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Inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma
Symbols IKBKG; IP; FIP-3; FIP3; Fip3p; IKK-gamma; IP1; IP2; NEMO
External IDs OMIM300248 MGI1338074 HomoloGene2698 GeneCards: IKBKG Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IKBKG 36004 at tn.png
PBB GE IKBKG 209929 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 8517 16151
Ensembl ENSG00000073009 ENSMUSG00000004221
UniProt Q9Y6K9 Q3UG24
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003639 NM_010547
RefSeq (protein) NP_003630 NP_034677
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
153.42 - 153.45 Mb
Chr X:
70.68 - 70.7 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Inhibitor of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B Cells Gamma Kinase (IKBKG), also known as NF-Kappa-B Essential Modulator (NEMO), is a protein that is a subunit of the IκB kinase that activates NF-κB, known as Inhibitor of kappa B Kinase (IKK).[1] The gene for IKBKG is located on chromosome Xq28.[2] Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.



This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways.

Clinical significance

Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti,[3] hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia,[4] and several other types of immunodeficiencies.

Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked dominant disease caused by a mutation in the IKBKG gene. Since IKBKG helps activate NF-κB, which protects cells against TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, a lack of IKBKG (and hence a lack of active NF-κB) makes cells more prone to apoptosis.


IKBKG has been shown to interact with BCL10,[5] IKK2,[6][7][8][9][10] IRAK1,[11][12] CDC37,[13][6] TNFAIP3,[14] PPM1B,[15] Nuclear receptor coactivator 3,[8] TRAF6,[16][12] TRAF3IP2,[17][18] CHUK[19][6][9][10] and TANK.[7]


