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Hyman George Rickover
January 27, 1900 (1900-01-27)July 8, 1986 (1986-07-09) (aged 86)
Hyman Rickover 1955.jpg
Nickname "Father of the Nuclear Navy"
Place of birth Maków Mazowiecki, Poland
Place of death Arlington, Virginia, USA
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1918–1982
(includes academy years)
Rank Admiral
Commands held USS Finch
Naval Reactors
Battles/wars World War II
Cold War
Awards Navy Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Legion of Merit (2)
Congressional Gold Medal (2)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Enrico Fermi Award

Hyman George Rickover (January 27, 1900 – July 8, 1986), was a four-star admiral in the United States Navy who invented the nuclear submarine[1]. Rickover was known as the "Father of the Nuclear Navy", which as of July 2007 had produced 200 nuclear-powered submarines, and 23 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and cruisers, though many of these U.S. vessels are now decommissioned and others under construction.

With his unique personality, political connections, responsibilities and depth of knowledge regarding naval nuclear propulsion, Rickover became the longest-serving naval officer in U.S. history with 63 years active duty.[2][3][4]

Rickover's substantial legacy of technical achievements includes the United States Navy's continuing record of zero reactor accidents, as defined by the uncontrolled release of fission products subsequent to reactor core damage.[5]

Contents

Childhood

Hyman Rickover was born to a Jewish family in Maków Mazowiecki of Poland, but at that time under Russian rule. The surname Rickover is derived from the village and the estate of Ryki, located within an hour of Warsaw as is Maków Mazowiecki. The entire Jewish community of Ryki as well as that of Maków Mazowiecki were killed or otherwise died during The Holocaust. The Admiral's first name is derived from the Hebrew word חַיִּים (Chayyim) meaning "life."

Escaping the fate of his fellow ethnic citizens, well before World War I the young Rickover immigrated to the United States with his parents, Abraham Rickover and Rachel (née Unger) Rickover, in 1905 after fleeing anti-Semitic pogroms. Living initially on the seething East Side of Manhattan, the family moved two years later to Lawndale, a community of Chicago, where his father continued his work as a tailor. Rickover took his first paid job at nine years of age. He earned three cents an hour for holding a light as his neighbor operated a machine. Later, he delivered groceries. When he was fourteen he graduated from grammar school.[6][7]

While attending John Marshall High School in Chicago, where he graduated with honors in 1918, Rickover held a full-time job delivering Western Union telegrams, through which he became acquainted with U.S. Congressman Adolph J. Sabath. By way of the intervention of a family friend, Sabath, himself a Czech Jewish immigrant, nominated Rickover for appointment to the United States Naval Academy. Though only a third alternate for a coveted plebe appointment, through disciplined self-directed study and good fortune the future four-star admiral passed the entrance exam and was accepted.[8][9]

Early naval career through World War II

On 2 June 1922, Rickover graduated 107th out of 540 Midshipmen and was commissioned as an Ensign. After some time on leave, he was assigned to the destroyer USS La Vallette (DD-315). He Joined the ship on 5 September 1922. Ensign Rickover impressed his commanding officer with his hard work and efficiency, and was made engineer officer on 21 June 1923, becoming the youngest such officer in the squadron.[10]

He next served on board the battleship USS Nevada (BB-36) before earning a Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Electrical Engineering by way of a year at the Naval Postgraduate School at the Naval Academy, followed by further work at Columbia University. At Columbia he met his future wife, Ruth D. Masters, a graduate student in international law, whom he married in 1931 after she returned from her doctoral studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. Shortly after marrying, Rickover wrote to his parents of his decision to become an Episcopalian, remaining so for the remainder of his life.[11]

More fond of life on a small ship, and knowing that young officers in the submarine service were advancing quickly, Rickover went to Washington and volunteered for submarine duty. His application was turned down due to his age, at that time 29 years-old. As fate would have it, he ran into his former commanding officer from Nevada while leaving the building, who interceded successfully on Rickover's behalf. From 1929 to 1933 Rickover qualified for submarine duty and command aboard the submarines S-9 and S-48.[12]

During 1933, while at the Office of the Inspector of Naval Material in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Rickover translated the book Das Unterseeboot (The Submarine), by World War I Admiral Hermann Bauer. Rickover's translation became a basic text for the U.S. submarine service.

In June 1937, he assumed command of the minesweeper USS Finch (AM-9). On 1 July 1937 he was promoted to Lt Cdr. In October 1937, his designation as an engineering duty officer became effective, and he left the Finch. He was assigned to the Cavite Navy Yard, expecting to be transferred shortly to the Bureau of Engineering in Washington DC. After some delay and a tiring but interesting trip overland across China, Burma, and India, by air across the Mideast to Athens and then London, and by ship to the US, Rickover arrived in Washington and took up his duties as assistant chief of the Electrical section of the Bureau of Engineering on 15 August 1939.[13]

On 10 April 1942, Rickover flew to Pearl Harbor to organize repairs to the electrical power plant of the USS California. In that role he was "a leading figure in putting the ship's electric alternators and motors back into operating condition,"[14] enabling the battleship to sail under her own power from Pearl Harbor to Puget Sound Navy Yard.[15]

Later during the war, his service as head of the Electrical Section in the Bureau of Ships during World War II brought him a Legion of Merit and gave him experience in directing large development programs, choosing talented technical people, and working closely with private industry. During his wartime service, as noted later in the January 11, 1954 Time magazine issue that featured him on its cover:[16]

"Sharp-tongued Hyman Rickover spurred his men to exhaustion, ripped through red tape, drove contractors into rages. He went on making enemies, but by the end of the war he had won the rank of captain. He had also won a reputation as a man who gets things done."[6]

Naval Reactors and the Atomic Energy Commission

Admiral Rickover looking over USS Nautilus, the world's first nuclear-powered vessel.

In 1946 a project was begun at the Manhattan Project's nuclear-power focused Clinton Laboratory (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) to develop a nuclear electric generating plant. The United States Navy decided to send eight men to this project, including three civilians and one senior and four junior naval officers. Realizing the potential that nuclear energy held for the Navy, Rickover applied.

Although he was not initially selected, through the intercession of his wartime boss, Admiral Earle Mills, who became the head of the Navy's Bureau of Ships that same year, Rickover was finally sent to Oak Ridge as the deputy manager of the entire project, granting him access to all facilities, projects and reports.

Following efforts by physicists Ross Gunn,[17] Philip Abelson and others in the Manhattan Project, he became an early convert to the idea of nuclear marine propulsion. Rickover worked with Alvin M. Weinberg, the Oak Ridge director of research, both to establish the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology and to begin the design of the pressurized water reactor for submarine propulsion.[18]

In February 1949, he received an assignment to the Division of Reactor Development, Atomic Energy Commission, and then assumed control of the Navy's effort as Director of the Naval Reactors Branch in the Bureau of Ships, reporting to Mills. This twin role enabled him to both lead the effort to develop the world's first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), which was launched and commissioned in 1954, as well as oversee the development of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first commercial pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant.

