# Encyclopedia

(Redirected to International Standard Book Number article)

A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[1] numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code created by Gordon Foster, now Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin,[2] for the booksellers and stationers W.H. Smith and others in 1966.[3]
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108.[3] (However, the 9-digit SBN code was used in the United Kingdom until 1974.) Currently, the ISO’s TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the ISBN. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.[4]
.Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland EAN-13s.^ Provisional Policy for 13-Digit ISBNs .

^ Convert an ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 Format .
• Convert ISBN-13 from ISBN-10 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn-13.info [Source type: Reference]
• Convert ISBN-13 from ISBN-10 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn-13.info [Source type: General]

^ Why am I seeing 13-digit ISBNs?
• Three Cups of Tea: One Man's Mission to Fight Terrorism And Build Nations . One School at a Time 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC isbn.nu [Source type: General]

[5]
.Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this is usually later rectified.^ The ISBN may is usually printed on the back cover.

^ Where does an ISBN get placed on a book?
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ If the price of the book changes, does the ISBN? .
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.A similar numeric identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines.^ A similar identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), is used for periodical publications such as magazines.
• Interface Graphics - The Self Publishing Experts 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.igigraphics.com [Source type: General]

^ A similar identifier, the International Standard Serial Number ( ISSN ), is used for periodical publications such as magazines.
• Applied Digital - ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.applieddi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Type the ISSN number for periodicals and serials.
• XPLORE ISSN/ISBN Search 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC xplore.xu.edu [Source type: Reference]

## Overview

.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book.^ ISBNs for variant editions .
• BookFinder.com Journal: Industry: ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC journal.bookfinder.com [Source type: General]

^ Each ISBN represents a particular edition of a book.
• Frequently Asked Questions - ISBN | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

• Frequently Asked Questions - ISBN | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed] The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned after January 1, 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 or 5 parts:
.
The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN-13 and barcode.
^ Convert an ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 Format .
• Convert ISBN-13 from ISBN-10 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn-13.info [Source type: Reference]
• Convert ISBN-13 from ISBN-10 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn-13.info [Source type: General]

^ Why am I seeing 13-digit ISBNs?
• Three Cups of Tea: One Man's Mission to Fight Terrorism And Build Nations . One School at a Time 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC isbn.nu [Source type: General]

^ ISBN-10: 0071440860 ISBN-13: 9780071440868 .
• Opamp Title-Keyword, Author & ISBN Search Results 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC opamp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Note the different check digits in each.^ Note that the check digits in ISBN and EAN are computed differently and independently.
• ISBN Encoding from Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cut-the-knot.org [Source type: General]

^ You'll notice, if you look at any book still containing both ISBN and EAN, that the EAN will start with 978, then have the first 9 digits of the ISBN, and then end with a check digit (typically different from the ISBN check digit).
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ So occasionally you will run across different titles with the same ISBN. The check digit is calculated from the preceding 9 digits.

.The part of the EAN-13 labeled "EAN" is the Bookland country code
1. for a 13 digit ISBN, a GS1 prefix: 978 or 979 (indicating the industry; in this case, 978 denotes book publishing)[7]
2. the group identifier, (language-sharing country group)[8]
3. the publisher code,[9]
4. the item number, (title of the book)[9] and
5. a checksum character or check digit.^ Existing 10-digit ISBNs (ISBN-10) need to be converted to the new 13-digit ISBN (ISBN-13) by prefixing them with 978.
• ISBN Book Numbers — National Library of New Zealand 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.natlib.govt.nz [Source type: General]

^ Current ISBNs are changed to 13 digits by being prefixed by 978 and the check digit recalculated accordingly.

^ Why am I seeing 13-digit ISBNs?
• Three Cups of Tea: One Man's Mission to Fight Terrorism And Build Nations . One School at a Time 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC isbn.nu [Source type: General]

[9]
.The ISBN parts may be of different lengths, and usually are separated with hyphens or spaces.^ The true ISBN consists of three parts that may be (but need not be) separated by hyphens.
• Re: So what does ISBN stand for? RE: nifty ISBN search tool 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.great-lakes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ISO standard recommends that each part of the ISBN should be separated by a hyphen or a space.

