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apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( [ ], ( ), { }, ⟨ ⟩ )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipses ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) () () ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
copyright symbol ( © )
currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ฿, ¢, $, , ƒ, , , , £, , ¥, , , , , , ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator (º, ª)
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
registered trademark ( ® )
section sign ( § )
service mark ( )
sound recording copyright symbol ( )
tilde ( ~ )
trademark ( )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/broken bar, pipe ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
falsum ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark/percontation point ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

.The hyphen ( ) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.^ It's OK if a hyphenated word is word-wrapped as if it were a single word.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hyphen is used to hyphenate compound words and between non-continuing numbers, e.g., phone numbers.
  • Hyphen, N-dash, M-dash « Pain in the English 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC painintheenglish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, neither an em dash nor an en dash should be confused with the hyphen (-), which is used to join compound words together.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is often confused with dashes ( , , ), which are longer and have different uses, and with the minus sign ( − ) which is also longer.^ As to whether use of the doubled hyphen is preferable to eliminating the distinction between em-dash, en-dash, and hyphen, we can agree to differ - it depends on the relative valuations of the stylistic goals.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For general compatibility in interpreting formulas, U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS, U+2012 MINUS SIGN, and U+2212 FIGURE DASH should each be taken as indicating a minus sign, as in "x = a ‒ b."
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm quite happy using my - key to represent a hyphen, em-dash, en-dash, arithmetic minus symbol, indication of a lengthened vowel in Romaji, or anything else.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The use of hyphens is called hyphenation.^ For example, Microsoft Office software treats the soft hyphen as a visible character with no special semantics; it uses an Ascii control character as a discreationary hyphen, calling it “soft hyphen”.
  • Soft hyphen (SHY) - a hard problem? 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.cs.tut.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In environments that are restricted to ISO 646 the Hyphen-minus is used as a replacement.^ Such a definition seems to be in definite contradiction with ISO 8859-1 as regards to the definition and use of the soft hyphen characters.
  • Soft hyphen (SHY) - a hard problem? 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.cs.tut.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm quite happy using my - key to represent a hyphen, em-dash, en-dash, arithmetic minus symbol, indication of a lengthened vowel in Romaji, or anything else.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can't decide if it's a hyphen, a minus, or an en dash--in fact, the Unicode specification describes it as "hyphen-minus" and defines very specific replacements for each of its personalities.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Usage in English

.Hyphens are mostly used to break single words into parts, or to join ordinarily separate words into single words.^ It's OK if a hyphenated word is word-wrapped as if it were a single word.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, neither an em dash nor an en dash should be confused with the hyphen (-), which is used to join compound words together.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When using a manual typewriter, I have sometimes created a dash by typing two hyphens, with slight adjustment of the spacing so that they join.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Spaces should not be placed between a hyphen and either of the words it connects except when using a suspended or "hanging" hyphen (e.g.^ As to whether use of the doubled hyphen is preferable to eliminating the distinction between em-dash, en-dash, and hyphen, we can agree to differ - it depends on the relative valuations of the stylistic goals.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So it's a real product of the hyphenate identity, perfectly split between the two [cultural spaces]."
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ An em-dash is a double hyphen-character regardless of whitespace (although I prefer to have spaces on either side), e.g.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

nineteenth- and twentieth-century writers).
.A definitive collection of hyphenation rules does not exist; rather, different manuals of style prescribe different usage guidelines.^ Use the traditional rules from the Chicago Manual of Style above.
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rules of style that apply to dashes and hyphens have evolved to support ease of reading in complex constructions; editors often accept deviations from them that will support, rather than hinder, ease of reading.^ It reads better with the hyphen, but there is an "of" test you can apply to decide whether you need a hyphen.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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.The use of the hyphen in English compound nouns and verbs has, in general, been steadily declining.^ The compound adjective is just one of the many grammatical areas that you can use hyphens.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, neither an em dash nor an en dash should be confused with the hyphen (-), which is used to join compound words together.
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is used to hyphenate compounds of compounds, where at least one pair is already hyphenated (as in "Netscape 6.1 is an Open-Source–based browser."
  • Rules For Using Hyphens And Dashes 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Compounds that might once have been hyphenated are increasingly left with spaces or are combined into one word.^ SOURCE 1: The Chicago Manual of Style (online) — Compound words formed with prefixes are normally "closed" (one word).
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a title or a subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms” (Gibaldi 103).
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dictionaries do not always agree on whether a word should be written as one word (closed), two words (open) or with a hyphen (hyphenated).
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2007, the sixth edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary removed the hyphens from 16,000 entries, such as fig-leaf (now fig leaf), pot-belly (now pot belly) and pigeon-hole (now pigeonhole).[1] The advent of the Internet and the increasing prevalence of computer technology have given rise to a subset of common nouns that may in past have been hyphenated (e.g. "toolbar", "hyperlink", "pastebin").
Despite decreased usage, hyphenation remains the norm in certain compound modifier constructions and, amongst some authors, with certain prefixes (see below). Hyphenation is also routinely used to avoid unsightly spacing in justified texts (for example, in newspaper columns).

