Hydrogen bond: Wikis

  

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.
An example of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers.
^ Water is a good example of hydrogen bonding.
  • Hydrogen Properties,Hydrogen Gas Properties,Hydrogen Physical Properties,Hydrogen Chemical Properties 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.gas-plants.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of hydrogen bonds.

^ Below are some examples of hydrogen bonding.
  • Weak Bonds - Van der Waals Forces 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC chemsite.lsrhs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in acetylacetone helps stabilize the enol tautomer
.A hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine (thus the name "hydrogen bond", which must not be confused with a covalent bond to hydrogen).^ A polar covalent bond involving Hydrogen with any of the three most electronegative elements of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine is especially strong and is called a Hydrogen bond .

^ H H Covalent bonds can also have partial charges when the atoms involved have different electronegativities.

^ The amine hydrogen is "shared" by the nitrogen and the electronegative oxygen.
  • http://www.moleculesinmotion.com/protarch/page_helix/text.html 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.moleculesinmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hydrogen must be covalently bonded to another electronegative atom to create the bond.^ H H Covalent bonds can also have partial charges when the atoms involved have different electronegativities.

^ How is a single covalent bond created?
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen chloride gas is covalently bonded.
  • The Open Door Web Site : Visual Chemistry : Hydrogen: Chemical Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.saburchill.com [Source type: Academic]

.These bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecularly), or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly).^ An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond that occurs between two water molecules.
  • Biochemistry - Chemical Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bonds can occur between molecules ( intermolecularly ), or within different parts of a single molecule ( intramolecularly ).
  • what is hydrogen bonding - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrogen bonds can occur between molecules ( intermolecularly ), or within different parts of a single molecule ( intramolecularly ).
  • WikiAnswers - What is a hydrogen bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[2] .The hydrogen bond (5 to 30 kJ/mole) is stronger than a van der Waals interaction, but weaker than covalent or ionic bonds.^ A hydrogen bond is a weak polar bond, while Van der Waal’s bonds are non-polar.
  • A quick puzzle 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mattcutts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dipole van der Waals interaction Hydrogen bond Electronegativity     .
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Click here to zoom in and highlight the Van der Waals bonding.
  • MolnQuiry-Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: Reference]

This type of bond occurs in both inorganic molecules such as water and organic molecules such as DNA.
.Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides, which have no hydrogen bonds.^ Many other unique properties of water are due to the hydrogen bonds.

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds occur in other molecules as well as water.

.Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids.^ For nucleic acids, secondary structures and tertiary interactions are automatically derived from the H-bonding pattern.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Intramolecular hydrogen bonds: GABA .
  • Intramolecular hydrogen bonds: GABA 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ptc.tugraz.at [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds play a pivotal role in the structure and function of proteins.
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

.It also plays an important role in the structure of polymers, both synthetic and natural.^ Play an important role in recognition at the molecular level- most (all) hydrogen bonds must be satisfied in these interactions.
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds between water molecules attract water molecules to each other, and so play an important role in creating some of water's unique characteristics - such as high specific heat.
  • Yahoo! Answers - Is hydrogen bond is one form of chemical bond? if it is yes, why? 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC malaysia.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Delocalization plays an important role in determining the behavior of superconductors and other electrically conducting materials at sufficiently low temperatures.
  • The Secret Nature Of Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Secret Nature Of Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.eurekalert.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Bonding

.A hydrogen atom attached to a relatively electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond donor.^ The hydrogen must be covalently bonded to another electronegative atom to create the bond.
  • what is hydrogen bonding - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: General]

^ A hydrogen bond is directional toward the electronegative atom.
  • Concepts in Biochemistry - Concept Reviews 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Type 0 ATOMS are not bonded directly to hydrogen.

[3] .This electronegative atom is usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen.^ Only the most electronegative atoms form hydrogen bonds: fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • "Valence and Molecular Structure," Lecture 3. Video Clip: Lecture 3, Part 8. (5:45) - Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC osulibrary.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually the electronegative atom is oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, which has a partial negative charge.
  • Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This electronegative atom is usually fluorine , oxygen , or nitrogen .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • what is hydrogen bonding - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: General]

.An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, regardless of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not.^ Only the most electronegative atoms form hydrogen bonds: fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • "Valence and Molecular Structure," Lecture 3. Video Clip: Lecture 3, Part 8. (5:45) - Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC osulibrary.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Hydrogen atom bonding to the bromine atom.

^ Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules .
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemaxon.com [Source type: General]

.An example of a hydrogen bond donor is ethanol, which has a hydrogen bonded to oxygen; an example of a hydrogen bond acceptor which does not have a hydrogen atom bonded to it is the oxygen atom on diethyl ether.^ An example of a hydrogen bond donor is ethanol, which has a hydrogen bonded to oxygen; an example of a hydrogen bond acceptor which does not have a hydrogen atom bonded to it is the oxygen atom on diethyl ether.
  • Why is carbon's covalent bond stronger than oxygen bond to hydrogen? 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Formed between a H-bond acceptor and an H-bond donor .
  • hydrogen bond@Everything2.com 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The excited states of the hydrogen atom are examples.
  • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Examples of hydrogen bond donating (donors) and hydrogen bond accepting groups (acceptors)
Carboxylic acids often form dimers in vapor phase.
.A hydrogen attached to carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding when the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform, CHCl3.^ Hydrogen bonds are formed between electronegative atoms of one molecule and hydrogens that are bound to electronegative atoms of another molecule.
  • Hydrogen Bonding in Water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A hydrogen attached to carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding when the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform, CHCl3.
  • Why is carbon's covalent bond stronger than oxygen bond to hydrogen? 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Type 0 ATOMS are not bonded directly to hydrogen.

.The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the atom with a positive partial charge.^ We also have two hydrogen atoms floating around with 1 proton and 1 electron each.
  • Chemical Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.biology.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H H Covalent bonds can also have partial charges when the atoms involved have different electronegativities.