^ ISBN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISBN and with each of its parts separated from the other by hyphens or spaces.
• MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data: 020: International Standard Book Number (Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress) 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Reference]

[10]

### Group identifier

.The group identifier is a 1 to 5 digit number.^ It also validates the group number and the check digit.
• CMP ISBN Amanuensis 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: General]

^ However, many publishers are allowing textbooks to be made available as electronic books (or e-books) ISBN – an ISBN is a 10 or 13-digit number that identifies a particular title and edition of a book.
• AbeBooks.com: Textbook Terms Glossary: Information Source for students looking for cheap new and used textbooks. 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ An ISBN is a 10-digit number which is made up of: Group identifier (1 digit, typically 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries) Publisher identifier Title identifier Check digit The total length of the publisher and the title identifier is 8 digits.
• Bookland EAN Barcode 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.mecsw.com [Source type: Reference]

.The single digit group identifiers are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries, 7 for People's Republic of China, 957+986 for Republic of China and 962+988 for Hong Kong.^ The first digit identified country of origin.
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ Group Identifier 0 and 1 are used in English-speaking countries.
• ISBN and Printing Requirement 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.morovia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ English-speaking countries 2 - French-speaking countries 3 - German-speaking countries 4 - Japanese-speaking countries 5 - Russian-speaking countries 7 - Chinese-speaking countries The publisher number is then assigned to the book by the national ISBN agency, but the publisher is allowed to select the item number that is to be used.

.An example 5 digit group identifier is 99936, for Bhutan.^ The ISBN is divided into 4 parts: Group identifier (1 digit, typically 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries) Publisher identifier Title identifier Check digit The check digit is used to validate the preceding 9 digits.

^ (The original SBN lacked the country field, but prefixing 0 to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid ISBN.) The country field can be up to 5 digits long; 99936 for instance is used for Bhutan.

^ An ISBN is a 10-digit number which is made up of: Group identifier (1 digit, typically 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries) Publisher identifier Title identifier Check digit The total length of the publisher and the title identifier is 8 digits.
• Bookland EAN Barcode 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.mecsw.com [Source type: Reference]

.In general, the groups are 0–7, 80–94, 950–993, 9940–9989, and 99900–99999.[11] Some catalogs include books that were published with no ISBN but add a non-standard number with an as-yet unallocated 5-digit group such as 99985; this practice is not part of the standard.^ Enter an ISBN - International Standard Book Number; a unique ten digit number assigned...
• Isbn Software - Test::ISBN, Library ISBN Barcoder, WWW::Scraper::ISBN::Driver ... 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.filetransit.com [Source type: General]

^ It also validates the group number and the check digit.
• CMP ISBN Amanuensis 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: General]

^ General information about the ISBN (International Standard Book Numbering) system .
• International Standard Book Number - ninemsn Encarta 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: Reference]

.Books published in rare languages typically have longer group identifiers.^ This group identifier is used to identify the language of the book and are sorted as follows: .

^ This number identifies the publisher and the book title.
• book printer,book publishing company-ISBN numbers for publishers, Instantpublisher.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.instantpublisher.com [Source type: General]

^ Publisher identifier which identifies a particular publisher within a group; 4.
• Frequently Asked Questions About the ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn.org [Source type: General]
• ISBN Info 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.domainamerica.net [Source type: General]

[7]
.The original standard book number (SBN) had no group identifier, but affixing a zero (0) as prefix to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN. Group identifiers form a prefix code; compare with country calling codes.^ The first digit identified country of origin.
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ ISBN - The current book identifier which uniquely identifies each book with a 9 digit core number and a tenth check digit.
• Pubnet.org -- 13-Digit ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.pubnet.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Variable length Publisher code Book number 1 check digit .
• ISBN Encoding from Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.cut-the-knot.org [Source type: General]

### Publisher code

.The national ISBN agency assigns the publisher number (cf.^ Publishers assign ISBN to the book published by them.
• Frequently Asked Questions - ISBN | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

^ Who can assign ISBNs to a publisher?
• Frequently Asked Questions About the ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn.org [Source type: General]
• ISBN | Believers Press | Christian Book Publishing and Self Publishing 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.believerspress.com [Source type: General]
• ISBN Info 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.domainamerica.net [Source type: General]

^ The publisher number is assigned by the national ISBN agency.
• Interface Graphics - The Self Publishing Experts 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.igigraphics.com [Source type: General]

the .category:ISBN agencies); the publisher selects the item number.^ The publisher number is assigned by the national ISBN agency.
• Interface Graphics - The Self Publishing Experts 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.igigraphics.com [Source type: General]

^ The publisher number is assigned by the national ISBN agency, and the item number is chosen by the publisher.

