleet conversions at some or all of FedExs other 470 service centers.
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Catalysts for the ortho-para interconversion, such as ferric oxide, activated carbon, platinized asbestos, rare earth metals, uranium compounds, chromic oxide, or some nickel[22] compounds, are used during hydrogen cooling.[23]
A molecular form called protonated molecular hydrogen, or H +3, is found in the interstellar medium (ISM), where it is generated by ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays. It has also been observed in the upper atmosphere of the planet Jupiter. This molecule is relatively stable in the environment of outer space due to the low temperature and density. H +3 is one of the most abundant ions in the Universe, and it plays a notable role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.[24] Neutral triatomic hydrogen H3 can only exist in an excited from and is unstable.[25]

Compounds

Covalent and organic compounds

.While H2 is not very reactive under standard conditions, it does form compounds with most elements.^ Over 1,477.3 miles under the conditions described the roadster returned 33.87mpg, an improvement of 25.43% , which is very impressive for older technology.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

Millions of hydrocarbons are known, but they are not formed by the direct reaction of elementary hydrogen and carbon. Hydrogen can form compounds with elements that are more electronegative, such as halogens (e.g., F, Cl, Br, I); in these compounds hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge.[26] When bonded to fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, hydrogen can participate in a form of strong noncovalent bonding called hydrogen bonding, which is critical to the stability of many biological molecules.[27][28] Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as the metals and metalloids, in which it takes on a partial negative charge. These compounds are often known as hydrides.[29]
Hydrogen forms a vast array of compounds with carbon. Because of their general association with living things, these compounds came to be called organic compounds;[30] the study of their properties is known as organic chemistry[31] and their study in the context of living organisms is known as biochemistry.[32] By some definitions, "organic" compounds are only required to contain carbon. .However, most of them also contain hydrogen, and since it is the carbon-hydrogen bond which gives this class of compounds most of its particular chemical characteristics, carbon-hydrogen bonds are required in some definitions of the word "organic" in chemistry.^ Syngas is made up mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but also contains nitrogen, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, plus trace amounts of other gases.
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^ However, the Premacy, a boxy crossover vehicle, has a more advanced system that gives it a range of 125 miles on hydrogen alone.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Especially since Popular Mechanics had some harsh words for the AquaTune System and other gas gadgets they tested.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

[30]
In inorganic chemistry, hydrides can also serve as bridging ligands that link two metal centers in a coordination complex. This function is particularly common in group 13 elements, especially in boranes (boron hydrides) and aluminium complexes, as well as in clustered carboranes.[33]

Hydrides

.Compounds of hydrogen are often called hydrides, a term that is used fairly loosely.^ This is a national transition strategy to stimulate the production and use of hydrogen fuel in the near term.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term "hydride" suggests that the H atom has acquired a negative or anionic character, denoted H, and is used when hydrogen forms a compound with a more electropositive element.^ This is a national transition strategy to stimulate the production and use of hydrogen fuel in the near term.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The existence of the hydride anion, suggested by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 for group I and II salt-like hydrides, was demonstrated by Moers in 1920 with the electrolysis of molten lithium hydride (LiH), that produced a stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen at the anode.[34] For hydrides other than group I and II metals, the term is quite misleading, considering the low electronegativity of hydrogen. An exception in group II hydrides is BeH2, which is polymeric. In lithium aluminium hydride, the AlH 4 anion carries hydridic centers firmly attached to the Al(III). .Although hydrides can be formed with almost all main-group elements, the number and combination of possible compounds varies widely; for example, there are over 100 binary borane hydrides known, but only one binary aluminium hydride.^ And only one variation, plug-in hybrids, will be on the market anytime soon.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] Binary indium hydride has not yet been identified, although larger complexes exist.[36]

Protons and acids

Oxidation of hydrogen, in the sense of removing its electron, formally gives H+, containing no electrons and a nucleus which is usually composed of one proton. That is why H+ is often called a proton. This species is central to discussion of acids. Under the Bronsted-Lowry theory, acids are proton donors, while bases are proton acceptors.
A bare proton, H+, cannot exist in solution or in ionic crystals, because of its unstoppable attraction to other atoms or molecules with electrons. Except at the high temperatures associated with plasmas, such protons cannot be removed from the electron clouds of atoms and molecules, and will remain attached to them. .However, the term 'proton' is sometimes used loosely and metaphorically to refer to positively charged or cationic hydrogen attached to other species in this fashion, and as such is denoted "H+" without any implication that any single protons exist freely as a species.^ This is a national transition strategy to stimulate the production and use of hydrogen fuel in the near term.
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To avoid the implication of the naked "solvated proton" in solution, acidic aqueous solutions are sometimes considered to contain a less unlikely fictitious species, termed the "hydronium ion" (H3O+). .However, even in this case, such solvated hydrogen cations are thought more realistically physically to be organized into clusters that form species closer to H9O +4.^ However, the Premacy, a boxy crossover vehicle, has a more advanced system that gives it a range of 125 miles on hydrogen alone.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] Other oxonium ions are found when water is in solution with other solvents.[38]
.Although exotic on earth, one of the most common ions in the universe is the H +3 ion, known as protonated molecular hydrogen or the triatomic hydrogen cation.^ "One of the most important, frank, visionary and impassioned observations on the strategy for hydrogen energy that I have heard in the past 35 years.
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[39]

Isotopes

Schematic drawing of a positive atom in the center orbited by a negative particle.
.
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, has one proton and one electron.
^ "One of the most important, frank, visionary and impassioned observations on the strategy for hydrogen energy that I have heard in the past 35 years.
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Unique among all stable isotopes, it has no neutrons (see diproton for discussion of why others do not exist).
Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted 1H, 2H and 3H. Other, highly unstable nuclei (4H to 7H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature.[40][41]
.
  • 1H is the most common hydrogen isotope with an abundance of more than 99.98%.^ HyNor has some 50 partners and manages a fleet of more than 50 hydrogen vehicles made by Mazda, Toyota and Think.
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    Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium.[42]
  • .
  • 2H, the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus.^ Syngas is made up mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but also contains nitrogen, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, plus trace amounts of other gases.
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    Essentially all deuterium in the universe is thought to have been produced at the time of the Big Bang, and has endured since that time. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for 1H-NMR spectroscopy.[43] Heavy water is used as a neutron moderator and coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion.[44]
  • 3H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into Helium-3 through beta decay with a half-life of 12.32 years.[33] Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests.[45] It is used in nuclear fusion reactions,[46] as a tracer in isotope geochemistry,[47] and specialized in self-powered lighting devices.[48] Tritium has also been used in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a radiolabel.[49]
Hydrogen is the only element that has different names for its isotopes in common use today. (During the early study of radioactivity, various heavy radioactive isotopes were given names, but such names are no longer used). The symbols D and T (instead of 2H and 3H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium, but the corresponding symbol P is already in use for phosphorus and thus is not available for protium.[50] In its nomenclatural guidelines, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry allows any of D, T, 2H, and 3H to be used, although 2H and 3H are preferred.[51]

