Hyperthyroidism: Wikis

  

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Hyperthyroidism
Classification and external resources

Triiodothyronine (T3, pictured) and thyroxine (T4) are both forms of thyroid hormone.
ICD-10 E05.
ICD-9 242.9
DiseasesDB 6348
MedlinePlus 000356
eMedicine med/1109
MeSH D006980
.Hyperthyroidism is the term for overactive tissue within the thyroid gland, resulting in overproduction and thus an excess of circulating free thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), or both.^ If the thyroid gland produces excess amounts of the thyroid hormones, the condition called hyperthyroidism results.

^ It creates a wide range of signs resulting from the overproduction of thyroid hormone made by the thyroid gland.

^ Factious hyperthyroid caused by an excess consumption of thyroid hormone tablets.

.Thyroid hormone is important at a cellular level, affecting nearly every type of tissue in the body.^ The tumor contains thyroid tissue, which releases thyroid hormone into the body.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other tests may include: Thyroid hormone levels Thyroid antibodies Radioactive iodine uptake Thyroid scan - with iodine-123 and/or technetium-99m.

^ It is popular among many alternative and complementary health practitioners because they believe it most closely resembles our body's own natural thyroid hormone.
  • Experience Life Magazine: Little Gland, Big Trouble 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thyroid hormone functions as a stimulus to metabolism and is critical to normal function of the cell.^ Thyroid function tests are usually normal.

^ They inhibit thyroid hormone function.
  • Experience Life Magazine: Little Gland, Big Trouble 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone have a normal rise in TSH in response to TRH administration.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In excess, it both overstimulates metabolism and exacerbates the effect of the sympathetic nervous system, causing "speeding up" of various body systems and symptoms resembling an overdose of epinephrine (adrenaline).^ Thyrotoxicosis leads to an apparent increase in sympathetic nervous system symptoms.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Endocrinology 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sympathetic nervous system .
  • Cardiovascular Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary hypothyroidism may cause a variety of symptoms and may affect all body functions.

.These include fast heart beat and symptoms of palpitations, nervous system tremor and anxiety symptoms, digestive system hypermotility (diarrhea), and weight loss.^ Symptoms include rapid weight loss, anxiety, nervousness and irregular heartb...
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Weight loss is one of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism .
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Signs and symptoms of this include diarrhea, rapid heart rate, inability to tolerate heat, and weight loss.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, a lack of functioning thyroid tissue results in a symptomatic lack of thyroid hormone, termed hypothyroidism.^ Thyroid surgery can result in hypothyroidism .

^ Interpretation matrix for thyroid function results* .
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid hormone medication .
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Major clinical signs include weight loss (often accompanied by an increased appetite), anxiety, intolerance to heat, hair loss, muscle aches, weakness, fatigue, hyperactivity, irritability, apathy, depression, polyuria, polydipsia, delirium, tremor, pretibial myxedema, and sweating.^ Increased appetite with weight loss or gain.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Common symptoms include weight loss, nervousness, irritability, intolerance to hot weather, excessive sweating, shakiness, and muscle weakness.

^ There is often marked weight loss without loss of appetite.

.Additionally, patients may present with a variety of symptoms such as palpitations and arrhythmias (notably atrial fibrillation), shortness of breath (dyspnea), loss of libido, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.^ Symptoms of heart failure, such as shortness of breath or fatigue.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of heart failure, such as shortness of breath and fatigue.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thyroid storm is a rare presentation of hyperthyroidism that may occur after a stressful illness in a patient with untreated or undertreated hyperthyroidism and is characterized by delirium, severe tachycardia, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Long term untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to osteoporosis.^ Long-term follow up: Regular monitoring of thyroid function is recommended to exclude progression to overt hyperthyroidism and to determine whether biochemical abnormality is persistent, particularly in untreated individuals with undetectable thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Untreated subclinical hyperthyroidism should be followed into the long term by testing thyroid function every 6-12 months.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ A long-term study in the United Kingdom found the incidence of hyperthyroidism was 0.8 per 1000 women annually, and hypothyroidism was 3.5 per 1000 women annually.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.In the elderly, these classical symptoms may not be present.^ Toxic adenoma may present with symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis, toxic multinodular goitre may present with: Dysphagia, dyspnoea, and neck pressure.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosis in older people can be difficult, as they may present with few symptoms or symptoms which mimic other conditions [ Reid and Wheeler, 2005 ] .
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Neurological manifestations can include tremors, chorea, myopathy, and in some susceptible individuals (particularly of Asian descent) periodic paralysis.^ Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in Asian men often precipitated by a large carbohydrate meal [ Firth, 2003 ] or by vigorous exercise.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.An association between thyroid disease and myasthenia gravis has been recognized.^ Associations between Graves disease and other autoimmune diseases are well described and include associations with diabetes mellitus , Addison disease, systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and pernicious anemia.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes of Hyperthyroidism: The exact cause of hyperthyroidism is not known, but it is commonly associated with the process of destruction of cells by the body when it fails to recognize them as its own (autoimmunity), in a condition called Grave's disease.
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Definition: A disease associated with overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ).

.The thyroid disease, in this condition, is autoimmune in nature and approximately 5% of patients with myasthenia gravis also have hyperthyroidism.^ History of autoimmune thyroid disease.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The thyroid can also produce elevated levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), usually as the result of a less-common autoimmune condition known as Graves' disease.
  • Experience Life Magazine: Little Gland, Big Trouble 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people with diabetes with new thyroid disease are hypothyroid, but there is a small increased risk of developing hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Myasthenia gravis rarely improves after thyroid treatment and the relationship between the two entities is not well understood.^ When you are being treated for hyperthyroidism, your doctor will test your TSH and thyroid hormones several times a year to see how well your treatment is working.
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms usually begin to improve in six to 12 weeks, but treatment with anti-thyroid medications typically continues at least a year and often longer.
  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Associations between Graves disease and other autoimmune diseases are well described and include associations with diabetes mellitus , Addison disease, systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and pernicious anemia.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some very rare neurological manifestations that are dubiously associated with thyrotoxicosis are pseudotumor cerebri, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a Guillain-Barré-like syndrome.^ Lithium: Lithium-associated thyrotoxicosis is rare and occurs mainly after long-term use.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithium-associated thyrotoxicosis is rare and occurs mainly after long-term use.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithium-associated thyrotoxicosis is rare and usually only after long-term use of lithium [ Lazarus, 1998 ; BTA et al, 2006 ] .
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Minor ocular (eye) signs, which may be present in any type of hyperthyroidism, are eyelid retraction ("stare"), extra-ocular muscle weakness, and lid-lag.^ Such a test would be useful in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism to identify those who may be likely to develop the eye disease.

