Hypoxia (medical): Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hypoxia
ICD-9 799.02
MeSH D000860
.Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or a region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.^ Asphyxia is a condition of severe lack of oxygen supplied to the body.

^ Hypoxia —A condition characterized by insufficient oxygen in the cells of the body .
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asphyxia is a condition where oxygen in the body dips to dangerous level which may cause death.
  • Shopian victims died of 'asphyxia' from drowning: CBI - Express India 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: News]

.Variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during strenuous physical exercise.^ This reduces the concentration of oxygen below the normal level of around 19% which can lead to breathing difficulties, unconciousness or even death.
  • Glossary Definition - Asphyxiant 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC msds.chem.ox.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduced sensitivity to CO2 It is also shown that while oxygen concentration drops during a dive, CO2 levels increase correspondingly.

^ Kety SS, Schmidt CF. The effects of altered arterial tensions of carbon dioxide and oxygen on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption of normal young men.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A mismatch between oxygen supply and its demand at the cellular level may result in a hypoxic condition.^ Asphyxia is a condition where oxygen in the body dips to dangerous level which may cause death.
  • Shopian victims died of 'asphyxia' from drowning: CBI - Express India 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: News]

^ Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen(hypoxia ) to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm.
  • Perinatal asphyxia Pulmonology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may be caused by lack of oxygen either by hypoxia , ischemia or both during labor and delivery.
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a clinical diagnosis of impaired neurological function that is made after delivery 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.trialfirm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia.^ Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen(hypoxia ) to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm.
  • Perinatal asphyxia Pulmonology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Also known by terms such as asphyxiophilia, autoerotic or sexual asphyxia, this potentially lethal sexual practice refers to sexual arousal that is produced while reducing the oxygen supply to the brain.

^ It is often caused by a loss of oxygen (anoxia or hypoxia ) before, during or immediately following birth.
  • Phoenix Cerebral Palsy Lawyer | Arizona Birth Asphyxia Attorney | Tempe Litchfield Park AZ 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.azmedicalmalpracticelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia. .In the latter, the oxygen concentration within the arterial blood is abnormally low.^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when concentrations of these gases get too high, they dilute oxygen levels to a dangerously low amount, and this will lead to asphyxiation.
  • What is an Asphyxiant? 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms include poor coloring, decreased responsiveness, low blood pressure, impaired respiratory effort, abnormal blood gases or inadequate oxygenation.
  • Arizona Perinatal Asphyxia Lawyer | Phoenix Birth Trauma Attorney | Scottsdale Flagstaff AZ 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.azmedicalmalpracticelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]. .It is possible to experience hypoxia and have a low oxygen content (e.g., due to anemia) but maintain high oxygen partial pressure (pO2).^ Symptoms include poor coloring, decreased responsiveness, low blood pressure, impaired respiratory effort, abnormal blood gases or inadequate oxygenation.
  • Arizona Perinatal Asphyxia Lawyer | Phoenix Birth Trauma Attorney | Scottsdale Flagstaff AZ 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.azmedicalmalpracticelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positional Asphyxia Definition Asphyxia is defined as a condition in which the body fails to get the required amount of oxygen due to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the surrounding air.
  • Positional Asphyxia in Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

.Incorrect use of these terms can lead to confusion, especially as hypoxemia is among the causes of hypoxia (in hypoxemic hypoxia).^ Increasing hypoxemia leads to fetal compromise due to tissue hypoxia, anaerobic metabolism and a metabolic acidosis.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A primary cause of death was assigned according to guidelines prepared by the Reproductive Care Program of Nova Scotia, and these guidelines were used consistently throughout the province.
  • Relation between Stillbirth and Specific Chlorination By-Products inPublic Water Supplies Environmental Health Perspectives V.108, N.9, Sep00 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In term infants hypoxia usually causes convulsions, mental retardation and cerebral palsy.
  • Neonatal resuscitation - Dave Woods 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.gfmer.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE).^ However, when concentrations of these gases get too high, they dilute oxygen levels to a dangerously low amount, and this will lead to asphyxiation.
  • What is an Asphyxiant? 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deaths often occur when the loss of consciousness caused by partial asphyxia leads to loss of control over the means of strangulation, resulting in continued asphyxia and death.
  • Erotic asphyxia - Psychology Wiki 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Erotic asphyxiation - LGBT Info 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC lgbt.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Autoerotic asphyxiation - X-Files Wiki - David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC x-files.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ Cerebral edema (swelling) often occurs after an asphyxial episode, and seizures can exacerbate the edema and prolong the period during which brain cells are vulnerable.