Separating

Justification and line-wrapping

.To allow more efficient usage of paper, more regular appearance of right-side margins without requiring spacing adjustments, and to eliminate the need to erase hand-written long words begun near the end of a line that do not fit, words may be divided at the nearest breakpoint between syllables and a hyphen inserted to indicate that the letters form a word fragment, not a word.^ So it's a real product of the hyphenate identity, perfectly split between the two [cultural spaces]."
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

For example:
Without hyphenation With hyphenation
We,       therefore,      the
representatives of the United
States of America...
  
We, therefore, the represen-
tatives of the United States
of America...
The details of doing this properly are complex and language-dependent and can interact with other orthographic and typesetting practices. Hyphenation algorithms, when employed in concert with dictionaries, are sufficient for all but the most formal texts. See also Justification.

Prefixes and suffixes

Certain prefixes (co-, pre-, mid-, de-, non-, anti-, etc.) may or may not be hyphenated. Many long-established words, such as preamble and degrade, do not require a hyphen since the prefix is viewed as fully fused. In other cases, usage varies depending on individual or regional preference. .British English tends towards hyphenation (pre-school) whereas American English tends towards omission of the hyphen (preschool).^ Truss's clever use of the British English should not detract from an American student reading and appreciating the book.
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.A hyphen is mandatory when a prefix is applied to a proper (capitalized) adjective (un-American, de-Stalinisation).^ Modifying prefixes with proper nouns or numbers : Separate prefixes from proper nouns with a hyphen.
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Capitalize only the first element unless any subsequent element is a proper noun or adjective.
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT – if a proper noun or proper adjective .
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3]
.In British English, hyphens may be employed where readers would otherwise be tempted into a mispronunciation (e.g.^ He should forget about diamonds, Amstrad, Van Goghs and British Telecom---and buy into Hyphen.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

co-worker is so punctuated partly to prevent the reader's eye being caught automatically by the word cow). The AP Stylebook provides further information on the use of "co-" as a prefix.
.Hyphens may be used, in association with prefixes, suffixes or otherwise, when repeated vowels or consonants are pronounced separately rather than being silent or merged in a diphthong.^ On self-definition: Rather than sitting on me or beating me up to reinforce herself as the older sibling, my sister would use me like a little pet.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Phase 2: After a period of use, the term may enter conventional use, and then a hyphen is added as a temporary way of the linking the two words.
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two words are exceptions to rule in which a hyphen is used after a prefix that ends in the same vowel that begins the root word .
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example: shell-like, anti-intellectual. .In the vowel-vowel case, some English authorities use a diaeresis (as in coöperation, rather than co-operation or cooperation), but this style is now rare.^ Some of the butter pieces were bigger than “pea-sized”, rather large chunks, but I erred on the side of bigger butter chunks than smaller.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ On self-definition: Rather than sitting on me or beating me up to reinforce herself as the older sibling, my sister would use me like a little pet.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

.Some prefixed words are hyphenated to distinguish them from other words that would otherwise be homographs, such as recreation (fun or sport) and re‑creation (the act of creating again).^ A clause become a group of words that usually modify some other part of the sentence, such as nouns, verbs, or pronouns.
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^ I would love to hear your tips on rolling it out as well, as mine always seems to come out thick in some spots and thin in others.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Everyone, each, and other such words also take singular antecedents.
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Syllabification and spelling

.Hyphens are occasionally used to denote syllabification, as in syl-la-bi-fi-ca-tion.^ Hyphen Use Denotes the Careful Writer .
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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.Most American dictionaries use an interpunct, sometimes called a "middle dot" or "hyphenation point", for this purpose, as in syl·la·bi·fi·ca·tion.^ Adaptation to American life and intergenerational clashes are the most enduring 042 HYPHEN SPRING.09 fIlM Assimilation as the central issue is irrelevant to me.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Use a dictionary such as Longman LDOCE , Merriam Webster , American Heritage or Dictionary.com (includes multiple resources) to check a word in question.
  • Punctuation – Hyphenating Words:capitalizing hyphenated words in titles 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.grammar-quizzes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Similarly, hyphens may be used to indicate a word is being or should be spelled, such as "W-O-R-D spells word".