^ A. 1) The prepuce is incomplete on the ventral aspect, being represented as a dorsal hood,  2) Chordee may be present especially in the posterior types.
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^ In addition to other signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, patients initially present with a diffuse goiter.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In hyperthyroid stare (Dalrymple sign) the eyelids are retracted upward more than normal (the normal position is at the superior corneoscleral limbus, where the "white" of the eye begins at the upper border of the iris).^ You are losing weight even though you are eating normally or more than usual.
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardiovascular symptoms and signs ( Table 2 ) were more prevalent in hyperthyroid patients when first evaluated compared with matched control subjects, especially palpitation, which was the most prevalent.
  • Cardiovascular Manifestations of Hyperthyroidism Before and After Antithyroid Therapy: A Matched Case-Control Study -- Osman et al. 49 (1): 71 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women are more likely to develop hyperthyroidism than men.
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extra-ocular muscle weakness may present with double vision.^ When diffuse disease is present, and when it involves respiratory muscles or causes megaesophagus, pneumonia may complicate recovery.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of eye muscle movement, the eyes are unable to move normally and there may be blurred or double vision.

^ Proximal muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass may be so severe that the patient cannot rise from a chair without assistance.

.In lid-lag (von Graefe's sign), when the patient tracks an object downward with their eyes, the eyelid fails to follow the downward moving iris, and the same type of upper globe exposure which is seen with lid retraction occurs, temporarily.^ Lid lag : the upper lid does not follow the eyeball on looking down.
  • mybook2 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients may have a wide variety of eye findings, including the following: Exophthalmos (proptosis), occasionally unilateral (However, severe ophthalmopathy is quite rare in children.
  • Hyperthyroidism: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease can be followed by the appearance or worsening of thyroid eye disease in more patients than after treatment with antithyroid drugs.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.These signs disappear with treatment of the hyperthyroidism.^ Unless the hyperthyroidism is caused by thyroiditis, these drugs are used in conjunction with other treatments.

^ If these drugs do not relieve the condition, the physician may recommend alternative hyperthyroidism treatments like radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy or surgery.
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For patients taking these hyperthyroidism treatment medications, regular follow-up examinations are essential, for monitoring and modifying dosage according to hormonal levels.
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neither of these ocular signs should be confused with exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeball) which occurs specifically and uniquely in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease (Note that not all exopthalmos is caused by Graves' disease, but when present with hyperthyroidism is diagnostic of Graves disease).^ Graves' disease causes most hyperthyroidism.
  • Health: Hyperthyroidism; Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Your thyroid ... 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mainegeneral.org [Source type: General]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism .
  • Health: Hyperthyroidism; Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Your thyroid ... 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mainegeneral.org [Source type: General]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graves' disease is one of most common causes of hyperthyroidism.

.This forward protrusion of the eyes is due to immune mediated inflammation in the retro-orbital (eye socket) fat.^ Protrusion of one or both eyeballs; can be congenital and familial, or due to pathology, such as a retro-orbital tumor (usually unilateral) or thyroid disease (usually bilateral).

.Exophthalmos, when present, may exacerbate hyperthyroid lid-lag and stare.^ The remaining 50% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism may have slightly bulging eyes because of spasm of the muscle of the lids, giving them a staring appearance.

^ The former includes the stare, lid lag, and lid retraction and accounts for the "frightened" facies.

^ The symptoms of hyperthyroidism are present and, in addition, the eyeballs may protrude ( exophthalmos ) causing irritation and tearing.

[1]
.Thyrotoxic crisis (or thyroid storm) is a rare but severe complication of hyperthyroidism, which may occur when a thyrotoxic patient becomes very sick or physically stressed.^ Thyroid storm (thyrotoxic crisis).
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also several physical signs which you may notice if you have hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It may also be given for thyroid storm.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its symptoms can include: an increase in body temperature to over 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit), tachycardia, arrhythmia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma and death.^ Thyroid storm is a rare presentation of hyperthyroidism that may occur after a stressful illness in a patient with untreated or undertreated hyperthyroidism and is characterized by delirium, severe tachycardia, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Her main symptoms were ravenous appetite without weight gain and bulky stools with occasional diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signs and symptoms of this include diarrhea, rapid heart rate, inability to tolerate heat, and weight loss.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Causes

.Functional thyroid tissue producing an excess of thyroid hormone occurs in a number of clinical conditions.^ Hyperthyroidism is the result of an overactive thyroid, producing excess thyroid hormone.

^ This happens when not enough thyroid hormones are produced.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the overactive thyroid gland produces excess amounts of the hormone thyroxine.
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

The major causes in humans are:
High blood levels of thyroid hormones (most accurately termed hyperthyroxinemia) can occur for a number of other reasons:
  • Inflammation of the thyroid is called thyroiditis. .There are a number of different kinds of thyroiditis including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (immune mediated), and subacute thyroiditis (DeQuervain's).^ In Hashimoto thyroiditis : Locally the gland is very similar to S.N.G. but the course of the disease is characteristic; early there is thyrotoxicosis which is followed by hypothyroidism.
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    ^ There are now many published clinical studies demonstrating the ability of a range of herbs to support the immune system and natural thyroid gland function.
    • Thyrosoothe (EU/UK). Herbal Hyperthyroidism Treatment and Natural Thyroid Medications 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.enaturalremedies.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Propylthiouracil (PTU) has been associated with a high number of immune mediated reactions when used in cats but it would be worth trying this medication is no other medication is available.
    • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These may be initially associated with secretion of excess thyroid hormone, but usually progress to gland dysfunction and thus, to hormone deficiency and hypothyroidism.
  • Oral consumption of excess thyroid hormone tablets is possible, as is the rare event of consumption of ground beef contaminated with thyroid tissue, and thus thyroid hormone (termed "hamburger hyperthyroidism").
  • Amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug is structurally similar to thyroxine and may cause either under- or overactivity of the thyroid.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) occurs in about 7% of women during the year after they give birth.^ Defects of the thyroid gland since birth .
    • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hyperthyroidism exists when thyrotoxicosis is caused by thyroid overactivity.
    • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Unless the hyperthyroidism is caused by thyroiditis, these drugs are used in conjunction with other treatments.