The decision for selecting Rickover to head the development of the nation's nuclear submarine program ultimately rested with Admiral Mills. According to Lieutenant General Leslie Groves, the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project, Mills was anxious to have a very determined man involved, and – though he knew that Rickover was "not too easy to get along with" and "not too popular" – in his judgment Rickover was the man who the Navy could depend on "no matter what opposition he might encounter, once he was convinced of the potentialities of the atomic submarine."[19]

Rickover did not disappoint. The imagination, drive, creativity and engineering expertise demonstrated by Rickover and his team during that time-frame resulted in a highly reliable nuclear reactor in a form-factor that would fit into a submarine hull with no more than a 28-foot beam. These were substantial technical achievements:

  • In the early 1950s, a megawatt-scale nuclear reactor took up an area roughly the size of a city block.
  • The prototype for the Nautilus propulsion plant was the world's first high-temperature nuclear reactor.
  • The basic physics data needed for the reactor design were as yet unavailable.
  • The reactor design methods had yet to be developed.
  • There were no available engineering data on the performance of water-exposed metals that were simultaneously experiencing high temperatures, pressures and multi-spectral radiation levels.
  • No nuclear power plant of any kind had ever been designed to produce steam.
  • No steam propulsion plant had ever been designed for use in the widely varying sea temperatures and pressures experienced by the condenser during submarine operations.
  • Components from difficult, exotic materials such as zirconium and hafnium would have to be extracted and manufactured with precision via techniques that were as yet unknown.[20]

Promoted to the rank of Vice Admiral in 1958, the same year he was awarded the first of two Congressional Gold Medals,[21] for nearly the next three decades Rickover exercised tight control over the ships, technology, and personnel of the nuclear Navy, interviewing and approving or denying every prospective officer being considered for a nuclear ship. Over the course of Rickover's record-length career, these personal interviews amounted to tens of thousands of highly impressionable events; over 14,000 interviews were with recent college-graduates alone. These legendary interviews loomed large in the minds of Navy ROTC students. Varying from arcane to combative to humorous, and ranging from midshipmen to very senior naval aviators who sought command of aircraft carriers (which sometimes lapsed into ego battles), the content of most of these interviews has been lost to history, though some were later chronicled in the several books on Rickover's career, as well as in a rare personal interview with Diane Sawyer in 1984.[22][23][24][25]

Rickover's stringent standards and powerful focus on personal integrity are largely credited with being responsible for the United States Navy's continuing record of zero reactor accidents.[5] During the mid-late 1950s, Rickover revealed the source of his obsession with safety in a personal conversation with a fellow Navy captain:

"I have a son. I love my son. I want everything that I do to be so safe that I would be happy to have my son operating it. That's my fundamental rule." (p. 55, Power at Sea: A Violent Peace, 1946-2006 (2006))

He also made it a point to be aboard during the initial sea trial of almost every nuclear submarine completing its new-construction period, and by his presence both set his stamp of personal integrity that the ship was ready for the rigors of the open seas, and ensured adequate testing to either prove as much or to establish issues requiring resolution.

As head of Naval Reactors, Rickover's focus and responsibilities were dedicated to reactor safety rather than tactical or strategic submarine warfare training. It could be argued that because of Rickover's singular focus on reactor operations, and direct line of communications with each nuclear submarine's captain, that this acted against the captains' war-fighting abilities.

Such a claim, however, does not hold up well in consideration of the highly-classified national security accomplishments of the submarine force, such as are allegedly chronicled in Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. Moreover, the accident-free record of United States Navy reactor operations stands in stark contrast to those of America's primary competitor during the Cold War, the Soviet Union, which lost several submarines to reactor accidents in both its haste and chosen priorities for competing with superior U.S. technology.

As stated in a retrospective analysis in October 2007:

"U.S. submarines far outperformed the Soviet ones in the crucial area of stealth, and Rickover's obsessive fixation on safety and quality control gave the U.S. nuclear Navy a vastly superior safety record to the Soviet one. This was especially crucial as in a democratic society, particularly after the Three Mile Island nuclear power station crisis in March 1979, a host of nuclear accidents or well-publicized near misses could have shut down the nuclear fleet completely."[26]

However, the extreme focus on nuclear propulsion plant operation and maintenance was well known during Rickover's era as a potential hindrance to balancing operational priorities. One way by which this was addressed after the Admiral retired was that only the very strongest, former at-sea submarine commanders have held Rickover's now uniquely eight-year[citation needed] position as NAVSEA-08. From Rickover's first replacement, Kinnaird R. McKee, to today's head of Naval Reactors, Kirkland H. Donald, all have held command of nuclear submarines, their squadrons and ocean fleets; not one has been a long-term Engineering Duty Officer such as Rickover.

Three Mile Island

Following the Three Mile Island (TMI) power plant partial meltdown on March 28, 1979, President Jimmy Carter commissioned a study, "Report of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (1979)." Subsequently, Admiral Rickover was asked to testify before Congress in the general context of answering the question as to why naval nuclear propulsion had succeeded in achieving a record of zero reactor-accidents (as defined by the uncontrolled release of fission products to the environment resulting from damage to a reactor core) as opposed to the dramatic one that had just taken place at Three Mile Island. In his testimony, he said:

"Over the years, many people have asked me how I run the Naval Reactors Program, so that they might find some benefit for their own work. I am always chagrined at the tendency of people to expect that I have a simple, easy gimmick that makes my program function. Any successful program functions as an integrated whole of many factors. Trying to select one aspect as the key one will not work. Each element depends on all the others.[5]

Controversy

Hyperactive, political, blunt, confrontational, insulting, flamboyant, and an unexcelled workaholic who was always demanding of others – without regard for rank or position – as well as himself, Admiral Rickover was a thundering force of nature and lightning rod for controversy. Moreover, he had "little tolerance for mediocrity, none for stupidity." "If a man is dumb," said a Chicago friend, "Rickover thinks he ought to be dead." Even while a Captain, Rickover did not conceal his opinions, and many of the officers he regarded as dumb eventually rose in rank to be admirals and were assigned to the Pentagon.

Rickover found himself frequently and loudly in bureaucratic combat with these senior naval officers, to the point that he nearly never became "Admiral" Rickover: two admiral-selection boards – exclusively made up of admirals – passed over Captain Rickover for promotion even while he was in the process of becoming famous. One of these selection boards even met the day after USS Nautilus had its keel-laying ceremony in the presence of President Truman. It eventually took the intervention of the White House, U.S. Congress and the Secretary of the Navy – and the very real threat of changing the Navy's admiral-selection system to include civilians – before the next flag-selection board welcomed the twice passed-over Rickover (normally a career-ending event) into their ranks.[6][27]

Even Rickover's most senior, renowned and professionally-accomplished nuclear-trained officers that he had personally selected, such as Edward L. Beach, Jr., had mixed feelings about "the kindly old gentleman" (or simply "KOG", as Rickover became euphemistically known in inner circles) and would at times refer to him quite seriously, decidedly and unaffectionately as a "tyrant" with "no account of his gradually failing powers" in his later years (p. 179, United States Submarines, 2002).