Joining

Compound modifiers

.Compound modifiers are groups of two or more words that jointly modify the meaning of another word.^ A clause become a group of words that usually modify some other part of the sentence, such as nouns, verbs, or pronouns.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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.When a compound modifier other than an adverbadjective combination appears before a term, the compound modifier is often hyphenated to prevent misunderstanding, such as in American-football player or real-world example.^ I really do not want to believe that this is a deliberate campaign to make his American readers pay for his lost baggage, but you will forgive me for harboring such suspicions.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Asian American children older than 12 were less likely than other children their age to be praised by a parent three times per day.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ But I also longed to read about the real-world experiences of moms, particularly those who could enlighten me on what it's like to be, well, an asian american mama.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

.Without the hyphen, there is potential confusion about whether American applies to football or player, or whether the author might perhaps be referring to a "world example" that is "real". Compound modifiers can extend to three or more words, as in ice-cream-flavored candy, and can be adverbial as well as adjectival (spine-tinglingly frightening).^ But I also longed to read about the real-world experiences of moms, particularly those who could enlighten me on what it's like to be, well, an asian american mama.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Think about : You have to decide in the previous example whether the apostrophe should go after a plural or a singular word.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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^ But perhaps its real value lies in C-dub's sometimes militant, always earnest diatribes about the Asian American experience.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

However, if the compound is a familiar one, it is usually unhyphenated. For example, high school students, not high-school students.[4] Although the sentence is technically ambiguous, it would normally be formulated differently if another meaning were intended. .Noun–noun compound modifiers are also written without a hyphen when no confusion is likely: grade point average and department store manager.^ You see at a glance that well-written is the adjective modifying the noun, resume.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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^ No hyphens although Germans and some Europeans like them.

^ The main advantage of not having hyphens in a domain name is that the no-hyphens version is likely to get more traffic than the same words with hyphens.

[5]
When a compound adjective follows the term it applies to, a hyphen is typically not used. For example, "that gentleman is well respected", not "that gentleman is well-respected".[6] Some authorities differ, and recommend the hyphen when the compound adjective follows the verb to be or any of its inflections.[7]
Hyphens should normally not be used in adverb–adjective modifiers such as wholly owned subsidiary and quickly moving vehicle, because the adverbs clearly modify the adjectives; "quickly" cannot modify "vehicle". However, if the adverb can also function as an adjective, then a hyphen may be used for clarity. .For example, the phrase more-important reasons ("reasons that are more important") is distinguished from more important reasons ("additional important reasons"), where more is an adjective.^ The reason is that, for example, more people looking for dog food are likely to type in www.dogfood.com than www.dog-food.com .

.(In contrast, "a more-important reason" is not correct, since it is semantically indistinct from the (correct) "a more important reason".) A mass-noun example is the following: more-beautiful scenery as distinct from more beautiful scenery.^ Let's take the following sentence as an example of an overuse of prepositions: This report reflects the important to offer benefits to employees as a way to encourage them to work harder for you.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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Other examples are well-received speech and hard-won fight.
.Hyphens are used to connect numbers and words in forming adjectival phrases (particularly with weights and measures), whether using numerals or words for the numbers, as in 28-year-old woman and twenty-eight-year-old woman or 320-foot wingspan.^ You have to decide whether to use the singular or the plural form of the verb.
  • GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION EXERCISES

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^ To measure a good paper, I would count the number of complicated words.
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^ My stone is about 15″ round, 13 years old and almost black from constant use over the years and I’m afraid to do anything that may crackor damage it… .
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