[2] .Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g.^ However, when concentrations of these gases get too high, they dilute oxygen levels to a dangerously low amount, and this will lead to asphyxiation.
  • What is an Asphyxiant? 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms include poor coloring, decreased responsiveness, low blood pressure, impaired respiratory effort, abnormal blood gases or inadequate oxygenation.
  • Arizona Perinatal Asphyxia Lawyer | Phoenix Birth Trauma Attorney | Scottsdale Flagstaff AZ 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.azmedicalmalpracticelaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lowe said his rebreather, called "semi-closed," is the type that recycles the gases he is breathing and expels some as bubbles on only on one of every six of his exhalations.
  • CDNN :: Asphyxia led to scuba diver's death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.cdnn.info [Source type: News]

while diving underwater especially when using closed-circuit .rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air.^ This failure may be due to inability of air to reach the lungs, as in hanging, suffocation, or chest injuries; it may be due to paralysis of the nerve centers that control lungs, either because of an inadequate supply of oxygen or because of failure in the respiratory system ( see RESPIRATION, ).

^ Positional Asphyxia Definition Asphyxia is defined as a condition in which the body fails to get the required amount of oxygen due to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the surrounding air.
  • Positional Asphyxia in Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a rebreathing system isn't working properly, the diver can breathe too much carbon dioxide and too little oxygen, lose consciousness and drown, Phillips said.
  • CDNN :: Asphyxia led to scuba diver's death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.cdnn.info [Source type: News]

.A mild and non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude trainings to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level.^ Based on contemporary scientific research a UNIFYING Respiratory Technique and Frolov's Respiration Training Device have been developed for practical use by the public.
  • Frolov's Respiration Training Device: Health and Long Life! 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.intellectbreathing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considering this, the use of the Frolov's Respiration Training Device (especially during the disease incipience) can both significantly decrease exacerbation of the disease (bronchospasm, breathlessness and cough) and work for a long term improvement.

^ Infants who sustained birth asphyxia during the birthing process often develop brain damage such as cerebral palsy, seizures, and impaired neurological function.
  • Kentucky Birth Asphyxia Lawyers | Louisville Malpractice Attorneys Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.kentuckytrial.net [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Contents

Symptoms

.The symptoms of generalized hypoxia depend on its severity and acceleration of onset.^ The resulting hypoxia causes varying degrees of CNS tissue damage, depending on the age of the fetus and the severity and duration of the hypoxia.
  • Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: Introduction - The Merck Veterinary Manual 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.merckvetmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of altitude sickness, where hypoxia develops gradually, the symptoms include headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, a feeling of euphoria and nausea.^ Condition resulting from insufficient intake of oxygen: symptoms include breathing difficulty, impairment of senses, and, in extreme, convulsions, unconsciousness and death.
  • Health and Wellness Dictionary: Asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC geoparent.com [Source type: General]

^ These include; being unable to breathe, feeling sick or vomiting, developing swelling to the face and neck, and the developments of petechiae (small blood-spots associated with asphyxiation) to the head, neck and chest.

^ Dyspnea usually develops gradually in anemia, which commonly causes fatigue, weakness, and syncope; severe anemia may also cause tachycardia, tachypnea, restlessness, anxiety, and thirst.
  • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.In severe hypoxia, or hypoxia of very rapid onset, changes in levels of consciousness, seizures, coma, priapism, and death occur.^ The present work extends this finding by showing that this depression is initially mediated by adenosine A 1 receptors and can be blocked for a period despite rapid-onset, profound tissue hypoxia.
  • Key Neuroprotective Role for Endogenous Adenosine A1 Receptor Activation During Asphyxia in the Fetal Sheep -- Hunter et al. 34 (9): 2240 -- Stroke 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Features of severe encephalopathy include stupor or coma, flaccidity, absent reflexes, increased intracranial pressure, and seizures.
  • Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.medlink.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A delirium is characterized by a severe disturbance in the level of consciousness and a change in mental status over a relatively short period of time.