However, President Nixon's comments upon awarding the admiral's fourth star in 1973 are germane:

"I don't mean to suggest...that he is a man who is without controversy. He speaks his mind. Sometimes he has rivals who disagree with him; sometimes they are right, and he is the first to admit that sometimes he might be wrong. But the greatness of the American military service, and particularly the greatness of the Navy, is symbolized in this ceremony today, because this man, who is controversial, this man, who comes up with unorthodox ideas, did not become submerged by the bureaucracy, because once genius is submerged by bureaucracy, a nation is doomed to mediocrity."[28]

While both Rickover's military authority and congressional mandate with regard to the U.S. fleet's reactor operations was absolute, it was not infrequently a subject of Navy-internal controversy. As head of the Naval Reactors branch, and thus responsible for "signing off" on a crew's competence to operate the reactor safely, he had the power to effectively remove a warship from active service and did-so on several occasions, much to the consternation of those affected.

In short, Rickover was obsessed with a safe, details-focused and successful nuclear program. Coincident with this success, the perception became established among many observers that he sometimes used the raw exercise of power to occasionally settle scores or tweak noses.

Full accountability

In a distinct contrast to numerous examples of admirals and senior naval officers who would come to point their finger at individuals or groups of individuals in the fleet when something went seriously awry, Rickover adamantly took full responsibility for everything within the scope of the naval nuclear propulsion program (NNPP). Sample Rickover quote:

"My program is unique in the military service in this respect: You know the expression 'from the womb to the tomb'; my organization is responsible for initiating the idea for a project; for doing the research, and the development; designing and building the equipment that goes into the ships; for the operations of the ship; for the selection of the officers and men who man the ship; for their education and training. In short, I am responsible for the ship throughout its life – from the very beginning to the very end." (Hearings on Military Posture and H.R. 12564, U.S. G.P.O., 1974, page 1,392)

Willingness to "sink them all"

Given Rickover's single-minded focus on naval nuclear propulsion, design and operations, it came as a surprise to many when in 1982, near the end of his career, he testified before the U.S. Congress that, were it up to him, he "would sink them all." A seemingly outrageous enigma of a statement – and perhaps one attributable to an old man beyond his time – in context, Rickover's personal integrity and honesty were such that he was lamenting the need for such war machines in the modern world, and specifically acknowledged as well that the employment of nuclear energy ran counter to the course of nature over time.

At a congressional hearing Rickover testified that:

"I do not believe that nuclear power is worth it if it creates radiation. Then you might ask me why do I have nuclear powered ships. That is a necessary evil. I would sink them all. I am not proud of the part I played in it. I did it because it was necessary for the safety of this country. That's why I am such a great exponent of stopping this whole nonsense of war. Unfortunately limits – attempts to limit war have always failed. The lesson of history is when a war starts every nation will ultimately use whatever weapon it has available." Further remarking: "Every time you produce radiation, you produce something that has a certain half-life, in some cases for billions of years. I think the human race is going to wreck itself, and it is important that we get control of this horrible force and try to eliminate it." (Economics of Defense Policy: Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., Pt. 1 (1982))

However, after his retirement—and only a few months later, in May 1982—Admiral Rickover spoke more specifically regarding the questions "Could you comment on your own responsibility in helping to create a nuclear navy? Do you have any regrets?":

"I do not have regrets. I believe I helped preserve the peace for this country. Why should I regret that? What I accomplished was approved by Congress -- which represents our people. All of you live in safety from domestic enemies because of security from the police. Likewise, you live in safety from foreign enemies because our military keeps them from attacking us. Nuclear technology was already under development in other countries. My assigned responsibility was to develop our nuclear navy. I managed to accomplish this."[29]

Willingness to forgo all accomplishments

As quoted by President Jimmy Carter during his 1984 interview with Diane Sawyer:[30]

"One of the most remarkable things that he ever told me was when we were together on the submarine and he said that he wished that a nuclear explosive had never been evolved. And then he said, 'I wish that nuclear power had never been discovered.' And I said, 'Admiral, this is your life.' He said, 'I would forego all the accomplishments of my life, and I would be willing to forego all the advantages of nuclear power to propel ships, for medical research and for every other purpose of generating electric power, if we could have avoided the evolution of atomic explosives.'"[31]

Focus on education

Admiral Rickover with President Kennedy.gif

When he was a child still living in Russian-occupied Poland, Rickover was not allowed to attend public schools because of his Jewish faith. Starting at the age of four, he attended a religious school where the teaching was solely from the Old Testament in Hebrew. School hours were from sunrise to sunset, six days a week.[32]

Following his formal education in the U.S. as described above and the birth of his son, Robert, Admiral Rickover developed a decades-long and outspoken interest in the educational standards of the United States, stating in 1957:

"I suggest that this is a good time to think soberly about our responsibilities to our descendants - those who will ring out the Fossil Fuel Age. Our greatest responsibility, as parents and as citizens, is to give America's youngsters the best possible education. We need the best teachers and enough of them to prepare our young people for a future immeasurably more complex than the present, and calling for ever larger numbers of competent and highly trained men and women."[33]

Rickover was particularly of the opinion that U.S. standards of education were unacceptably low. His first book centered on education and was a collection of essays calling for improved standards of education, particularly in math and science, entitled Education and Freedom (1960). In this book, the Admiral states that, "education is the most important problem facing the United States today” and “only the massive upgrading of the scholastic standards of our schools will guarantee the future prosperity and freedom of the Republic." A second book, Swiss Schools and Ours (1962) was a scathing comparison of the educational systems of Switzerland and America. He argued that the higher standards of Swiss schools, including a longer school day and year, combined with an approach stressing student choice and academic specialization produced superior results.

His persistent interest in education led to some related discussions with President John F. Kennedy.[34][35] While still on active duty, the Admiral had suggested that there are three things that a school must do: First, it must transmit to the pupil a substantial body of knowledge; second, it must develop in him the necessary intellectual skill to apply this knowledge to the problems he will encounter in adult life; and third, it must inculcate in him the habit of judging issues on the basis of verified fact and logical reasoning.

Recognizing "that nurturing careers of excellence and leadership in science and technology in young scholars is an essential investment in the United States national and global future," following his retirement Admiral Rickover founded the Center for Excellence in Education in 1983.[36]

Additionally, the Research Science Institute (formerly the Rickover Science Institute), founded by Admiral Rickover in 1984, is a highly respected summer science program hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for rising high school seniors from around the world.

Forced retirement

By the late 1970s, Rickover's position seemed stronger than it had ever been. He had survived more than two decades of attempts by the Navy brass to force him into retirement — including being made to work out of a converted ladies room and being passed over twice for promotion. The combination of having his protegé, Jimmy Carter, in the White House, as well as powerful friends on both the House and Senate Armed Services Committees, ensured that he remained on active duty long after most other admirals had retired from their second careers.[37]

But on January 31, 1982, in his 80's, and after 63 years of service to his country under 13 presidents (Woodrow Wilson through Ronald Reagan), Rickover was forced to retire from the Navy as a full admiral by Secretary of the Navy John Lehman, with the knowledge and consent of President Reagan. This was done in a premeditated fashion. As Lehman, a naval aviator, put it in his book, Command of the Seas:

[O]ne of my first orders of business as secretary of the navy would be to solve...the Rickover problem. Rickover's legendary achievements were in the past. His present viselike grip on much of the navy was doing it much harm. I had sought the job because I believed the navy had deteriorated to the point where its weakness seriously threatened our future security. The navy's grave afflictions included loss of a strategic vision; loss of self-confidence, and morale; a prolonged starvation of resources, leaving vast shortfalls in capability to do the job; and too few ships to cover a sea so great, all resulting in cynicism, exhaustion, and an undercurrent of defeatism. The cult created by Admiral Rickover was itself a major obstacle to recovery, entwining nearly all the issues of culture and policy within the navy.[38]

Fitting to the end of the decades-long rein and reputation of Rickover, his career concluded in both a battle with the defense establishment and a coming-to-terms with his own human limitations.

