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Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany
Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany

A hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle (HICEV) is a type of hydrogen vehicle using an internal combustion engine.[1]. Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles are different from hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; the engine is simply a modified version of the traditional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. Modifications to the traditional gasoline engine would include hardened valves and valve seats, stronger connecting rods, iridium tipped spark plugs, higher voltage ignition coil, fuel injectors designed for a gas instead of a liquid, larger crankshaft damper, stronger head gasket material, modified (for supercharger) intake manifold, positive pressure supercharger, and a high temperature engine oil. All modifications would amount to about one point five times (1.5) the current cost of a gasoline engine.[2]These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do.

The power output of a direct injected hydrogen engine vehicle is 20% more than for a gasoline engine vehicle and 42% more than a hydrogen engine vehicle using a carburetor.[3]

Contents

History

Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed in 1807 the first internal combustion engine on hydrogen[4], Étienne Lenoir produced the Hippomobile in 1863. Paul Dieges patented In 1970 a modification to internal combustion engines which allowed a gasoline-powered engine to run on hydrogen US patent 3844262.

Mazda has developed Wankel engines that burn hydrogen. The advantage of using ICE (internal combustion engine) such as wankel and piston engines is that the cost of retooling for production is much lower. Existing-technology ICE can still be used to solve those problems where fuel cells are not a viable solution as yet, for example in cold-weather applications.

Recently, BMW tested a supercar, fueled by a hydrogen ICE, which achieved 187 mph in tests. At least two of these concepts have been manufactured.

HICE forklift trucks have been demonstrated [5] based on converted diesel internal combustion engines with direct injection[6].

Emission

The combustion of hydrogen with oxygen produces water as its only product:

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

The combustion of hydrogen with air however can also produce oxides of nitrogen (NOx):

H2 + O2 + N2 = H2O + N2 + NOx

Where under sunlight, oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compound would form smog.

See also

References

External links

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