History

Discovery and use

Hydrogen gas, H2, was first artificially produced and formally described by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493–1541) via the mixing of metals with strong acids.[52] He was unaware that the flammable gas produced by this chemical reaction was a new chemical element. .In 1671, Robert Boyle rediscovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.^ The roadster project is a result of years of collaboration between key figures in ammonia and hydrogen fuel.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as "flammable air" and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than subsidize the expansion of the oil refining & industrial gas business model of using natural gas to produce hydrogen it is essential that national policy switch to using coal power to transform water into hydrogen.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element.[54][55] .In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek hydro meaning water and genes meaning creator)[56] when he and Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned.^ This initial installation will produce hydrogen from Lake Erie water to fuel a mass transit bus powered by fuel cells.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells create an electrical current when they convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and heat.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
Hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask.[55] He produced solid hydrogen the next year.[55] Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck.[54] Heavy water, which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen, was discovered by Urey's group in 1932.[55] François Isaac de Rivaz built the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819. The Döbereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823.[55]
The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.[55] Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard.[55] German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins; the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900.[55] Regularly scheduled flights started in 1910 and by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, they had carried 35,000 passengers without a serious incident. Hydrogen-lifted airships were used as observation platforms and bombers during the war.
.The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919. Regular passenger service resumed in the 1920s and the discovery of helium reserves in the United States promised increased safety, but the U.S. government refused to sell the gas for this purpose.^ The Swedish government's venture capital company for the automotive industry, Fouriertransform, is making its first investment of SEK60 million (5.2 million) in Powercell Sweden AB, which develops, produces and sells fuel cells, fuel reformers and auxillary power units.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Business leaders, security experts, government officials, concerned citizens and the United States Supreme Court have called for enduring, pragmatic solutions to reduce the greenhouse gas pollution that is causing climate change.
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Therefore, H2 was used in the Hindenburg airship, which was destroyed in a midair fire over New Jersey on May 6, 1937.[55] The incident was broadcast live on radio and filmed. Ignition of leaking hydrogen is widely assumed to be the cause, but later investigations pointed to the ignition of the aluminized fabric coating by static electricity. .But the damage to hydrogen's reputation as a lifting gas was already done.^ It is nonsensical to build the foundations of a new energy system (hydrogen) on the wildly unpredictable future of an already stressed resource (natural gas).
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the same year the first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant in the rotor and the stator in 1937 at Dayton, Ohio, by the Dayton Power & Light Co,[57] because of the thermal conductivity of hydrogen gas this is the most common type in its field today.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technology converts solid fuels, such as coal, into a cleaner burning hydrogen-rich fuel, which then is used by a gas turbine combined-cycle system to generate electricity, providing a cleaner, economical coal-to-power option.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It represents the first such facility of its type anywhere in the world and will combine the production of hydrogen power with carbon capture and storage technologies.
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.The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).^ That technology would either make all but 40 miles of the trip on gasoline (the range of the batteries) or stop 35 times to recharge, adding days to the trip.
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^ The vehicles employs a 6kW fuel cell made by [Singapore's] Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies that converts hydrogen into electricity, which is used to power motors on each of the vehicles four wheels.
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^ The technology not only efficiently uses pricey platinum, but is two-to-five times more effective than commercial catalysts .
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[58] For example, the ISS,[59] Mars Odyssey[60] and the Mars Global Surveyor[61] are equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries. .The Hubble Space Telescope, at the time its original batteries were finally changed in May 2009, more than 19 years after launch, led with the highest number of charge/discharge cycles.^ "The project is more than a key technology demonstration," said project team member Valerie Lyons, chief of Glenn's Power and In-Space Propulsion Division.
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^ Schwarzenegger Promotes H2 Fuel Los Angeles Times May 27, 2009 .
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen June 23, 2008 more CLIMATE CHANGE .
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Role in quantum theory

A line spectrum showing black background with narrow lines superimposed on it: two violet, one blue and one red.
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
.Because of its relatively simple atomic structure, consisting only of a proton and an electron, the hydrogen atom, together with the spectrum of light produced from it or absorbed by it, has been central to the development of the theory of atomic structure.^ You can only get so many electrons out of a given atom."
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[62] Furthermore, the corresponding simplicity of the hydrogen molecule and the corresponding cation H2+ allowed fuller understanding of the nature of the chemical bond, which followed shortly after the quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom had been developed in the mid-1920s.
.One of the first quantum effects to be explicitly noticed (but not understood at the time) was a Maxwell observation involving hydrogen, half a century before full quantum mechanical theory arrived.^ "One of the most important, frank, visionary and impassioned observations on the strategy for hydrogen energy that I have heard in the past 35 years.
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Maxwell observed that the specific heat capacity of H2 unaccountably departs from that of a diatomic gas below room temperature and begins to increasingly resemble that of a monatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. According to quantum theory, this behavior arises from the spacing of the (quantized) rotational energy levels, which are particularly wide-spaced in H2 because of its low mass. .These widely spaced levels inhibit equal partition of heat energy into rotational motion in hydrogen at low temperatures.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells create an electrical current when they convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and heat.
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^ These indicators include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, global ocean temperature, Arctic sea ice extent, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events.
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Diatomic gases composed of heavier atoms do not have such widely spaced levels and do not exhibit the same effect.[63]

Natural occurrence

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms.[64] This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. Molecular clouds of H2 are associated with star formation. Hydrogen plays a vital role in powering stars through proton-proton reaction and CNO cycle nuclear fusion.[65]
.Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and plasma states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen.^ The implementation of the coal to hydrogen pathway will involve many states whose economies rely on coal.
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^ Ammonia as a Storage Medium for Hydrogen Proceedings from the Iowa State University NH3 conference www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/ammonia/index.htm .
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As a plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together, resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing the light from the sun and other stars). The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind they interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora. .Hydrogen is found in the neutral atomic state in the Interstellar medium.^ Ammonia as a Storage Medium for Hydrogen Proceedings from the Iowa State University NH3 conference www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/ammonia/index.htm .
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The large amount of neutral hydrogen found in the damped Lyman-alpha systems is thought to dominate the cosmological baryonic density of the Universe up to redshift z=4.[66]
Under ordinary conditions on Earth, elemental hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas, H2 (for data see table). .However, hydrogen gas is very rare in the Earth's atmosphere (1 ppm by volume) because of its light weight, which enables it to escape from Earth's gravity more easily than heavier gases.^ HyNor has some 50 partners and manages a fleet of more than 50 hydrogen vehicles made by Mazda, Toyota and Think.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We conclude that even if all FCVs use hydrogen from natural gas, the impact on natural gas resources would be minimal on a global scale, and the slight decrease in natural gas consumption is more than offset by the larger increase in oil resources.
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^ Syngas is made up mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but also contains nitrogen, greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, plus trace amounts of other gases.
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However, hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface.[67] .Most of the Earth's hydrogen is in the form of chemical compounds such as hydrocarbons and water.^ This suggests that in the future, uranium mining could require more energy, water and industrial chemicals such as corrosives, and release more greenhouse gases.
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[33] .Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus.^ Rather than subsidize the expansion of the oil refining & industrial gas business model of using natural gas to produce hydrogen it is essential that national policy switch to using coal power to transform water into hydrogen.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen are waiting to sweep into Americas garages.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is nonsensical to build the foundations of a new energy system (hydrogen) on the wildly unpredictable future of an already stressed resource (natural gas).
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methane is a hydrogen source of increasing importance.[68]

Production

.H2 is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories, often as a by-product of other reactions; in industry for the hydrogenation of unsaturated substrates; and in nature as a means of expelling reducing equivalents in biochemical reactions.^ As we approach a costly part of the program, we will require government and industry partnerships to install a hydrogen infrastructure and help create a customer pull for the products.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than subsidize the expansion of the oil refining & industrial gas business model of using natural gas to produce hydrogen it is essential that national policy switch to using coal power to transform water into hydrogen.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dr Ben Bladergroen wants to perfect the production of hydrogen from coal and (later) other sources.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Laboratory

In the laboratory, H2 is usually prepared by the reaction of acids on metals such as zinc with Kipp's apparatus.
Zn + 2 H+Zn2+ + H2
Aluminium can also produce H2 upon treatment with bases:
2 Al + 6 H2O + 2 OH → 2 Al(OH) 4 + 3 H2
.The electrolysis of water is a simple method of producing hydrogen.^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This initial installation will produce hydrogen from Lake Erie water to fuel a mass transit bus powered by fuel cells.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A low voltage current is run through the water, and gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms at the cathode.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells create an electrical current when they convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and heat.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typically the cathode is made from platinum or another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. If, however, the gas is to be burnt on site, oxygen is desirable to assist the combustion, and so both electrodes would be made from inert metals. (Iron, for instance, would oxidize, and thus decrease the amount of oxygen given off.) The theoretical maximum efficiency (electricity used vs. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is between 80–94%.[69]
2H2O(aq) → 2H2(g) + O2(g)
.In 2007, it was discovered that an alloy of aluminium and gallium in pellet form added to water could be used to generate hydrogen.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fueling station will generate hydrogen from Lake Erie water for use in a Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority bus powered by fuel cells.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The process also creates alumina, but the expensive gallium, which prevents the formation of an oxide skin on the pellets, can be re-used. .This has important potential implications for a hydrogen economy, since hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported.^ "As a future clean transport alternative, hydrogen and fuel-cell technology have big potential.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen is potentially a game changing transportation fuel," says Ms Bech Gjrv.
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^ Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy DOE 2006 .
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[70]