    .PPT typically has several phases, the first of which is hyperthyroidism.^ Cats affected with hyperthyroidism usually develop a menagerie of clinical signs, which are usually quite subtle at first, but then become more severe as the disease progresses.
    • Hyperthyroidism In Cats - facts about feline hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.maybeckvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cats afflicted with hyperthyroidism usually develop a variety of signs, which may be subtle at first but then become more severe as the disease progresses.
    • Brochure on Hyperthyroidism in Cats: Cornell Feline Health Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vet.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this condition, the gradual resolution of hyperthyroidism is consistent with a transient hyperthyroid phase associated with PPT, and would therefore obviate the need for thyroid scanning [368].

    This form of hyperthyroidism usually corrects itself within weeks or months without the need for treatment.

Diagnosis

.A diagnosis may be suspected on history and physical examination, and is confirmed with blood tests.^ History and physical examination .
  • Genitourinary Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical examination may reveal thyroid enlargement, tremor, hyperactive reflexes, or an increased heart rate .
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ If an animal is suspected of having hyperthyroidism but has a normal blood test it is suggested that the animal be re-tested after the current disease is under proper medical management.

.Measuring the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood is usually all that is required.^ TSH is a laboratory test that measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood.
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood tests are also done to measure levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The production of the thyroid hormones is controlled by the hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

.A low TSH indicates that the pituitary gland is being inhibited by increased levels of T4 and/or T3 in the blood, and is therefore a reliable marker of hyperthyroidism.^ When the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in your blood are normal, your pituitary gland stops releasing TSH. When the level of thyroxine or triiodothyronine drops, the pituitary gland produces more TSH in order to boost levels.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ For this reason, the blood level of T4 is primarily used to diagnose hyperthyroidism.

^ Good evidence indicates that people with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation, low bone mineral density, and hip fracture.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Rarely, a low TSH indicates primary failure of the pituitary, or temporary inhibition of the pituitary due to another illness (euthyroid sick syndrome) and so checking the T4 and T3 is still clinically useful.^ The condition specifically refers to a combination of high levels of thyroxin (T4) and triidothyronine (T3) hormones produced by the thyroid gland, and low levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the pituitary gland.
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rare forms of hyperthyroidism TSH-secreting pituitary tumours constitute less than 1% of all pituitary tumours.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Thyroid hormone levels drop when there is another illness present at the same time, when corticosteroids are used and when phenobarbital is being used for seizure control.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measuring specific antibodies, such as anti-TSH-receptor antibodies in Graves' disease, or anti-thyroid-peroxidase in Hashimoto's thyroiditis—a common cause of HYPOthyroidism—may also contribute to the diagnosis.^ Ginsberg J. Diagnosis and management of Graves’ disease.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Graves' disease causes most hyperthyroidism.
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism .
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]
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.Thyroid scintigraphy is a useful test to distinguish between causes of hyperthyroidism, and this entity from thyroiditis.^ What tests may help distinguish the different causes of hyperthyroidism?
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ At first, thyroiditis can cause hyperthyroidism.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you know what tests were used to test her for hyperthyroidism?
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to testing the TSH levels, many doctors test for T3, Free T3, T4 and/or Free T4 for more detailed results.^ If your TSH level is low, your doctor will want to do more tests.
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^ When the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in your blood are normal, your pituitary gland stops releasing TSH. When the level of thyroxine or triiodothyronine drops, the pituitary gland produces more TSH in order to boost levels.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of progression to frank hypothyroidism increases with increasing TSH levels (odds ratio for women, 8), significant titres of circulating autoantibody (odds ratio, 8) and even more with both (odds ratio, 38).
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is confirmed by blood tests that show a decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and elevated T4 and T3 levels.^ For this reason, the blood level of T4 is primarily used to diagnose hyperthyroidism.

^ The production of the thyroid hormones is controlled by the hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

^ Serum TSH is decreased, serum T3, T4 and thyroid resin uptake are elevated.

.TSH is a hormone made by the pituitary gland in the brain that tells the thyroid gland how much hormone to make.^ TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ If your thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone , you will have symptoms of hyperthyroidism .
  • WellSpan Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.wellspan.org [Source type: General]

^ TSH is made in the pituitary gland in your brain and controls the production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.When there is too much thyroid hormone, the TSH will be low.^ It occurs when there is too much thyroid hormone in the blood ("hyper" means "too much").

^ TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ UNCOMMON CAUSES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM Uncommon causes of hyperthyroidism include: Taking too much replacement thyroid hormone (thyrotoxicosis factitia).
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A radioactive iodine scan (a test that uses injected radioactive iodine to examine the activity of the thyroid gland) will show an enlarged thyroid gland that is over-functioning.^ Thyroid function tests are usually normal.

^ Thyroid scan and radioactive iodine uptake .
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first part of the thyroid function test.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

Treatment

.The large and generally accepted modalities for treatment of hyperthyroidism in humans involve initial temporary use of suppressive thyrostatics medication, and possibly later use of permanent surgical or radioisotope therapy.^ Have received radioiodine therapy or surgical treatment for hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Initial treatment for hyperthyroidism usually is antithyroid medication or radioactive iodine therapy.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clarification / Additional information The initial thyrotoxic phase must be distinguished from other causes of primary hyperthyroidism, as standard treatment with thionamides or radioiodine is ineffective and contraindicated.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.All approaches may cause under active thyroid function (hypothyroidism) which is easily managed with levothyroxine supplementation.^ Primary hypothyroidism may cause a variety of symptoms and may affect all body functions.

^ Poorly managed dosage of levothyroxine hormone while treating hypothyroidism Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism: Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may vary in individuals.
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autonomously functioning thyroid nodule A single hyperfunctioning nodule, usually an adenoma, is an uncommon cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

Temporary medical therapy

Thyrostatics

.Thyrostatics are drugs that inhibit the production of thyroid hormones, such as carbimazole (used in UK) and methimazole (used in US), and propylthiouracil.^ Other Treatments Occasionally drugs such as propanolol (Inderal ® ), atenolol (Tenormin ® ), metoprolol (Lopressor ® ), nalodol (Corgard ® ) and Inderal-LA ® (known as beta adrenergic blocking agents) are perscribed to block the action of thyroid hormone on the heart.