.Severe hypoxia induces a blue discolouration of the skin, called cyanosis.^ It turns from red to blue when it loses oxygen causing the blue or black discoloration of the skin and other tissues called cyanosis.
  • Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and Death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sdfca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin), as opposed to the rich red colour that it has when bound to oxygen (oxyhemoglobin), when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye.^ Fading in and out of consciousness the light burning through my half open eyes i stuggle to breathe, at the mercy of a stranger's hold on me.
  • Asphyxia, 22/10/04, frayed at the edges 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC blogs.warwick.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in red blood cells.
  • Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and Death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sdfca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These oxygen stores can be enhanced by increasing oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, meaning a greater concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells (since hemoglobin is contained in red blood cells).

.In cases where the oxygen is displaced by another molecule, such as carbon monoxide, the skin may appear 'cherry red' instead of cyanotic.^ This may occur in tight or confined spaces, where toxic fumes are released from bedding etc in cots, or in drowning (the inhaled water displaces the oxygen).

^ In this case, the patient may need to be given pure oxygen or other treatments to force the carbon monoxide out of the blood, allowing him or her to recover normal oxygen circulation.
  • What is an Asphyxiant? 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in some instances, where the inhalation of toxic fumes such as carbon monoxide is responsible for the asphyxia, death may occur peacefully, without the struggles described above and during sleep.

Types of hypoxia

.
  • Hypoxic hypoxia is a generalized hypoxia, an inadequate supply of oxygen to the body as a whole.^ The analysis of umbilical cord blood provides information about how the fetus responded to decreased or inadequate oxygen supply.

    ^ The outcome at 18-22 months has shown that whole body cooling reduces the risk of death or moderate to severe disability in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
    • UC HealthNews : Clinical Trials: Whole-Body Cooling for Birth Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthnews.uc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hypoxic euphoria can occur whenever the brain is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen.
    • Well Hung: Death By Orgasm 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.altpenis.com [Source type: General]

    .The term "hypoxic hypoxia" specifies hypoxia caused by low partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood.^ Uterine contractions may restrict maternal uterine and/or foetal umbilical blood flow resulting in compromised foetal oxygenation and foetal hypoxia and/or acidosis.
    • Flintbox - MDP-006 - FETAL HEALTH - Detection of Early Changes in Fetal EEG Due to Asphyxia with Acidemia During Labour 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.flintbox.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
    • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A fragile organ (the brain) at a difficult time (birth) can be exposed to impaired blood flow, blood with less oxygen (from poorly functioning lungs), and there can be pressure to the cranium changing its shape causing bleeding or decreasing blood flow to undamaged areas.
    • Asphyxia, oxygen shortage and the causes of Cerebral Palsy: Origins, Etiology, Aetiology, Causal Pathways 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.originsofcerebralpalsy.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In the other causes of hypoxia that follow, the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is normal.^ Uterine contractions may restrict maternal uterine and/or foetal umbilical blood flow resulting in compromised foetal oxygenation and foetal hypoxia and/or acidosis.
    • Flintbox - MDP-006 - FETAL HEALTH - Detection of Early Changes in Fetal EEG Due to Asphyxia with Acidemia During Labour 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.flintbox.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
    • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A fragile organ (the brain) at a difficult time (birth) can be exposed to impaired blood flow, blood with less oxygen (from poorly functioning lungs), and there can be pressure to the cranium changing its shape causing bleeding or decreasing blood flow to undamaged areas.
    • Asphyxia, oxygen shortage and the causes of Cerebral Palsy: Origins, Etiology, Aetiology, Causal Pathways 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.originsofcerebralpalsy.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Hypoxic hypoxia may be due to:
    • Low partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen such as found at high altitude [4] or by replacement of oxygen in the breathing mix either accidentally as in the modified atmosphere of a sewer or intentionally as in the recreational use of nitrous oxide.
    • Low partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs when switching from inhaled anaesthesia to atmospheric air, due to the Fink effect, or diffusion hypoxia.
    • A decrease in oxygen saturation of the blood caused by sleep apnea or hypopnea
    • Inadequate pulmonary ventilation (e.g., in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory arrest).
    • Shunts in the pulmonary circulation or a right-to-left shunt in the heart.^ Decreased blood pressure and tachycardia may also occur.
      • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
      • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Lack of oxygen, either partial [hypoxia] or total [anoxia] causes death.
      • Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and Death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sdfca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Staffmember Articles 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fiskebrown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Shunts can be caused by collapsed alveoli that are still perfused or a block in ventilation to an area of the lung.^ Alveolar ventilation, which equals expired ventilation minus ventilation of the anatomical dead space, and the effects of high ratio ventilation/perfusion matching eliminate CO 2 from the lung.
      • Critical Care | Full text | Difference in end-tidal CO2between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC ccforum.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Meconium contains enzymes from the fetal pancreas that can cause severe lung damage and even death if inhaled into the alveoli after delivery.
      • Neonatal resuscitation - Dave Woods 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.gfmer.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Whatever the mechanism, blood meant for the pulmonary system is not ventilated and so no gas exchange occurs (the ventilation/perfusion ratio is zero).^ A condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas - (Source - WordNet 2.1) .
      • Asphyxia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Alveolar ventilation, which equals expired ventilation minus ventilation of the anatomical dead space, and the effects of high ratio ventilation/perfusion matching eliminate CO 2 from the lung.
      • Critical Care | Full text | Difference in end-tidal CO2between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC ccforum.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Another range of differences encompassed by our use of the words birth asphyxia has to do with when in the course of illness a defect of gas exchange occurs.
      • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