^ This is a simple & cost effective method for having an ISBN number assigned to your work, but identifies "Independent Publisher" as the listed publisher within the major bibliographic databases.
• ISBN Number | Welcome To Publisher Services. Obtain ISBNs in Minutes Online. 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC isbn-us.com [Source type: General]

.Generally, a book publisher is not required to assign an ISBN, nor is it necessary for a book to display its number (except in China; see below).^ Publishers assign ISBN to the book published by them.
• Frequently Asked Questions - ISBN | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

^ International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) are assigned to books and ebooks.

^ Who can assign ISBNs to a publisher?
• Frequently Asked Questions About the ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.isbn.org [Source type: General]
• ISBN | Believers Press | Christian Book Publishing and Self Publishing 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.believerspress.com [Source type: General]
• ISBN Info 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.domainamerica.net [Source type: General]

.However, most book stores only handle ISBN-bearing merchandise.^ Search for "ISBN C#" in Google only return book stores with C# books.
• All posts tagged 'isbn' 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC johndyer.name [Source type: General]
• ISBN Functions in C# (ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 Conversion) 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC johndyer.name [Source type: General]

^ However, many bookstores will only deal with items bearing an ISBN. .
• Interface Graphics - The Self Publishing Experts 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.igigraphics.com [Source type: General]
• ISBN - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, many publishers are allowing textbooks to be made available as electronic books (or e-books) ISBN – an ISBN is a 10 or 13-digit number that identifies a particular title and edition of a book.
• AbeBooks.com: Textbook Terms Glossary: Information Source for students looking for cheap new and used textbooks. 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

.A listing of all the 628,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form (558, US$915.46).^ Publishers assign ISBN to the book published by them. • Frequently Asked Questions - ISBN | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General] ^ If you already have an ISBN number, Instantpublisher.com (an established book publishing company) can create the barcode for$15.00 during the order process.
• book printer,book publishing company-ISBN numbers for publishers, Instantpublisher.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.instantpublisher.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a simple & cost effective method for having an ISBN number assigned to your work, but identifies "Independent Publisher" as the listed publisher within the major bibliographic databases.
• ISBN Number | Welcome To Publisher Services. Obtain ISBNs in Minutes Online. 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC isbn-us.com [Source type: General]

.The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes.^ You can download it free from their web site .
• Swedish ISBN Agency - Kungliga biblioteket 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.kb.se [Source type: Reference]

^ Lulu offers ISBNs in the Lulu Publishing Wizard.
• Lulu Publishing Help - Lulu.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ Does Lulu offer ISBNs?
• Lulu Publishing Help - Lulu.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

[12] .Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1.^ The “0″ is the “language group identifier” which here indicates English.
• Self Publishing Basics: How to Read an ISBN — The Book Designer 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.thebookdesigner.com [Source type: General]

^ Identifies a nationality or language group of publishers.

^ The ISBN is divided into 4 parts: Group identifier (1 digit, typically 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries) Publisher identifier Title identifier Check digit The check digit is used to validate the preceding 9 digits.

.Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the group identifier code, several digits for the publisher, and a single digit for the individual items.^ But the good news for self-publishers is that now individual ISBNs can be allotted to the self-publishers too.
• ISBN for Self Publishers in India | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

^ A group identifier may consist of up to 5 digits.

^ Earlier ISBNs were allotted only in blocks.
• ISBN for Self Publishers in India | Pothi.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC pothi.com [Source type: General]

.Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different publisher number.^ As a consequence, different publisher numbers may correspond to the same publisher.

^ No, once a title is published with an ISBN on it, the ISBN can never be used again.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ Once that block is used up, the publisher can receive another block of numbers, with a different publisher number.

.Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted publisher numbers.^ As a consequence, different publisher numbers may correspond to the same publisher.

^ The ISBN should be unique but a publisher could reuse ISBN's from out of print titles, or simply make a mistake and assign duplicate numbers to different titles.