^ All water contains hydrogen atoms with a positive charge.
  • Hydrogen & Oxygen 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the small size of hydrogen relative to other atoms and molecules, the resulting charge, though only partial, nevertheless represents a large charge density.^ Because of the small size of hydrogen relative to other atoms and molecules, the resulting charge, though only partial, nevertheless represents a large charge density.
  • What are hydrogen bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Eric Rasmusen's Weblog: Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC rasmusen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For this reason, the chlorine atom has an overall negative charge to it, if only a partially negative charge.
  • Chemical Reactions and Energy; Formation of ions; Electron pairs, covalent bonds; Acids, Bases, Salts 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC 001yourtranslationservice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result is that the oxygen end of each molecule has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen end of each molecule a partial positive charge.
  • Chemical Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.biology.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A hydrogen bond results when this strong positive charge density attracts a lone pair of electrons on another heteroatom, which becomes the hydrogen-bond acceptor.^ Hi, Acceptor atoms have to have a lone-pair electron.
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemaxon.com [Source type: General]

^ Each of carbon's 4 valence electrons will form a bonding pair with 1 of hydrogen's electrons.
  • Shapes of Molecules 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ausetute.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is a hydrogen bond strong in biology?
  • WikiAnswers - Is a hydrogen bond stronger than a covalent bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The hydrogen bond is often described as an electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction.^ Dipole van der Waals interaction Hydrogen bond Electronegativity     .
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chapter 4 – Electrostatic Potentials Hydrogen bonds .
  • ROCO Chapter 4: Hydrogen bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC academic.reed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hydrogen bond in water is an interaction.
  • "Valence and Molecular Structure," Lecture 3. Video Clip: Lecture 3, Part 8. (5:45) - Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC osulibrary.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it also has some features of covalent bonding: it is directional, strong, produces interatomic distances shorter than sum of van der Waals radii, and usually involves a limited number of interaction partners, which can be interpreted as a kind of valence.^ A hydrogen bond is a weak polar bond, while Van der Waal’s bonds are non-polar.
  • A quick puzzle 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mattcutts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The typical hydrogen bond is stronger than van der Waals forces, but weaker than covalent or ionic bonds.
  • WikiAnswers - What is a hydrogen bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Dipole van der Waals interaction Hydrogen bond Electronegativity     .
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These covalent features are more significant when acceptors bind hydrogens from more electronegative donors.^ These covalent features are more significant when acceptors bind hydrogens from more electronegative donors.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Electronegative hydrogen bond acceptor ( e.g.
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lecture 2: Water & Hydrogen Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.bio.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules .
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemaxon.com [Source type: General]

The partially covalent nature of a hydrogen bond raises the questions: "To which molecule or atom does the hydrogen nucleus belong?" and "Which should be labeled 'donor' and which 'acceptor'?" Usually, this is easy to determine simply based on interatomic distances in the X—H...Y system: X—H distance is typically ~110 pm, whereas H...Y distance is ~160 to 200 pm. .Liquids that display hydrogen bonding are called associated liquids.^ Liquids that display hydrogen bonding are called associated liquids .
  • What are hydrogen bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of bonding is called hydrogen bonding.
  • Chemical Reactions and Energy; Formation of ions; Electron pairs, covalent bonds; Acids, Bases, Salts 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC 001yourtranslationservice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dynamical properties of hydrogen bonded liquids .
  • Hydrogen bonded clusters (videos) 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.fz-juelich.de [Source type: Academic]

.Hydrogen bonds can vary in strength from very weak (1-2 kJ mol−1) to extremely strong (>155 kJ mol−1), as in the ion HF2.^ Is a hydrogen bond strong in biology?
  • WikiAnswers - Is a hydrogen bond stronger than a covalent bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrogen bond strength .
  • Hydrogen bond strength 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.madrid360.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrogen bonds tend to be weak.

[4] Typical values include:
.
  • F—H...:F (155 kJ/mol or 40 kcal/mol)
  • O—H...:N (29 kJ/mol or 6.9 kcal/mol)
  • O—H...:O (21 kJ/mol or 5.0 kcal/mol)
  • N—H...:N (13 kJ/mol or 3.1 kcal/mol)
  • N—H...:O (8 kJ/mol or 1.9 kcal/mol)
  • HO—H...:OH+3 (18 kJ/mol[5] or 4.3 kcal/mol) {Data obtained using molecular dynamics as detailed in the reference and should be compared to 7.9 kJ/mol for bulk waters, obtained using the same molecular dynamics.^ In principle, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could be used to predict any mechanical and thermodynamic property of a protein.
    • Chemistry Central Journal | Full text | Hydrogen bond networks determine emergent mechanical and thermodynamic properties across a protein family 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journal.chemistrycentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To obtain a more detailed description of the selection process and the process of constructing hydrogen coordinates, the CHARMM paper should be consulted.
    • CHARMM c33b2 - hbonds.doc 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.charmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Students with small fingers should use their thumb to cover the test tube while inverting it in water.
    • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    }
.The length of hydrogen bonds depends on bond strength, temperature, and pressure.^ Hydrogen bond strength .
  • Hydrogen bond strength 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.madrid360.com [Source type: General]

^ Express hydrogen bond strength .
  • Hydrogen bond strength 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.madrid360.com [Source type: General]

^ O (2 kcal/mol) The length of hydrogen bonds depends on bond strength, temperature and pressure.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The bond strength itself is dependent on temperature, pressure, bond angle, and environment (usually characterized by local dielectric constant).^ The bond strength itself is dependent on temperature, pressure, bond angle, and environment (usually characterized by local dielectric constant).
  • Hydrogen bond - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The electrons are usually localized in the bonds.

^ O (2 kcal/mol) The length of hydrogen bonds depends on bond strength, temperature and pressure.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The typical length of a hydrogen bond in water is 197 pm.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Water is a good example of hydrogen bonding.
  • Hydrogen Properties,Hydrogen Gas Properties,Hydrogen Physical Properties,Hydrogen Chemical Properties 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.gas-plants.com [Source type: Reference]

.The ideal bond angle depends on the nature of the hydrogen bond donor.^ Peptide Bond Book article from: Chemistry: Foundations and Applications ...amide has a partial negative charge and is a good hydrogen bond acceptor, while the NH is partially positive and a good hydrogen bond donor.
  • hydrogen bond – Dictionary definition of hydrogen bond | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bond strength itself is dependent on temperature, pressure, bond angle, and environment (usually characterized by local dielectric constant).
  • Hydrogen bond - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen-bond donors include substances that contain relatively polar H- X bonds, such as NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF. Hydrogen-bond acceptors include substances that have nonbonding pairs of valence electrons.