      .Normal anatomical shunt occurs in everyone, because of the Thebesian vessels which empty into the left ventricle and the bronchial circulation which supplies the bronchi with oxygen.
  • hypemic hypoxia in which arterial oxygen pressure is normal, but total oxygen content of the blood is reduced.^ Decrease in maternal arterial oxygen content .

    ^ Blood flow to fetal organs as a function of arterial oxygen content.
    • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Decreased oxygen content in the blood .
    • Intrauterine Asphyxia: The Relationship Between Intrapartum Asphyxia and Neurologic Injury in the Fetus 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [5]
  • .
  • Hypoxia when the blood fails to deliver oxygen to target tissues.^ Uterine contractions may restrict maternal uterine and/or foetal umbilical blood flow resulting in compromised foetal oxygenation and foetal hypoxia and/or acidosis.
    • Flintbox - MDP-006 - FETAL HEALTH - Detection of Early Changes in Fetal EEG Due to Asphyxia with Acidemia During Labour 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.flintbox.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
    • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Asphyxiants work by displacing so much oxygen from the ambient atmosphere that the hemoglobin in the blood can not pick up enough oxygen from the lungs to fully oxygenate the tissues.
    • The MSDS HyperGlossary: Asphyxiant 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.ilpi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Histotoxic hypoxia in which quantity of oxygen reaching the cells is normal, but the cells are unable to effectively use the oxygen due to disabled oxidative phosphorylation enzymes.^ Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in red blood cells.
    • Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and Death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sdfca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hemoglobin releases oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide.

    ^ They have found, reported Dr. Royd Ray Sayer of the U. S. P. H. S., that both carbon monoxide poisoning and lack of oxygen not only stop respiration but also injure brain cells and the central nervous system.
    • Medicine: Asphyxia - TIME 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.time.com [Source type: General]