^ United States publishers may obtain ISSN numbers from the US ISSN Center .
• No need to convert your 10-digit ISBNs -- we'll gladly do that for you! 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.infinitygraphics.com [Source type: Reference]

.There also may be more than one group identifier used in a country.^ Group Identifier 0 and 1 are used in English-speaking countries.
• ISBN and Printing Requirement 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.morovia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is more than one edition, volume, or version, then each one is given a unique number.

^ There's more information available on the standards process on the ISO 2108 site ; the project FAQ is particularly useful.
• BookFinder.com Journal: Industry: ISBN 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC journal.bookfinder.com [Source type: General]

.This might occur if a popular identifier has used up all of its numbers.^ The International Standard Book Number , or ISBN (sometimes pronounced "is-ben"), is a unique [1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially.

^ A similar identifier, the International Standard Serial Number ( ISSN ), is used for periodical publications such as magazines.

^ New & Used Textbooks Price Comparison at 130 stores We can help you save up to 90% on all Textbooks!
• Compare TextBook Prices among 130 bookstores 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.bookfinder4u.com [Source type: General]

.The cited list of identifiers shows this has happened in China and in more than a dozen other countries.^ Some publishers with offices in more than one country (at least when different languages are spoken in those countries) have multiple publisher codes and initial digits.

^ That gave me about five digits of meaningful identifier information, more than enough for the time I was there.

^ In the case of a work issued in more than one volume, an extra ISBN is used to identify each volume.

.By using variable block lengths, a large publisher will have few digits allocated for the publisher number and many digits allocated for titles; likewise countries publishing much will have few allocated digits for the group identifier, and many for the publishers and titles.^ To allocate group identifiers to group agencies.
• RFC 3187 - Using International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource Names 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first digit identified country of origin.
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ The publisher or producer identifier varies in length according to the title output of the publisher or producer concerned.
• ISBN Users' Manual - Appendix 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC isbn.org [Source type: Reference]

[13] .Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations.^ The ISBN is divided into five parts of variable length.
• | ISSN Application | ISBN Application | ATA ISSN & ISBN Application 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC for-issn.net [Source type: General]

^ Some ISBNs use spaces where hyphens are recommended, or put the hyphens in the wrong places, or just write 10 digits without any separation.
• User:LA2/ISBN stats 2007 - Meta 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC meta.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The international ISBN agency expects to run out of some available 10-digit ranges as early as mid-2007.
• randomhouse.biz - ISBN-13 Transition 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.randomhouse.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ISBN Country or area Publisher
99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific
960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications
80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers
85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3 United Kingdom Simon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner
0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen & Co.
0-943396-04-2 English-speaking area Willmann–Bell
0-9752298-0-X English-speaking area KT Publishing

#### Pattern

English-language publisher codes follow a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be easily determined, as follows:[14]
Item number 0- group identifier 1- group identifier Total
From To Number From To Number
6 digits 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-00-xxxxxx-x 1-09-xxxxxx-x 10 30
5 digits 0-200-xxxxx-x 0-699-xxxxx-x 500 1-100-xxxxx-x 1-399-xxxxx-x 300 800
4 digits 0-7000-xxxx-x 0-8499-xxxx-x 1500 1-4000-xxxx-x 1-5499-xxxx-x 1500 3000
3 digits 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5000 1-55000-xxx-x 1-86979-xxx-x 31980 36980
2 digits 0-900000-xx-x 0-949999-xx-x 50000 1-869800-xx-x 1-998999-xx-x 129200 179200
1 digit 0-9500000-x-x 0-9999999-x-x 500000 1-9990000-x-x 1-9999999-x-x 10000 510000

## Check digits

.A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary checksum.^ Example: URN:ISBN:0-395-36341-1 Validation mechanism: Validity of an ISBN string can be checked by modulus 11 check digit, included in the ISBN. X is used instead of 10.
• RFC 3187 - Using International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource Names 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

.It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the message.^ The fourth was a single check digit (only this final "digit" could be an X--all others were actual digits).
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

### ISBN-10

.The 2001 edition of the official manual of the International ISBN Agency says that the ISBN-10 check digit[15] — which is the last digit of the ten-digit ISBN — must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol X is used instead of 10) and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by the integer weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of the number 11. Modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. Each of the first nine digits of the ten-digit ISBN — excluding the check digit, itself — is multiplied by a number in a sequence from 10 to 2, and the remainder of the sum, with respect to 11, is computed.^ Enter an ISBN - International Standard Book Number; a unique ten digit number assigned...
• Isbn Software - Test::ISBN, Library ISBN Barcoder, WWW::Scraper::ISBN::Driver ... 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.filetransit.com [Source type: General]

^ To report regularly to the International ISBN Agency.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Multiply each number with a weight descending from 10 to 2.

