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India's Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV)
Conceptual drawing of the INS Arihant.
Career (India) Indian Navy Ensign
Name: INS Arihant
Builder: Shipbuilding Centre (SBC), Visakhapatnam, India
Laid down: Unknown
Launched: 26 July 2009
Status: Float-out[1]
General characteristics
Class and type: Arihant-class submarine
Type: SSBN or SSGN
Length: 111 m (360 ft)[2]
Beam: 15 m (49 ft)[2]
Draft: 11 m (36 ft)[2]
Propulsion: PWR using 40% enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe )[2]; one turbine (47,000 hp/70 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated)
Range: unlimited except by food supplies
Test depth: 300 m (980 ft) (estimated)
Complement: 95–100 officers and men
Sensors and
processing systems:
BEL USHUS
Armament: 6 x 533mm torpedoes
12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM
Shaurya missile (expected)

INS Arihant (Sanskrit: अरिहंत) (S-73) is the lead ship of India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines. The 5,000–6,000 tonne vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project at the Ship Building Centre in Visakhapatnam.

The symbolic launch ceremony for the Arihant was held on on July 26, 2009 marked the anniversary of Vijay Diwas (Kargil War Victory Day). It was reported that the nuclear reactor and other systems were not included at the time of the submarine's launch. Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Verma said in December 2009, "Work is in progress to make INS Arihant operational for sea-trials...it should be inducted in two years or so."[1] Full integration of key systems and Sea trials are expected to be extensive. The submarine is not expected to formally join the Indian Navy earlier than 2011.[3 ]

The name of the vessel, Arihant is in Sanskrit and literally translates into destroyer of enemies. The completion of the INS Arihant will make India one of six countries in the world with the ability to design, build, and operate its own nuclear submarines (the others being the United States, the UK, Russia, France, and China).

Contents

Design

The INS Arihant is to be the first of the expected five in the class of submarines designed and constructed as a part of the Indian Navy's secretive Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Project. The submarine is reported to be similar to the Russian Charlie-II class submarine, which India leased from the Soviet Union between 1988 and 1991.[4 ] Arihant will be more of "a technology demonstrator", rather than a fully-operational SSBN according to Admiral Verma.[1]

The vessel will be powered by an 85 MW pressurized water reactor with enriched uranium fuel.[5] A land-based prototype of the reactor was first built at Kalpakkam and made operational in September 2006. Successful operation over a period of three years yielded the data that enabled the production version for Arihant.[6][7] It was reported that a 80MW nuclear reactor was integrated into the hull of the ATV in January 2008.[8]

The hull for the vessel was built by L&T's Hazira shipbuilding facility. Tata Power built the control systems for the submarine. The systems for the steam turbine integrated with the reactor are supplied by Walchandnagar Industries.[9]

Launch

The INS Arihant, was introduced to the public on July 26, 2009 at a symbolic launch ceremony by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's wife Gursharan Kaur.[10] The launch coincided with the tenth anniversary of the conclusion of the Kargil War.[11] and consisted of floating the vessel by flooding the dry dock. It was reported that the Arihant was launched without key systems including its nuclear reactor, surveillance equipment, and ordinance.[4 ] Per naval tradition, Gursharan Kaur cracked a coconut on the hull to mark the launch of the submarine at the secret naval base 'Matsya' in Visakhapatnam.[12] Photography was prohibited and photos showing the complete vessel are not available.[13][14] In his address to the crowd, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh billed the submarine as an outcome of a public-private partnership. He also thanked Russia in his address stating "I would also like to express our appreciation to our Russian friends for their consistent and invaluable cooperation, which symbolizes the close strategic partnership that we enjoy with Russia".[15] The launch of INS Arihant strengthens India's endeavor to build a credible nuclear triad — the capability to fire nuclear weapons from air, land and sea.

On the condition of anonymity, a nuclear scientist familiar with the project echoed this report in response to the media coverage that India had successfully launched a completed nuclear submarine.[16] It was also expected that the duplication of India's land based reactor, integration of systems, and sea trials is expected to take three to five years.[4 ]

It will be commissioned in 2011, according to Indian Naval Chief.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Pandit, Rajat (2009-12-03). "Home-made nuke sub INS Arihant to be inducted in 2 years". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Home-made-nuke-sub-INS-Arihant-to-be-inducted-in-2-years/articleshow/5293123.cms. Retrieved 2009-12-04.  
  2. ^ a b c d Nuclear Arm by T.S. Subramanian, The Frontline Vol.:26, Issue:17, Aug 15-28, 2009
  3. ^ "Indian Navy to procure five midget submarines". domain-b.com. New Delhi: The Information Company. 2009-11-02. http://www.domain-b.com/defence/sea/indian_navy/20091102_indian_navy.html. Retrieved 2009-11-07.  
  4. ^ a b c Von Kospoth, Nicolas (2009-07-28). "India's INS Arihant Makes First Contact with Water". Defense Professionals Daily. http://www.defpro.com/daily/details/364/. Retrieved 2009-09-10.  
  5. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS-India-India-set-to-launch-nuclear-powered-submarine/articleshow/4787167.cms
  6. ^ "PWR building shows indigenous capability, says Kakodkar". The Hindu. 2009-08-02. http://www.hindu.com/2009/08/03/stories/2009080353810100.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-02.  
  7. ^ "Arihant propulsion reactor unveiled". Hindustan Times. 2009-08-02. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=HomePage&id=5721403d-8f66-43e2-92c4-4f3148032565&Headline=Arihant+propulsion+reactor+unveiled. Retrieved 2009-08-02.  
  8. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&&issueid=37&id=3659&Itemid=1&page=in&latn=2
  9. ^ http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_private-sector-played-a-major-role-in-arihant_1277435
  10. ^ "Wife of Indian PM launches home-made nuclear attack submarine". Xinhuanet. 2009-07-26. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-07/26/content_11775324.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-10.  
  11. ^ Unnithan, Sandeep (July 16, 2009). Exclusive: PM's wife to launch INS Arihant, India's first nuclear submarine. India Today
  12. ^ "India inducts nuke submarine into navy". The Hindu. 2009-07-26. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200907261621.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-10.  
  13. ^ "PIB's Latest Photograph". Pib.nic.in. http://pib.nic.in/release/phsmall.asp?phid=23704. Retrieved 2009-08-17.  
  14. ^ "PIB's Latest Photograph". Pib.nic.in. http://pib.nic.in/release/phsmall.asp?phid=23703. Retrieved 2009-08-17.  
  15. ^ By Harmeet Shah Singh CNN (2009-07-26). "India launches nuclear submarine - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/07/26/india.nuclear.submarine/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17.  
  16. ^ "India's Nuclear Sub Doesn't Have Working Reactor Yet". Daiji World. 2009-08-13. http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=64065&n_tit=India%27s+Nuclear+Sub+Doesn%27t+Have+Working+Reactor+Yet. Retrieved 2009-09-10.  

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