The same usually holds for abbreviated time units. .Hyphens are also used in spelled-out fractions as adjectives (but not as nouns), such as two-thirds majority and one-eighth portion.^ Let the dough chill in the fridge for one hour, but preferably at least two, before rolling it out.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Semicolons are usually used to place a kind of period between two major thoughts within the sentence.
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However, with symbols for SI units—as opposed to the names of these units—both the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology recommend use without a hyphen: a 25 kg sphere. .When the units are spelled out, this recommendation does not apply: a 25-kilogram sphere, a roll of 35-millimeter film.^ JJ November 25, 2008 75 Yes, please re: dough rolling out tutorial.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Aislinn November 25, 2008 121 yes please a tutorial on rolling out the dough.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Elise November 25, 2008 88 Yes yes yes, please do post a tutorial on rolling doughs out – that is often the part that causes me the most angst.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

[8][9]
An en dash ( – ) sometimes replaces the hyphen in hyphenated compounds if either of its constituent parts is already hyphenated or contains a space (e.g. high-priority–high-pressure tasks (tasks which are both high-priority and high-pressure). .En dashes are more proper than hyphens in ranges (pp. 312–14), relationships (blood–brain barrier) and to convey the sense of "to", as in BostonWashington race.^ Q&A: More than just karaoke with Mr. Hyphen Aristotle Garcia, who is on this issue's cover with three family members.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Little more than 20 years ago a copy of Hyphen could be bought for the pre-decimal equivalent of 5p.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYPHEN SPRING.09 Quality Time In 2004, Asian American children younger than 12 were more likely to eat breakfast with a parent every day than children their age of any other race or ethnicity.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

Other compounds

.Connecting hyphens are used in a large number of miscellaneous compounds, other than modifiers, such as in lily-of-the-valley, cock-a-hoop, clever-clever, tittle-tattle and orang-utan.^ A clause become a group of words that usually modify some other part of the sentence, such as nouns, verbs, or pronouns.
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^ It’s very different than the way they used to advocate, or any other method I’ve seen.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.Usage is often dictated by convention rather than fixed rules, and hyphenation styles may vary between authors; for example, orang-utan is also written as orangutan or orang utan, and lily-of-the-valley may or may not be hyphenated.^ Those who saw heaving breasts rather than spiralling shuttlecocks reacted in various ways.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A comma may occur between the two independent clauses, but often the punctuation is omitted.
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.Two-word names of numbers less than one hundred are hyphenated.^ The main advantage of not having hyphens in a domain name is that the no-hyphens version is likely to get more traffic than the same words with hyphens.

For instance, the number 23 should be written twenty-three, and 123 should be written one hundred and twenty-three. (The word and is omitted in American English.)
.Some married couples compose a new surname (sometimes referred to as a double-barrelled name) for their new family by combining their two surnames with a hyphen.^ More than 70 percent of Indian, Hmong and Pakistani households in the United States were married-couple families.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Households Asian Americans are more likely than the total population to be in married-couple families.
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^ In 2004, married-couple family households were the predominant household type among Asian Americans -- except Japanese Americans.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

Jane Doe and John Smith might become Jane and John Smith-Doe, or Doe-Smith, for instance. .In some countries, however, only the woman hyphenates her birth surname, appending her husband's surname.^ However, Asian countries suffer some of the world's worst immigration backlogs.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

Suspended hyphens

.A suspended hyphen (also referred to as a "hanging hyphen" or "dangling hyphen") may be used when a single base word is used with separate, consecutive, hyphenated words which are connected by "and", "or", or "to". For example, nineteenth-century and twentieth-century may be written as nineteenth- and twentieth-century. This usage is now common in English and specifically recommended in some style guides.^ "Many" is an example of a weasel word, which, before this class, I often used.
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^ Let's start off with some exercises in hyphenation and the use of the hyphen.
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^ Now, let's test your ability to pull together what Booher calls suspended hyphens.
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[5] .Although less common, suspended hyphens are also used in English when the base word comes first, as in "investor-owned and -operated". Usages such as "applied and sociolinguistics" (instead of "applied linguistics and sociolinguistics"), common in German, are frowned on in English; the Indiana University Style Guide uses this example and says "Do not 'take a shortcut' when the first expression is ordinarily open."^ "Many" is an example of a weasel word, which, before this class, I often used.
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^ In her first few months of business, Calzada says her customer base has quadrupled.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Let's take some exercises: Accounting programs such as Quicken, Mind Your Own Business, and others represent the computer programs.
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(i.e. ordinarily two separate words).[5]

Other uses

.A hyphen may be used to connect groups of numbers, such as in dates (see below), telephone numbers or sports scores.^ Whenever you have to describe and list something and you see that tip-off, such as, consider using a comma.
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.The hyphen is sometimes used to hide letters in words, as in G-d, although an en-dash can be used as well for stylistic purposes (“G–d”).^ I know that can sometimes be the hardest part as they like to crack and crumble when cold and a few four letter words escape your lips.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