.The resulting remainder, plus the check digit, must equal 11; therefore, the check digit is 11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products.^ Check digit = 11 - (sum of products) mod 11 5.

^ The check digit is equal to 10 minus the remainder resulting from dividing the sum of the weighted products of the first 12 digits by 10 with one exception.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The 10 digits of an ISBN represent four fields: a group, publisher, and title identifier, plus a check digit.
• XML.com: Putting ISBNs to Work 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.xml.com [Source type: General]

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows: \begin{align} s &= 0*10 + 3*9 + 0*8 + 6*7 + 4*6 + 0*5 + 6*4 + 1*3 + 5*2 \ &= 0 + 27 + 0 + 42 + 24 + 0 + 24 + 3 + 10 \ &= 130 \ \frac{130}{11} &= 11 + \frac{9}{11} \ 11 - 9 &= 2 \end{align}
Thus, the check digit is 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2.
Formally, the check digit calculation is:
$x_{10} \equiv 11 - (10x_1 + 9x_2 + 8x_3 + 7x_4 + 6x_5 + 5x_6 + 4x_7 + 3x_8 + 2x_9) \, \bmod\; 11.$
.If the result is 11, a '0' should be substituted; if 10, an 'X' should be used.^ Example: URN:ISBN:0-395-36341-1 Validation mechanism: Validity of an ISBN string can be checked by modulus 11 check digit, included in the ISBN. X is used instead of 10.
• RFC 3187 - Using International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource Names 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC tools.ietf.org [Source type: Reference]

.The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are an altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits.^ However, if the publisher needs to identify tracking, trading and discovery between two product types, one of which is an accessible web-based product, then the ISBN can be assigned to the product in its web-based version.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ ISBN is the thirteen-digit number, which replaces the handling of long bibliographic descriptive records.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

.Since 11 is a prime number, the ISBN check digit method ensures that these two errors will always be detected.^ An ISBN always has 10 digits, though these digits can broken up in several ways.

^ The ISBN Number is a unique identification number which is given to pretty much EVERY book published since the standard was internationally adopted in 1970 and the UK (where it was created) since 1966.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The print product and the e-book are two different products and should be tracked separately since the ISBN acts like an ordering number or a serial number.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN.[16]

#### Alternative calculation

The ISBN-10 check-digit can also be calculated in a slightly easier way:
$x_{10} = (1x_1 + 2x_2 + 3x_3 + 4x_4 + 5x_5 + 6x_6 + 7x_7 +8x_8 + 9x_9) \, \bmod\;11.$
.For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-?^ ISBN Barcode a.k.a as International Standard Book Number, Bookland EAN, ISBN-13, ISBN-10, ISBN+5, ISBN+2, ISBN Supplement 5/Five-digit Add-On, ISBN Supplement 2/Two-digit Add-On .
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This regex match both the old 10 digit ISBNs and the new 13 digit ISBNs.
• Regular Expression Library 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC regexlib.com [Source type: General]

^ Naturally an ISBN prefixed by "ISBN-10" must be a 10 digit ISBN. One prefixed by "ISBN-13" must be 13 digits.
• Regular Expression Library 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC regexlib.com [Source type: General]

is calculated as follows:
$(1 * 0 + 2 * 3 + 3 * 0 + 4 * 6 + 5 * 4 + 6 * 0 + 7 * 6 + 8 * 1 + 9 * 5) \, \bmod\; 11 = 145 \, \bmod\; 11 = 2$

### ISBN-13

.The 2005 edition of the International ISBN Agency's official manual[17] covering some ISBNs issued from January 2007, describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated.^ To report regularly to the International ISBN Agency.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Check digit: 5 The fifth element of the ISBN is the check digit.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Accordingly, in January 2007, the ISBN will be redefined from a 10-digit to a 13-digit number.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

.The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first 12 digits of the thirteen-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself).^ Each of the first 12 digits of the ISBN is alternately multiplied by 1 and 3.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In 2007 U.S. publishers will begin to transition to 13-digit ISBNs .
• XML.com: Putting ISBNs to Work 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.xml.com [Source type: General]

^ The check digit is equal to 10 minus the remainder resulting from dividing the sum of the weighted products of the first 12 digits by 10 with one exception.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

.Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results.^ Check digit = 11 - (sum of products) mod 11 5.