    .The effects of drinking alcoholic beverages is a common example.
  • Ischemic, or stagnant hypoxia in which there is a local restriction in the flow of otherwise well-oxygenated blood.^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
    • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Uterine contractions may restrict maternal uterine and/or foetal umbilical blood flow resulting in compromised foetal oxygenation and foetal hypoxia and/or acidosis.
    • Flintbox - MDP-006 - FETAL HEALTH - Detection of Early Changes in Fetal EEG Due to Asphyxia with Acidemia During Labour 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.flintbox.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Asphyxia refers to impairment in the exchange of respiratory gases, oxygen, and carbon dioxide coupled with hypercapnia and consequent acidosis and changes in cerebral blood flow.
    • Neurological Complications of Perinatal Asphyxia - Psychiatric Times 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The oxygen supplied to the region of the body is then insufficient for its needs.^ Simply put, asphyxia is a lack of oxygen supply to body tissues.
    • AboutKidsHealth: Premature Babies: Asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In those regions where blood flow is reduced, oxygen delivery will be insufficient to maintain oxygen consumption and high energy bond production will occur by means of anaerobic metabolism.
    • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The initial oxygen and/or lack of blood supply to the brain kicks off a series of other events, as the body tries to repair itself.

    Examples are cerebral ischemia, ischemic heart disease and Intrauterine hypoxia, which is an unchallenged cause of perinatal death.

Pathophysiology

.After mixing with water vapour and expired CO2 in the lungs, oxygen diffuses down a pressure gradient to enter arterial blood where its partial pressure is around 100mmHg (13.3kPa).^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Asphyxiants work by displacing so much oxygen from the ambient atmosphere that the hemoglobin in the blood can not pick up enough oxygen from the lungs to fully oxygenate the tissues.
  • The MSDS HyperGlossary: Asphyxiant 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.ilpi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alveolar ventilation, which equals expired ventilation minus ventilation of the anatomical dead space, and the effects of high ratio ventilation/perfusion matching eliminate CO 2 from the lung.
  • Critical Care | Full text | Difference in end-tidal CO2between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC ccforum.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Arterial blood flow delivers oxygen to the peripheral tissues, where it again diffuses down a pressure gradient into the cells and into their mitochondria.^ Blood flow to fetal organs as a function of arterial oxygen content.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to moderate asphyxia in brain and skeletal muscle of late-gestation fetal sheep -- Newman et al. 88 (1): 82 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemoglobin —An iron-containing pigment of red blood cells composed of four amino acid chains (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) that delivers oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body and carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These bacteria-like cytoplasmic structures strip hydrogen from fuels (glucose, fats and some amino acids) to burn with oxygen to form water.^ These citations from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland are quoted because some authors do not write as clearly as their readers would like.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Kjellmer, I. & Hagberg, H. (1994) Perinatal brain damage related to excitatory amino acids and oxygen free radicals.
  • Signs of asphyxia at birth and risk of schizophrenia: Population-based case--control study -- DALMAN et al. 179 (5): 403 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These species show profound suppression of neural activity during hypoxia 32 that is mediated by adenosine A 1 receptor activation and other inhibitory amino acids.
  • Key Neuroprotective Role for Endogenous Adenosine A1 Receptor Activation During Asphyxia in the Fetal Sheep -- Hunter et al. 34 (9): 2240 -- Stroke 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The fuel's carbon is oxidized to CO2, which diffuses down its partial pressure gradient out of the cells into venous blood to finally be exhaled by the lungs.^ Hemoglobin —An iron-containing pigment of red blood cells composed of four amino acid chains (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) that delivers oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body and carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air wouldn't come in, and when, with supreme effort he managed to bring air into his lungs, he couldn't get it out.
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As membrane ionic gradients drop, both voltage sensitive calcium channels and the voltage sensitive NMDA channel pass more calcium into the cell.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Experimentally, oxygen diffusion becomes rate limiting (and lethal) when arterial oxygen partial pressure falls to 40mmHg or below.^ This could reflect either a passive fall in metabolic rate as a result of decreased oxygen availability or an active mechanism whereby O 2 decreases as part of a metabolic response to hypoxia.
  • Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to moderate asphyxia in brain and skeletal muscle of late-gestation fetal sheep -- Newman et al. 88 (1): 82 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Web of Science] Lawler FH and Brace RA. Fetal and maternal arterial pressures and heart rates: histograms, correlations, and rhythms.
  • Fetal heart rate variability and brain stem injury after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep -- George et al. 287 (4): R925 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This, combined with increased oxygen extraction, will allow electrical function to persist until arterial oxygen saturation falls below 50 percent.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.If oxygen delivery to cells is insufficient for the demand (hypoxia), hydrogen will be shifted to pyruvic acid converting it to lactic acid.^ Hypoxia —A condition characterized by insufficient oxygen in the cells of the body .
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cells need oxygen to survive; an interruption to oxygen delivery, in the long-term, causes cell death.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Premature Babies: Asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jakubovicz D, Klip A. Lactic acid-induced swelling in C6 glial cells via Na+/ H+ exchange.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This temporary measure (anaerobic metabolism) allows small amounts of energy to be produced.^ Second to this, high quality photos of the damage can allow the reconstructionist to quantify the amount of energy of the collision.
  • Staffmember Articles 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fiskebrown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In those regions where blood flow is reduced, oxygen delivery will be insufficient to maintain oxygen consumption and high energy bond production will occur by means of anaerobic metabolism.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Under these conditions anaerobic metabolism may be utilized for high energy bond production, and lactate will be the end product.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Lactic acid build up in tissues and blood is a sign of inadequate mitochondrial oxygenation, which may be due to hypoxemia, poor blood flow (e.g., shock) or a combination of both.^ Deficient pulmonary blood flow may delay pulmonary oxygenation.
  • Cord Clamping 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.atlaschiro.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Autism, ADD/ADHD, and Related Disorders - Is a Common Childbirth Practice to Blame? 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This failure may be due to inability of air to reach the lungs, as in hanging, suffocation, or chest injuries; it may be due to paralysis of the nerve centers that control lungs, either because of an inadequate supply of oxygen or because of failure in the respiratory system ( see RESPIRATION, ).