In the early 1980s, structural welding flaws – whose nature and existence had been covered up by falsified inspection records – led to significant delays and expenses in the delivery of several submarines being built at the General Dynamics Electric Boat Division shipyard. In some cases the repairs resulted in practically dismantling and then rebuilding what had been a nearly-completed submarine. While the yard tried to pass the vast cost overruns directly onto the Navy, Rickover fought Electric Boat's general manager, P. Takis Veliotis, tooth and nail at every possible turn, demanding that the yard make good on its shoddy workmanship.

Although the Navy eventually settled with General Dynamics in 1981, paying out $634 million of $843 million in Los Angeles class submarine cost-overrun and reconstruction claims, Rickover was bitter over the yard's having effectively and successfully sued the Navy for its own incompetence and deceit. Of no small irony, the United States Navy was also the yard's insurer – though the concept of reimbursing General Dynamics under these conditions was initially considered "preposterous" in the words of Secretary Lehman, the legal basis of General Dynamics' claims included insurance compensation.[39][40]

Outraged, Rickover furiously lambasted both the settlement and Secretary Lehman, who was partly motivated to seek an agreement in order to continue to focus on achieving President Reagan's goal of a 600-ship Navy. This was hardly Rickover's first clash with the defense industry – he was historically hard, even harsh, in exacting high standards from these contractors[41] – but now his relationship with Electric Boat took on the characteristics of an all-out, no-holds-barred war (Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover & General Dynamics, 1986).

Veliotis came to be indicted by a federal grand jury under racketeering and fraud charges in 1983 for demanding $1.3 million in kickbacks from a subcontractor. He nonetheless eventually escaped into exile and a life of luxury in his native Greece where he remains a fugitive from U.S. justice.[42][43]

Subsequent to accusations by the indicted Veliotis, a Navy Ad Hoc Gratuities Board determined that Rickover had received gifts from General Dynamics including jewelry, furniture and exotic knives valued at $67,628 over a 16-year period. Charges were investigated as well that gifts were provided by two other major nuclear ship contractors for the navy, General Electric and the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock division of Northrop Grumman.[44]

Veliotis also charged, without providing substantiating evidence, that General Dynamics had given gifts to other senior naval officers, and had routinely underbid contracts with the intention of charging the government for cost overruns. These charges were not pursued by the Navy, at least in part due to Veliotis' flight from justice.[39]

Secretary Lehman admonished Rickover for this impropriety via a nonpunitive letter and stating that Rickover's "fall from grace with these little trinkets should be viewed in the context of his enormous contributions to the Navy."[44] Rickover released a statement through his lawyer saying his "conscience is clear" with respect to the gifts. "No gratuity or favor ever affected any decision I made."[44] Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin, a longtime supporter of Rickover, later publicly associated a debilitating stroke suffered by the Admiral to his having been censured and "dragged through the mud by the very institution to which he rendered his invaluable service."[45]

Beyond any personal enmity or power struggles between the two naval leaders, it was Rickover's advanced age, singular focus and political clout regarding nuclear power, and strong, near-insubordinate stance against paying the fraudulently inflated submarine construction claims that gave Secretary Lehman substantial political capital to have Rickover retired. A moderate loss of ship control and subsequent depth excursion during the sea trials of the newly constructed USS La Jolla (SSN-701) – over which Rickover had direct supervisory control and, as the man-in-charge, actual culpability by way of human error – provided Lehman with the final impetus for ending Rickover's career.

Upon being apprised of Lehman's decision that it was time for the admiral to finally retire, President Reagan asked to meet with Rickover. As quoted from Lehman's Command of the Seas, Rickover was unhappy with the course of events and held forth in a tirade against Lehman, with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger in attendance, at the meeting with the President:

(Rickover, referring to Lehman:) "Mr. President, that piss-ant knows nothing about the Navy." The admiral turned toward (Lehman) and raised his voice now to a fearsome shout. "You just want to get rid of me, you want me out of the program because you want to dismantle the program." Shifting now toward President Reagan, he roared on: "He's a goddamn liar, he knows he is just doing the work of the contractors. The contractors want me fired because of all the claims and because I am the only one in the government who keeps them from robbing the taxpayers."[46]

(Lehman, as later quoted by CNN:) "...it was a difficult moment for the president in the Oval Office. And he was so concerned about the man, about Admiral Rickover and that he not be embarrassed, that he asked us all to leave. He said, "Admiral Rickover and I see things the same way. Could you leave us a while? We want to talk about policy."[47]

Offering respectful words for Admiral Rickover's past service, but not encouragement for continued service, President Reagan eventually brought the meeting to a close and Rickover's 63-year career was at its end.

The Navy's official investigation of General Dynamics' Electric Boat division was ended shortly afterwards. According to Theodore Rockwell, Rickover's Technical Director for more than 15 years, more than one source at that time stated that General Dynamics officials were bragging around Washington that they had "gotten Rickover."[48]

In Memoriam

On February 28, 1983, a post-retirement party honoring Admiral Rickover was attended by all three living former U.S. Presidents at the time, Nixon, Ford, and Carter. President Reagan was not in attendance.[49][50]

Subsequent to a stroke, Admiral Rickover died at his home, located in Arlington, Virginia, on July 8, 1986. Memorial services were led by Admiral James D. Watkins at the Washington National Cathedral, with President Carter, Secretary of State George P. Shultz, Secretary Lehman, senior naval officers and about 1,000 other people in attendance. Mrs. Rickover had asked President Carter to read from John Milton's On His Blindness. Carter was at first puzzled by her choice, but then came to believe that the last line had special meaning for all wives and family members of submariners who were away at sea: "They also serve who only stand and wait."[51][52]

Admiral Rickover is buried in Section 5 at Arlington National Cemetery.[53] His first wife, Ruth Masters Rickover (1903–1972), is buried with him and the name of his second wife, Eleonore A. Bednowicz Rickover, whom he met and married while she was serving as a Commander in the Navy Nurse Corps, is also inscribed on his gravestone. He is survived by Robert Rickover, his sole son by his first wife.

At Arlington, Rickover's burial site overlooks the John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame. Of note, it was Rickover who gave President Kennedy the old Breton fisherman’s prayer plaque, which states, "O God, thy sea is so great and my boat is so small."[54] The plaque is displayed in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum as part of the Oval Office exhibit.[55]

During the last century, only a few names naturally come to mind of those who have made a truly major impact on both their navies and their nations: Mahan, Fisher and Gorshkov. Rickover joined them. Creating a detail-focused pursuit of excellence to a degree previously unknown, he redirected the United States Navy’s ship propulsion, quality control, personnel selection, and training and education, and has had far reaching effects on the defense establishment and the civilian nuclear energy field.[56]

Named in his honor

USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-709)

The Los Angeles-class submarine USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-709) was named for him. She was commissioned two years before the Admiral's death, making her one of the relatively few United States Navy ships to be named for a living person.