Experimental results of hydrofluoric acid donor with various acceptors shows the following angles:[6]
Acceptor···Donor VSEPR Symmetry Angle (°)
HCN···HF linear 180
H2CO ··· HF trigonal planar 110
H2O ··· HF pyramidal 46
H2S ··· HF pyramidal 89
SO2 ··· HF trigonal 145

History

.In his book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Linus Pauling credits T.S. Moore and T.F. Winmill with the first mention of the hydrogen bond, in 1912 (J. Chem.^ Peptide Bond Book article from: Chemistry: Foundations and Applications ...amide has a partial negative charge and is a good hydrogen bond acceptor, while the NH is partially positive and a good hydrogen bond donor.
  • hydrogen bond – Dictionary definition of hydrogen bond | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cooperative nature of the hydrogen bond means that acting as an acceptor strengthens the water molecule acting as a donor [ 76 ].
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ This statement is from Linus Pauling (1939) in his book The Nature of the Chemical Bond.
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Soc. 101, 1635). .Moore and Winmill used the hydrogen bond to account for the fact that trimethylammonium hydroxide is a weaker base than tetramethylammonium hydroxide.^ Hydrogen bonds are NOT covalent bonds, and they are weaker than covalent bonds, not stronger.
  • How does a hydrogen bond compare to a covalent bond? - Yahoo! Answers 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It bonds to negative ions using hydrogen bonds.
  • intermolecular bonding - hydrogen bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The typical hydrogen bond is stronger than van der Waals forces, but weaker than covalent or ionic bonds.
  • WikiAnswers - What is a hydrogen bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The description of hydrogen bonding in its more well-known setting, water, came some years later, in 1920, from Latimer and Rodebush (JACS, 42, 1419).^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Many substance dont hydrogen bond well with water .

^ Hydrogen bonds among water molecules H \ / O .
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

In that paper, Latimer and Rodebush cite work by a fellow scientist at the laboratory, Maurice Loyal Huggins, saying, "Mr. Huggins of this laboratory in some work as yet unpublished, has used the idea of a hydrogen kernel held between two atoms as a theory in regard to certain organic compounds."

Hydrogen bonds in water

.
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice.
^ X ray studies show that the three-dimensional structure caused by hydrogen bonding gives ice crystals a crystalline arrangement with many hexagonal openings.

^ Ice represents a maximal hydrogen bonding of water , indeed the crystallization of water into the structure formed upon hydrogen bonding .

^ This diagram from caltech.edu, shows the structure of hexagonal ice in (a) and cubic ice in (b).
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Gray dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds
Model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water
.The most ubiquitous, and perhaps simplest, example of a hydrogen bond is found between water molecules.^ Increased hydrogen bonding results in a greater average distance between water molecules.

^ Water molecules readily hydrogen bond between each other.

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.In a discrete water molecule, water has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.^ Two hydrogen atoms react to form a diatomic molecule, the hydrogen molecule.
  • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two hydrogen atoms can join with one oxygen atom to form a boomerang-shaped molecule with oxygen in the middle.
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms of the Target.

.Two molecules of water can form a hydrogen bond between them; the simplest case, when only two molecules are present, is called the water dimer and is often used as a model system.^ Increased hydrogen bonding results in a greater average distance between water molecules.

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.When more molecules are present, as is the case in liquid water, more bonds are possible because the oxygen of one water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons, each of which can form a hydrogen bond with a hydrogen on another water molecule.^ Two hydrogen atoms react to form a diatomic molecule, the hydrogen molecule.
  • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The hydrogen atom has only a very small share of the electron pair that forms the bond.

.This can repeat so that every water molecule is H-bonded with up to four other molecules, as shown in the figure (two through its two lone pairs, and two through its two hydrogen atoms).^ Two hydrogen atoms react to form a diatomic molecule, the hydrogen molecule.
  • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 17: The linking of atoms in two peptide links by the hydrogen bonds they can form.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See Figure 2.13, Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule .

.The hydrogen bond is important for the crystal structure of ice, helping to create an open hexagonal lattice.^ How are hydrogen bonds important?
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In an idealized structure of ice, every hydrogen atom is involved in hydrogen bond.
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An analogous process happens between NaNH 2 and NH 3 , and between NaF and HF. The fact that Ice is less dense than liquid water is due to a crystal structure resulting from hydrogen bonds.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The density of ice is less than water at the same temperature, so that the solid phase of water floats on the liquid, unlike most other substances.^ The solid form of water -- ice -- floats instead of sinking, as with most substances.
  • The New Mystery of Water | LiveScience 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A given amount of heat energy will change the temperature of water less than it will change the temperature of most other kinds of substances.

^ Adhesion is the tendency of water to stick to substances other than water .

.Liquid water's high boiling point is due to the high number of hydrogen bonds each molecule can have relative to its low molecular mass.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The drawing below shows hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

.Due to the difficulty of breaking these bonds, water has a very high boiling point, melting point, and viscosity compared to other similar liquids not conjoined by hydrogen bonds.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These charges produce hydrogen bonds .
  • Hurricanes - where they form, how they happen, by Weatherquestion 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.weatherquesting.com [Source type: News]

.Water is unique because its oxygen atom has two lone pairs and two hydrogen atoms, meaning that the total number of bonds of a water molecule is up to four.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When two atoms share a single pair of electrons, the bond is referred to as a single bond.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, hydrogen fluoride—which has three lone pairs on the F atom but only one H atom—can have a total of only two bonds (ammonia has the opposite problem: three hydrogen atoms but only one lone pair).^ The hydrogen atom has only a very small share of the electron pair that forms the bond.

^ When two atoms share a single pair of electrons, the bond is referred to as a single bond.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It therefore is not bonded to hydrogen, but bears a partial negative charge and two lone pairs.

H-F...H-F...H-F
.The exact number of hydrogen bonds in which a molecule in liquid water participates, fluctuates with time and depends on the temperature.^ Liquid water possesses some structure due to this hydrogen bonding .

^ Water molecules readily hydrogen bond between each other.