Industrial

.Hydrogen can be prepared in several different ways, but economically the most important processes involve removal of hydrogen from hydrocarbons.^ "One of the most important, frank, visionary and impassioned observations on the strategy for hydrogen energy that I have heard in the past 35 years.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas.^ Rather than subsidize the expansion of the oil refining & industrial gas business model of using natural gas to produce hydrogen it is essential that national policy switch to using coal power to transform water into hydrogen.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen are waiting to sweep into Americas garages.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is nonsensical to build the foundations of a new energy system (hydrogen) on the wildly unpredictable future of an already stressed resource (natural gas).
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] At high temperatures (1000–1400 K, °C;700–1100 °C or 1,300–2,000 °F), steam (water vapor) reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and H2.
CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2
This reaction is favored at low pressures but is nonetheless conducted at high pressures (2.0  MPa, 20 atm or 600 inHg) since high pressure H2 is the most marketable product. .The product mixture is known as "synthesis gas" because it is often used directly for the production of methanol and related compounds.^ Natural gas should be prioritized for use in peak power production because natural gas combined cycle plants are the only stationary power generation which can be built quickly in the U.S. with acceptable risks.
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Hydrocarbons other than methane can be used to produce synthesis gas with varying product ratios. One of the many complications to this highly optimized technology is the formation of coke or carbon:
CH4 → C + 2 H2
Consequently, steam reforming typically employs an excess of H2O. .Additional hydrogen can be recovered from the steam by use of carbon monoxide through the water gas shift reaction, especially with an iron oxide catalyst.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fueling station will generate hydrogen from Lake Erie water for use in a Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority bus powered by fuel cells.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This reaction is also a common industrial source of carbon dioxide:[71]
CO + H2OCO2 + H2
Other important methods for H2 production include partial oxidation of hydrocarbons:[72]
2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2
and the coal reaction, which can serve as a prelude to the shift reaction above:[71]
C + H2O → CO + H2
.Hydrogen is sometimes produced and consumed in the same industrial process, without being separated.^ In the near term, this pathway produces hydrogen fuel at the locations of opportunity without the burden of replicating the large capital expenditures of reformation based industry including pipelines and diesel truck fleets.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of hydrogen's big advantages is that it can be produced from many power sources, and can be efficiently produced and used without emitting any pollutants.
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.In the Haber process for the production of ammonia, hydrogen is generated from natural gas.^ This conference coincides with the opening of a new generation hydrogen production and dispensing facility at Yeager Airport.
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^ Compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen are waiting to sweep into Americas garages.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas should be prioritized for use in peak power production because natural gas combined cycle plants are the only stationary power generation which can be built quickly in the U.S. with acceptable risks.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] Electrolysis of brine to yield chlorine also produces hydrogen as a co-product.[74]

Thermochemical

.There are more than 200 thermochemical cycles which can be used for water splitting, around a dozen of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity.^ HyNor has some 50 partners and manages a fleet of more than 50 hydrogen vehicles made by Mazda, Toyota and Think.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technology converts solid fuels, such as coal, into a cleaner burning hydrogen-rich fuel, which then is used by a gas turbine combined-cycle system to generate electricity, providing a cleaner, economical coal-to-power option.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .A number of laboratories (including in France, Germany, Greece, Japan, and the USA) are developing thermochemical methods to produce hydrogen from solar energy and water.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This initial installation will produce hydrogen from Lake Erie water to fuel a mass transit bus powered by fuel cells.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ States that required utilities to tell their customers the energy sources used to produce their electricity and that also required utilities to offer "green power"electricity produced from renewable energy sourcesended up with more renewable energy development.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]

Applications

Large quantities of H2 are needed in the petroleum and chemical industries. The largest application of H2 is for the processing ("upgrading") of fossil fuels, and in the production of ammonia. The key consumers of H2 in the petrochemical plant include hydrodealkylation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. H2 has several other important uses. .H2 is used as a hydrogenating agent, particularly in increasing the level of saturation of unsaturated fats and oils (found in items such as margarine), and in the production of methanol.^ In order to increase the use of hydrogen fuel it must be priced competitively against gasoline and diesel.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It represents the first such facility of its type anywhere in the world and will combine the production of hydrogen power with carbon capture and storage technologies.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We conclude that even if all FCVs use hydrogen from natural gas, the impact on natural gas resources would be minimal on a global scale, and the slight decrease in natural gas consumption is more than offset by the larger increase in oil resources.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is similarly the source of hydrogen in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. H2 is also used as a reducing agent of metallic ores.[77]
Hydrogen is highly soluble in many rare earth and transition metals[78] and is soluble in both nanocrystalline and amorphous metals.[79] Hydrogen solubility in metals is influenced by local distortions or impurities in the crystal lattice.[80]. .These properties may be useful when hydrogen is purified by passage through hot palladium disks, but the gas serves as a metallurgical problem as hydrogen solubility contributes in an unwanted way to embrittle many metals,[5 ] complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.^ The designs that Riversimple is licensing to 40 Fires resemble in many ways the code base which a complex software project starts with.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
Apart from its use as a reactant, H2 has wide applications in physics and engineering. It is used as a shielding gas in welding methods such as atomic hydrogen welding.[81][82] H2 is used as the rotor coolant in electrical generators at power stations, because it has the highest thermal conductivity of any gas. Liquid H2 is used in cryogenic research, including superconductivity studies.[83] Since H2 is lighter than air, having a little more than 115 of the density of air, it was once widely used as a lifting gas in balloons and airships.[84]
In more recent applications, hydrogen is used pure or mixed with nitrogen (sometimes called forming gas) as a tracer gas for minute leak detection. Applications can be found in the automotive, chemical, power generation, aerospace, and telecommunications industries.[85] Hydrogen is an authorized food additive (E 949) that allows food package leak testing among other anti-oxidizing properties.[86]
Hydrogen's rarer isotopes also each have specific applications. Deuterium (hydrogen-2) is used in nuclear fission applications as a moderator to slow neutrons, and in nuclear fusion reactions.[55] Deuterium compounds have applications in chemistry and biology in studies of reaction isotope effects.[87] Tritium (hydrogen-3), produced in nuclear reactors, is used in the production of hydrogen bombs,[88] as an isotopic label in the biosciences,[49] and as a radiation source in luminous paints.[89]
The triple point temperature of equilibrium hydrogen is a defining fixed point on the ITS-90 temperature scale at 13.8033 kelvins.[90]

Energy carrier

Hydrogen is not an energy resource,[91] except in the hypothetical context of commercial nuclear fusion power plants using deuterium or tritium, a technology presently far from development.[92] The Sun's energy comes from nuclear fusion of hydrogen, but this process is difficult to achieve controllably on Earth.[93] Elemental hydrogen from solar, biological, or electrical sources require more energy to make it than is obtained by burning it, so in these cases hydrogen functions as an energy carrier, like a battery. Hydrogen may be obtained from fossil sources (such as methane), but these sources are unsustainable.[91]
The energy density per unit volume of both liquid hydrogen and compressed hydrogen gas at any practicable pressure is significantly less than that of traditional fuel sources, although the energy density per unit fuel mass is higher.[91] Nevertheless, elemental hydrogen has been widely discussed in the context of energy, as a possible future carrier of energy on an economy-wide scale.[94] For example, CO2 sequestration followed by carbon capture and storage could be conducted at the point of H2 production from fossil fuels.[95] Hydrogen used in transportation would burn relatively cleanly, with some NOx emissions,[96] but without carbon emissions.[95] However, the infrastructure costs associated with full conversion to a hydrogen economy would be substantial.[97]

Semiconductor industry

Hydrogen is employed to saturate broken ("dangling") bonds of amorphous silicon and amorphous carbon that helps stabilizing material properties.[98] It is also a potential electron donor in various oxide materials, including ZnO,[99][100] SnO2, CdO, MgO,[101] ZrO2, HfO2, La2O3, Y2O3, TiO2, SrTiO3, LaAlO3, SiO2, Al2O3, ZrSiO4, HfSiO4, and SrZrO3.[102]

Biological reactions

H2 is a product of some types of anaerobic metabolism and is produced by several microorganisms, usually via reactions catalyzed by iron- or nickel-containing enzymes called hydrogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reversible redox reaction between H2 and its component two protons and two electrons. .Creation of hydrogen gas occurs in the transfer of reducing equivalents produced during pyruvate fermentation to water.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells create an electrical current when they convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and heat.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GMs hydrogen fuel cell Equinox uses simple electrolyzed water to create the hydrogen gas that powers the car.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.Water splitting, in which water is decomposed into its component protons, electrons, and oxygen, occurs in the light reactions in all photosynthetic organisms.^ The company seeks to keep its hydrogen clean by using energy from Norway's vast hydropower-plants to split water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells create an electrical current when they convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and heat.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The demonstration, featuring a unique, high-capacity electrolyzer that separates water into its elemental components of hydrogen and oxygen, is part of an economic development program in the Cleveland area.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some such organisms—including the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria—have evolved a second step in the dark reactions in which protons and electrons are reduced to form H2 gas by specialized hydrogenases in the chloroplast.[104] Efforts have been undertaken to genetically modify cyanobacterial hydrogenases to efficiently synthesize H2 gas even in the presence of oxygen.[105] Efforts have also been undertaken with genetically modified alga in a bioreactor.[106]

