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International
Phonetic Alphabet

History
Nonstandard symbols
Extensions to the IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English

This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

Contents

Chart

Note: An image of the chart is also available.
[6] Dia-
phoneme
Phones Examples
IPA: English Consonants
p pʰ, p pen, spin, tip
b b but, web
t tʰ, t, ɾ, ʔ[7] two, sting, bet
d d, ɾ[8] do, odd
tʃʰ, tʃ chair, nature, teach
gin, joy, edge
k kʰ, k cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ ɡ go, get, beg
f f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v v voice, have, of
θ θ[9] thing, teeth
ð ð[10] this, breathe, father
s s see, city, pass
z z zoo, rose
ʃ ʃ she, sure, emotion, leash
ʒ ʒ pleasure, beige, seizure
x (k) x loch (Scottish)[11]
h h, ɦ ham
m m[12] man, ham
n n no, tin
ŋ ŋ ringer, sing,[13] finger, drink
l l, ɫ[14] left, bell
r ɹʷ, ɹ, ɾ[15] run, very
w w we, queen
j j yes
hw (w) hw[16] what
 
IPA: Marginal Sounds
ʔ ʔ uh-(ʔ)oh
 
IPA: Reduced vowels[17]
ə Reduced /ʌ, æ, ɑː, ɒ/
ɪ̈ (ə) Reduced /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eɪ, aɪ/
ʊ̈ (ə) Reduced /ʊ, uː/
ɵ (ə) Reduced /oʊ/
ɚ (ə) Reduced /ɝː/ (ɜr)
IPA Lexical
set
Examples
[6]Dia-
phoneme
Australia
AuE
Canada
CaE
United States
GA
Republic of Ireland
IrE
New Zealand
NZE
England
RP
Scotland
ScE
South Africa
SAE
Wales
WaE
IPA: English Vowels
æ æ,
æː
[18]
æ æ,
[18]
ɑ/æ ɛ æ a æ a TRAP lad, bad, cat[19]
ɑː ɑ/ɒ ɑ ɑː ɐː ɑː PALM father
ɒ ɔ ɑ ɒ ɒ ɔ ɔ ɒ LOT not, wasp
ɔː ɔ ɔː ɔː ɒː THOUGHT law, caught[20], all, halt, talk
ə ə ə ə ɘ ə ə ə ə COMMA about
ɨ ɨ ɨ ɪ ɨ ɨ spotted
ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ, ə[21] ɪ KIT sit
i i i i i i i HAPPY city
FLEECE see
meat
æɪ eɪ/e æe e FACE date
ei day, pain, whey, rein
ɛ e ɛ ɛ ɛ e ɛ ɛ e ɛ DRESS bed[22]
ɜr ɜː(ɹ) ɝ/ɹ̩ ɝ/ɹ̩ ʌɾ[23] ɵː(ɹ) ɜː(ɹ) ʌɾ[23] øː(ɹ) ɜː(ɾ) NURSE burn
ɛɾ[23] ɛɾ[23] herd, earth
ɪɾ[23] ɪɾ[23] bird
ər ə(ɹ) ɚ/ɹ̩ ɚ/ɹ̩ ɘ(ɹ) ə(ɹ) əɾ ə(ɹ) ə(ɾ) LETTER winner[24]
ʌ a ʌ ʌ ɔ, ʊ ɐ ʌ ʌ ɐ ɜ STRUT run, won, flood
ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʉ ʊ ʊ FOOT put
hood
ʉː u u ʉː ʉː GOOSE through, you
ɪu[25] threw, yew
juː jʉː (j)u (j)u juː jʉː juː cute, dew, ewe
ɑe aɪ,
ʌi
[26]
ɔɪ ɑe ai PRICE my, wise, high
ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ oe ɔɪ oi ɔɪ ɒi CHOICE boy, hoist
əʉ oʊ/o ɐʉ əʊ o œʉ GOAT no, toe, soap
ou tow, soul, roll, cold, folk
æɔ aʊ,
ʌu
[26]
æo ɑː au MOUTH now, trout
ɑr aː(ɹ) ɑɹ ɑɹ ɐː(ɹ) ɑː(ɹ) aː(ɾ) START arm, car
ɪər ɪə(ɹ) ɪɹ ɪɹ ɪə(ɹ) ɪə(ɹ) ɪə(ɹ) ɪə(ɾ) NEAR deer, here
ɛər eː(ɹ) ɛɹ ɛɹ eə(ɹ) eə(ɹ)[27] ɛː(ɹ) ɛː(ɾ) SQUARE mare, there, bear
ɔr oː(ɹ) ɔɹ ɔɹ ɑɾ oː(ɹ) ɔː(ɹ) ɔɾ ɒː(ɾ) NORTH sort, warm
ɔər oɹ, ɔɹ oːɾ oː(ɾ) FORCE tore, boar, port
ʊər ʊə(ɹ),
ʉːə(ɹ)
ʊɹ ʊɹ ʊɐ(ɹ),
ʉːɐ(ɹ)
ʊə(ɹ)[28] ʊə(ɾ) CURE tour, moor
jʊər jʊə(ɹ),
jʉːə(ɹ)
jʊɹ, jɝ jʊɹ, jɝ jʊɐ(ɹ),
jʉːɐ(ɹ)
jʊə(ɹ),
jɔ:(ɹ)
juɾ ɪʊə(ɾ) CURE pure, Europe
[6]Pan-
English
Australia
AuE
Canada
CaE
United States
GA
Republic of Ireland
IrE
New Zealand
NZE
England
RP
Scotland
ScE
South Africa
SAE
Wales
WaE
Lexical
set
Examples
IPA: Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ Secondary stress/full vowel indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, pronunciation /pɹɵˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/
. Syllable separation indicator; for example, ice cream /ˈʌɪs.krim/ vs. I scream /ˌaɪ.ˈskrim/
 ̩ Syllabic consonant indicator (placed under the syllabic consonant); for example, ridden /ˈɹɪdn̩/