  1. ^ Rothwarf DM, Zandi E, Natoli G, Karin M (1998). "IKK-gamma is an essential regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase complex". Nature 395 (6699): 297–300. doi:10.1038/26261. PMID 9751060.  
  2. ^ Jin DY, Jeang KT (1999). "Isolation of full-length cDNA and chromosomal localization of human NF-kappaB modulator NEMO to Xq28". J. Biomed. Sci. 6 (2): 115–20. doi:10.1159/000025378. PMID 10087442.  
  3. ^ Aradhya S, Woffendin H, Jakins T, Bardaro T, Esposito T, Smahi A, Shaw C, Levy M, Munnich A, D'Urso M, Lewis RA, Kenwrick S, Nelson DL (September 2001). "A recurrent deletion in the ubiquitously expressed NEMO (IKK-gamma) gene accounts for the vast majority of incontinentia pigmenti mutations". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (19): 2171–9. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.19.2171. PMID 11590134.  
  4. ^ Zonana J, Elder ME, Schneider LC, Orlow SJ, Moss C, Golabi M, Shapira SK, Farndon PA, Wara DW, Emmal SA, Ferguson BM (December 2000). "A novel X-linked disorder of immune deficiency and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is allelic to incontinentia pigmenti and due to mutations in IKK-gamma (NEMO)". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67 (6): 1555–62. doi:10.1086/316914. PMID 11047757.  
  5. ^ Wu, Chuan-Jin; Ashwell Jonathan D (Feb. 2008). "NEMO recognition of ubiquitinated Bcl10 is required for T cell receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 105 (8): 3023–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0712313105. PMID 18287044.  
  6. ^ a b c Chen, Guoqing; Cao Ping, Goeddel David V (Feb. 2002). "TNF-induced recruitment and activation of the IKK complex require Cdc37 and Hsp90". Mol. Cell (United States) 9 (2): 401–10. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 11864612.  
  7. ^ a b Chariot, Alain; Leonardi Antonio, Muller Jurgen, Bonif Marianne, Brown Keith, Siebenlist Ulrich (Oct. 2002). "Association of the adaptor TANK with the I kappa B kinase (IKK) regulator NEMO connects IKK complexes with IKK epsilon and TBK1 kinases". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (40): 37029–36. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205069200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12133833.  
  8. ^ a b Wu, Ray-Chang; Qin Jun, Hashimoto Yoshihiro, Wong Jiemin, Xu Jianming, Tsai Sophia Y, Tsai Ming-Jer, O'Malley Bert W (May. 2002). "Regulation of SRC-3 (pCIP/ACTR/AIB-1/RAC-3/TRAM-1) Coactivator activity by I kappa B kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (10): 3549–61. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 11971985.  
  9. ^ a b Deng, L; Wang C, Spencer E, Yang L, Braun A, You J, Slaughter C, Pickart C, Chen Z J (Oct. 2000). "Activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by TRAF6 requires a dimeric ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and a unique polyubiquitin chain". Cell (UNITED STATES) 103 (2): 351–61. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 11057907.  
  10. ^ a b Shifera, Amde Selassie; Horwitz Marshall S (Mar. 2008). "Mutations in the zinc finger domain of IKK gamma block the activation of NF-kappa B and the induction of IL-2 in stimulated T lymphocytes". Mol. Immunol. (England) 45 (6): 1633–45. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.09.036. ISSN 0161-5890. PMID 18207244.  
  11. ^ Conze, Dietrich B; Wu Chuan-Jin, Thomas James A, Landstrom Allison, Ashwell Jonathan D (May. 2008). "Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK-1 is required for interleukin-1 receptor- and toll-like receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 28 (10): 3538–47. doi:10.1128/MCB.02098-07. PMID 18347055.  
  12. ^ a b Windheim, Mark; Stafford Margaret, Peggie Mark, Cohen Philip (Mar. 2008). "Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 to facilitate NEMO binding and the activation of IkappaBalpha kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 28 (5): 1783–91. doi:10.1128/MCB.02380-06. PMID 18180283.  
  13. ^ Bouwmeester, Tewis; Bauch Angela, Ruffner Heinz, Angrand Pierre-Olivier, Bergamini Giovanna, Croughton Karen, Cruciat Cristina, Eberhard Dirk, Gagneur Julien, Ghidelli Sonja, Hopf Carsten, Huhse Bettina, Mangano Raffaella, Michon Anne-Marie, Schirle Markus, Schlegl Judith, Schwab Markus, Stein Martin A, Bauer Andreas, Casari Georg, Drewes Gerard, Gavin Anne-Claude, Jackson David B, Joberty Gerard, Neubauer Gitte, Rick Jens, Kuster Bernhard, Superti-Furga Giulio (Feb. 2004). "A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway". Nat. Cell Biol. (England) 6 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. ISSN 1465-7392. PMID 14755267.  
  14. ^ Zhang, S Q; Kovalenko A, Cantarella G, Wallach D (Mar. 2000). "Recruitment of the IKK signalosome to the p55 TNF receptor: RIP and A20 bind to NEMO (IKKgamma) upon receptor stimulation". Immunity (UNITED STATES) 12 (3): 301–11. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 10755617.  
  15. ^ Prajapati, Shashi; Verma Udit, Yamamoto Yumi, Kwak Youn Tae, Gaynor Richard B (Jan. 2004). "Protein phosphatase 2Cbeta association with the IkappaB kinase complex is involved in regulating NF-kappaB activity". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (3): 1739–46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306273200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14585847.  
  16. ^ Lamothe, Betty; Campos Alejandro D, Webster William K, Gopinathan Ambily, Hur Lana, Darnay Bryant G (Sep. 2008). "The RING domain and first zinc finger of TRAF6 coordinate signaling by interleukin-1, lipopolysaccharide, and RANKL". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 283 (36): 24871–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.M802749200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 18617513.  
  17. ^ Leonardi, A; Chariot A, Claudio E, Cunningham K, Siebenlist U (Sep. 2000). "CIKS, a connection to Ikappa B kinase and stress-activated protein kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (19): 10494–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.190245697. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10962033.  
  18. ^ Li, X; Commane M, Nie H, Hua X, Chatterjee-Kishore M, Wald D, Haag M, Stark G R (Sep. 2000). "Act1, an NF-kappa B-activating protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (19): 10489–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.160265197. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10962024.  
  19. ^ Agou, Fabrice; Ye Fei, Goffinont Stéphane, Courtois Gilles, Yamaoka Shoji, Israël Alain, Véron Michel (May. 2002). "NEMO trimerizes through its coiled-coil C-terminal domain". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (20): 17464–75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201964200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11877453.  