Safety and precautions

Hydrogen poses a number of hazards to human safety, from potential detonations and fires when mixed with air to being an asphyxant in its pure, oxygen-free form.[107] In addition, liquid hydrogen is a cryogen and presents dangers (such as frostbite) associated with very cold liquids.[108] Hydrogen dissolves in some metals, and, in addition to leaking out, may have adverse effects on them, such as hydrogen embrittlement.[109] .Hydrogen gas leaking into external air may spontaneously ignite.^ Being lighter than air at ambient temperature, if a leak occurs it quickly dissipates into the atmosphere rather than pooling in a concentrated mass that can be easily ignited.
  • Hydrogen POWER - The Automotive eZine 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lilith-ezine.com [Source type: News]

^ Stuart Energy Systems Corporation Dealing into hydrogen plants, hydrogen generators, hydrogen compressoin, oxygen compression, gas purification, oxygen generators, gas equipment, electrolysis equipment and gas storage system.
  • PSA Plants Suppliers,PSA Plants Manufacturers,PSA Plants Supplier,PSA Plants Manufacturer 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC www.psaplants.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The British chemist Joseph Priestly named the gas "inflammable air" in 1781, and the French chemist Atoine Laurent Lavosier renamed it hydrogen.
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moreover, hydrogen fire, while being extremely hot, is almost invisible, and thus can lead to accidental burns.[110]
Even interpreting the hydrogen data (including safety data) is confounded by a number of phenomena. Many physical and chemical properties of hydrogen depend on the parahydrogen/orthohydrogen ratio (it often takes days or weeks at a given temperature to reach the equilibrium ratio, for which the data is usually given). Hydrogen detonation parameters, such as critical detonation pressure and temperature, strongly depend on the container geometry.[107]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 286 kJ/mol: energy per mole of the combustible material (hydrogen)

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  81. ^ Durgutlu, Ahmet (2003). "Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen in argon as a shielding gas on TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel". Materials & Design 25 (1): 19–23. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2003.07.004.  
  82. ^ "Atomic Hydrogen Welding". Specialty Welds. 2007. http://www.specialwelds.com/underwater-welding/atomic-hydrogen-welding.htm.  
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Further reading

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-10-28, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
  • Chart of the Nuclides. Fourteenth Edition. .General Electric Company.^ Instead of driving electric vehicles with this system alone, the company expects to use it as a generator to charge the secondary battery used in electric vehicles.
    • Directory:Hydrogen - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The customer pays the electric company for any extra power they use over the amount they generate - OR - the customer receives a credit or refund from the electric company if they exported more power to the grid, than what they consumed.
    • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rhino Hydro Technical (discontinued) - Ontario Canada company plans to manufacture a 4' X 4' X 7' home electricity generating plant.
    • Directory:Hydrogen - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1989. http://chartofthenuclides.com/default.html.
     
  • Ferreira-Aparicio, P; M. J. Benito, J. L. Sanz (2005). ."New Trends in Reforming Technologies: from Hydrogen Industrial Plants to Multifuel Microreformers". Catalysis Reviews 47: 491–588. doi:10.1080/01614940500364958.  
  • Newton, David E. (1994).^ The technology proposed for the Hydrogen Energy California plant would convert petroleum coke, coal or a combination of each into a synthesis gas (syngas).
    • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Case for Hydrogen as an Industry Transformer John McCormick Detroit News December 12, 2005 .
    • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AMERICA CHASES MEDIOCRITY Government Funding Swings from Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology to Electric Vehicles Under Obama David Shepardson Detroit News (MI) March 25, 2009 .
    • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Chemical Elements. .New York, NY: Franklin Watts.^ New York MTI MicroFuel Cells (Albany, NY) To accelerate fuel cell use in consumer markets, MTI will demonstrate a one-watt consumer electronics power pack.
    • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, NY .
    • Hydrogen Fuel Stations Locations - Locate Hydrogen Fuel Stations Near You with Mapmuse's Hydrogen Fuel Stations Locator 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-531-12501-7.  
  • Rigden, John S. (2002). Hydrogen: The Essential Element. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-531-12501-7.  
  • Romm, Joseph, J. (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.   Author interview at Global Public Media.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table.^ Periodic Table:Hydrogen .
  • Hydrogen Guide 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC wnscience.com [Source type: News]

.It is also the most abundant element in the universe.^ Element which, after hydrogen, is the second lightest and second most abundant in the Universe.

^ The most abundant chemical in the universe.

^ Element that is the lightest and the most abundant in the Universe.

.Hydrogen is a diatom, so in its molecular form it exists with two hydrogen atoms bonded to one another as H2.^ The oxygen atoms will bond to the metal forming a metal oxide, freeing the hydrogen.

^ Because of the small mass of hydrogen, these forms are more important in hydrogen molecules than in other diatomic molecules.

^ It occurs principally in the form of water and petroleum products; traces of molecular hydrogen are found in some natural gases and in the upper atmosphere.

Physical Constants

Atomic Weight = 1.0079 g·mol-1
Molecular Weight = 2.0158 g·mol-1
Melting Point = -259.2°C
Boiling Point = -252.8°C
Density = 0.06952 g·mL-1[1]

Wikipedia


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.HYDROGEN [[[symbol]] H, atomic weight 1 o08 (o=16)], one of the chemical elements.^ What is the difference between H and D? Write their isotope symbols using notation, where A is the atomic mass number, Z is the atomic number and X is the element symbol.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding an electron makes heavy hydrogen, or deuterium D, with an atomic weight of 2.014.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Technology Applications Inc - HyTech claims a process of converting H20 to HHO, producing a gas that combines the atomic power of hydrogen with the chemical stability of water.
  • Directory:Hydrogen - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its name is derived from Gr. .15bcwp, water, and -yevvaecv, to produce, in allusion to the fact that water is produced when the gas burns in air.^ Hydrogen gas is present in small amounts in volcanic gases where it is produced by chemical reactions, but more of it appears combined as hydrogen sulphide and nascent water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a little air leaks into a volume of hydrogen, the hazard is great, for then the gas will explode, not just burn.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A shot by Mike Walker and I of pure hydrogen gas in a clump of soap bubbles, burning in air.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen appears to have been recognized by Paracelsus in the 16th century; the combustibility of the gas was noticed by Turquet de Mayenne in the 17th century, whilst in 1700 N. Lemery showed that a mixture of hydrogen and air detonated on the application of a light.^ Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 18th century, Antoine Lavoisier recognized the substance as an element and later named it hydrogen from the two Greek words meaning “water-forming”.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A shot by Mike Walker and I of pure hydrogen gas in a clump of soap bubbles, burning in air.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first definite experiments concerning the nature of hydrogen were made in 1766 by H. Cavendish, who showed that it was formed when various metals were acted upon by dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acids.^ These high-pressure hydrogen tanks are made from an expensive alloy containing chromium that is resistant to hydrogen metal embrittlement and they cost a bundle.
  • L.A. Times: “Hydrogen fuel-cell technology won’t work in cars.” Duh. Time for Obama and Chu to kill the program. « Climate Progress 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Then a catalyst made using the metals rhodium and palladium is added to the ethanol and water, at temperatures of about 500C. This converts the ethanol and water into hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The panels are usually made in the form of a monolithic piece of glass, upon which various thin films are deposited, although a number of firms are working on depositing the materials on a substrate, such as stainless steel or plastic.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cavendish called it "inflammable air," and for some time it was confused with other inflammable gases, all of which were supposed to contain the same inflammable principle, "phlogiston," in combination with varying amounts of other substances.^ (Some patients have been able to solve the nausea problem by taking three or four lecithin capsules at the same time they take the H202.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this time of year, the electric utilities are forced to turn on all of their power plants to generate the peak demands required by the customers, primarily for air-conditioning.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen gas is present in small amounts in volcanic gases where it is produced by chemical reactions, but more of it appears combined as hydrogen sulphide and nascent water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1781 Cavendish showed that water was the only substance produced when hydrogen was burned in air or oxygen, it having been thought previously to this date that other substances were formed during the reaction, A. L. Lavoisier making many experiments with the object of finding an acid among the products of combustion.^ When burned (or combined) with pure oxygen, the only by products are heat and water.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen needs oxygen to burn.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When hydrogen is burned, it produces no CO2.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

.Hydrogen is found in the free state in some volcanic gases, in fumaroles, in the carnallite of the Stassfurt potash mines (H. Precht, Ber., 1886, 19, p.^ Hydrogen gas is present in small amounts in volcanic gases where it is produced by chemical reactions, but more of it appears combined as hydrogen sulphide and nascent water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Place the free end of the tubing into the soap solution and slowly discharge some of the hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you want to get plentiful unbound hydrogen, the closest place it can be found is on the surface of the Sun; mining this hydrogen supply would be quite a trick.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

2326), in some meteorites, in certain stars and nebulae, and also in the envelopes of the sun. .In combination it is found as a constituent of water, of the gases from certain mineral springs, in many minerals, and in most animal and vegetable tissues.^ Hydrogen gas is present in small amounts in volcanic gases where it is produced by chemical reactions, but more of it appears combined as hydrogen sulphide and nascent water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen peroxide is found in all fresh fruits and vegetables, some of it comes from rain water and some of it is manufactured in the photosynthesis process.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I used straight distilled water for most of the test, but found that as you recommend, significant extra power can be obtained by adding Propanol.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

.It may be prepared by the electrolysis of acidulated water, by the decomposition of water by various metals or metallic hydrides, and by the action of many metals on acids or on bases.^ This engine is specially prepared to burn hydrogen as a fuel but is based on the same modular engine series that powers many Ford products.