^ Antithyroid Drugs The antithyroid drugs such as methimizole (Tapazole ® ) and propylthiouracil (PTU) may be prescribed to suppress the production and release of thyroid hormones or to block thyroid hormone activity throughout the body by inhibiting the use of iodine by the thyroid.

^ Monitor the response to treatment for hyperthyroidism with carbimazole or propylthiouracil or radioiodine by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and free thyroxine (FT4) regularly.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Thyrostatics are believed to work by inhibiting the iodination of thyroglobulin by thyroperoxidase, and thus, the formation of tetra-iodothyronine (T4).^ A. 1) Inhibition of protease enzyme which releases thyroid hormones from thyroglobulin, 2) Inhibition of organic iodine formation, 3) Prevention of the stimulant effect of TSH on adenyl cyclase enzyme.
  • mybook2 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Propylthiouracil also works outside the thyroid gland, preventing conversion of (mostly inactive) T4 to the active form T3.^ Fortunately, surgical removal of the affected thyroid gland or radioactive iodine therapy work well to control this problem, too.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It works by targeting tissue in your thyroid gland, and reducing the amount of thyroid hormone it is producing.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Definition: An aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland.

.Because thyroid tissue usually contains a substantial reserve of thyroid hormone, thyrostatics can take weeks to become effective, and the dose often needs to be carefully titrated over a period of months.^ The tumor contains thyroid tissue, which releases thyroid hormone into the body.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the nodules can contain abnormal thyroid tissue which can affect the normal production of thyroxine or triiodothyronine, causing hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ UNCOMMON CAUSES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM Uncommon causes of hyperthyroidism include: Taking too much replacement thyroid hormone (thyrotoxicosis factitia).
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A very high dose is often needed early in treatment, but if too high a dose is used persistently, patients can develop symptoms of hypothyroidism.^ The patients often speaks very rapidly.

^ The patient was convinced that hypothyroidism was the cause of her symptoms.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Medication readily available Inexpensive in short-term No anesthesia or surgery No hospitalization or special facilities required Treatment is reversible, if needed Development of hypothyroidism very rare Preferred in cats with kidney failure or other serious disease Used prior to radiation or surgery to stabilize cat .

Beta-blockers

.Many of the common symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as palpitations, trembling, and anxiety are mediated by increases in beta adrenergic receptors on cell surfaces.^ ADDITIONAL MEDICATIONS Additional medications that may be used to treat the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include: Beta-blocker medications, such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), or metoprolol (Lopressor), to control rapid heartbeat, tremors, sweating, and nervousness.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beta blockers offer prompt relief of the adrenergic symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as tremor, palpitations, heat intolerance, and nervousness.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes your doctor will prescribe additional medicines to treat symptoms caused by hyperthyroidism, such as rapid heartbeat or dry eyes.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beta blockers are a class of drug which offset this effect, reducing rapid pulse associated with the sensation of palpitations, and decreasing tremor and anxiety.^ Beta-blockers for the management of adrenergic symptoms associated with thyrotoxicosis in a pregnant woman should be prescribed under specialist advice.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcium channel blockers such as diltiazem (Cardizem) can be used to reduce heart rate in patients who cannot tolerate beta blockers.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta blockers offer prompt relief of the adrenergic symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as tremor, palpitations, heat intolerance, and nervousness.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Propranolol has two roles in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, determined by the different isomers of propranolol.^ In 1-2% of cases, especially those in which the hyperthyroidism is caused by cancer, two treatments may be necessary.

^ Because Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by a genetically determined abnormality of the immune system, the problem is complex and there is at present no specific treatment for the underlying abnormality.

^ Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism: The consensus guideline highlighted the differences in expert opinions and published guidance on the management of subclinical thyroid diseases [ BTA et al, 2006 ] .
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.L-propranolol causes beta-blockade thus treating the symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism such as tremor, palpitations, anxiety, and heat intolerance.^ ADDITIONAL MEDICATIONS Additional medications that may be used to treat the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include: Beta-blocker medications, such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), or metoprolol (Lopressor), to control rapid heartbeat, tremors, sweating, and nervousness.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The botanical species name of the plant, cardica, was earned because its ability to reduce abnormal rhythms and heart palpitations, which are symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is considered to be a specific in cases of tachycardia (heart palpitations), especially when brought about by anxiety and other such causes.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.D-propranolol inhibits Thyroxine deiodinase thereby blocking the conversion of T4 to T3 providing some though minimal therapeutic effect.^ Consisting of spherical follicles, this gland is responsible for secreting the two thyroid hormones -- thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

^ The thyroid gland secretes the hormones thyroxine ( T4 ), triiodothyronine ( T3 ), and calcitonin , which control body metabolism and regulate calcium balance.

^ Hypothyroidism Some diagnostic evaluations are that T3 and T4 levels are low, and TSH levels and serum cholesterol levels are elevated.

.Other Beta Blockers are only used to treat the symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism.^ In general, all other beta-blockers can be used, but they are not licensed for this use (e.g.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Evidence on association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with symptoms .
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms There are several symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism.

[2] .Propranolol in the US, and Metoprolol in the UK, are most frequently used to augment treatment for hyperthyroid patients.^ ADDITIONAL MEDICATIONS Additional medications that may be used to treat the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include: Beta-blocker medications, such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), or metoprolol (Lopressor), to control rapid heartbeat, tremors, sweating, and nervousness.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a patient is being treated with anti-thyroid medication for hyperthyroidism and the T3 (or more frequently, the T4 or TSH ) is normal, then it is likely that the medication is controlling the condition.

^ Such a test would be useful in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism to identify those who may be likely to develop the eye disease.