Further reading

  • Rothwarf DM, Zandi E, Natoli G, Karin M (1998). "IKK-gamma is an essential regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase complex.". Nature 395 (6699): 297–300. doi:10.1038/26261. PMID 9751060.  
  • Mercurio F, Murray BW, Shevchenko A, et al. (1999). "IkappaB kinase (IKK)-associated protein 1, a common component of the heterogeneous IKK complex.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (2): 1526–38. PMID 9891086.  
  • Li Y, Kang J, Friedman J, et al. (1999). "Identification of a cell protein (FIP-3) as a modulator of NF-kappaB activity and as a target of an adenovirus inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (3): 1042–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.3.1042. PMID 9927690.  
  • Jin DY, Jeang KT (1999). "Isolation of full-length cDNA and chromosomal localization of human NF-kappaB modulator NEMO to Xq28.". J. Biomed. Sci. 6 (2): 115–20. PMID 10087442.  
  • Jin DY, Giordano V, Kibler KV, et al. (1999). "Role of adapter function in oncoprotein-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax interacts directly with IkappaB kinase gamma.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (25): 17402–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.25.17402. PMID 10364167.  
  • Zhang SQ, Kovalenko A, Cantarella G, Wallach D (2000). "Recruitment of the IKK signalosome to the p55 TNF receptor: RIP and A20 bind to NEMO (IKKgamma) upon receptor stimulation.". Immunity 12 (3): 301–11. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80183-1. PMID 10755617.  
  • Smahi A, Courtois G, Vabres P, et al. (2000). "Genomic rearrangement in NEMO impairs NF-kappaB activation and is a cause of incontinentia pigmenti. The International Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) Consortium.". Nature 405 (6785): 466–72. doi:10.1038/35013114. PMID 10839543.  
  • Inohara N, Koseki T, Lin J, et al. (2000). "An induced proximity model for NF-kappa B activation in the Nod1/RICK and RIP signaling pathways.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (36): 27823–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003415200. PMID 10880512.  
  • Ye Z, Connor JR (2000). "cDNA cloning by amplification of circularized first strand cDNAs reveals non-IRE-regulated iron-responsive mRNAs.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275 (1): 223–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3282. PMID 10944468.  
  • Li X, Commane M, Nie H, et al. (2000). "Act1, an NF-kappa B-activating protein.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (19): 10489–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.160265197. PMID 10962024.  
  • Leonardi A, Chariot A, Claudio E, et al. (2000). "CIKS, a connection to Ikappa B kinase and stress-activated protein kinase.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (19): 10494–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.190245697. PMID 10962033.  
  • May MJ, D'Acquisto F, Madge LA, et al. (2000). "Selective inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by a peptide that blocks the interaction of NEMO with the IkappaB kinase complex.". Science 289 (5484): 1550–4. doi:10.1126/science.289.5484.1550. PMID 10968790.  
  • Zonana J, Elder ME, Schneider LC, et al. (2001). "A novel X-linked disorder of immune deficiency and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is allelic to incontinentia pigmenti and due to mutations in IKK-gamma (NEMO).". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67 (6): 1555–62. doi:10.1086/316914. PMID 11047757.  
  • Xiao G, Sun SC (2000). "Activation of IKKalpha and IKKbeta through their fusion with HTLV-I tax protein.". Oncogene 19 (45): 5198–203. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203894. PMID 11064457.  
  • Li XH, Fang X, Gaynor RB (2001). "Role of IKKgamma/nemo in assembly of the Ikappa B kinase complex.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (6): 4494–500. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008353200. PMID 11080499.  
  • Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES (2001). "vCLAP, a caspase-recruitment domain-containing protein of equine Herpesvirus-2, persistently activates the Ikappa B kinases through oligomerization of IKKgamma.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (5): 3183–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000792200. PMID 11113112.  
  • Jain A, Ma CA, Liu S, et al. (2001). "Specific missense mutations in NEMO result in hyper-IgM syndrome with hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia.". Nat. Immunol. 2 (3): 223–8. doi:10.1038/85277. PMID 11224521.  
  • Döffinger R, Smahi A, Bessia C, et al. (2001). "X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is caused by impaired NF-kappaB signaling.". Nat. Genet. 27 (3): 277–85. doi:10.1038/85837. PMID 11242109.  
  • Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, et al. (2001). "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.". EMBO Rep. 1 (3): 287–92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMID 11256614.  
  • Galgóczy P, Rosenthal A, Platzer M (2001). "Human-mouse comparative sequence analysis of the NEMO gene reveals an alternative promoter within the neighboring G6PD gene.". Gene 271 (1): 93–8. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00492-9. PMID 11410370.  

External links



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