^ Potentially more efficient hydrogen production may be attained by significantly raising the water temperature before splitting its molecules using either thermochemistry or electrolysis.
  • The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Describe your observations of the reaction between calcium metal and water (and between calcium hydride and water if Part B was done).
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alkali metals and alkaline earth metals decompose water at ordinary temperatures; magnesium begins to react above 70° C., and zinc at a dull red heat.^ Both systems use a low-temperature liquid refrigerant that absorbs heat from the water to be cooled and converts to a vapor phase (in the evaporator section).
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then a catalyst made using the metals rhodium and palladium is added to the ethanol and water, at temperatures of about 500C. This converts the ethanol and water into hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Producing HydrogenHydrogen bound in organic matter and in water makes up 70% of the earth's surface.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The decomposition of steam by red hot iron has been studied by H. Sainte-Claire Deville (Comptes rendus, 1870, 70, p. 1105) and by H. Debray (ibid., 1879, 88, p. .1341), who found that at about 150o C. a condition of equilibrium is reached.^ Wankewycz, who was born in France but raised in California, says the company has raised about $5.5 million from venture capitalist investors since it was founded in 2003.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

H. Moissan (Bull. soc. chim., 1902, 27, p. .1141) has shown that potassium hydride decomposes cold water, with evolution of hydrogen, KH+H 2 0 = KOH+ H2. Calcium hydride or hydrolite, prepared by passing hydrogen over heated calcium, decomposes water similarly, r gram giving 1 litre of gas; it has been proposed as a commercial source (Prats Aymerich, Abst.^ Calcium and calcium hydride produce hydrogen in reactions with water Experiment 9.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only practical source of hydrogen is water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since hydrogen is a dangerous good, any commercial vehicle carrying it is required by law to come to a full and complete stop at all railroad crossings, and transport officials won’t give the car a free pass on this requirement.
  • L.A. Times: “Hydrogen fuel-cell technology won’t work in cars.” Duh. Time for Obama and Chu to kill the program. « Climate Progress 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: News]

J.C.S.,
1907, ii. p. 543), as has also aluminium turnings moistened with potassium cyanide and mercuric chloride, which decomposes water regularly at 70°, i gram giving 1.3 litres of gas (Mauricheau-Beaupre, Comptes rendus, 1908, 147, p. 310). Strontium hydride behaves similarly. .In preparing the gas by the action of metals on acids, dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is taken, and the metals commonly used are zinc or iron.^ This can be realised by using metals that absorb the gas.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Though this means of storage is feasible for heating, it is not practical for transportation because the pressurized metal tanks used for storing hydrogen gas for transportation are very expensive.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is subject to extraordinary instabilities due to market manipulations, cartel actions and current demands for industrial & home use.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So obtained, it contains many impurities, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxides of nitrogen, phosphoretted hydrogen, arseniuretted hydrogen, &c., the removal of which is a matter of great difficulty (see E. W. Morley, Amer.^ Being made of glass, wood, and various other organic materials, it contains silicon, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, plus some minor elements in the pigments.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, were it not for its passivating oxide, Al would be a contender as a safe, economically viable material for energy storage, transport, and the generation of hydrogen.

^ The study concluded that the concept of alternative liquid fuels produced from nuclear hydrogen and captured carbon dioxide is viable.

Chem. Journ.,
1890, 12, p. 460). .When prepared by the action of metals on bases, zinc or aluminium and caustic soda or caustic potash are used.^ In his research Gremaud made use of a technique for measuring the absorbance of hydrogen by metals, based on the phenomenon of switchable mirrors discovered at the VU University Amsterdam.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ It is also used to prepare metals from their oxides at elevated temperatures.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hydrogen may also be obtained by the action of zinc on ammonium salts (the nitrate excepted) (Lorin, Comptes rendus, 1865, 60, p. .745) and by heating the alkali formates or oxalates with caustic potash or soda, Na2C204+2NaOH = H 2 +2Na 2 CO 3. Technically it is prepared by the action of superheated steam on incandescent coke (see F. Hembert and Henry, Comptes rendus, 1885, 101, p.^ My explanation: The steam will be superheated in the engine and returned to the Metal-Steam combustor to provide the heat needed to generate more hydrogen.

797; A. Naumann and C. Pistor, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 1647), or by the electrolysis of a dilute solution of caustic soda (C. Winssinger, Chem. Zeit., 1898, 22, p. 609; "Die Elektrizitats-Aktiengesellschaft," Zeit. f. Elektrochem., 1901, 7, p. 857). .In the latter method a 15% solution of caustic soda is used, and the electrodes are made of iron; the cell is packed in a wooden box, surrounded with sand, so that the temperature is kept at about 70° C.; the solution is replenished, when necessary, with distilled water.^ The vehicles employs a 6kW fuel cell made by [Singapore's] Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies that converts hydrogen into electricity, which is used to power motors on each of the vehicles four wheels.
  • LATEST ADVANCES 1 - Why Renewable Hydrogen will replace Oil, Coal & Nuclear - Hydrogen Commerce 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.hydrogencommerce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key ingredient is the 'H' in H2O. They claim their device separates hydrogen from distilled water that you can buy at any supermarket for about 70 cents.
  • Get More Power and Miles Per Gallon (MPG) with Hydrogen Fuel System from Aquatune - Hydrogen Fuel Cell for Fuel Economy | Miles per Gallon | Aquatune Hydrogen Fuel System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogen-fuel-systems.com [Source type: General]

^ Making and Using 3% Solutions of H202 A 3.5% solution can be made quite easily by first pouring 1 ounce of 35% H202 into a pint jar.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The purity of the gas obtained is about 97%.
.Pure hydrogen is a tasteless, colourless and odourless gas of specific gravity 0.06947 (air= i) (Lord Rayleigh, Proc.^ In pure form, hydrogen is a gas, H 2 .
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A shot by Mike Walker and I of pure hydrogen gas in a clump of soap bubbles, burning in air.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (NasdaqNM: FCEL ), has developed a cost-efficient system to separate pure hydrogen from a gas mixture that then can be sold as fuel for hydrogen vehicles or industrial uses.

Roy. Soc.,
18 93, p. 319). .It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -252.68° C. to -252.84°C., and it has also been solidified, the solid melting at -264° C. (J. Dewar, Comptes rendus, 1899, 129, p.^ Another result of having such a small molar mass is that hydrogen’s melting point (-259.14 º C or 14.0 K) and boiling point (-252.5 º C or 20.7 K) are extremely low.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen melts at -259.2 degrees Celsius (-434.56 degrees Fahrenheit) and boils at -252.7 degrees Celsius (-422.99 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is so little attraction between molecules that hydrogen melts at -259.20°C (14K) and boils at -252.77°C (20.4K), lower temperatures than for any other substance except helium, which we may expect to be inert.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