USS Hyman G. Rickover was launched on August 27, 1983, sponsored by the Admiral's second wife, Mrs. Eleonore Ann Bednowicz Rickover, commissioned on July 21, 1984, and deactivated on December 14, 2006.

Rickover Hall at the United States Naval Academy, housing the departments of Mechanical Engineering, Naval Ocean Engineering, Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, and Rickover Center at the Naval Nuclear Power Training Command are also named in his honor.

Others:

Awards

The second of two Congressional Gold Medals awarded to Admiral Rickover.

Admiral Rickover's personal decorations included the Submarine Warfare insignia, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal with two Gold Award Stars, the Legion of Merit with two Gold Award Stars, the Navy Commendation Medal with two Gold Stars, and the Army Commendation Medal.

His campaign and service medals included the World War I Victory Medal, China Service Medal, American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, and the National Defense Service Medal with star.

In recognition of his wartime service, he was made Honorary Commander of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

Admiral Rickover was twice awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for exceptional public service; the first in 1958, and the second 25 years later in 1983. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter presented Admiral Rickover with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest non-military honor, for his contributions to world peace.

He also received 61 civilian awards and 15 honorary degrees, including the prestigious Enrico Fermi Award "For engineering and demonstrative leadership in the development of safe and reliable nuclear power and its successful application to our national security and economic needs."[57] In addition to the Enrico Fermi Award, some of the most notable awards include:[58]

Some of his Honorary degrees included:

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/media-gallery/image/tredici/55.htm
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=z095cIB0coAC&pg=PA87&dq=Rickover+%2263+years%22#v=onepage&q=Rickover%20%2263%20years%22&f=false
  3. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/bios/rickover.htm
  4. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hymangeo.htm
  5. ^ a b c "Statement of Admiral F. L. "Skip" Bowman". 2003-10-29. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/testimony/safety/bowman031029.txt. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  6. ^ a b c "The Man in Tempo 3". Time. 1954-01-11. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,819338-2,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  7. ^ Duncan, Francis (2001). Rickover: the struggle for excellence. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Inst. Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781557501776. 
  8. ^ Rockwell, Theodore (2002). The Rickover Effect. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. p. 22. ISBN 0595252702. 
  9. ^ Adams, Chris; Air University (U.S.). Press (1999). Inside the Cold War. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University Press. p. 23. ISBN 9781585660681. 
  10. ^ Allen, Thomas B.; Norman Polmar (2007). Rickover. Dulles, Va.: Brassey's. p. xiii. ISBN 9781574887044. 
  11. ^ Domhoff, G. William; Richard L. Zweigenhaft (2006). Diversity in the Power Elite. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.. p. 29. ISBN 9780742536999. 
  12. ^ Rockwell, Theodore (2002). The Rickover Effect. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. pp. 29. ISBN 9780595252701. 
  13. ^ Duncan, Francis (2001). Rickover. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Inst. Press. pp. 63 to 71. ISBN 9781557501776. 
  14. ^ "Salvage and repair of USS California, December 1941 - October 1942". http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-ca9.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  15. ^ Duncan, Francis (2001). Rickover. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Inst. Press. pp. 71 to 77. ISBN 9781557501776. 
  16. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: Admiral Hyman Rickover - January 11, 1954 - Admirals - Navy - Military". http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19540111,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  17. ^ "Ross Gunn, May 12, 1897 — October 15, 1966". http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/rgunn.html. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  18. ^ "ORNL Review Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 2002". http://www.ornl.net/info/ornlreview/rev25-34/chapter3sb8.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  19. ^ Groves, Leslie R.; Edward Teller (1983). Now it can be told. New York, N.Y: Da Capo Press. p. 388. ISBN 9780306801891. 
  20. ^ Blair, Clay (1954). The Atomic Submarine and Admiral Rickover. p. 134. 
  21. ^ "United States Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Admiral Hyman George Rickover". http://www.congressionalgoldmedal.com/HymanGeorgeRickover.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  22. ^ "Rickover Interview". http://www.people.vcu.edu/~rsleeth/Rickover.html. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  23. ^ "Asking Tough Questions - CBS News". http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/05/16/60minutes/main554312.shtml. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  24. ^ "Doing a Job". http://www.validlab.com/administration/rickover.html. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  25. ^ Rayburn, Kevin (2003-03-01). "The Rickover Effect: Speed grads remember working with 'Father of the Nuclear Navy'". UofL (University of Loiusville) 25 (2). http://louisville.edu/ur/ucomm/mags/winter2007/rickover.html. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  26. ^ Sieff, Martin (2007-10-04). "BMD Focus: O'Reilly moves up -- Part 1". UPI Energy. 
  27. ^ Rockwell, Theodore (2002). The Rickover Effect. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. p. 155. ISBN 0595252702. 
  28. ^ John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database).
  29. ^ Rickover, Hyman George (1982-05-12) (pdf). Thoughts on Man's Purpose in Life. Second Annual Morgenthau Memorial Lecture. Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs. http://www.cceia.org/resources/publications/morgenthau/763.html/_res/id=sa_File1/763_2ndMML-H.G.Rickover.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  30. ^ Tucker, Todd (2009). Atomic America. New York: Free Press. p. 219. ISBN 9781416544333. 
  31. ^ "Rickover Interview". http://www.people.vcu.edu/~rsleeth/Rickover.html. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  32. ^ Rockwell, Theodore (2002). The Rickover Effect. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. p. 20. ISBN 0595252702. http://books.google.com/books?id=U4kjnYL7-igC&pg=PA21&ots=Q7STsyGUcV&dq=Rickover,+Sabath&sig=TFvq0y8_7UoalNGds_0kp6WFlFE#PPA20,M1. 
  33. ^ Rickover, Hyman George; United States Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations (1960). Education and Freedom. p. 97. http://www.energybulletin.net/node/23151. 
  34. ^ "JFK Library Releases 1963 White House Recordings". 2006-02-01. http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK+Library+and+Museum/News+and+Press/JFK+Library+Releases+1963+White+House+Recordings.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  35. ^ "New York Times Chronology: September 1962". http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/New+York+Times+Chronology/1962/September.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  36. ^ "The History of CEE". http://www.cee.org/about/history. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  37. ^ "Unsinkable Hyman Rickover - Time". http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,911955,00.html?iid=chix-sphere. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  38. ^ http://www.johnflehman.com/books/books_commandseas.html
  39. ^ a b Van Voorst, Bruce; Thomas Evans (1984-12-24). "Overrun Silent, Overrun Deep". Time. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951382,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  40. ^ Alexander, Charles P.; Christopher Redman and John E. Yang (1985-04-08). "General Dynamics Under Fire". Time. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965505-4,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  41. ^ "Rickover's Attack on Defense Contractors - TIME". http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,829357,00.html?iid=chix-sphere. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  42. ^ "The Fugitive Accuser". Time. 1985-04-08. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965528,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  43. ^ "Defense Contracts - News - Times Topics - The New York Times - Narrowed by 'VELIOTIS, P TAKIS'". http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/d/defense_contracts/index.html?query=VELIOTIS,%20P%20TAKIS&field=per&match=exact. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  44. ^ a b c Congressional research service PDF (1.65 MB CRS-13) Alleged fraud, waste, and abuse, 07/12/85. O'rourke, Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division
  45. ^ Keller, Bill. "Rickover Stable in Naval Hospital". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D04E3D61738F930A25754C0A963948260. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  46. ^ Lehman, John F. (2001-11). Command of the Seas (2nd ed.). US Naval Institute Press. p. 1. ISBN 1557505349. http://www.johnflehman.com/books/books_commandseas.html. 
  47. ^ "CNN.com - Transcripts". http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0406/11/ltm.03.html. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  48. ^ Rockwell, Theodore (2002). The Rickover Effect. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. p. 363. ISBN 0595252702. http://books.google.com/books?id=U4kjnYL7-igC&pg=RA1-PA363&ots=Q7SXlzEVdV&dq=%22gotten+Rickover%22&sig=vqNL2MJbA4ucqfzBnVf6p32HH0E. 
  49. ^ Feinman, By Elisabeth Bumiller and Barbara. "Rickover at 83: Three-Gun Salute; Ex-Presidents Hail the Father of the Nuclear Navy". The Washington Post. 
  50. ^ "96B05426.lowres.jpeg". http://imglib.lbl.gov/ImgLib/COLLECTIONS/BERKELEY-LAB/images/96B05426.lowres.jpeg. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  51. ^ Detz, Joan (1991). Can You Say a Few Words. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 50. ISBN 0312058306. 
  52. ^ Byrd, Lee (1986-07-14). "He Was Tough, Harsh ... But He Is Embedded In My Mind And My Heart". The Associated Press. 
  53. ^ "Arlington National Cemetery:: Photo Gallery_Surroundings". http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/images/ANC_surroundings/PAGES/image31.html. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  54. ^ "The Oval Office - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK+Library+and+Museum/Visit+the+Library+and+Museum/Museum+Exhibits/The+Oval+Office.htm?active=permanent_exhibits. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  55. ^ "John F. Kennedy: Remarks in New York City at the Dedication of the East Coast Memorial to the Missing at Sea.". http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9234. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  56. ^ "Admiral Rickover and the Cult of Personality". http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1983/jul-aug/schratz.html. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  57. ^ "The Enrico Fermi Award - H.G. Rickover, 1964". http://www.er.doe.gov/fermi/html/Laureates/1960s/hgrickover.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  58. ^ "Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 3". http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1384&page=297. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  59. ^ "Western Society of Engineers". http://www.wsechicago.org/washington_award.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  60. ^ "Kudos". Time. 1954-06-21. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860818-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  61. ^ "The $1,000 Word". Time. 1958-06-23. ISSN 0040-718X. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810381-2,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  62. ^ Haswell, Hollee (April 2008). "Honorary Degree" (pdf). Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/secretary/pdf_and_word/honorary_degree_recipients.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 