[3]

Permanent treatments

.Surgery as an option predates the use of the less invasive radioisotope therapy, but is still required in cases where the thyroid gland is enlarged and causing compression to the neck structures, or the underlying cause of the hyperthyroidism may be cancerous in origin.^ The second option for the treatment of hyperthyroidism is the surgical removal of the thyroid gland(s).
  • Feline Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.gcvs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thyroid surgery which at one time was useful for treating hyperthyroidism is also an option but rarely used today.
  • SparkMD-Frequently Asked Questions about OveractiveThyroid-Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.sparkmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperthyroidism may be caused by: .
  • Saint Francis Breast Health Services - 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.saintfrancis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hyperthyroidism - Content Viewer 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

Surgery

.Surgery (to remove the whole thyroid or a part of it) is not extensively used because most common forms of hyperthyroidism are quite effectively treated by the radioactive iodine method, and because there is a risk of also removing the parathyroid glands, and of cutting the recurrent laryngeal nerve, making swallowing difficult.^ This makes it the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Thyroid gland removal .
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Radioiodine treatment is a form of radiotherapy that is used to treat most types of hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.However, some Graves' disease patients who cannot tolerate medicines for one reason or another, patients who are allergic to iodine, or patients who refuse radioiodine opt for surgical intervention.^ One of the most common is Grave’s disease.
  • Hyperthyroidism - Medical Look 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one series [2] , five patients with Graves disease and thrombocytopenia were described.
  • Hyperthyroidism — Ann Intern Med 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioiodine is used in patients who are not surgical candidates.
  • Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Thyroid Gland (Feb.1999) 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Also, some surgeons believe that radioiodine treatment is unsafe in patients with unusually large gland, or those whose eyes have begun to bulge from their sockets, claiming that the massive dose of iodine needed will only exacerbate the patient's symptoms.^ These patients may also have bulging eyes.
  • Hyperthyroidism - Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention, Parental concerns 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thousands of patients have received radioiodine treatment.
  • Thyroid Center: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For them, a second radioiodine treatment can be given if needed.
  • Thyroid.org: Hyperthyroidism Brochure 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.thyroid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Radioiodine

.In iodine-131 (Radioiodine) radioisotope therapy, radioactive iodine-131 is given orally (either by pill or liquid) on a one-time basis to destroy the function of a hyperactive gland.^ What is radioactive iodine therapy?
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radioactive iodine therapy .
  • Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - August 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the end result of this problem is an overstimulation of thyroid function, treatment of the symptoms is quite easy - one can either surgically remove part of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), destroy the thyroid cells with radioactive iodine, or block thyroid hormone production with antithyroid drugs.

.Patients who do not respond to the first dose are sometimes given an additional radioactive iodine treatment in a larger dose.^ Radioactive iodine is the most common treatment.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q. What type of radioactive iodine is given in the treatment of toxic goitre ?
  • mybook2 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q. What is the dose of radioactive iodine in treatment of toxic goitre ?
  • mybook2 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The iodine given for ablative treatment is different from the iodine used in a scan.^ The iodine given for ablative treatment is different from the iodine used in a scan.
  • Hyperthyroidism Support Group - DailyStrength 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]
  • Hyperthyroidism Slideshow: Keep Your Thyroid in Check on RxList.com 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Radioiodine (treatment) therapy, radioactive iodine is given orally (either by pill or liquid) on a one-time basis to destroy the function of a hyperactive gland.
  • Hyperthyroidism Support Group - DailyStrength 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ This is the most commonly used definitive treatment in the US. Radioactive iodine is taken orally and absorbed by the thyroid gland where it damages most of the thyroid cells.
  • Hyperthyroidism (Graves' Disease) | ThirdAge Articles 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]
  • Hyperthyroidism | Lifescript.com 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

.Radioactive iodine is given after a routine iodine scan, and uptake of the iodine is determined to confirm hyperthyroidism.^ This is done by measuring the radioactive iodine uptake at 4 and 24 hours after the radioactive iodine is given.
  • Emergency Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Usually, a radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid scan are performed for this purpose.
  • Emergency Medicine 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.emedmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioactive iodine is given after a routine iodine scan, and uptake of the iodine is determined to confirm hyperthyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism Support Group - DailyStrength 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]
  • Hyperthyroidism Slideshow: Keep Your Thyroid in Check on RxList.com 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The radioactive iodine is picked up by the active cells in the thyroid and destroys them.^ Radioactive iodine may be given to eventually and permanently destroy the thyroid.

^ Thyroid scan and radioactive iodine uptake .
  • Thyroid Disorders Treatment, Natural Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism Remedies, Goiter Natural Cures 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the radioactivity builds up it destroys some of the thyroid tissue.
  • Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)- information, symptoms and treatments 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Since iodine is only picked up by thyroid cells (and picked up more readily by over-active thyroid cells), the destruction is local, and there are no widespread side effects with this therapy.^ Since iodine is only picked up by thyroid cells, the destruction is local, and there are no widespread side effects with this therapy.
  • Hyperthyroidism Slideshow: Keep Your Thyroid in Check on RxList.com 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there any side effects to antithyroid drugs?
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Graves' Disease & Hyperthyroidism / Thyroid Disease Information Source - Articles/FAQs 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.thyroid-info.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no other therapy for this disease.
  • Road Map - thyroid cancer, thyroid problems, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, thyroid doctor, thyroidologist, Hypothyroid/Hashimoto's, Goiter 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.thyroid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radioactive iodine ablation has been safely used for over 50 years, and the only major reasons for not using it are pregnancy and breast-feeding.^ Radioactive iodine has been used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism for over 50 years.
  • MyThyroid.com: Hyperthyroidism 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.mythyroid.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioactive iodine cannot be used by women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radioactive iodine has been used to treat patients for hyperthyroidism for over 60 years.
  • Thyroid.org: Hyperthyroidism Brochure 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.thyroid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common outcome following radioiodine is a swing to the easily treatable hypothyroidism, and this occurs in 78% of those treated for Graves' thyrotoxicosis and in 40% of those with toxic multinodular goiter or solitary toxic adenoma.^ Toxic multinodular goitre is the second most common cause of hyperthyroidism after Graves' disease, and occurs when there are two or more nodules in your thyroid gland.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioactive iodine is often recommended if you have Graves' disease and are older than 50, or if you have thyroid nodules (toxic multinodular goiter) that are releasing too much thyroid hormone.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are various forms of thyrotoxicosis and the most common is Graves' Disease.

[4] .Use of higher doses of radioiodine reduces the incidence of treatment failure, with the higher response to treatment consisting mostly of higher rates of hypothyroidism.^ It may happen even in the absence of treatment or when treatment other than radioiodine (such as medication or surgery) is used.
  • Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.thyroid.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard doses reduce heart rate, sweating and tremor, but do not influence hypermetabolism or hormone levels.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ More severe hyperthyroidism may require initial treatment with higher doses of PTU .
  • MyThyroid.com: Hyperthyroidism Medications 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mythyroid.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .There is increased sensitivity to radioiodine therapy in thyroids appearing on ultrasound scans as more uniform (hypoechogenic), due to densely packed large cells, with 81% later becoming hypothyroid, compared to just 37% in those with more normal scan appearances (normoechogenic).^ It appears to be becoming even more common.