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.From TIP4P liquid water simulations at 25 °C, it was estimated that each water molecule participates in an average of 3.59 hydrogen bonds.^ Increased hydrogen bonding results in a greater average distance between water molecules.

^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.At 100 °C, this number decreases to 3.24 due to the increased molecular motion and decreased density, while at 0 °C, the average number of hydrogen bonds increases to 3.69.[7] A more recent study found a much smaller number of hydrogen bonds: 2.357 at 25 °C.[8] The differences may be due to the use of a different method for defining and counting the hydrogen bonds.^ Cooperativity in hydrogen bond geometry can also be studied in a defined region of the structure.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ At 100 °C, this number decreases to 3.24 due to the increased molecular motion and decreased density, while at 0 °C, the average number of hydrogen bonds increases to 3.69 ( Mol.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ A more recent study found a much smaller number of hydrogen bonds: 2.357 at 25 °C. [6] The differences may be due to the use of a different method for defining and counting the hydrogen bonds.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Where the bond strengths are more equivalent, one might instead find the atoms of two interacting water molecules partitioned into two polyatomic ions of opposite charge, specifically hydroxide (OH) and hydronium (H3O+).^ The hydrogen ion (H + ) attaches to another water molecule forming a hydronium ion (H 3 O + ).

^ It is bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms of the Target.

^ Hydrogen bonds among water molecules H \ / O .
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.(Hydronium ions are also known as 'hydroxonium' ions.^ Were the bond strengths more equivalent, one might instead find the atoms of two interacting water molecules partitioned into two polyatomic ions of opposite charge, specifically hydroxide (OH − ) and hydronium (H 3 O + ) (Hydronium ions are also known as 'hydroxonium' ions.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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)
H-O H3O+
.Indeed, in pure water under conditions of standard temperature and pressure, this latter formulation is applicable only rarely; on average about one in every 5.5 × 108 molecules gives up a proton to another water molecule, in accordance with the value of the dissociation constant for water under such conditions.^ H-O − H 3 O + Indeed, in pure water under conditions of standard temperature and pressure , this latter formulation is applicable only rarely; on average about one in every 5.5 × 10 8 molecules gives up a proton to another water molecule, in accordance with the value of the dissociation constant for water under such conditions.
  • Hydrogen bond - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
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^ The hydrogen of one water molecule will be attracted to the oxygen of another water molecule.
  • Chemical Properties of Water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ozh2o.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pure hydrogen is a gas under normal conditions-that is, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Super Duplex, Duplex Stainless Steel, 6% Moly, Titanium valves tubing pipe fittings flanges bar sheet plate 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.oceanint.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is a crucial part of the uniqueness of water.^ It is a crucial part of the uniqueness of water.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a crucial part of uniqueness of water .
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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Bifurcated and over-coordinated hydrogen bonds in water

.It can be that a single hydrogen atom participates in two hydrogen bonds, rather than one.^ When two atoms share a single pair of electrons, the bond is referred to as a single bond.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type 51 (N1IN = 51) This is a pyramidal atom bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms.

^ It can be that a single hydrogen atom participates in two hydrogen bonds, rather than one.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.This type of bonding is called "bifurcated".It can exist for instance in complex natural or synthetic organic molecules[9] It was suggested that a bifurcated hydrogen atom is an essential step in water reorientation;[10].^ The drawing below shows hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

^ Hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonds between water molecules ...

^ Molecules of water join together transiently in a hydrogen-bonded lattice.
  • Chemical Properties of Water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ozh2o.com [Source type: Reference]


.Acceptor type hydrogen bonds (terminating on an oxygens` lone pairs), are more likely to form bifurcation (in fact, it is called over coordinated oxygen, OCO) than donor type, beginning on the same oxygens` hydrogens [11].^ Usually used as: " Not more than 5 hydrogen bond donors (nitrogen or oxygen atoms with one or more hydrogen atoms)" .
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor-Acceptor rules 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemaxon.com [Source type: General]

^ Types of hydrogen bonds 2.1.

^ When the hydrogen is to the right, the lone pair of the oxygen is to the left, and vice versa.

Hydrogen bonds in DNA and proteins

Hydrogen bonding between guanine and cytosine, one of two types of base pairs in DNA.
.Hydrogen bonding also plays an important role in determining the three-dimensional structures adopted by proteins and nucleic bases.^ Hydrogen bonding also plays an important role in determining the three-dimensional structures adopted by proteins and nucleic bases.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ Hydrogen bonds in proteins and DNA .
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ X ray studies show that the three-dimensional structure caused by hydrogen bonding gives ice crystals a crystalline arrangement with many hexagonal openings.

.In these macromolecules, bonding between parts of the same macromolecule cause it to fold into a specific shape, which helps determine the molecule's physiological or biochemical role.^ In these macromolecules, bonding between parts of the same macromolecule cause it to fold into a specific shape, which helps determine the molecule's physiological or biochemical role.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ What type of bonds occur between these nitrate and water molecules?
  • MolnQuiry-Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Negative azeotropy of mixtures of HF and water Deliquescence of NaOH is caused in part by reaction of OH - with moisture to form hydrogen-bonded H 2 O 3 - species.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The double helical structure of DNA, for example, is due largely to hydrogen bonding between the base pairs, which link one complementary strand to the other and enable replication.^ It is bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms of the Target.

^ Hydrogen bonding is critical for the structure of DNA and many other biomolecules.
  • A quick puzzle 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mattcutts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen bonds in DNA and proteins .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.In the secondary structure of proteins, hydrogen bonds form between the backbone oxygens and amide hydrogens.^ The secondary structure of a protein involves interactions (mainly hydrogen bonds) between neighboring polypeptide backbones which contain Nitrogen-Hydrogen bonded pairs and oxygen atoms.

^ Hydrogen bonding is present abundantly in the secondary structure of proteins , and also sparingly in tertiary conformation.

^ Hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonds between water molecules ...

.When the spacing of the amino acid residues participating in a hydrogen bond occurs regularly between positions i and i + 4, an alpha helix is formed.^ Intermolecular hydrogen bonds occur between separate molecules in a substance.

^ Irregular hydrogen-bonding arrangements are not considered to form part of the helix.
  • Polypeptide Conformations 4-6 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chem.qmul.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonds between water molecules ...