Resources

In order of publication:

  • The Man in Tempo 3 cover story on Rickover in Time Magazine (January, 1954)
  • Blair, Clay, The Atomic Submarine and Admiral Rickover (H. Holt, 1954)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Nuclear Power and the Navy (Navy League of the United States, 1955)
  • Stanford, Neal, The Future of Fossil Fuels - An Intimate Message from Washington (The Christian Science Monitor, 1957)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Education and Freedom (Dutton, 1959)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Swiss Schools and Ours: Why Theirs are Better (Little, Brown, 1962)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., American Education, a National Failure; The problem of our schools and what we can learn from England (Dutton, 1963)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Liberty, Science and Law (Newcomen Society in North America, 1969)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Eminent Americans: Namesakes of the Polaris Submarine Fleet (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Nuclear Warships and the Navy's Future ({s.n.}, 1974)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., The Role of Engineering in the Navy, speech, (1974)
  • Groves, Leslie R., Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project (Da Capo PR, 1975)
  • Zumwalt, Elmo R., On Watch: A Memoir (Quadrangle/New York Times Co., 1976) includes a chapter on Rickover
  • Rickover, Hyman G., How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed (Naval Institute Press, 1976)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Thoughts on Man's Purpose in Life speech presented at the San Diego Rotary Club (1977)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., No Holds Barred: The Final Congressional Testimony of Admiral Hyman Rickover (Center for Study of Responsive Law, 1982)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Doing a Job 1981 management philosophy speech at Columbia University School of Engineering (CoEvolution Quarterly, 1982)
  • Schratz, Paul R., "Admiral Rickover and the Cult of Personality" (Air University Review, July-August 1983) -- "non-conformist" opinion piece from a WWII diesel boat commander
  • Rickover, Hyman G., personal interview on 60 Minutes by Diane Sawyer and Edward R. Murrow (1984)
  • Tyler, Patrick, Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover & General Dynamics (Harper Trade, 1986)
  • Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 3 (1989)
  • Duncan, Francis, Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology (Naval Institute Press, 1990)
  • Rockwell, Theodore, The Rickover Effect: The Inside Story of How Adm. Hyman Rickover Built the Nuclear Navy (John Wiley & Sons, 1995)
  • Beaver, William, Admiral Rickover: Lessons for Business Leaders (Business Forum, 1998)
  • Sontag, Sherry; Drew, Christopher; Drew, Annette Lawrence; Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage (PublicAffairs, 1998)
  • Gordon, Robert B., Working for Admiral Rickover: Memoir (Naval Historical Foundation Memoir program, 2000)
  • Duncan, Francis, Rickover: The Struggle for Excellence (Naval Institute Press, 2001)
  • Craven, John Piña, The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea (Simon & Schuster, 2001)
  • Lehman, Jr., John F., Command of the Seas, (US Naval Institute Press, 2nd rev. ed., 2001)
  • Rockwell, Theodore, The Rickover Effect: How One Man Made a Difference (Backinprint.com, 2002)
  • Clancy, Tom, Submarine: A Guided Tour Inside a Nuclear Warship (Berkley, 2002)
  • Hinkle, David, United States Submarines (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 2002)
  • Polmar, Norman; Allen, Thomas; Rickover – Admiral of the Fleet – Controversy and Genius, A Biography (Ross & Perry, 2003)
  • David, Heather M., Admiral Rickover and the Nuclear Navy (Putnam Pub Group, 2004)
  • Zweigenhaft, Richard L., Diversity in the Power Elite: How It Happened, Why It Matters (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
  • Gilchrist, Dan, Power Shift: The Transition to Nuclear Power in the U.S. Submarine Force As Told by Those Who Did It (iUniverse, 2006)
  • Rickover, Hyman G., Energy Resources and Our Future, 1957 speech, (Energy Bulletin, 2006)
  • Rose, Lisle A., Power at Sea: A Violent Peace, 1946-2006 (University of Missouri Press, 2006)
  • Allen, Thomas; Polmar, Norman; Rickover: Father of the Nuclear Navy (Potomac Books, 2007)
  • Meyer, CM, The Long Shadow of Admiral Hyman Rickover, Part 1, PDF document, (energize magazine, April 2007)
  • Meyer, CM, The Long Shadow of Admiral Hyman Rickover, Part 3, PDF document, (energize magazine, June 2007)
  • Spear, Steven J., Chasing the Rabbit (McGraw-Hill, 2008) -- includes applicable business lessons from the US Navy's Nuclear Power Program
  • Tucker, Todd, Atomic America: How a Deadly Explosion and a Feared Admiral Changed the Course of Nuclear History (Free Press, 2009)

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

It is said that a wise man who stands firm is a statesman, and a foolish man who stands firm is a catastrophe.

Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, U.S. Navy, (27 January 19008 July 1986) was known as the "Father of the Nuclear Navy".

Contents

Sourced

I believe it is the duty of each of us to act as if the fate of the world depended on him. Admittedly, one man by himself cannot do the job. However, one man can make a difference...
You might ask me why do I have nuclear powered ships. That is a necessary evil...
Attempts to limit war have always failed. The lesson of history is when a war starts every nation will ultimately use whatever weapon it has available.
  • I'll be philosophical. Until about two billion years ago, it was impossible to have any life on earth; that is, there was so much radiation on earth you couldn't have any life — fish or anything. Gradually, about two billion years ago, the amount of radiation on this planet—and probably in the entire system—reduced and made it possible for some form of life to begin... Now when we go back to using nuclear power, we are creating something which nature tried to destroy to make life possible... Every time you produce radiation, you produce something that has a certain half-life, in some cases for billions of years. I think the human race is going to wreck itself, and it is important that we get control of this horrible force and try to eliminate it... I do not believe that nuclear power is worth it if it creates radiation. Then you might ask me why do I have nuclear powered ships. That is a necessary evil. I would sink them all. Have I given you an answer to your question?
    • On the hazards of nuclear power. Testimony to Congress (28 January 1982); published in Economics of Defense Policy: Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., Pt. 1 (1982)
  • I am not proud of the part I played in it. I did it because it was necessary for the safety of this country. That's why I am such a great exponent of stopping this whole nonsense of war. Unfortunately limits — attempts to limit war have always failed. The lesson of history is when a war starts every nation will ultimately use whatever weapon it has available. ... Therefore, we must expect that if another war — a serious war — breaks out, we will use nuclear energy in some form.
    • On his reasoning in developing the nuclear arsenal of the US and on the prospects of nuclear war. Testimony to Congress (28 January 1982); published in Economics of Defense Policy: Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., Pt. 1 (1982)
  • If you are going to sin, sin against God, not the bureaucracy. God will forgive you but the bureaucracy won't.
    • As quoted in The New York Times (3 November 1986)

Paper Reactors, Real Reactors (1953)

"Paper Reactors, Real Reactors" (5 June 1953); Stating they were comments from the early 1950's Rickover read some of these statements as part of his testimony before Congress, published in AEC Authorizing Legislation: Hearings Before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (1970), p. 1702
It is incumbent on those in high places to make wise decisions and it is reasonable and important that the public be correctly informed.
  • An academic reactor or reactor plant almost always has the following basic characteristics: (1) It is simple. (2) It is small. (3) It is cheap. (4) It is light. (5) It can be built very quickly. (6) It is very flexible in purpose. (7) Very little development will be required. It will use off-the-shelf components. (8) The reactor is in the study phase. It is not being built now.

    On the other hand a practical reactor can be distinguished by the following characteristics: (1) It is being built now. (2) It is behind schedule. (3) It requires an immense amount of development on apparently trivial items. (4) It is very expensive. (5) It takes a long time to build because of its engineering development problems. (6) It is large. (7) It is heavy. (8) It is complicated.

  • The tools of the academic designer are a piece of paper and a pencil with an eraser. If a mistake is made, it can always be erased and changed. If the practical-reactor designer errs, he wears the mistake around his neck; it cannot be erased. Everyone sees it.
  • The academic-reactor designer is a dilettante. He has not had to assume any real responsibility in connection with his projects. He is free to luxuriate in elegant ideas, the practical shortcomings of which can be relegated to the category of "mere technical details." The practical-reactor designer must live with these same technical details. Although recalcitrant and awkward, they must be solved and cannot be put off until tomorrow. Their solution requires manpower, time and money.
  • Unfortunately for those who must make far-reaching decision without the benefit of an intimate knowledge of reactor technology, and unfortunately for the interested public, it is much easier to get the academic side of an issue than the practical side. For a large part those involved with the academic reactors have more inclination and time to present their ideas in reports and orally to those who will listen. Since they are innocently unaware of the real but hidden difficulties of their plans, they speak with great facility and confidence. Those involved with practical reactors, humbled by their experiences, speak less and worry more.
  • Yet it is incumbent on those in high places to make wise decisions and it is reasonable and important that the public be correctly informed. It is consequently incumbent on all of us to state the facts as forthrightly as possible.

US Naval Post Graduate School Address (1954)

Address delivered to US Naval Post Graduate School (16 March 1954)
Success teaches us nothing; only failure teaches.
  • Some of the ideas I try to get across to the people who work for me are the following:
1. More than ambition, more than ability, it is rules that limit contribution; rules are the lowest common denominator of human behavior. They are a substitute for rational thought.
2. Sit down before fact with an open mind. Be prepared to give up every preconceived notion. Follow humbly wherever and to whatever abyss Nature leads, or you learn nothing. Don't push out figures when facts are going in the opposite direction.
3. Free discussion requires an atmosphere unembarrassed by any suggesion of authority or even respect. If a subordinate always agrees with his superior he is a useless part of the organization. In this connection there is a story of Admiral Sims when he was on duty in London in World War I. He called a conscientious hard-working officer in to him to explain why he was dissatisfied with the officer's work. The officer blushed and stammered when Sims pointed out that in all the time they had been working together the officer had never once disagreed with Sims.
4. All men are by nature conservative but conservatism in the military profession is a source of danger to the country. One must be ready to change his line sharply and suddenly, with no concern for the prejudices and memories of what was yesterday. To rest upon formula is a slumber that, prolonged, means death.
5. Success teaches us nothing; only failure teaches.
6. Do not regard loyalty as a personal matter. A greater loyalty is one to the Navy or to the Country. When you know you are absolutely right, and when you are unable to do anything about it, complete military subordination to rules becomes a form of cowardice.
7. To doubt one's own first principles is the mark of a civilized man. Don't defend past actions; what is right today may be wrong tomorrow. Don't be consistent; consistency is the refuge of fools.
8. Thoughts arising from practical experience may be a bridle or a spur.
9. Optimism and stupidity are nearly synonymous.
10. Avoid over-coordination. We have all observed months-long delays caused by an effort to bring all activities into complete agreement with a proposed policy or procedure. While the coordinating machinery is slowly grinding away, the original purpose is often lost. The essence of the proposals is being worn down as the persons most concerned impatiently await the decision. The process has been aptly called coordinating to death.
11. A system under which it takes three men to check what one is doing is not control; it is systematic strangulation.
12. A man, by working 24 hours a day, could multiply himself 3 times. To multiply himself more than 3 times the only recourse is to train others to take over some of his work.