^ If a patient is being treated with anti-thyroid medication for hyperthyroidism and the T3 (or more frequently, the T4 or TSH ) is normal, then it is likely that the medication is controlling the condition.

^ Although all-cause and circulatory mortality does appear to be increased in people treated for hyperthyroidism with radioiodine the excess mortality appears to be lost if the person actually becomes hypothyroid rather than euthyroid after the treatment and is then treated with levothyroxine.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

[6]

Thyroid storm

.Thyroid storm presents with extreme symptoms of hyperthyroidism.^ The symptoms of a thyroid storm include: .
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Admit if the woman has signs and symptoms of severe hyperthyroidism (thyroid storm) or intractable vomiting.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The most serious problem associated with hyperthyroidism is a life-threatening condition called thyroid storm .
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is treated aggressively with resuscitation measure along with a combination of the above modalities including: an intravenous beta blockers such as propranolol, followed by a thionamide such as methimazole, a iodinated radiocontrast agents or an iodine solution if the radiocontrast agent is not available, and an intravenous steroid such as hydrocortisone.^ ADDITIONAL MEDICATIONS Additional medications that may be used to treat the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include: Beta-blocker medications, such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), or metoprolol (Lopressor), to control rapid heartbeat, tremors, sweating, and nervousness.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beta-blockers such as propranolol are used to treat some of the symptoms, including rapid heart rate, sweating, and anxiety until the hyperthyroidism can be controlled.
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Small doses of iodine (Lugol's or potassium iodine solution) will treat iodine deficiency.

[7]

Veterinary medicine

Cats

.In veterinary medicine, hyperthyroidism is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting older domesticated cats.^ This makes it the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a fairly common disease of older cats.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catdr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperthyroidism is very common with middle-aged and older cats.
  • Cat Hyperthyroidism Treatments - Resthyro for Feline Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.petwellbeing.com [Source type: General]

.Some veterinarians estimate that it occurs in up to 2% of cats over the age of 10.[8] The disease has become significantly more common since the first reports of feline hyperthyroidism in the 1970s.^ It appears to be becoming even more common.

^ Feline hyperthyroidism is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder in the cat.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a more common problem in dogs than in cats but I do think it sometimes occurs in cats.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cats, one cause of hyperthyroidism tends to be benign tumors, but the reason those cats develop such tumors continues to be researched.^ What percentage of cats with hyperthyroidism have a malignant tumor on the thyroid causing the condition?
  • Feline Hyperthyroidism Quiz 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overactivity of the thyroid gland may be caused by a functioning growthor tumor, such as a benign nodule or cancer, a self-limited inflammationof the gland from a probable viral infection, or Graves' disease (the commonestform).
  • Herbal Medicine: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Herbal Medicine: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another cause of hyperthyroidism, are tumors called "thyroid nodules" that can develop in a person's thyroid gland, that begin to absorb iodine and produce thyroid hormones, as if they have become a part of the thyroid gland.
  • The General Causes of Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.yousaytoo.com [Source type: General]

.However, recent research published in Environmental Science & Technology, a publication of the American Chemical Society, suggests that many cases of feline hyperthyroidism are associated with exposure to environmental contaminants called polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are present in flame retardants in many household products, particularly furniture and some electronic products.^ In 97% of feline hyperthyroid cases, the cause is a benign tumor that over-secretes thyroid hormones, resulting in a multi-systemic disease.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Many cases of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are believed to result from an abnormal immune response.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study from which the report was based, was conducted jointly by researchers at the EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory and Indiana University.^ This study was supported in part by the American Cancer Society grants RSG-03-027-01-CCE. Tissue samples were collected in part using a support by grant from the National Institutes of Health (PHS M01 RR08084-the Children's Hospital, University of Cincinnati General Clinical Research Center Tissue Procurement Facility).
  • Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis and Thyroid Cancer - Science News - redOrbit 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We conducted a computer-derived search for evidence-based studies relating to subclinical hyperthyroidism and found few prospective, randomized, controlled studies.
  • Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: Controversies in Management - February 1, 2002 - American Family Physician 15 September 2009 7:49 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers intend to conduct further studies of carnitine as a muscle protectant in future research.
  • Carnitine and Thyroid Disease: Why Hyperthyroid Patients Need Carnitine - 2 - Life Extension 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the study, which involved 23 pet cats with feline hyperthyroidism, PDBE blood levels were three times as high as those in younger, non-hyperthyroid cats.^ Time to do some research on feline hyperthyroidism!
  • Feline Hyperthyroidism Quiz 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperthyroidism results in high levels of T4 and T3 circulating in the blood.
  • Hyperthyroidism - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Medbroadcast 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.medbroadcast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 80% of cats with hyperthyroidism have high blood pressure.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catdr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ideally, PBDE and related endocrine disruptors that seriously damage health would not be present in the blood of any animals or humans.^ If you have serious health issues, though, or if you want more guidance, it would be worth putting yourself in the hands of a well-qualified naturopathic doctor.
  • Experience Life Magazine: Demystifying Detox 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.experiencelifemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperthyroidism is an endocrine disorder that affects both humans and animals.
  • Hyperthyroidism Remedies for Normal Thyroid Levels in Cats & Dogs 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most recently, mutations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor have been discovered which cause a constitutive activation of the thyroid gland cells.^ This prolonged stimulation of the heart by the thyroid hormone will cause the heart muscle to thicken.
  • Faq 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.felinehtc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Articles - Elliott Bay Animal Hospital - Seattle, Washington 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.elliottbayah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test .
  • CIGNA - Thyroid Nodules 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Many other factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease such as goitrogens (isoflavones such as genistein, daidzein and quercertin) and iodine and selenium content in the diet.^ Other factors that may predispose one to Graves' disease include: .

^ Treatment should be depends on other medical conditions your cat may have (heart disease, kidney failure), availability of a nuclear medicine facility & cost.
  • Feline Hyperthyroidism - Causes, Sympotoms & Treatment of Hyperthyroidism in Cats - Cat-World 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The likelihood of relapse--which occurs in more than half of patients after drug therapy is stopped--depends on factors such as severity of the disease (patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism may be less likely than patients with overt disease to achieve good control 2 ), size of the goiter, and exposure to dietary and other sources of iodine.