Varied meanings

Some strong examples of semantic changes caused by the placement of hyphens:
  • disease-causing poor nutrition, meaning poor nutrition that causes disease
  • disease causing poor nutrition, meaning a disease that causes poor nutrition
  • a man-eating shark is a shark that eats humans
  • a man eating shark is a man who is eating shark meat
  • a blue green sea is a contradiction, unless "green" is used contextually to mean something other than a color.
  • a blue-green sea is a sea whose colour is somewhere between blue and green
  • three-hundred-year-old trees are an indeterminate number of trees that are 300 years old.
  • three hundred-year-old trees are three trees that are 100 years old.
  • three hundred year-old trees are 300 trees that are 1 year old.
  • three-hundred-year old trees, generally an awkward construction, could be used to refer to an indeterminate number of trees which started to be considered "old" 300 years ago.

Origin and history of the hyphen

.The first use of the hyphen—and its origination—is often credited to Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany circa 1455 with the publication of his 42-line Bible.^ Steadying himself against the kitchen counter, Rahi pretends CreDIt tK: tK HYPHEN SPRING.09 059 fIctIoN he's used to famous guests.
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Examination of an original copy on vellum (Hubay index #35) in the U. S. Library of Congress shows that Gutenberg's movable type was set justified in a uniform style, 42 equal lines per page.
The Gutenberg printing press required words made up of individual letters of type to be held in place by a surrounding non-printing rigid frame. Gutenberg solved the problem of making each line the same length to fit the frame by inserting a hyphen as the last element at the right side margin. This interrupted the letters in the last word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over to the start of the line below. .His hyphen appears throughout the Bible as a short, double line inclined to the right at a 60-degree angle.^ We didn't want to assemble it too much so we just duct taped it to the car and shot it 08 HyPHeN sprIng.09 at the right angle so it was hidden.
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In medieval times and the early days of printing, the predecessor of the comma was a slash. As the hyphen ought not to be confused with this, a double-slash was used, this resembling an equals sign tilted like a slash. .Writing forms changed with time, and included the full development of the comma, so the hyphen could become one horizontal stroke.^ After 16 of them (17 including the one you're reading), we thought it would be a good time to reminisce.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

.Those dictionaries based on the second edition of the Merriam-Webster dictionary used one small, slightly tilted slash for a hyphen which they added at the end of a line where they broke the word, but used a double-slash, much like the very old symbol, to indicate a hyphen that was actually a part of the phrase but just happened to fall at the end of the line.^ Most of the funny parts are just the misuse of words in the same sound.
  • Issue 17: Family 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ In a 2008 ad campaign, for example, Campbell Soup called out progresso for MSG use -- despite the fact that Campbell uses MSG in its own product lines.
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^ Notice I even had to hyphenate that phrase, "one-thought modifier."
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.This double-slash would be used in hyphenated phrases in the middle of the text as well, so that there would be no confusion.^ Well, he didn't send me another LE ZOMBIE and I didn't send him another HYPHEN, so there.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wishes his parents would repaint the house, which is still sky blue from the Jehovah's Witnesses who used to live there.
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Hyphens in computing