.When the spacing is less, between positions i and i + 3, then a 310 helix is formed.^ When the spacing is less, between positions i and i + 3, then a 3 10 helix is formed.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ When the spacing of the amino acid residues participating in a hydrogen bond occurs regularly between positions i and i + 4, an alpha helix is formed.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Be able to define the two types of ions and describe thow ionic bonds form between positive and negative ions.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When two strands are joined by hydrogen bonds involving alternating residues on each participating strand, a beta sheet is formed.^ When two strands are joined by hydrogen bonds involving alternating residues on each participating strand, a beta sheet is formed.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen can also form a unique bond known as a hydrogen bond.
  • Super Duplex, Duplex Stainless Steel, 6% Moly, Titanium valves tubing pipe fittings flanges bar sheet plate 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.oceanint.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Noncovalent bonding holds the two strands of the DNA double helix together (hydrogen bonds) folds polypeptides into such secondary structures as the alpha ...

.Hydrogen bonds also play a part in forming the tertiary structure of protein through interaction of R-groups.^ Hydrogen bonding is present abundantly in the secondary structure of proteins , and also sparingly in tertiary conformation.

^ Hydrogen bonds in DNA and proteins .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This leads to a discussion of the hydrogen bond which is a special form of the dipole-dipole interaction.

.(See also protein folding).^ (See also protein folding ).
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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Hydrogen bonds in polymers

Para-aramid structure
A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules.
.Many polymers are strengthened by hydrogen bonds in their main chains.^ Many interpretations of the hydrogen bond have been proposed.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Table of Contents: hydrogen bonding Main .
  • hydrogen bonding (chemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in many biological processes and can account for many natural phenomena such as the unusual properties of water .

.Among the synthetic polymers, the best known example is nylon, where hydrogen bonds occur in the repeat unit and play a major role in crystallization of the material.^ Hydrogen bonds play a pivotal role in the structure and function of proteins.
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen can also form a unique bond known as a hydrogen bond.
  • Super Duplex, Duplex Stainless Steel, 6% Moly, Titanium valves tubing pipe fittings flanges bar sheet plate 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.oceanint.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Molecules of many organic compounds such as alcohols, acids, amines, and aminoacids contain these groups, and thus hydrogen bonding plays a important role in biological science.

.The bonds occur between carbonyl and amine groups in the amide repeat unit.^ Intermolecular hydrogen bonds occur between separate molecules in a substance.

^ The shortest O O hydrogen bond is observed between a carboxylic acid and a carboxylate group.
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All the search fragments contained selected H atoms and/or charges, which in principle enabled differentiation between the hydrogen bonds formed with the groups as either donor or acceptor, e.g.
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

.They effectively link adjacent chains to create crystals, which help reinforce the material.^ The link is created when object A and object B have opposite poles (they are unrelated).
  • A quick puzzle 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mattcutts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effect is greatest in aramid fibre, where hydrogen bonds stabilize the linear chains laterally.^ Properties and effects of hydrogen bonds 3.1.

^ Effects of hydrogen bonding .
  • The Hydrogen Bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC cnx.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Properties and effects of hydrogen bonds .

The chain axes are aligned along the fibre axis, making the fibres extremely stiff and strong. .Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in nature, such as wood and natural fibres such as cotton and flax.^ Many interpretations of the hydrogen bond have been proposed.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen bonding is critical for the structure of DNA and many other biomolecules.
  • A quick puzzle 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.mattcutts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How are hydrogen bonds important?
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The hydrogen bond networks make both natural and synthetic polymers sensitive to humidity levels in the atmosphere because water molecules can diffuse into the surface and disrupt the network.^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds among water molecules H \ / O .
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On average each water molecule in liquid water is hydrogen bonded to 3.4 other water molecules.

.Some polymers are more sensitive than others.^ Water affects our health more than any other nutrient.
  • Hydrogen & Oxygen 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen can combine chemically with almost every other element and forms more compounds (materials made of two or more different elements) than does any other element.
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^ In some rare cases of nonpolar compounds of similar size and crystal structure, a true solid solution of one in the other, rather than a conglomerate, is formed.
  • Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Thus nylons are more sensitive than aramids, and nylon 6 more sensitive than nylon-11.

Symmetric hydrogen bond

.A symmetric hydrogen bond is a special type of hydrogen bond in which the proton is spaced exactly halfway between two identical atoms.^ Actually, the only purely covalent bond is that between two identical atoms.
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Type 51 (N1IN = 51) This is a pyramidal atom bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms.

^ Formation of a covalent bond between two Hydrogen atoims.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The strength of the bond to each of those atoms is equal.^ The strength of the bond to each of those atoms is equal.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because both atoms in the H 2 molecule have an equal attraction (or affinity) for electrons , the bonding electrons are equally shared by the two atoms, and a nonpolar covalent bond is formed.

^ Those atoms are held together usually by one of the three types of chemical bonds discussed above.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is an example of a 3-center 4-electron bond.^ In the ionic bonds of hydrides, the metal atom gives hydrogen an electron, making hydrogen a negatively charged ion (H-) and the metal a positively charged ion, for example a sodium ion (Na+).
  • Super Duplex, Duplex Stainless Steel, 6% Moly, Titanium valves tubing pipe fittings flanges bar sheet plate 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.oceanint.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the peak at 0.89 corresponds to the O–H bond and indicates that wave functions of the electrons involved in this bond extend over this distance.
  • Hydrogen bond: A fascination forever! 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the carbon of the cyanide molecule has four electrons in its valence shell and needs to form four bonds (shared pairs of electrons) to have a full octet.
  • MolnQuiry-Bonds 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This type of bond is much stronger than "normal" hydrogen bonds.^ Hydrogen is much lighter than air.
  • Hydrogen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type 0 ATOMS are not bonded directly to hydrogen.