The Rickover Effect (1992)

Quotations of Rickover from The Rickover Effect (1992) by Theodore Rockwell, ISBN 1-55750-702-3
  • It is said that a wise man who stands firm is a statesman, and a foolish man who stands firm is a catastrophe.
  • Nothing so sharpens the thought process as writing down one's arguments. Weaknesses overlooked in oral discussion become painfully obvious on the written page.
  • The Quakers have an excellent approach to thinking through difficult problems, where a number of intelligent and responsible people must work together. They meet as equals, and anyone who has an idea speaks up. There are no parliamentary procedures and no coercion from the Chair. They continue the discussion until unanimity is reached. I want you guys to do that. Get in a room with no phones and leave orders that you are not to be disturbed. And sit there until you can deal with each other as individuals, not as spokesmen for either organization.
  • You know that answer to that, don’t you. You don’t need me to tell you.
  • Any one detail, followed through to its source, will usually reveal the general state of readiness of the whole organization.
The Devil is in the details, but so is salvation.
  • I believe it is the duty of each of us to act as if the fate of the world depended on him. Admittedly, one man by himself cannot do the job. However, one man can make a difference... We must live for the future of the human race, and not for our own comfort or success.
  • Nature is not as forgiving as Christ.
  • One must create the ability in his staff to generate clear, forceful arguments for opposing viewpoints as well as for their own. Open discussions and disagreements must be encouraged, so that all sides of an issue are fully explored.
  • In greek mythology, Antaeus was a giant who was strong as long as he had contact with the earth. When he was lifted from the earth he lost strength. So it is with engineers. They must not become isolated from the real world...
  • The Devil is in the details, but so is salvation.
It is a human inclination to hope things will work out, despite evidence or doubt to the contrary. A successful manager must resist this temptation...
  • As a guide to engineering ethics, I should like to commend to you a liberal adaptation of the injunction contained in the oath of Hippocrates that the professional man do nothing that will harm his client. Since engineering is a profession which affects the material basis of everyone’s life, there is almost always an unconsulted third party involved in any contact between the engineer and those who employ him — and that is the country, the people as a whole. These, too, are the engineer’s clients, albeit involuntarily. Engineering ethics ought therefore to safeguard their interests most carefully. Knowing more about the public effects his work will have, the engineer ought to consider himself an “officer of the court” and keep the general interest always in mind.
  • The man in charge must concern himself with details. If he does not consider them important, neither will his subordinates. Yet “the devil is in the details.” It is hard and monotonous to pay attention to seemingly minor matters. In my work, I probably spend about ninety-nine percent of my time on what others may call petty details. Most managers would rather focus on lofty policy matters. But when the details are ignored, the project fails. No infusion of policy or lofty ideals can then correct the situation.
  • What it takes to do a job will not be learned from management courses. It is principally a matter of experience, the proper attitude, and common sense — none of which can be taught in a classroom... Human experience shows that people, not organizations or management systems, get things done.
  • It is a human inclination to hope things will work out, despite evidence or doubt to the contrary. A successful manager must resist this temptation. This is particularly hard if one has invested much time and energy on a project and thus has come to feel possessive about it. Although it is not easy to admit what a person once thought correct now appears to be wrong, one must discipline himself to face the facts objectively and make the necessary changes — regardless of the consequences to himself. The man in charge must personally set the example in this respect. He must be able, in effect, to "kill his own child" if necessary and must require his subordinates to do likewise.
One must permit his people the freedom to seek added work and greater responsibility...
  • When doing a job — any job — one must feel that he owns it, and act as though he will remain in that job forever. He must look after his work just as conscientiously, as though it were his own business and his own money. If he feels he is only a temporary custodian, or that the job is just a stepping stone to a higher position, his actions will not take into account the long-term interests of the organization. His lack of commitment to the present job will be perceived by those who work for him, and they, likewise, will tend not to care. Too many spend their entire working lives looking for the next job. When one feels he owns his present job and acts that way, he need have no concern about his next job.
  • To do a job effectively, one must set priorities. Too many people let their "in" basket set the priorities. On any given day, unimportant but interesting trivia pass through an office; one must not permit these to monopolize his time. The human tendency is to while away time with unimportant matters that do not require mental effort or energy. Since they can be easily resolved, they give a false sense of accomplishment. The manager must exert self-discipline to ensure that his energy is focused where it is truly needed.
Face facts.
  • One must permit his people the freedom to seek added work and greater responsibility. In my organization, there are no formal job descriptions or organization charts. Responsibilities are defined in a general way, so that people are not circumscribed. All are permitted to do as they think best and to go to anyone and anywhere for help. Each person is then limited only by his own ability.
  • As subordinates develop, work should be constantly added so that no one can finish his job. This serves as a prod and a challenge. It brings out their capabilities and frees the manager to assume added responsibilities. As members of the organization become capable of assuming new and more difficult duties, they develop pride in doing the job well. This attitude soon permeates the entire organization.
  • Responsibility is a unique concept... You may share it with others, but your portion is not diminished. You may delegate it, but it is still with you... If responsibility is rightfully yours, no evasion, or ignorance or passing the blame can shift the burden to someone else. Unless you can point your finger at the man who is responsible when something goes wrong, then you have never had anyone really responsible.
Develop the capacity to learn from experience.
  • Rickover management objectives:
  • Require rising standards of adequacy.
  • Be technically self-sufficient.
  • Face facts.
  • Respect even small amounts of radiation.
  • Require adherence to the concept of total responsibility.
  • Develop the capacity to learn from experience.
  • Administration is, or ought to be, a necessary overhead to aid production, and should at all times be kept as low as possible.
  • They all have excellent resumes... So what I’m trying to find out is how they will behave under pressure. Will they lie, or bluff, or panic, or wilt? Or will they continue to function with some modicum of competence and integrity?
    • Discussing his style of interviewing all officers who entered the Naval Reactors program.
  • Everything new endangers something old. A new machine replaces human hands; a new source of power threatens old businesses; a new trade route wipes out the supremacy of old ports and brings prosperity to new ones. This is the price that must be paid for progress and it is worth it.

Misattributed

  • Great minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss events, small minds discuss people.
    • Though Rickover quoted this, he did not claim to be the author of the statement. Using it in "The World of the Uneducated" in The Saturday Evening Post (28 November 1959), he prefaces it with "As the unknown sage puts it..." — It has sometimes been attributed to Eleanor Roosevelt, but without definite citation.
  • You have to learn from the mistakes of others. You won't live long enough to make them all yourself.
    • Variations of this quote have been attributed to a number of people, including Eleanor Roosevelt, Samuel Levenson, and Lao Tzu; there is no solid support for any such attribution.

Quotes about Rickover

  • Why not the best?
    • This was the title of a book by Jimmy Carter; though the title was inspired by a job interview Carter had with Rickover, this phrasing was not used by Rickover himself:
I had applied for nuclear submarine program, and Admiral Rickover was interviewing me for the job... Finally he asked me a question and I thought I could redeem myself. He said, "How did you stand in your class at the Naval Academy?" ... I swelled my chest with pride and answered, "Sir, I stood 59th in a class of 820!" I sat back to wait for the congratulations — which never came.
Instead the question: "Did you do your best?"
I started to say, "Yes, sir," but I remembered who this was... I finally gulped and said, "No sir, I didn't always do my best." He looked at me for a long time, and then turned his chair around to end the interview. He asked one final question, which I have never been able to forget — or to answer. He said, "Why not?"
  • Why Not the Best? (1975) [ISBN 0553101986]
  • I don't mean to suggest... that he is a man who is without controversy. He speaks his mind. Sometimes he has rivals who disagree with him; sometimes they are right, and he is the first to admit that sometimes he might be wrong. But the greatness of the American military service, and particularly the greatness of the Navy, is symbolized in this ceremony today, because this man, who is controversial, this man, who comes up with unorthodox ideas, did not become submerged by the bureaucracy, because once genius is submerged by bureaucracy, a nation is doomed to mediocrity.

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