^ He experienced hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) of 2 different types: hypoxic hypoxia (low pressure of oxygen in arterial blood related to his obstructed airway) and stagnant hypoxia (inability to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough related to shock).
  • Riggs Consulting: Example of Pain and Suffering Documentation in the Case of an Auto Accident. 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.riggsconsulting.net [Source type: Academic]

[6] .If severe or prolonged it could lead to cell death.^ It must be kept in mind that intervening in an attempt to reduce deaths from birth asphyxia could lead to an increase in the number of handicapped children, as some with more severe grades of asphyxia may survive.
  • Birth Asphyxia Research Priorities 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sickkids.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ One theory holds that most SIDS infants could be basically normal but get into unfortunate combinations of circumstances that lead to death.
  • On SIDS, suffocation, asphyxia, and sleeping position 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sids-network.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Purpose Hypothesis: Prolonged whole body cooling in term infants with perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy reduces death and severe neurodevelopmental disability.
  • TOBY: a Study of Treatment for Perinatal Asphyxia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

Vasoconstriction and vasodilation

.In most tissues of the body, the response to hypoxia is vasodilation.^ The areas of the brain that are the most metabolically active suffer first--from hypoxia, acidosis and loss of nutrients, all compounded by inadequate tissue perfusion.
  • Premature Clamping of the Umbilical Cord may Result in Brain Damage to Newborns 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Body tissues with the highest metabolic rate produce the most carbon dioxide, and therefore make the greatest demand for delivery of oxygen.

.By widening the blood vessels, the tissue allows greater perfusion.^ Restriction of fluid must be undertaken carefully, insuring that adequate blood volume, blood pressure, and tissue perfusion are maintained.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Asphyxia is the result of impaired oxygen delivery to cells and usually results from a combination of hypoxemia—decreased oxygen concentration in the blood—and ischemia—decreased tissue perfusion.
  • Immediate Postpartum Care - The Merck Veterinary Manual 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.merckvetmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypoxias/ischemias/perfusion failures can provoke brain damage when the transfer of compounds from blood to neural tissue is reduced to a level under the possible compensations.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

By contrast, in the lungs, the response to hypoxia is vasoconstriction. This is known as "Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction", or "HPV".