.The most common presenting symptoms are: rapid weight loss, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), vomiting, diarrhea, increased consumption of fluids (polydipsia) and food, and increased urine production (polyuria).^ Weight loss is one of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism .
  • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Signs and symptoms of this include diarrhea, rapid heart rate, inability to tolerate heat, and weight loss.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her main symptoms were ravenous appetite without weight gain and bulky stools with occasional diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other symptoms include hyperactivity, possible aggression, heart murmurs, a gallop rhythm, an unkempt appearance, and large, thick nails.^ The botanical species name of the plant, cardica, was earned because its ability to reduce abnormal rhythms and heart palpitations, which are symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it is not successfully controlled, hyperthyroidism can cause several other health problems, such as heart dysrhythmia (irregular heart rhythms), and osteoporosis (weak and brittle bones).
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The heart rate and rhythm, electrolytes, and other parameters will begin to normalize over the next 12-24 hours.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 70% of afflicted cats also have enlarged thyroid glands (goiter).^ Eventually, the thyroid gland enlarges, which can result in a goiter.
  • Thyroid Disease 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goiter, which is an enlarged, painless, soft thyroid.
  • Health: Hyperthyroidism; Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Your thyroid ... 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mainegeneral.org [Source type: General]

^ The thyroid gland is lobular and asymmetrically enlarged.
  • What is your diagnosis (6) « Efenem’s Weblog 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC efenem.wordpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.The same three treatments used with humans are also options in treating feline hyperthyroidism (surgery, radioiodine treatment, and anti-thyroid drugs).^ Antithyroid drugs are not used to treat thyroiditis.

^ Graves’ hyperthyroidism: treatment with antithyroid drugs, surgery, or radioiodine — a prospective, randomized study.
  • eMJA: 5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mja.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioiodine therapy is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC maxshouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drugs must be given to cats for the remainder of their lives, but may be the least expensive option, especially for very old cats.^ Is it very expensive to do this with a cat?
  • Hyperthryoid Treatments for Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the drug must be given for the remainder of the cat's life.

^ Once stable, continued treatment can be given at home, but in most cats the damage to the parathyroid glands is only temporary and treatment may only be needed for a few days or weeks.
  • Hyperthyroidism in cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radioiodine treatment and surgery often cure hyperthyroidism.^ Surgery is rare for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
  • UT Medical Group, Inc. - Health Library 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hyperthyroidism – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Francis Breast Health Services - 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.saintfrancis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • News Archive - Valley Health 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.valleyhealthlink.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Conditions In Brief - The Doctors Clinic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.thedoctorsclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical outcomes after estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ We found no RCTs comparing radioiodine with placebo in persons with hyperthyroid-ism, although there is consensus that treatment is beneficial.
  • Hyperthyroidism - October 1, 2007 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some veterinarians prefer radioiodine treatment over surgery because it does not carry the risks associated with anesthesia.^ BR>
Cons of Surgery

These cats are often at risk with anesthesia.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

^ Cons of Surgery These cats are often at risk with anesthesia.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

^ I-131 therapy does not require anesthesia or surgery.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radioiodine treatment, however, is not available in all areas for cats.^ However, nearly all cats will be cured by a second treatment.
  • Cat's Meow Spokane Feline Hypothyroid Treatment (I-131) Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catsmeowspokane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment should be depends on other medical conditions your cat may have (heart disease, kidney failure), availability of a nuclear medicine facility & cost.
  • Feline Hyperthyroidism - Causes, Sympotoms & Treatment of Hyperthyroidism in Cats - Cat-World 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is really no argument that 131I therapy is the treatment of choice for cats with hyperthyroidism, and if all had the facilities, we wouldn’t use anything else 90% of the time!
  • Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Cats, Berwick Veterinary Hospital 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.berwickvet.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason is that this treatment requires nuclear radiological expertise and facilities, since the animal's urine, sweat, saliva and stool are radioactive for several days after the treatment, requiring special inpatient handling and facilities usually for a total of 3 weeks (first week in total isolation and the next two weeks in close confinement).^ If the damage has reached a point where these two surgeries are not options, then total ear canal ablation is the treatment of choice.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not unusual for a dog’s Florinef dose to rise gradually over the first 2 years or so of treatment, but it usually stabilizes after that.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If both thyroid glands are removed, the parathyroid glands may be damaged, requiring several days of hospitalization and/or monitoring to try to avoid a possibly fatal outcome.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The guidelines for radiation levels vary from state to state; some states such as Massachusetts allow hospitalization for as little as two days before the animal is sent home with care instructions.^ The Federal and State laws require us to "hold" a cat until radioactivity levels emitted are too low to be harmful (typically a matter of two to three days).
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the day of surgery, the animal is given a sedative shortly before its procedure to relax it.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In older animals (older than five years old), blood will be drawn before the day of surgery so that the patient’s body function can be assessed.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surgery tends to be done only when just one of the thyroid glands is affected (unilateral disease); however following surgery, the remaining gland may become over-active.^ However, excessive amounts may stimulate the thyroid gland.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only organ in the body that is affected by I-131 is the thyroid gland.
  • Cat's Meow Spokane Feline Hypothyroid Treatment (I-131) Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catsmeowspokane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperthyroidism is a disease of the thyroid glands.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetrica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As in people, one of the most common complications of the surgery is hypothyroidism.^ Hypothyroidism is also a potential and common complication.
  • Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis) | Doctor | Patient UK 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, surgery is not necessary for most people.
  • Thyroid Disease 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common complication of surgical thyroidectomy is hypocalcemia as a result of inadvertent damage to the parathyroid glands or their blood supply resulting in hypoparathyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC maxshouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dogs

.Hyperthyroidism is very rare in dogs (occurring in less than 1 or 2% of dogs), who instead tend to have the opposite problem: hypothyroidism.^ Less common than this is the transition of the hypothyroid to the hyperthyroid state.
  • Hyperthyroidism following hypothyroidism. Bhandarkar SD, Retnam VJ J Postgrad Med 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This can occur in less than 5% of cats.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