451; Chem. News, 1901, 84, p. 49; see also Liquid Gases). The specific heat of gaseous hydrogen (at constant pressure) is 3.4041 (water =l), and the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume is 1.3852 (W. C.
Rbntgen, Pogg. Ann., 1873, 148, p. 580). On the spectrum see Spectroscopy. .Hydrogen is only very slightly soluble in water.^ The only practical source of hydrogen is water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen is not very soluble in water; at 0°C, 100 ml of water dissolves 1.93 ml of hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen peroxide is very unstable and breaks down readily into water and a single oxygen molecule.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It diffuses very rapidly through a porous membrane, and through some metals at a red heat (T. Graham, Proc.^ It will even diffuse through metals, especially those that adsorb it, as well as through quartz, and probably also glass.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though this means of storage is feasible for heating, it is not practical for transportation because the pressurized metal tanks used for storing hydrogen gas for transportation are very expensive.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the hydrogen diffuses rapidly through these metals, the adsorption is a surface effect and increases when the metals are in colloidal form.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Roy. Soc.,
1867, 15, p. 223; H. Sainte-Claire Deville and L. Troost, Comptes rendus, 1863, 56, p. 977). .Palladium and some other metals are capable of absorbing large volumes of hydrogen (especially when the metal is used as a cathode in a water electrolysis apparatus).^ This can be realised by using metals that absorb the gas.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The hydrogen could be used to power fuel cells, which can provide clean electricity for vehicles, homes and even large buildings.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In one method, solar energy is converted into electricity using a photovoltaic (PV) cell and then hydrogen is generated through the electrolysis of water.
  • The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

L. Troost and P. Hautefeuille (Ann. chim. phys., 18 74, (5) 2, p. 279) considered that a palladium hydride of composition Pd 2 H was formed, but the investigations of C. Hoitsema (Zeit. phys. Chem., 18 95, 1 7, p. i), from the standpoint of the phase rule, do not favour this view, .Hoitsema being of the opinion that the occlusion of hydrogen by palladium is a process of continuous absorption.^ Surgical dressings with microdoses of hydrogen peroxide can start, continue, enhance, and support the body’s own healing process by continually adding hydrogen peroxide to the wound after the body’s supply runs out.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe, the primary process on the Sun being nuclear fusion of hydrogen to give helium.

^ Continue reading "Fuel Cell Energy's Hydrogen Separation Process" » .

.Hydrogen burns with a pale blue non-luminous flame, but will not support the combustion of ordinary combustibles.^ When hydrogen burns, we see a flame.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen burns with a gentle flame Experiment 7.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen also has a higher flame speed, wider flammability limits, higher detonation temperature, burns hotter, and takes less energy to ignite than gasoline.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It forms a highly explosive mixture with air or oxygen, especially when in the proportion of two volumes of hydrogen to one volume of oxygen.^ In Experiment 2, we deliberately created an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air and then ignited the mixture.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air Experiment 3.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

H. B. Baker (Proc. Chem. Soc., 1902, 18, p. 40) has shown that perfectly dry hydrogen will not unite with perfectly dry oxygen. .Hydrogen combines with fluorine, even at very low temperatures, with great violence; it also combines with carbon, at the temperature of the electric arc.^ Methane is combined with steam at 1000 º C to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Separated by liquid nitrogen, the hydrogen remains at a low temperature.
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen can be easily converted to electrical and mechanical energy without any production of carbon dioxide, said Mukhopadhyay, whose lab specializes in very high temperature or hyperthermophilic archaea and in energy production.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

.The alkali metals when warmed in a current of hydrogen, at about 360° C., form hydrides of composition RH(R = Na, K, Rb, Cs), (H. Moissan, Bull.^ Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen can be stored in four different ways: liquid storage, hydrogen gas compression, slush, and metal hydrides.
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the solar-powered toy, the bike and caddy rely on hydrogen extracted from metal hydride canisters.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Sodium reacts rather violently with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen: Na + H 2 O → NaOH + (1/2)H 2 .
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

soc. chim.,
1902, 27, p. 1141); calcium and strontium similarly form hydrides CaH 2, SrH 2 at a dull red heat (A. Guntz, Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 1209). .Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.^ The first refrigerators were powered by propane gas to run the absorption chillers that used ammonia as a refrigerant.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hydrogen and the steam, which forms when the pressure in the 'fuel' line is reduced below that in the combustor, are sent to the engine where they are used to generate power.

^ Commercial fuel cells powered by hydrogen are just now being introduced into the market for home, office and industrial use.
  • The Hydrogen Economy : After Oil, Clean Energy From a Fuel-Cell-Driven Global Hydrogen Web (by Jeremy Rifkin) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.emagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For determinations of the volume ratio with which hydrogen and oxygen combine, see J. B. Dumas Ann.^ Use the molar concentration of HCl and the volume used to determine the number of moles of HCl you used to make hydrogen gas.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 3% solution of Hydrogen Peroxide is sometimes called ten volume strength, (one volume of Hydrogen Peroxide releases ten volumes of oxygen when it decomposes).
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel-cell technology can be compared to that of a car battery, in that hydrogen and oxygen are combined to produce electricity.
  • The Hydrogen Economy : After Oil, Clean Energy From a Fuel-Cell-Driven Global Hydrogen Web (by Jeremy Rifkin) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.emagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

chim. phys.,
18 43 (3), 8, p. 189; 0. Erdmann land R. F. Marchand, ibid. p. 212; E. H. Keiser, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 2323; J. P. Cooke and T. W. Richards, Amer. Chem. Journ., 1888, 10, p. 191; Lord Rayleigh, Chem. News, 1889, 59, P. 147; E. W. Morley, Zeit. phys. Chem., 1890, 20, p. 4 1 7; and S. A. Leduc, Comptes rendus, 1899, 128, p. 1158.
.Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form two definite compounds, namely, water (q.v.^ Two hydrogen atoms form water when they bond with an oxygen atom (H2O).
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 18th century, Antoine Lavoisier recognized the substance as an element and later named it hydrogen from the two Greek words meaning “water-forming”.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power in this case is the voltage required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen (1.23 V at 25 degrees Celsius).
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), .H 2 O, and hydrogen peroxide, H202, whilst the existence of a third oxide, ozonic acid, has been indicated.^ To prevent damaging the cells, antioxidants and hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) should be taken if the hydrogen peroxide formula is going to be used for a long period of time.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent studies indicate that Hydrogen Peroxide is toxic to new cells and is not recommended for wound care.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide is prepared commercially by oxidation of alkylhydroanthraquinones, by electrolysis of ammonium bisulfate, by reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid and is prepared (with acetone) by oxidation of isopropanol.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen peroxide, 11202j was discovered by L. J. Thenard in 1818 (Ann.^ Hydrogen peroxide (French: Eau Oxygenee) was first reported by the French chemist Louis-Jacques Thenard in 1818.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

chim. phys.,
8, p. 306). It occurs in small quantities in the atmosphere. .It may be prepared by passing a current of carbon dioxide through ice-cold water, to which small quantities of barium peroxide are added from time to time (F. Duprey, Comptes rendus, 1862, 55, p.^ Bubble Ozone (0 3 ) through cold water.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small amount of water soluble toxins are discharged through urination.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

73 6; A. J. Balard, ibid., p. 758), BaO 2 +CO 2 +H 2 O=H 2 O 2 +BaCO 3. E. Merck (Abst. J.C.S., 1907, ii. p. .859) showed that barium percarbonate, BaCO 4, is formed when the gas is in excess; this substance readily yields the peroxide with an acid.^ Hydrogen Peroxide is prepared commercially by oxidation of alkylhydroanthraquinones, by electrolysis of ammonium bisulfate, by reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid and is prepared (with acetone) by oxidation of isopropanol.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burning barium salts produces barium peroxide which is dissolved into water yielding Hydrogen Peroxide.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Cavendish, a British chemist, demonstrated in 1776 that Hydrogen was developed as a byproduct of the action of sulfuric acid on metals and also showed at a later date that is was an independent substance that combined with oxygen to form water.
  • Articles by Kids 4 Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kids4hydrogen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Or barium peroxide may be decomposed by hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulphuric or silicofluoric acids (L. Crismer, Bull. soc. chim., 1891 (3), 6, p. 24; Hanriot, Comptes rendus, 1885, loo, pp. .56, 172), the peroxide being added in small quantities to a cold dilute solution of the acid.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is necessary that it should be as pure as possible since the commercial product usually contains traces of ferric, manganic and aluminium oxides, together with some silica.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also think we should reduce all subsidies for ethanol production as soon as possible by tying them to the price of gasoline.

^ It occurs principally in the form of water and petroleum products; traces of molecular hydrogen are found in some natural gases and in the upper atmosphere.