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  2. ^ Kenyon & Knott (1944/1953)
  3. ^ Kenyon (1950)
  4. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:97–102)
  5. ^ Roach (2004:241–243). See Pronunciation respelling for English#International Phonetic Alphabet for the alternative system devised by Clive Upton for Oxford University Press dictionaries.
  6. ^ a b c This is the compromise IPA transcription used in the entries of Wikipedia articles. It covers most dialects of English.
  7. ^ Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in English English, American English and Australian English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish English.
  8. ^ Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English.
  9. ^ Pronounced [t̪] in some varieties of Irish English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English.
  10. ^ Pronounced [d̪] in some varieties of Irish English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English.
  11. ^ Marginal elsewhere.
  12. ^ Pronounced [ɱ] before f (e.g. symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni)
  13. ^ In some dialects (e.g. Brummie) "ringer", "sing" etc are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/ rather than /ˈɹɪŋə/
  14. ^ [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English, though this is changing; [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP and some other English accents, along with South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
  15. ^ The tap [ɾ] is found in some varieties of Scottish and Irish English.
  16. ^ Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Irish English, and much of the American South dialects; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
  17. ^ /ɔː, aʊ, ɔɪ/ are never reduced. In some dialects, such as Australian, all reduced vowels become [ə].
  18. ^ a b See bad-lad split and æ-tensing for these distinctions.
  19. ^ Often transcribed /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  20. ^ See low back merger for more discussion of this vowel in American English.
  21. ^ It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kit-bit split.
  22. ^ Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  23. ^ a b c d e f See Fern-fir-fur merger for this distinction.
  24. ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [ə(ɹ)].
  25. ^ In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /juː/, /jɪu/ and /ɪu respectively; in all other varieties of English they are homophones.
  26. ^ a b In Canadian English, the raised diphthongs [ʌi] and [ʌu] are found before voiceless consonants, as in right [ɹʷʌit] and out [ʌut]; in other environments, [aɪ] and [aʊ] are used. In much of US English, this happens with /ʌɪ/, primarily when what would originally be the [aɪ] sound precedes are "hard" consonant (k, f and t being hard, but not g, v and d, so the diphthongs of dike, life and sight are different from tiger, live and side). See Canadian raising.
  27. ^ Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries are /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and /ɛə/.
  28. ^ >Roach (2004:241–243), pp. 21–22, 25–26. Roach notes that many people in England use /ɔː/ for this vowel, but also that RP is supposed to distinguish between maw /mɔː/ and moor /mʊə/, tore /tɔː/ and tour /tʊə/, paw /pɔː/ and poor /pʊə/.

References

  • Gimson, A. C. (1980). An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English (3rd edn. ed.). London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-7131-6287-2.  
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997). "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels". Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84. doi:10.1080/07268609708599550.  
  • Kenyon, John Samuel (1950). American Pronunciation (10th ed.). Ann Arbor: George Wahr.  
  • Kenyon, John S.; Knott, Thomas A. (1944/1953). A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-047-7.  
  • Bauer, L.; Warren, P.; Bardsley, D.; Kennedy, M.; Major, G. (2007). "New Zealand English". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830.  
  • Schneider, Edgar W.; Kortmann, Bernd (2004). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017532-0.  
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768  
  • Wells, J. C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2nd edn. ed.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0-582-36468-X.  

External links

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Simple English

This is the International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English. These symbols will be used throughout Wikipedia. Linguists use this set of symbols.

RP = Received Pronunciation. GA = General American. AuE = Australian English.

IPA: English Consonants
IPA Examples
p pen, spin, tip
b but, web
t two, sting, bet
d do, odd
chair, nature, teach
gin, joy, edge
k cat, kill, skin, queen, thick
ɡ go, get, beg
f fool, enough, leaf
v voice, have
θ thing, teeth
ð this, breathe, father
s see, city, pass
z zoo, rose
ʃ she, sure, emotion, leash
ʒ pleasure, beige
h ham
m man, ham
n no, tin
ŋ singer, ring
l left, bell
ɹ run, very
w we
j yes
ʍ what[1]
IPA: English Vowels
IPA Examples
RP GA AuE
ɑː ɑ father
ɪ ɪ ɪ sit
ɪ i i city
i see
ɛ ɛ e bed[2]
ɜː ɝ ɜː bird
æ æ æ lad, cat, ran[3][4]
ɑː ɑɹ arm
ʌ ʌ a run, enough
ɒ ɑ ɔ not, wasp
ɔː ɔ law, caught[5]
ʊ ʊ ʊ put, wood
u ʉː soon, through
ə ə ə about
ə ɚ ə winner
IPA: English Diphthongs
IPA Examples
RP GA AuE
æɪ day, pain
ɑe my, wise
ɔɪ ɔɪ boy
əʊ əʉ no, tow
æɔ now
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə near, here
ɛə ɛɹ hair, there[6]
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə tour
juː ju jʉː pupil
IPA: Marginal Sounds
IPA Examples
x Scottish loch
ʔ uh-(ʔ)oh
IPA: Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), for example rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ Secondary stress, for example battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
. Syllable separator, for example plankton /ˈplæŋk.tən/
 ̩ Syllabic consonant, for example ridden /ˈɹɪdn̩/

References

  1. Some accents, such as Scottish and much of the American South; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
  2. Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  3. Often transcribed /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  4. See bad-lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  5. When these sounds are said differently, the difference is known as the low back merger.
  6. Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries are /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and /eə/.


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