Treatment

.To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial pO2 toward normal.^ During the initial insult there is an increase in impedance which returns towards normal on resuscitation.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kety SS, Schmidt CF. The effects of altered arterial tensions of carbon dioxide and oxygen on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption of normal young men.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 20 min group it reflected the return of normal body movements, whereas in the 30 min group it corresponded with the appearance of frequent epileptiform activity and abnormal tonic nuchal activity.
  • Fetal heart rate variability and brain stem injury after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep -- George et al. 287 (4): R925 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

Acclimatization, the means by which the body adapts to higher altitudes, only partially restores pO2 to standard levels. .Hyperventilation, the body’s most common response to high-altitude conditions, increases alveolar pO2 by raising the depth and rate of breathing.^ The cause of most explained in-custody deaths is a little-known phenomenon called positional asphyxia, in which body position interferes with the ability to breathe.
  • NCJRS Abstract - National Criminal Justice Reference Service 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.ncjrs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A condition in which an extreme decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the body accompanied by an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death.
  • Asphyxia, a Harry Potter fanfic - FanFiction.Net 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: General]

^ All these conditions are associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, so they are even less common in term births.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, while pO2 does improve with hyperventilation, it does not return to normal.^ However, a normal CSF does not exclude the possibility of perinatal asphyxia.
  • Neurological Complications of Perinatal Asphyxia - Psychiatric Times 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Studies of miners and astronomers working at 3000 meters and above show improved alveolar pO2 with full acclimatization, yet the pO2 level remains equal to or even below the threshold for continuous oxygen therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .
  • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) .
  • Causes of Asphyxia - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .In addition, there are complications involved with acclimatization.^ It will be complicated if there are more than two objects involved, such as a motorcycle with people that fly off in different directions.
  • Staffmember Articles 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fiskebrown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polycythemia, in which the body increases the number of red blood cells in circulation, thickens the blood, raising the danger that the heart can’t pump it.^ Hemoglobin —An iron-containing pigment of red blood cells composed of four amino acid chains (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) that delivers oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body and carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red cell aggregation and viscoelasticity of blood from seals, swine and man.
  • Staffmember Articles 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fiskebrown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in red blood cells.
  • San Diego Source > Special Reports > Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sddt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In high-altitude conditions, only oxygen enrichment can counteract the effects of hypoxia.^ Oxygen consumption by fetal sheep brain is remarkably constant in conditions of hypoxia: cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases to match the reduction in oxygen blood content.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ D.E. Harding wrote his inspired essay "On Having No Head" based on revelations induced while in an oxygen deprived state during a high-altitude mountain climb.
  • Well Hung: Death By Orgasm 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.altpenis.com [Source type: General]

^ Medical research has shown that blood saturation with oxygen is not the only condition of health and that some health related problems are caused by problems of oxygen supply to the body cells from the blood.
  • Frolov's Respiration Training Device: Health and Long Life! 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.intellectbreathing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By increasing the concentration of oxygen in the air, the effects of lower barometric pressure are countered and the level of arterial pO2 is restored toward normal capacity.^ A condition in which an extreme decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the body accompanied by an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death.
  • Asphyxia, a Harry Potter fanfic - FanFiction.Net 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: General]

^ Increased intracranial pressure caused by infusion of fluid into the lateral ventricle caused an increase in arterial blood pressure, and maintenance of perfusion pressure, which resulted in maintenance of cerebral blood flow.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At oxygen tensions below this level—with desaturation—cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained by up to twofold to threefold increases in CBF. The relation between arterial oxygen saturation and CBF is not a proper hyperbola, since oxygen extraction increases in parallel with CBF. .
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A small amount of supplemental oxygen reduces the equivalent altitude in climate-controlled rooms.^ The sensors permanently monitor the area, and the control panel displays the gas levels and provides alarms in the event of a sensor reporting a reduced concentration of oxygen.
  • Oxygen Depletion Monitoring, Symptoms of Asphyxia - Pharmaceutical International 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.pharmaceutical-int.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poor blood circulation can also reduce the amount of oxygen individual cells in the body receive.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Premature Babies: Asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 4000 m, raising the oxygen concentration level by 5 percent via an oxygen concentrator and an existing ventilation system provides an altitude equivalent of 3000 m, which is much more tolerable for the increasing number of low-landers who work in high altitude.^ A ventilation system linked to the gas detection equipment, providing increased throughput on low oxygen levels.
  • Oxygen Depletion Monitoring, Symptoms of Asphyxia - Pharmaceutical International 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.pharmaceutical-int.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A condition in which an extreme decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the body accompanied by an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death.
  • Asphyxia, a Harry Potter fanfic - FanFiction.Net 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: General]