In the ASCII character encoding, the hyphen was encoded as character 45. Technically, this character is called the hyphen-minus, as it is also used as the minus sign and for dashes. In Unicode, this same character is encoded as U+002D ( - ) so that Unicode remains compatible with ASCII. However, Unicode also encodes the hyphen and minus separately, as U+2010 ( ‐ ) and U+2212 ( − ), respectively, along with a series of dashes. Use of the hyphen-minus character is discouraged where possible, in favour of the specific hyphen character. Nevertheless, since the Unicode hyphen is awkward to enter on normal keyboards, the hyphen-minus character remains extremely common. .Hyphens are often used instead of dashes or minus signs in situations where the proper characters are unavailable (such as ASCII-only text) or difficult to enter, or when the writer is unaware of the distinction.^ Writers often think they only need to say "who it is" to figure out the distinction.
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^ Hyphen Use Denotes the Careful Writer .
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.Some writers use two hyphens (--) to represent a dash in ASCII text.^ Let's start off with some exercises in hyphenation and the use of the hyphen.
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^ Hyphen Use Denotes the Careful Writer .
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When flowing text, it is sometimes preferable to break a word in half so that it continues on another line rather than moving the entire word to the next line. .Since it is difficult for a computer program to automatically make good decisions on when to hyphenate a word, the concept of a soft hyphen was introduced to allow manual specification of a place where a hyphenated break was allowed without forcing a line break in an inconvenient place if the text was later reflowed.^ Without fail, it’s the rolling that breaks down my confidence and makes me feel like a helpless amateur every time.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.In contrast, a hyphen that is always displayed and printed is called a hard hyphen (though some use this term to refer to a non-breaking hyphen; see below).^ I’ve been using Martha Stewart dough recipe for awhile, and though I like it a lot, I never really understood some of the nuances.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Let's start off with some exercises in hyphenation and the use of the hyphen.
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.Soft hyphens are most useful when the width of the column where the text is displayed is very narrow, because longer words in a sentence tend to force a line break in the text, leaving a lot of white space at the end of the line.^ Kate, at the end of the line, will display either H or K depending on whether I am Him Ancient or Modern, on the day."
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, she was not sure we needed a comma before the word, too, at the end of the sentence.
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^ My brother also loves to make pie at Christmas but hates to roll out dough because he has big hands and most rolling pins are too narrow for him use comfortably.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

By inserting soft hyphens into the text at the positions where hyphenation may occur, the text can flow better into columns leaving less remaining white space at the end of the lines. It is a tedious task to insert the soft hyphens by hand, therefore there are some tools available that do this automatically. .Examples of these tools are Hyphenator, a javascript library that must be included into the page, and hypho-o, an online form that accepts any text and automatically inserts the soft hyphen into the right positions.^ Willis leaped up, his right hand formed into a fist as he punched the ceiling.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

In the future, the upcoming Cascading Style Sheets [CSS] version 3 will provide a solution in the form of language-specific hyphenation dictionaries.
.When flowing text, a system may consider the soft hyphen to be a point at which a word may be broken, and display a hyphen at the end of the broken line; if the line is not broken at that point, the hyphen is not displayed.^ Truss makes her point with each chapter about the clarity of the language: "It is a system of printers' marks that has aided the clarity of the written word for the past half-millennium .
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^ Kate, at the end of the line, will display either H or K depending on whether I am Him Ancient or Modern, on the day."
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

In most parts of ISO-8859 the soft hyphen is at position 0xAD, and since the first 256 positions in Unicode are taken from ISO-8859-1, it has a Unicode codepoint of U+00AD. HTML 3.2 introduced a character entity for the soft hyphen, '­'.
.Most text systems consider a hyphen to be a word boundary and a valid point at which to break a line when flowing text.^ Truss makes her point with each chapter about the clarity of the language: "It is a system of printers' marks that has aided the clarity of the written word for the past half-millennium .
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.However, this is not always desirable behavior, especially when it could lead to ambiguity (such as in the examples given before, where recreation and re‑creation would be indistinguishable), or in languages other than English (e.g.^ "To" or other prepositions don't have to be inserted in the English language to make the point.
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^ I would love to hear your tips on rolling it out as well, as mine always seems to come out thick in some spots and thin in others.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

a line break at the hyphen in Irish an t‑athair or Romanian s‑a would be undesirable). For this purpose, Unicode also encodes a non-breaking hyphen as U+2011 ( ‑ , coded for by ‑). This character looks identical to the regular hyphen, but is not treated as a word boundary.
The ASCII hyphen-minus character is also often used when specifying parameters to programs in a command line interface. The character is usually followed by one or more letters that indicate specific actions. Typically it is called a dash in this context. .This is used in many different operating systems, particularly Unix and Unix-like systems.^ A word like many or most is particularly troublesome.
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.DOS and Microsoft Windows also sometimes make use of the hyphen, although the use of a forward slash (/) is more prevalent there.^ Are you feeling more comfortable with the use of hyphens?
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^ Sometimes I add just a pinch of baking powder, It’s probably all in my head, but this seams to make the flakes even more pronounced.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.A parameter by itself that is only a single hyphen without any letters usually means that a program is supposed to handle data coming from the standard input or send data to the standard output.^ This means that in another 20 years a single copy of Hyphen will be worth at least £50.000.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

.Two hyphen-minus characters ( -- ) are used on some programs to specify "long options" where more descriptive action names are used.^ Are you feeling more comfortable with the use of hyphens?
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^ Let's start off with some exercises in hyphenation and the use of the hyphen.
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^ "I had some short stories published under the pseudonym of Cal Cookson, but mainly I was part of a syndicate which used the name Milo Pratt."
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

This is a common feature of GNU software.