.To purify the oxide, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid until the acid is neatly neutralized, the solution is cooled, filtered, and baryta water is added until a faint permanent white precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide appears; the solution is now filtered, and a concentrated solution of baryta water is added to the filtrate, when a crystalline precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide, Ba0 2 8 H 2 0, is thrown down.^ This is all added with 4 oz of filtered water.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Cures from A -Z on Earth Clinic, your source for Natural Remedies! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ E) 35% Technical Grade : This is a more concentrated product than the Reagent Grade and differs slightly in that phosphorus is added to help neutralize any chlorine from the water used to dilute it.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is filtered off and well washed with water. .The above methods give a dilute aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, which may be concentrated somewhat by evaporation over sulphuric acid in vacuo. H. P. Talbot and H. R. Moody (Jour.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drink hydrogen peroxide solution one hour before or three hours after a meal.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barium Sulfate settles to the bottom and Hydrogen Peroxide is drained off, then vacuum distilled to concentrate.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anal. Chem.,
1892, 6, p. .650) prepared a more concentrated solution from the commercial product, by the addition of a io % solution of alcohol and baryta water.^ E) 35% Technical Grade : This is a more concentrated product than the Reagent Grade and differs slightly in that phosphorus is added to help neutralize any chlorine from the water used to dilute it.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNSW's research program aims for the development of a commercial (i.e., practical and inexpensive) device for the production of hydrogen from photolysis of water using solar energy.
  • Hydrogen News 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ustimes.com [Source type: News]

.The solution is filtered, and the barium precipitated by sulphuric acid.^ Inorganic processes employ the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulphate (NH 4 HSO 4 ), followed by hydrolysis of the peroxydisulfate ((SO 4 ) 2 ) which is formed.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alcohol is removed by distillation in vacuo, and by further concentration in vacuo a solution may be obtained which evolves 580 volumes of oxygen.^ A 3% solution of Hydrogen Peroxide is sometimes called ten volume strength, (one volume of Hydrogen Peroxide releases ten volumes of oxygen when it decomposes).
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

R. Wolffenstein (Ber., 1894, 27, p. .2307) prepared practically anhydrous hydrogen peroxide (containing 99.1% H 2 0 2) by first removing all traces of dust, heavy metals and alkali from the commercial 3% solution.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drink hydrogen peroxide solution one hour before or three hours after a meal.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide decomposition is accelerated by trace levels of contaminants.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The solution is then concentrated in an open basis on the waterbath until it contains 48% H202. The liquid so obtained is extracted with ether and the ethereal solution distilled under diminished pressure, and finally purified by repeated distillations.^ The crude 40% Hydrogen Peroxide solution is purified by distilling it to around 60%.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining liquid absorbent, in the generator passes through a valve, where its pressure is reduced, and then is recombined with the low-pressure refrigerant vapors returning from the evaporator so the cycle can be repeated.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below a 62% concentration, the water will freeze first, until the liquid solution reaches 62%.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

W. Staedel (Zeit. f. angew. Chem., 1902, 15, p. .642) has described solid hydrogen peroxide, obtained by freezing concentrated solutions.^ In concentrations above 62%, Hydrogen Peroxide will freeze before the water.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drink hydrogen peroxide solution one hour before or three hours after a meal.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen peroxide is also found as a product in many chemical actions, being formed when carbon monoxide and cyanogen burn in air (H. B. Dixon); by passing air through solutions of strong bases in the presence of such metals as do not react with the bases to liberate hydrogen; by shaking zinc amalgam with alcoholic sulphuric acid and air (M. Traube, Ber., 1882, 15, p.^ Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide is soluble in alcohol or ether.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of hydrogen peroxide is vital for many other functions as well.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.659); in the oxidation of zinc, lead and copper in presence of water, and in the electrolysis of sulphuric acid of such strength that it contains two molecules of water to one molecule of sulphuric acid (M. Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, P. 71) The anhydrous hydrogen peroxide obtained by Wolffenstein boils at 84-85°C. (68 mm.^ When water and ozone mix, the ozone loses one oxygen molecule to the water and hydrogen peroxide is formed.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen can be extracted from water by heating water to 350°C (662°F) in the presence of zinc.

^ Molecule which contains only hydrogen and carbon.

); its specific gravity is 1.4996 (I. 5° C.). It is very explosive (W. Spring, Zeit. anorg. Chem., 1895, 8, p. 4 24). The explosion risk seems to be most marked in the preparations which have been extracted with ether previous to distillation, and J. W. Briihl (Ber., 1895, 28, p. .2847) is of opinion that a very unstable, more highly oxidized product is produced in small quantity in the process.^ Most of the hydrogen now produced in the United States is on an industrial scale by the process of steam reforming, or as a byproduct of petroleum refining and chemicals production.
  • Hydrogen Fuel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC hydrogenfuel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen gas is present in small amounts in volcanic gases where it is produced by chemical reactions, but more of it appears combined as hydrogen sulphide and nascent water.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-OPEC oil-producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East.
  • The Hydrogen Economy : After Oil, Clean Energy From a Fuel-Cell-Driven Global Hydrogen Web (by Jeremy Rifkin) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.emagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The solid variety prepared by Staedel forms colourless, prismatic crystals which melt at -2° C.; it is decomposed with explosive violence by platinum sponge, and traces of manganese dioxide. .The dilute aqueous solution is very unstable, giving up oxygen readily, and decomposing with explosive violence at 100° C. An aqueous solution containing more than 1.5% hydrogen peroxide reacts slightly acid.^ Hydrogen peroxide is very unstable and breaks down readily into water and a single oxygen molecule.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide is an very powerful unstable oxidant.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unstable ozone (0 3 ) gives up its extra atom of oxygen to falling rainwater to form hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ).
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Towards lupetidin [act' climethyl piperidine, C 5 H 9 N(CH 3) 2 1 hydrogen peroxide acts as a dibasic acid (A. Marcuse and R. Wolffenstein, Ber., 1901, 34, p.^ To prevent damaging the cells, antioxidants and hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) should be taken if the hydrogen peroxide formula is going to be used for a long period of time.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rain water and snow contain a small percentage of hydrogen peroxide which acts as a natural disinfectant in lakes, rivers and oceans.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compared with hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, it offers many advantages including sterilizability, a broader disinfect spectrum, lower concentrations and is free of residual poison.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2 43 0; see also G. Bredig, Zeit. Electrochem., 1901, 7, p. 622). Cryoscopic determinations of its molecular weight show that it is H 2 0 2. [G. Carrara, Rend. della Accad. dei Lincei, 1892 (5), I, ii. p. 19; W. R. Orndorff and J. White, Amer. Chem. Journ., 18 93, 1 5, p. .347. ] Hydrogen peroxide behaves very frequently as a powerful oxidizing agent; thus lead sulphide is converted into lead sulphate in presence of a dilute aqueous solution of the peroxide, the hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals are converted into peroxides of the type MO 2.8H 2 0, titanium dioxide is converted into the trioxide, iodine is liberated from potassium iodide, and nitriles (in alkaline solution) are converted into acid-amides (B. Radziszewski,Ber., 1884, 1 7, p.^ Hydrogen Peroxide is a powerful oxidizer and can be used to produce bombs.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen peroxide is really hydrogen dioxide.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide is an very powerful unstable oxidant.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

355). .In many cases it is found that hydrogen peroxide will only act as an oxidant when in the presence of a catalyst; for example, formic, glygollic, lactic, tartaric, malic, benzoic and other organic acids are readily oxidized in the presence of ferrous sulphate (H. J. H. Fenton, Jour.^ Many other reactions produce hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of hydrogen peroxide is vital for many other functions as well.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen when heated above about 80°C and in the presence of catalysts (metals, acids, or oxidizable organic materials).
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Soc.,
1900, 77, p. 69), and sugars are readily oxidized in the presence of ferric chloride (0. Fischer and M. Busch, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 1871). .It is sought to explain these oxidation processes by assuming that the hydrogen peroxide unites with the compound undergoing oxidation to form an addition compound, which subsequently decomposes (J. H. Kastle and A. S. Loevenhart, Amer.^ Tooth paste formulated with urea hydrogen peroxide has additional benefits over normal formulations.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all commercial production of Hydrogen Peroxide uses the auto-oxidation of anthraquinones.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgical dressings with microdoses of hydrogen peroxide can start, continue, enhance, and support the body’s own healing process by continually adding hydrogen peroxide to the wound after the body’s supply runs out.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Journ.,
1903, 2 9, pp. 397, 517). .Hydrogen peroxide can also react as a reducing agent, thus silver oxide is reduced with, a rapid evolution of oxygen.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide Used by the military as a source of Oxygen, at Cape Canaveral and as rocket fuel.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pint of 3% hydrogen peroxide found at the local drugstore contains 10 pints of oxygen.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The course of this reaction can scarcely be considered as definitely settled; M. Berthelot considers that a higher oxide of silver is formed, whilst A. Baeyer and V. Villiger are of opinion that reduced silver is obtained [see Comptes rendus, 1901, 1 33, p.^ Write the chemical reaction that has taken place in sentence form: “Iron(III) oxide and …)” 6.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 11 September 2009 6:31 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