^ It is also a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

.When hyperthyroidism does appear in dogs, it tends to be due to over-supplementation of the thyroid hormone during treatment for hypothyroidism.^ After treatment, many people develop hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone).
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment guidelines: Drugs for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid hormone medication .
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms usually disappear when the dose is adjusted.^ These symptoms usually disappear within a few days.
  • Thyroid Disease 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The usual maintenance dose which relieves symptoms and brings the serum TSH level to the normal range is 100-150µg daily, which can be administered as a single dose, usually in the morning.
  • Thyroid disease 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.pharmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The usual practice is to start off giving it three times a day, usually for a week, and then cut back to twice a day as the symptoms of hyperthyroidism disappear and the T4 level drops.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Occasionally dogs will have functional carcinoma in the thyroid; more often (about 90% of the time) this is a very aggressive tumor that is invasive and easily metastasizes or spreads to other tissues (esp.^ It is much, much more difficult to maintain a paralyzed large breed dog (such as the typical 90 pound Doberman) than it is a dachshund.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who have close relatives with Graves' disease or other thyroid problems are more likely to develop hyperthyroidism.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feedback from expert reviewers shows variations about when to monitor thyroid functions in these women.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

the lungs), making prognosis very poor. .While surgery is possible, it is often very difficult due to the invasiveness of the mass in surrounding tissue including the arteries, the esophagus, and windpipe.^ A. Radioactive iodine emits beta rays which destroys the thyroid cells without affecting much the surrounding tissue due to their low penetrability.
  • mybook2 20 September 2009 13:12 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgery is the fastest way to treat your hyperthyroidism, but it is not used very often and is more risky and expensive than other treatments.
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the non-invasive nature of ultrasonography, it(often in conjuction with needle aspiration/cytology) has replaced the need for exploratory surgeries in many patients.
  • Southpaws Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC southpaws.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may only be possible to reduce the size of the mass, thus relieving symptoms and also allowing time for other treatments to work.^ If you suspect you have thyroid disease, that is either causing or aggravating your anxiety symptoms and/or if you see some of the other symptoms that indicate possible thyroid dysfunction , talk to your doctor about getting tested because if thyroid imbalance /disorder is the cause, treatment will go a long way toward relieving symptoms.
  • Anxiety and Thyroid Hormone Imbalance 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.yousaytoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, following radio-iodine treatment you should avoid prolonged contact with others for a specified time.
  • Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid) | Health | Patient UK 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he did have to go through radiation treatments because of the tumor it was something he was able to tolerate where other medications would not work.
  • Cat Hyperthyroidism Treatments - Resthyro for Feline Hyperthyroidism 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.petwellbeing.com [Source type: General]

.If a dog does have a benign functional carcinoma (appears in 10% of the cases), treatment and prognosis is no different from that of the cat.^ There is really no argument that 131I therapy is the treatment of choice for cats with hyperthyroidism, and if all had the facilities, we wouldn’t use anything else 90% of the time!
  • Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Cats, Berwick Veterinary Hospital 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.berwickvet.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prognosis depends on the cat's condition at the time of diagnosis, its response to treatment and the presence of concurrent diseases such as kidney failure, diabetes, liver disease and cancer.
  • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

^ Another systematic review found no significant difference in relapse between thyroxine and no treatment after antithyroid treatment.
  • Hyperthyroidism - October 1, 2007 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.The only real difference is that dogs tend to appear to be asymptotic, with the exception of having an enlarged thyroid gland appearing as a lump on the neck.^ Your thyroid is a gland in the front of your neck .
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thyroid gland is found in the neck.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Your specialist may recommend surgery if your thyroid gland is severely swollen (a large goitre) and is causing problems in your neck.
  • Clinical topic - Hyperthyroidism...View whole topic 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry (2006). "Course-Based Physical Examination - Endocrinology -- Endocrinology Objectives (Thyroid Exam)". Undergraduate Medical Education. University of Alberta. http://www.med.ualberta.ca/education/ugme/clinicaled12/clinskills_endocrinology.cfm?yr=1. Retrieved 28 January 2007. 
  2. ^ Eber O, Buchinger W, Lindner W, et al. The effect of D-versus L-propranolol in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol 1990;32:363-72.
  3. ^ Geffner DL, Hershman JM (July 1992). "β-Adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism". The American Journal of Medicine 93 (1): 61–8. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(92)90681-Z. PMID 1352658. 
  4. ^ Berglund J, Christensen SB, Dymling JF, Hallengren B (May 1991). "The incidence of recurrence and hypothyroidism following treatment with antithyroid drugs, surgery or radioiodine in all patients with thyrotoxicosis in Malmö during the period 1970-1974". Journal of Internal Medicine 229 (5): 435–42. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.1991.tb00371.x. PMID 1710255. 
  5. ^ Esfahani AF, Kakhki VR, Fallahi B, et al. (2005). "Comparative evaluation of two fixed doses of 185 and 370 MBq 131I, for the treatment of Graves' disease resistant to antithyroid drugs". Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine 8 (3): 158–61. PMID 16390021. 
  6. ^ Markovic V, Eterovic D (September 2007). "Thyroid echogenicity predicts outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 (9): 3547–52. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0879. PMID 17609305. 
  7. ^ Tintinalli, Judith (2004). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, Sixth edition. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1312. ISBN 0071388753. 
  8. ^ Shomon, Mary (2004). "Feline Hyperthyroidism: Frequently Asked Questions, Information About Overactive Thyroid Conditions in Cats". http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/cat-hyper.htm. Retrieved 24 June 2009. 
  9. ^ Little, Susan (2006). "Feline Hyperthyroidism" (PDF). Winn Feline Foundation. http://www.winnfelinehealth.org/Pages/Feline_Hyperthyroidism_Web.pdf. Retrieved 24 June 2009. 

Further reading

External links

For Humans
For Felines
  • Gina Spadafori (20 January 1997). ."Hyperthyroidism: A Common Ailment in Older Cats".^ BR>
    Assessment of the cat's blood pressure is recommended since hypertension is a common complication of hyperthyroidism.
    • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.catnews.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Hyperthyroidism in older cats .
    • Hyperthyroidism in Cats 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Extremely common in older cats, CRF is a serious condition evidenced by gradual, irreversible...
    • Hyperthyroidism | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    The Pet Connection. Veterinary Information Network. .http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=A&S=0&C=0&A=138.^ Also available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
    • Health Information 9 January 2010 21:51 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 28 January 2007
    .
     


Simple English

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition. It is caused by a thyroid gland that is too active.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hyperthyroidism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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