^ This type of bonding is called hydrogen bonding.
  • Chemical Reactions and Energy; Formation of ions; Electron pairs, covalent bonds; Acids, Bases, Salts 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC 001yourtranslationservice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effective bond order is 0.5, so its strength is comparable to a covalent bond.^ We opted to employ a simpler but effective approach; where we compare H-bond networks by plotting a H-bond contact map (for example, see Fig.
  • Chemistry Central Journal | Full text | Hydrogen bond networks determine emergent mechanical and thermodynamic properties across a protein family 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journal.chemistrycentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds can vary in strength from very weak (1-2 kJ mol −1 ) to extremely strong (40 kJ mol −1 ), so strong as to be indistinguishable from a covalent bond, as in the ion HF 2 − .
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Off hand, my biggest concern is the relatively low energy compared to true covalent bonds.
  • Hydrogen bond energey? - The "Hard" Science - Analogsf.com Forums 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.analogsf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is seen in ice at high pressure, and also in the solid phase of many anhydrous acids such as hydrofluoric acid and formic acid at high pressure.^ Evidence for this may be drawn from the high degree of hydrogen bond breakage seen in the IR spectrum of ice [ 699 ], where the clustering is taken as lasting essentially forever.
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ So far, ten different forms of ice have been observed, and some ice forms exist at very high pressure.
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Experience shows that many compounds exist normally as liquids and solids; and that even low-density gases, such as hydrogen and helium, can be liquified at sufficiently low temperature and high pressure.
  • Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

It is also seen in the bifluoride ion [F-H-F].
.Symmetric hydrogen bonds have been observed recently spectroscopically in formic acid at high pressure (>GPa).^ Symmetric hydrogen bonds have been postulated in ice at high pressure (ice-X).
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Symmetric hydrogen bonds have been observed recently spectroscopically in formic acid at high pressure (> GPa).
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ The shortest O O hydrogen bond is observed between a carboxylic acid and a carboxylate group.
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each hydrogen atom forms a partial covalent bond with two atoms rather than one.^ Figure 17: The linking of atoms in two peptide links by the hydrogen bonds they can form.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Type 51 (N1IN = 51) This is a pyramidal atom bonded to one hydrogen and two other atoms.

^ Two atoms form an ionic bond when one atom donates an electron to the other atom.
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.Symmetric hydrogen bonds have been postulated in ice at high pressure (Ice X).^ Symmetric hydrogen bonds have been postulated in ice at high pressure (ice-X).
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Symmetric hydrogen bond .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A symmetric hydrogen bond is a special type of hydrogen bond in which the proton is spaced exactly halfway between two identical atoms.
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.Low-barrier hydrogen bonds form when the distance between two heteroatoms is very small.^ Formation of a covalent bond between two Hydrogen atoims.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In proteins, hydrogen bonds form between the backbone oxygens and amide hydrogens.
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ PDF » Low-barrier hydrogen bond in photoactive yellow protein.
  • Low-barrier hydrogen bonds and enzymic catalysis -- Cleland and Kreevoy 264 (5167): 1887 -- Science 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.sciencemag.org [Source type: Academic]

Dihydrogen bond

.The hydrogen bond can be compared with the closely related dihydrogen bond, which is also an intermolecular bonding interaction involving hydrogen atoms.^ Y) involves X and Y being from different molecules this is an intermolecular hydrogen bond.
  • The Hydrogen Bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC cnx.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As the name "hydrogen bond" implies, one part of the bond involves a hydrogen atom .
  • Hydrogen bond - Hwiki 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Type 0 ATOMS are not bonded directly to hydrogen.

.These structures have been known for some time, and well characterized by crystallography; however, an understanding of their relationship to the conventional hydrogen bond, ionic bond, and covalent bond remains unclear.^ Polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds 4 .
  • 4.11 Chemical Bonds [Descriptive] 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.eng.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Factors favouring ionic bonding - Covalent bonds .
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At that time, the hydrogen bond was recognized as mainly ionic in nature.
  • HOW IS WATER FORMED FROM GASES Hydrogen & Oxygen ? - Yahoo! Answers India 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Generally, the hydrogen bond is characterized by a proton acceptor that is a lone pair of electrons in nonmetallic atoms (most notably in the nitrogen, and chalcogen groups).^ Electron pairs, covalent bonds .
  • Chemical Reactions and Energy; Formation of ions; Electron pairs, covalent bonds; Acids, Bases, Salts 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC 001yourtranslationservice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type 0 ATOMS are not bonded directly to hydrogen.

^ In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases, these proton acceptors may be pi-bonds or metal complexes.^ In some cases, these proton acceptors may be pi-bonds or metal complexes .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures have been known for some time, and well characterized by crystallography ; however, an understanding of their relationship to the conventional hydrogen bond, ionic bond , and covalent bond remains unclear.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These bonds are oriented in definite directions in space, giving rise to the complex geometry of organic molecules.
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the dihydrogen bond, however, a metal hydride serves as a proton acceptor; thus forming a hydrogen-hydrogen interaction.^ This leads to a discussion of the hydrogen bond which is a special form of the dipole-dipole interaction.

^ In the dihydrogen bond, however, a metal hydride serves as a proton acceptor; thus forming a hydrogen-hydrogen interaction.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen can also form a unique bond known as a hydrogen bond.
  • Super Duplex, Duplex Stainless Steel, 6% Moly, Titanium valves tubing pipe fittings flanges bar sheet plate 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.oceanint.com [Source type: Reference]

.Neutron diffraction has shown that the molecular geometry of these complexes is similar to hydrogen bonds, in that the bond length is very adaptable to the metal complex/hydrogen donor system.^ Hydrogen-bond geometry extracted from the databases .
  • (IUCr) Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journals.iucr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neutron diffraction has shown that the molecular geometry of these complexes are similar to hydrogen bonds, in that the bond length is very adaptable to the metal complex/hydrogen donor system.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures have been known for some time, and well characterized by crystallography ; however, an understanding of their relationship to the conventional hydrogen bond, ionic bond , and covalent bond remains unclear.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

Advanced theory of the hydrogen bond

.In 1999, Isaacs et al.[12] proved from interpretations of the anisotropies in the Compton profile of ordinary ice, that the hydrogen bond is partly covalent.^ Many interpretations of the hydrogen bond have been proposed.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See also covalent bond ; electrovalent bond ; hydrogen bond .
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the covalent bond lengths vary much less with temperature and pressure, most of the densification of ice I h due to reduced temperature or increased pressure must be due to reduction in the hydrogen bond length.
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Some NMR data on hydrogen bonds in proteins also indicate covalent bonding.^ Hydrogen bonds in DNA and proteins .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Some NMR data on hydrogen bonds in proteins also indicate covalent bonding.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The protein–glycan interactions were characterized by some hydrogen bonds.
  • Observation of a unique pattern of bifurcated hydrogen bonds in the crystal structures of the N-glycoprotein linkage region models -- Loganathan and Aich 16 (4): 343 -- Glycobiology 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC glycob.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most generally, the hydrogen bond can be viewed as a metric-dependent electrostatic scalar field between two or more intermolecular bonds.^ Hydrogen bond has been generally thought of as originating from electrostatic interactions such as interaction between two dipoles.
  • Hydrogen bond: A fascination forever! 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonds between water molecules ...