International Standard dates

.Continental Europeans use the hyphen to delineate parts within a written date.^ "To my knowledge not a single issue of HYPHEN appeared within months of that date," Curly observed.
  • eFanzines.com - Hyphen 37 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC efanzines.com [Source type: Original source]

.Germans and Slavs also used Roman numerals for the month; 14‑VII‑1789, for example, is one way of writing the first Bastille Day, though this usage is rapidly falling out of favour.^ By way of its first release and a move to New York this fall, iLL-Literacy hopes to win over many new believers.
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^ You need to select certain errors that were made and give examples of before (when you first made the error) and after (how you improved the writing and the mechanics).
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^ Though death seemed imminent, days turned into months, and months into years.
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Plaques on the wall of the Moscow Kremlin are written this way. Usage of hyphens, as opposed to the slashes used in the English language, is specified for international standards.
.International standard ISO 8601, which was accepted as European Standard EN 28601 and incorporated into various typographic style guides (e.g., DIN 5008 in Germany), brought about a new standard using the hyphen.^ Sketch New Hyphen - various using different materials.

Now all official European governmental documents use this. .These norms prescribe writing dates using hyphens: 1789-07-14 is the new way of writing the first Bastille Day.^ By way of its first release and a move to New York this fall, iLL-Literacy hopes to win over many new believers.
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^ Sketch New Hyphen - various using different materials.

^ I was moved by Lisa Macabasco's "Embracing the Stranger" in the way that she tackled the multiple consciousness of identity wRite to HypHen!
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.This method has gained influence within North America, as most common computer filesystems make the use of slashes difficult or impossible.^ I also always believed that lard was the way to go for a flaky crust and that butter was the most difficult fat to use for flakiness.
  • pie crust 102: all butter, really flaky pie dough | smitten kitchen 11 January 2010 1:20 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

Windows uses both \ and / as the directory separator, and / is also used to introduce and separate switches to shell commands. Unix-like systems use / as a directory separator and, while \ is legal in filenames, it is awkward to use as the shell uses it as an escape character. Unix also uses a space followed by a hyphen to introduce switches. The non-year form is also identical apart from the separator used to the standard American representation.
The ISO date format sorts correctly using a default collation, which can be useful in many computing situations including for filenames, so many computer systems and IT technicians have switched to this method. The government of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for example, has switched to this method.[citation needed]

See also

References

External links

.

Simple English

A hyphen looks like this: -. Hyphens have many uses in writing:

  • Some words can have a hyphen added to change the meaning. For example, re-form means "start again" but reform means "change". A re-formed group is different from a reformed group.
  • A hyphen is used to spell out some numbers (thirty-two, forty-nine, eighty-six).
  • When a name for a material such as "stainless steel" is used with a word for a thing made of that material, a hyphen is used, as in "stainless-steel knife".
  • Some words have letters at the beginning, or prefixes, these can sometimes use hyphens: un-American, anti-pollution, non-proliferation
  • When spelling out a word: H-Y-P-H-E-N
  • In some cases, when putting two words together would be hard to understand. For example, if something is like a shell, writing it as "shelllike" is hard to read with so many uses of the letter 'l'. It is better to use "shell-like."
  • When writing words that someone has spoken when that person has difficulty speaking, as in: "I reached for the w-w-w-watering can." This is called a stammer.
  • When adding words that already have a hyphen. For example: two to year-old as in: "He was a two- or three-year-old dog."
  • If a word for a person (a name or proper noun) is used with another name, a hyphen is used such as "the Merriam-Webster dictionary" or "the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact."
  • Some people take a name from the family names of both parents, or from the last name of their father and husband. For example: "John Rees-Williams". This is not always the case, for example: "Hillary Rodham Clinton".
  • A hyphen is also used when a word is too long too fit in one row of writing. This is often done in books, magazines and newspapers to save space and paper. A long word is broken into two parts, of nearly the same length, with a hyphen at the end of the first part. The normal way is to make the first part of the word as much like a complete word as possible. For example:
Good Not so good
What was done was not good, not help-

ful, nor was it very useful.

What was done was not good, not hel-

pful, nor was it very useful.

Other pages



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hyphen, which are similar to those in the above article.








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