^ If check digit is 10, replace it with an X. .

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:
s = 9×1 + 7×3 + 8×1 + 0×3 + 3×1 + 0×3 + 6×1 + 4×3 + 0×1 + 6×3 + 1×1 + 5×3
=   9 +  21 +   8 +   0 +   3 +   0 +   6 +  12 +   0 +  18 +   1 +  15
= 93
93 / 10 = 9 remainder 3
10 –  3 = 7

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.
Formally, the ISBN-13 check digit calculation is:
$x_{13} = 10 - \big(x_1 + 3x_2 + x_3 + 3x_4 + \cdots + x_{11} + 3x_{12}\big) \,\bmod\, 10.$
.This check system — similar to the UPC check digit formula — does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition.^ FYI, the current UPC numbering system (UPC-A) is the EAN-13 system with an assumed first digit of 0 (North America and Canada).
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The fourth was a single check digit (only this final "digit" could be an X--all others were actual digits).
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ After 1 January 2007 the ISBN will be a 13-digit number and all electronic systems will have to be able to accommodate that form.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

.Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition.^ You'll notice, if you look at any book still containing both ISBN and EAN, that the EAN will start with 978, then have the first 9 digits of the ISBN, and then end with a check digit (typically different from the ISBN check digit).
• ISBN numbers: Any significance to the patterns? - Straight Dope Message Board 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ The last digit of the ISBN-13 number will be different than the last digit/letter “X” of the old ISBN number, because it is a calculated check digit based on the other 12 ( ISBN-13 ) or 9 ( ISBN ) digits.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1. The correct order contributes 3×6+1×1 = 19 to the sum; while, if the digits are transposed (1 followed by a 6), the contribution of those two digits will be 3×1+1×6 = 9. However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7. The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0-9 to express the check digit.^ Check digit = 11 - (sum of products) mod 11 5.

^ This is calculated using a modulus 10 algorithm.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ If check digit is 10, replace it with an X. .

.Additionally, If you triple the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits and then add them to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, etc.^ BOOK: VBScript Programmer's Reference, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd editions .
• BOOK: ASP.NET MVC Website Programming Problem Design Solution ISBN: 9780470410950 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC p2p.wrox.com [Source type: General]
• BOOK: Beginning Access 2007 VBA ISBN: 978-0-470-04684-5 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC p2p.wrox.com [Source type: General]

), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e. end in 0).

### Errors in usage

.Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit.^ Check digit: 5 The fifth element of the ISBN is the check digit.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ ISBN in publishing houses is used for: .
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the International ISBN Agency has determined that sometime in the not-too-distant future they will begin to run out of 10-digit numbers for publishers.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

.Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers.^ The owner of the ISBN is the official publisher of the book.

^ An on-line Book Catalogue search by ISBN is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog/browse/premisbn.html provided by Library of Congress , USA. .

^ The purpose of the ISBN is to establish and identify one title or edition of a title from one specific publisher and is unique to that edition, allowing for more efficient marketing of products by booksellers, libraries, universities, wholesalers and distributors.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

[18]
.Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher.^ An on-line Book Catalogue search by ISBN is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog/browse/premisbn.html provided by Library of Congress , USA. .

^ The ISBN Number is a unique identification number which is given to pretty much EVERY book published since the standard was internationally adopted in 1970 and the UK (where it was created) since 1966.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ If you do want to register your book with the Library of Congress, this is the direct link to their publishers' services page: http://www.loc.gov/loc/infopub/ .
• Links & Diversions: Schmidt Kaye & Company Professional Literary Services 29 September 2009 18:018 UTC home.swbell.net [Source type: General]

.The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN".[19] However, book-ordering systems such as Amazon.com will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine.^ The publisher handling order fulfillment places their ISBN on the book.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ Can search engines be assigned ISBNs?
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ An on-line Book Catalogue search by ISBN is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog/browse/premisbn.html provided by Library of Congress , USA. .

## EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading

.Currently, the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits for the currency and the recommended retail price.^ Pricing for distribution requires pricing for the retail markets.
• Lulu Publishing Help - Lulu.com 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ The ISBN Your book's cover price.

^ For ISBN barcodes a Five-digit Add-On is usually used for the Retail Suggested Price.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

[20] .The number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prepended to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN13 formula (modulo 10, 1x, and 3x weighting on alternate digits).^ Check digit: 5 The fifth element of the ISBN is the check digit.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Multiply each number with a weight descending from 10 to 2.

^ If check digit is 10, replace it with an X. .

.Partly because of a pending shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) migrated to a thirteen-digit ISBN (ISBN-13); the process began January 1, 2005 and was to conclude January 1, 2007.[21] Thirteen-digit ISBNs are prefixed with "978" (and the check digit recalculated); as the "978" ISBN supply is exhausted, the "979" prefix will be introduced.^ Accordingly, in January 2007, the ISBN will be redefined from a 10-digit to a 13-digit number.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The process of switching from ISBN to ISBN-13 begun on 1/1/2005.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ From 1 January, 2007 , an ISBN consists of 13 digits preceded by the letters ISBN. .
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

This is expected to occur more rapidly outside the United States; originally, "979" was the "Musicland" code for musical scores with an ISMN, however, ISMN codes will differ visually as they begin with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it will count as a 3.
.Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the "978" and "979" ISBNs, like-wise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same.^ However, the International ISBN Agency has determined that sometime in the not-too-distant future they will begin to run out of 10-digit numbers for publishers.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The ISBN Number is a unique identification number which is given to pretty much EVERY book published since the standard was internationally adopted in 1970 and the UK (where it was created) since 1966.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The print product and the e-book are two different products and should be tracked separately since the ISBN acts like an ordering number or a serial number.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

.Moreover, the ten-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the thirteen-digit ISBN check digit.^ The thirteen digit ISBN is divided into five elements, three of them of variable length; the first and last elements are of fixed length.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ To make available computer print-outs of ISBNs to publishers numbering their own books with check digits already calculated.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The 10 digits of an ISBN represent four fields: a group, publisher, and title identifier, plus a check digit.
• XML.com: Putting ISBNs to Work 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.xml.com [Source type: General]

.Because the EAN/UCC-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the EAN/UCC-14, the UPC-12, and the EAN-8), it is expected that ISBN-generating software should accommodate fourteen-digit ISBNs.^ After 1 January 2007 the ISBN will be a 13-digit number and all electronic systems will have to be able to accommodate that form.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The eventual goal is to go to a GTIN-14 based number system.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The ISBN is a machine-readable in the form of a 13-digit EAN.UCC bar code.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

[22]
.Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing ISBN-10s.^ Pure” EAN-13 is going to replace ISBN completely over time; something that will probably happen to UPC-A / UPC-E eventually too.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Further information on the introduction and use of the EAN-13 bar code symbol is provided by the ISBN group agencies and the International ISBN Agency.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The last digit of the ISBN-13 number will be different than the last digit/letter “X” of the old ISBN number, because it is a calculated check digit based on the other 12 ( ISBN-13 ) or 9 ( ISBN ) digits.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

.So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN-based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems.^ The ISBN only changes if the product changes.
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ To assist the book industry in the use of the ISBN in computer systems.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ If the price of the book changes, does the ISBN? .
• Publishing Basics… for the self publisher » Blog Archive » Whats all this talk about ISBN’s? 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.publishingbasics.com [Source type: General]

Hence, many booksellers (e.g. .Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. Although many American and Canadian booksellers have been able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them.^ ISBN Barcode a.k.a as International Standard Book Number, Bookland EAN, ISBN-13, ISBN-10, ISBN+5, ISBN+2, ISBN Supplement 5/Five-digit Add-On, ISBN Supplement 2/Two-digit Add-On .
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

.The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America.^ Pure” EAN-13 is going to replace ISBN completely over time; something that will probably happen to UPC-A / UPC-E eventually too.
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Further information on the introduction and use of the EAN-13 bar code symbol is provided by the ISBN group agencies and the International ISBN Agency.
• ISBN-Detail 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC education.nic.in [Source type: Reference]