^ Most generally, the hydrogen bond can be viewed as a metric-dependent electrostatic scalar field between two or more intermolecular bonds.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.This is slightly different from the intramolecular bound states of, for example, covalent or ionic bonds; however, hydrogen bonding is generally still a bound state phenomenon, since the interaction energy has a net negative sum.^ Polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds 4 .
  • 4.11 Chemical Bonds [Descriptive] 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.eng.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 4.11 Chemical Bonds [Descriptive] 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.eng.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factors favouring ionic bonding - Covalent bonds .
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The main types are ionic , covalent , metallic, and hydrogen bonds.
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The initial theory of hydrogen bonding proposed by Linus Pauling suggested that the hydrogen bonds had a partial covalent nature.^ Many interpretations of the hydrogen bond have been proposed.
  • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See also covalent bond ; electrovalent bond ; hydrogen bond .
  • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was widely believed that the covalent nature of the H bonds would be too insignificant and it may at best produce a small splitting of < < 1 Hz due to J coupling 5 .
  • Hydrogen bond: A fascination forever! 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: Academic]

.This remained a controversial conclusion until the late 1990s when NMR techniques were employed by F. Cordier et al. to transfer information between hydrogen-bonded nuclei, a feat that would only be possible if the hydrogen bond contained some covalent character.^ Formation of a covalent bond between two Hydrogen atoims.
  • CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some NMR data on hydrogen bonds in proteins also indicate covalent bonding.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This remained a controversial conclusion until the late 1990's when NMR techniques were employed by F. Cordier et al.
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.While a lot of experimental data has been recovered for hydrogen bonds in water, for example, that provide good resolution on the scale of intermolecular distances and molecular thermodynamics, the kinetic and dynamical properties of the hydrogen bond in dynamic systems remains unchanged.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
  • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
  • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For example the O-H distance for an alcohol in the absence of hydrogen bonding is typically 0.97 Å.
  • The Hydrogen Bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC cnx.org [Source type: Academic]

Hydrogen bonding phenomena

.
  • Dramatically higher boiling points of NH3, H2O, and HF compared to the heavier analogues PH3, H2S, and HCl.
  • Viscosity of anhydrous phosphoric acid and of glycerol
  • Dimer formation in carboxylic acids and hexamer formation in hydrogen fluoride, which occur even in the gas phase, resulting in gross deviations from the ideal gas law.
  • Pentamer formation of water and alcohols in apolar solvents.
  • High water solubility of many compounds such as ammonia is explained by hydrogen bonding with water molecules.
  • Negative azeotropy of mixtures of HF and water
  • Deliquescence of NaOH is caused in part by reaction of OH- with moisture to form hydrogen-bonded H3O2 species.^ Many interpretations of the hydrogen bond have been proposed.
    • chemical bonding (chemistry) :: The hydrogen bond -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
    • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
    • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    .An analogous process happens between NaNH2 and NH3, and between NaF and HF.
  • The fact that ice is less dense than liquid water is due to a crystal structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
  • The presence of hydrogen bonds can cause an anomaly in the normal succession of states of matter for certain mixtures of chemical compounds as temperature increases or decreases.^ Hydrogen bonding in water Quick links .
    • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hydrogen bonds in water .
    • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An analogous process happens between NaNH 2 and NH 3 , and between NaF and HF. The fact that Ice is less dense than liquid water is due to a crystal structure resulting from hydrogen bonds.
    • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    These compounds can be liquid until a certain temperature, then solid even as the temperature increases, and finally liquid again as the temperature rises over the "anomaly interval"[13]
  • Smart rubber utilizes hydrogen bonding as its sole means of bonding, so that it can "heal" when torn, because hydrogen bonding can occur on the fly between two surfaces of the same polymer.
  • Strength of nylon and cellulose fibres.

Notes

  1. ^ Felix H. Beijer, Huub Kooijman, Anthony L. Spek, Rint P. Sijbesma, E. W. Meijer (1998). "Self-Complementarity Achieved through Quadruple Hydrogen Bonding". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37: 75–78. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19980202)37:1/2<75::AID-ANIE75>3.0.CO;2-R. 
  2. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. "hydrogen bond". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  3. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. http://www.phschool.com/el_marketing.html. 
  4. ^ Emsley, J. (1980). "Very Strong Hydrogen Bonds". Chemical Society Reviews 9: 91–124. doi:10.1039/cs9800900091. 
  5. ^ Omer Markovitch and Noam Agmon (2007). "Structure and energetics of the hydronium hydration shells". J. Phys. Chem. A 111 (12): 2253–2256. doi:10.1021/jp068960g. 
  6. ^ A. C. Legon;D. J. Millen. Chem. Soc. Rev. 1987, 16,467-498.[1]
  7. ^ W. L. Jorgensen and J. D. Madura (1985). "Temperature and size dependence for Monte Carlo simulations of TIP4P water". Mol. Phys. 56 (6): 1381. doi:10.1080/00268978500103111. 
  8. ^ Jan Zielkiewicz (2005). "Structural properties of water: Comparison of the SPC, SPCE, TIP4P, and TIP5P models of water". J. Chem. Phys. 123: 104501. doi:10.1063/1.2018637. .
  9. ^ Michel Baron, Sylviane Giorgi-Renault, Jean Renault, Patrick Mailliet, Daniel Carré, Jean Etienne (1984) "Heterocycles with a quinone function.5. An abnormal reaction of butanedione with 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone- Crystalline structure obtained from naphto-(2,3-f)-quinoxaline-9,12-dione" , Can. J. Chem., 62, 3, 526-530
  10. ^ Damien Laage and James T. Hynes (2006). "A Molecular Jump Mechanism for Water Reorientation". Science 311: 832. doi:10.1126/science.1122154. PMID 16439623. 
  11. ^ Omer Markovitch & Noam Agmon (2008). "The Distribution of Acceptor and Donor Hydrogen-Bonds in Bulk Liquid Water". Molecular Physics 106: 485. doi:10.1080/00268970701877921. ISBN 8970701877921. 
  12. ^ E.D. Isaacs, et al., Physical Review Letters vol. 82, pp 600-603 (1999)
  13. ^ Law-breaking liquid defies the rules at physicsworld.com