^ There is clear experimental evidence that small increases in temperature are associated with more severe injury and moderate hypothermia of, for example, 2C° can provide relative protection.
  • Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[8] .In a study of astronomers working in Chile at 5050 m, oxygen concentrators increased the level of oxygen concentration by almost 30 percent (that is, from 21 percent to 27 percent).^ Impairment of cognitive and motor function can manifest at oxygen concentrations of 10 percent to 15 percent, loss of consciousness at less than 10 percent, while death usually occurs at less than 8 percent.
  • San Diego Source > Special Reports > Waiting to exhale: Asphyxia and death 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.sddt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reduced sensitivity to CO2 It is also shown that while oxygen concentration drops during a dive, CO2 levels increase correspondingly.

^ Discussion In our study, 75 percent of newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia (30 of 40 infants) did not have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at one year.
  • NEJM -- Measurement of the Urinary Lactate:Creatinine Ratio for the Early Identification of Newborn Infants at Risk for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

This resulted in increased worker productivity, less fatigue, and improved sleep.[9]
Oxygen concentrators are uniquely suited for this purpose. .They require little maintenance and electricity, provide a constant source of oxygen, and eliminate the expensive, and often dangerous, task of transporting oxygen cylinders to remote areas.^ A condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas - (Source - WordNet 2.1) .
  • Asphyxia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

^ An area quickly affected is the cerebral cortex, the brain center for speech and other conscious behavior; it can be irreparably damaged by as little as five minutes of oxygen deprivation.
  • asphyxia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Relation between Stillbirth and Specific Chlorination By-Products inPublic Water Supplies Environmental Health Perspectives V.108, N.9, Sep00 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fire Department suggested that if they retained jurisdiction over the site and kept the streets closed, that the normally required, and expensive, construction barricades would not be needed.
  • Ponet Square Hotel Fire, September 13, 1970 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC lafire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Offices and housing already have climate-controlled rooms, in which temperature and humidity are kept at a constant level.^ In the well term infant, fluid requirements in the first few days vary depending on the level of maturity, environmental temperature, body temperature and ambient humidity.
  • Fluid restriction for term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia 3 February 2010 14:25 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Oxygen can be added to this system easily and relatively cheaply.

See also

For aircraft decompression incidents at altitude see:

References

  1. ^ West, John B. (1977). Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials. Williams & Wilkins. pp. 22. 
  2. ^ Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers. USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/7976. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  3. ^ *Nonhematological mechanisms of improved sea-level ... - PubMed Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Sep;39(9):1600-9.
  4. ^ a b Kenneth Baillie and Alistair Simpson. "Altitude oxygen calculator". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). http://www.altitude.org/calculators/oxygencalculator/oxygencalculator.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10.  - Online interactive oxygen delivery calculator
  5. ^ Kenneth Baillie and Alistair Simpson. "Oxygen content calculator". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). http://www.altitude.org/calculators/oxygencontent/oxygencontent.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10.  - A demonstration of the effect of anaemia on oxygen content
  6. ^ Hobler, K.E.; L.C. Carey (1973). "Effect of acute progressive hypoxemia on cardiac output and plasma excess lactate" (scanned copy). Ann Surg 177 (2): 199–202. doi:10.1097/00000658-197302000-00013. PMID 4572785. http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=4572785. 
  7. ^ West, John B. (2004). "The Physiologic Basis of High-Altitude Diseases". Annals of Internal Medicine 141 (10): 791. 
  8. ^ West, John B. (1995). "Oxygen Enrichment of Room Air to Relieve the Hypoxia of High Altitude". Respiration Physiology 99 (2): 230. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(94)00094-G. 
  9. ^ West, John B. (2004). "The Physiologic Basis of High-Altitude Diseases". Annals of Internal Medicine 141 (10): 793. 

Bibliography


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hypoxia (medical), which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message