^ FYI, the current UPC numbering system (UPC-A) is the EAN-13 system with an assumed first digit of 0 (North America and Canada).
• One More Day Until The End Of ISBN | ReveNews 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.revenews.com [Source type: General]

Moreover, by January 2007, most large book publishers added ISBN-13 barcodes alongside the ten-digit ISBN barcodes of books published before January 2007.[23]

## Notes

1. ^ Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title — the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German, second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (England) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany).
2. ^ Gordon Fosters original 1966 report can be found here [1] at isbn.org.
3. ^ a b See discussion of the history at isbn.org.
4. ^ ISO 2108:1978.
5. ^ See Frequently Asked Questions about the new ISBN standard from ISO
6. ^ Bradley, Philip (1992). "Book numbering: The importance of the ISBNPDF (245KB). The Indexer. 18 (1): 25–26.
7. ^ a b Hailman, Jack Parker (2008). Coding and redundancy: man-made and animal-evolved signals. Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0674027954.
8. ^ Some books have several codes in the first block (A.M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, 0-387-96331-6 and 3-540-96331-6. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit: 6. Springer uses 431 as their publisher code for Japanese (4) and 4-431-96331-? would also have check digit ? = 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also get check digit ? = 6. This suggests special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not lead the same item number to get the same check digit every time. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect amounts to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.
9. ^ a b c Reed, Kennette (2008). From Idea to Author: How to Become Successfully Published. KRA Publications. p. 47. ISBN 978-0971371842.
10. ^ the international ISBN agency's "ISBN User's Manual" says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces" although permitting their omission for internal data processing, as the prefix code ensures that no two codes begin the same way. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed; See hyphenation instructions at the isbn.org web site.
11. ^ See a complete list of group identifiers. The web site at www.isbn.org now sometimes calls them group numbers. Their table of identifiers now refers to ISBN prefix ranges, which must be assumed to be group identifier ranges.
12. ^ See Publisher's International ISBN Directory
13. ^ Splane, Lily (2002). The Book Book: A Complete Guide to Creating a Book on Your Computer. Anaphase II Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0945962144.
14. ^ Hyphenation Instructions. ISBN.org.
15. ^ ISBN Users' Manual International edition (2001)PDF (685 KB)
16. ^ For example I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN "0-85883-554-4".
17. ^ ISBN Users' Manual International edition (2005)PDF (284 KB)
18. ^ Lorimer, Rowland; Shoichet, Jillian; Maxwell, John W. (2005). Book Publishing I. CCSP Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0973872705.
19. ^ 020 - International Standard Book Number (R) – MARC 21 Bibliographic - Full. Library of Congress.
20. ^ EAN-13Methodology — including a detailed description of the EAN13 format.
22. ^ Are You Ready for ISBN-13? at isbn.org.
23. ^ Willan, Terry. The 13-Digit ISBN: How Will it Affect Libraries?PDF (48.6 KB) Talis.

National and international agencies
Online tools
.
• Special:Booksources, Wikipedia's ISBN search page.
• Free conversion tool: ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 & ISBN-13 to ISBN-10 from the ISBN agency.^ However, the International ISBN Agency has determined that sometime in the not-too-distant future they will begin to run out of 10-digit numbers for publishers.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I added the isnb_dashes(\$isbn) function, which accepts a 10 or 13 digit ISBN number and adds the dashes.
• blyberg.net » Blog Archive » PHP port of ISBN-10/13 tool 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.blyberg.net [Source type: General]

^ Accordingly, in January 2007, the ISBN will be redefined from a 10-digit to a 13-digit number.
• http://www.neodynamic.com/barcodes/ISBN_Barcode.aspx 6 February 2010 11:42 UTC www.neodynamic.com [Source type: Reference]

Also shows correct hyphenation & verifies if ISBNs are valid or not.
• RFC 3187 Using International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform resource names (URN)
• ISBN-13 For Dummies
• Implementation guidelinesPDF (51.0 KB) for the 13 digit ISBN code.

# Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

## English

### Initialism

ISBN

#### Usage notes

It is a common mistake for people to say "ISBN number" even though that is redundant.

#### Translations

• Special:Booksources to look up ISBN codes

# Citable sentences

Up to date as of November 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on International Standard Book Number, which are similar to those in the above article.