References

  • George A. Jeffrey. .An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding (Topics in Physical Chemistry).^ R. L. Mills, P. Ray, M. Nansteel, J. He, X. Chen, A. Voigt, B. Dhandapani, “Energetic Catalyst-Hydrogen Plasma Reaction Forms a New State of Hydrogen,” Doklady Physical Chemistry, submitted.
    • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Atoms and Molecules: An Introduction for Students of Physical Chemistry, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, California, 1970, p.
    • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mills.“Author's response to ‘Hydrino atom: novel chemistry or invalid physics’.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.
    • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford University Press, USA (March 13, 1997).^ World Encyclopedia 2005, originally published by Oxford University Press 2005.
    • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004.
    • chemical bond Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chemical bond 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cold Fusion—The Scientific Fiasco of the Century.” Oxford University Press, 1993.
    • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-509549-9
  • Robert H. Crabtree, Per E. M. Siegbahn, Odile Eisenstein, Arnold L. Rheingold, and Thomas F. Koetzle (1996). "A New Intermolecular Interaction: Unconventional Hydrogen Bonds with Element-Hydride Bonds as Proton Acceptor". Acc. Chem. Res. 29 (7): 348–354. doi:10.1021/ar950150s. 
  • Alexander F. Goncharov, M. Riad Manaa, Joseph M. Zaug, Richard H. Gee, Laurence E. Fried, and Wren B. Montgomery (2005). "Polymerization of Formic Acid under High Pressure". Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (6): 065505. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.065505. 
  • F. Cordier, M. Rogowski, S. Grzesiek and A. Bax (1999). ."Observation of through-hydrogen-bond (2h)J(HC') in a perdeuterated protein". J Magn Reson. 140: 510–2. doi:10.1006/jmre.1999.1899. 
  • R. Parthasarathi, V. Subramanian, N. Sathyamurthy (2006).^ Also the acceptor hydrogen bond in three coordinated but tetrahedral arrangements (two donor and one acceptor hydrogen bonds with one vacant acceptor site) can slide through a planar arrangement to the vacant tetrahedral site without breaking.
    • Hydrogen bonding in water 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wang Z, Luecke H, Yao N, Quiocho FA: A low energy short hydrogen bond in very high resolution structures of protein receptor–phosphate complexes.
    • Chemistry Central Journal | Full text | Hydrogen bond networks determine emergent mechanical and thermodynamic properties across a protein family 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journal.chemistrycentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Now you see a GC base pair, cut through the plane where the three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are.
    • Questions RasMol can Answer 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Hydrogen Bonding Without Borders: An Atoms-In-Molecules Perspective". J. Phys. Chem. .A 110: 3349–3351. 
  • Z. Liu, G. Wang, Z. Li, R. Wang (2008).^ (A) 110 : 3349-3351.
    • Hydrogen bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    ."Geometrical Preferences of the Hydrogen Bonds on Protein−Ligand Binding Interface Derived from Statistical Surveys and Quantum Mechanics Calculations". J. Chem.^ R. L. Mills, “The Fallacy of Feynman's Argument on the Stabilityof the Hydrogen Atom According to Quantum Mechanics,” Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, submitted.
    • Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions - Patent 7188033 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wang Z, Luecke H, Yao N, Quiocho FA: A low energy short hydrogen bond in very high resolution structures of protein receptor–phosphate complexes.
    • Chemistry Central Journal | Full text | Hydrogen bond networks determine emergent mechanical and thermodynamic properties across a protein family 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC journal.chemistrycentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Krantz BA. D/H amide kinetic isotope effects reveal when hydrogen bonds form during protein folding.
    • Krantz BA. Understanding protein hydrogen bond formation with kinetic H/D amide isotope effects. Nat Struct Biol 9:458 (2002) 25 January 2010 8:13 UTC pubget.com [Source type: Academic]

    Theory Comput. (A)
    4 (11): 1959–1973. doi:10.1021/ct800267x. 

External links

  • The Bubble Wall (Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory explaining cohesion, surface tension and hydrogen bonds)

Simple English

A hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole bond that exists between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative atom. This type of bond always involves a hydrogen atom. That explains the name.

Hydrogen bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecularly), or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly).[1] The typical hydrogen bond is stronger than van der Waals forces, but weaker than covalent, ionic and metallic bonds.

Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C).

References

  1. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, hydrogen bond, accessed 15 Jan 2007.
  • George A. Jeffrey. An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding (Topics in Physical Chemistry). Oxford University Press, USA (March 13, 1997). ISBN 0-19-509549-9
  • A New Intermolecular Interaction: Unconventional Hydrogen Bonds with Element-Hydride Bonds as Proton Acceptor Robert H. Crabtree, Per E. M. Siegbahn, Odile Eisenstein, Arnold L. Rheingold, and Thomas F. Koetzle Acc. Chem. Res. 1996, 29(7), 348 - 354.
  • Polymerization of Formic Acid under High Pressure Alexander F. Goncharov, M. Riad Manaa, Joseph M. Zaug, Richard H. Gee, Laurence E. Fried, and Wren B. Montgomery Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 065505.
  • F. Cordier, M. Rogowski, S. Grzesiek and A. Bax. Observation of through-hydrogen-bond (2h)J(HC') in a perdeuterated protein. J Magn Reson. (1999) 140: 510-2.
  • R. Parthasarathi, V. Subramanian, N. Sathyamurthy.Hydrogen Bonding Without Borders: An Atoms-In-Molecules Perspective. J. Phys. Chem. (A) (2006) 110: 3349-3351.



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