555; Ann. Chim. Phys., 1897 (7), I I, p. 217, and Ber., 1901, 34, p. 2769]. .Potassium permanganate, in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, is rapidly reduced by hydrogen peroxide, oxygen being given off, 2KM7,04+ 3H2S04+5H202= K2S04+2MnS04+8H20+502. Lead peroxide is reduced to the monoxide.^ The only grade recommended for internal use is 35% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide , which must be properly diluted down to 3% with water.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Cures from A -Z on Earth Clinic, your source for Natural Remedies! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Taking hydrogen peroxide immediately before bedtime causes difficulty getting to sleep because of the increased oxygen levels at the cellular level.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pint of 3% hydrogen peroxide found at a local drugstore contains 10 pints of oxygen.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hypochlorous acid and its salts, together with the corresponding bromine and iodine compounds, liberate oxygen violently from hydrogen peroxide, giving hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids (S. Tanatar, Ber., 1899, 3 2, p.^ Hydrogen Peroxide Used by the military as a source of Oxygen, at Cape Canaveral and as rocket fuel.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pint of 3% hydrogen peroxide found at the local drugstore contains 10 pints of oxygen.
  • The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC educate-yourself.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen peroxide is very unstable and breaks down readily into water and a single oxygen molecule.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1013).
.On the constitution of hydrogen peroxide see C. F. Schonbein, Jour.^ Ted from Bangkok writes, "There is a simple way to see if Hydrogen Peroxide contains stabilizers: Pour 1/2 cap of hydrogen peroxide in a glass of water.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Cures from A -Z on Earth Clinic, your source for Natural Remedies! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide This was first made in 1954 as an experiment to see how pure hydrogen peroxide could be made.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHERE TO BUY FOOD GRADE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Click here to see what our readers have to report.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Cures from A -Z on Earth Clinic, your source for Natural Remedies! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

prak. Chem.,
1858-1868; M. Traube, Ber., 1882-1889; J. W. Bruhl, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2847; 1900, 33, p. 1709; S. Tanatar, Ber., 1903, 3 6, p. 1893.
.Hydrogen peroxide finds application as a bleaching agent, as an antiseptic, for the removal of the last traces of chlorine and sulphur dioxide employed in bleaching, and for various quantitative separations in analytical chemistry (P. Jannasch, Ber., 1893, 26, p.^ Hydrogen peroxide is really hydrogen dioxide.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urea Hydrogen Peroxide is useful as a bleaching agent, antiseptic and disinfectant for a wide range of applications.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For years, hydrogen peroxide has been used as an antiseptic.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2908). .It may be estimated by titration with potassium permanganate in acid solution; with potassium ferricyanide in alkaline solution, 2K 3 Fe(CN) 6 +2KOH+H 2 O 2 =2K 4 Fe(CN) 6 +2H 2 0+0 2; or by oxidizing arsenious acid in alkaline solution with the peroxide and back titration of the excess of arsenious acid with standard iodine (B. Griitzner, Arch.^ A solution of alkylated anthraquinones is hydrogenated (using a nickel or a palladium catalyst) and then air oxidizes the solution to produce Hydrogen Peroxide.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide is used in a water solution as a mild antiseptic, a bleaching agent, an oxidizing agent, and as a laboratory reagent.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen Peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen when heated above about 80°C and in the presence of catalysts (metals, acids, or oxidizable organic materials).
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

der Pharm.,
18 99, 2 37, p. 705). .It may be recognized by the violet coloration it gives when added to a very dilute solution of potassium bichromate in the presence of hydrochloric acid; by the orange-red colour it gives with a solution of titanium dioxide in concentrated sulphuric acid; and by the precipitate of Prussian blue formed when it is added to a solution containing ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide.^ Most commercial solutions of Hydrogen Peroxide contain stabilizers (chelating and sequestering agents) which have been added to minimize decomposition of the product through transport and storage.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H 2 O 2 solutions are more stable at low pH. Some producers may add mineral acids (phosphoric acid or nitric acid) in the production process or after to further lower the pH. Cleaning metal containers or piping with dilute nitric acid removes surface contaminants and imparts a protective oxide layer to the surface metal.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dilute the H 2 O 2 to the desired concentration, then add the colloidal silver to the solution.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ozonic Acid, H204. By the action of ozone on a 40% solution of potassium hydroxide, placed in a freezing mixture, an orangebrown substance is obtained, probably K204, which A. Baeyer and V. Villiger (Ber., 1902, 35, p.^ You can find food grade hydrogen peroxide in 3%, 6%, 7%, 12%, 17%, 35%, 40% or 50% solutions.
  • Drink H2O2-Drinking Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC drinkh2o2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3038) think is derived from ozonic acid, produced according to the reaction 0 3 +H 2 0 = H204.


Simple English

Atomic Structure
Symbol H
Atomic Number 1
Atomic Mass 1.00 g/mol
Periodic Table
Group 1
Row / Period 1
Element Category Nonmetal
Picture
[[File: |thumb|center|150px|A hydrogen atom.]]

Hydrogen is a chemical element. Its atomic number is 1, which makes it the simplest element in the entire universe.[1]

Contents

Hydrogen in nature

In its pure form, hydrogen is most commonly found on Earth as a gas. Hydrogen is also a part of water. However, a water molecule is actually made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, connected together. Hydrogen is important because it is the fuel that powers the Sun and other stars. Hydrogen takes up about 75% of the entire Universe. Hydrogen's symbol on the Periodic Table of Elements is H.

Pure hydrogen is normally made of two hydrogen atoms connected together. Scientists call these diatomic molecules. Hydrogen will have a chemical reaction when mixed with most other elements. It has no color or smell.

Pure hydrogen is very uncommon in the Earth's atmosphere. In nature, it is mostly found as a part of water. Hydrogen is also found in all living things, as a part of the organic compounds that living things are made of). In addition, hydrogen atoms can combine with carbon atoms to form hydrocarbons. Petroleum and other fossil fuels are made of these hydrocarbons and commonly used to create energy for human use.

Hydrogen has two different isotopes which are heavier types of the Hydrogen atom, they are called: deuterium and tritium. These other types of Hydrogen are important in nuclear energy.

Some other facts about hydrogen:

  • It is a gas at room temperature
  • It acts like a metal when it is solid.
  • It is the lightest element in the Universe
  • It is the most common gas element in the Universe[1]

History of Hydrogen

The name "hydrogen" comes from the Greek word for water, 'υδορ (pronounced /HEEW-dor/).

Uses of Hydrogen

Hydrogen as fuel (fusion)

Scientists believe atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. From a physics point of view, hydrogen has one proton, and its variants (atoms that are very like hydrogen), deuterium and tritium, also have neutrons.

Nuclear fusion is a very powerful source of energy. It relies on forcing atoms together to make helium and energy, exactly as happens in a star like the Sun, or in a hydrogen bomb. This needs a large amount of energy to get started, and is not easy to do yet. A big advantage over nuclear fission, which is used in nuclear power stations, is that no waste is produced, and no toxic fuel like uranium is needed. There is a lot of deuterium in seawater. There is more than 600 million tons of hydrogen undergoing fusion every second on the sun.

Burning Hydrogen

1. Water can be easily broken down into hydrogen and oxygen with electricity, but it takes a lot of electricity to get a usable amount of hydrogen.

2. Burning hydrogen combines with oxygen molecules to make steam (pure water).

3. A fuel cell combines hydrogen with an oxygen molecule releasing an electron as electricity.

Hydrogen power grid

For these reasons, many people believe hydrogen power will eventually replace technologies such as diesel-electric engines and biodiesel fuel.

But it is not correct to see hydrogen as a fuel if it is used in a fuel cell. It is more of a replacement for the power grid. Such a grid and infrastructure with new vehicles might be first made in Iceland, a country that has much free geothermal energy and is quite small. Because it imports all fossil fuel, it would help Iceland to completely stop using it. The huge advantage of hydrogen is that when burnt in an engine or in a fuel cell, there is no pollution - just a small amount of water.

If we did move to a hydrogen economy where could the hydrogen come from? Well, there are many places - it can be extracted from water (but this of course will use more energy than you would get back by using it in a fuel cell or an engine). It can be extracted from various types of plant material - corn is possible, though pretty inefficient. Generally it is probably better to refine such material into a more conventional fuel like ethanol.

References

koi:Ваувтыр

frr:Wååderstuf


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hydrogen, which are similar to those in the above article.








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