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Ibadan
—  City  —
Street scene in Ibadan
Nickname(s): Ile Oluyole
Ibadan is located in Nigeria
Ibadan
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 7°23′47″N 3°55′0″E / 7.39639°N 3.916667°E / 7.39639; 3.916667
Country  Nigeria
State Oyo State
Government
 - Governor Adebayo Alao-Akala
Area
 - Total 1,189.2 sq mi (3,080 km2)
Population (2006)
 - Total 2,550,593
 Density 2,144.5/sq mi (828/km2)
 - Metro Density 647.5/sq mi (250/km2)
 - Ethnicities Yoruba
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+1)
Website http://www.oyostate.gov.ng/

Ibadan (Yoruba: Ìbàdàn or fully Ìlú Ẹ̀bá-Ọ̀dàn, the town at the junction of the savannah and the forest), the capital of Oyo State, is the third largest city in Nigeria by population (after Lagos and Kano), and the largest in geographical area. At independence, Ibadan was the largest and the most populous city in Nigeria and the third in Africa after Cairo and Johannesburg. It is located in south-western Nigeria, 128 km inland northeast of Lagos and 530 km southwest of Abuja, the federal capital and is a prominent transit point between the coastal region and the areas to the north. Its population is 2,550,593[1] according to 2006 census results, including 11 local government areas. The population of central Ibadan, including five LGA:s, is 1 338 659 according to census results for 2006, covering an area of 128 km². Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region, Nigeria since the days of the British colonial rule, and parts of the city's ancient protective walls still stand to this day. The principal inhabitants of the city are the Yoruba people.

Contents

History

Ibadan came into existence in 1829[2] when Lagelu, the Jagun (commander-in-chief) of Ife and Yoruba's generalissimo, left Ile Ife with a handful of people from Ife, Oyo and Ijebu to found a new city, Eba Odan, which literally means 'between the forest and plains.' According to HRH Sir Isaac Babalola Akinyele, the late Olubadan (king) of Ibadan (Olu Ibadan means Lord of Ibadan), in his authoritative book on the history of Ibadan, Iwe Itan Ibadan, printed in 1911, the first city was destroyed due to an incident at an Egungun (masquerade) festival when an Egungun was accidentally disrobed and derisively mocked by women and children in an open marketplace full of people. In Yorubaland, it was an abomination for women to look an Egungun in the eye because the Egunguns were considered to be the dead forefathers who returned to the earth each year to bless their progeny. When the news reached Sango, the then Alaafin of Oyo, he commanded that Eba Odan be destroyed for committing such abominable act.

Lagelu was by now an old, frail man; he could not stop the destruction of his city, but he and some of his people survived the attack and fled to a nearby hill for sanctuary. On the hill they survived by eating oro fruit and snails; later, they cultivated the land and made corn and millets into pap meals known as oori or eko, which they ate with roasted snails. They improvised a bit by using the snail shells to drink the liquefied eko. Ultimately, Lagelu and his people came down from the hill and founded another city called Eba'dan.

The new city instantly grew prosperous and became a commercial nerve centre. Shortly afterwards, Lagelu died, leaving behind a politically savvy people and a very stable community. The newly enthroned Olubadan made a friendly gesture to the Olowu of Owu by allowing Olowu to marry his only daughter, Nkan. Coming from a war campaign one day, the raging Odo Oba (River Oba) would not allow Olowu and his army to cross until a human sacrifice was performed to appease the angry river. The chosen sacrifice was Nkan. The Olubadan was infuriated at hearing of Nkan's death; he sent an emissary to inform the Alafin of Oyo. Yoruba kings and rulers such as Alake of Egba, Agura of Gbagura, Ooni of Ife, Awujale of Ijebu and others formed a formidable coalition with Eba'dan against the powerful Olowu of Owu. After the defeat of Owu, many of the warriors that participated in the coalition refused to go back to their towns and cities except the Ijebu warriors. They began attacking the neighboring towns and hamlets, and also marauded across Eba'dan thereby making the indigenes fearful of them. Finally, they took over the political landscape of Eba'dan and changed its name to Ibadan, as we have come to know it.

Ibadan was historically an Egba town. The Egba occupants were forced to leave the town and moved to present-day Abeokuta under the leadership of Sodeke when the surge of Oyo refugees flocked into the towns as an aftermath of the fall of Oyo Kingdom. Ibadan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1829, Ibadan dominated the Yorùbá region militarily, politically and economically. The military sanctuary expanded even further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oyo following raids by Fulani warriors. After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulanis, many Oyo indigenes retreated deeper into the Ibadan environs.

The Fulani Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, but was decisively defeated by the armies of Ibadan in 1840. The Ibadan area became a British Protectorate in 1893 and by then the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, and Ibadan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today.

Climate

Ibadan
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
8
 
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76
 
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125
 
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74
 
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170
 
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152
 
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43
 
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10
 
33
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average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: BBC Weather

Ibadan has a tropical wet and dry climate, with a lengthy wet season and relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Ibadan’s, wet season runs from March through October, though August sees somewhat of a lull in precipitation. This lull nearly divides the wet season into two different wet seasons. The remaining months forms the city’s dry season. Like a good portion of West Africa, Ibadan experiences the harmattan between the months of November and February.

Education

The first university to be set up in Nigeria was the University of Ibadan today with over 12,000 students. Established as a college of the University of London in 1948, and later converted into an autonomous university in 1962. It has the distinction of being one of the premier educational institutions in Africa. The Polytechnic Ibadan was the first technical institute and is considered to be the best in Nigeria. There are also numerous public and private primary and secondary schools located in the city.

Other noteworthy institutions in the city include the University of Ibadan Teaching Hospital also known as University College Hospital (UCH) which is the first teaching hospital in Nigeria; the internationally acclaimed International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Also Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), and the Institute for Agricultural Research & Training (IAR&T), all under the auspices of Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria;[3] the Forestry Reseach Institute of Nigeria.

Ibadan and its environs before the dissolution of the Western Region, Nigeria was the home of the most sophisticated and liberal scientific and cultural community on the continent of Africa; as personified by the immortalized Ibadan School.

In 1853, the first Europeans to settle in Ibadan, Reverend Hinderer and his wife, started Ibadan's first Western schools. They built churches and schools and the first two-storey building in Ibadan, which can still be found today at Kudeti. The first pupils to attend an elementary school in Ibadan were Yejide (female) and Akinyele (male) -- the two children of an Ibadan high chief.

Transportation

Ibadan has an airport, Ibadan Airport, and was served by the Ibadan Railway Station on the main railway line from Lagos to Kano.(No longer operating). Poorly-maintained roads are particularly problematic in the rainy season. What are called interstate highways in the United States are called carriageways in Nigeria. There are not many miles of divided highways in Ibadan. The primary routes go from Ibadan to Lagos and to Benin City. Adding to the weather and terrain, roads typically have few or no speed limit signs or warning signs to alert the motorist of curves, hills, intersections or problems with the road itself such as large potholes or eroded road beds.[citation needed]

In-town transportation comes in a variety of forms. Modes of transportation include, taxis, taxi-vans commonly called danfos, private cars that are hired out by the day with a driver, personal family cars, scooters, and walking. All fares are negotiable depending upon the number in the party and the distance to be traveled.[citation needed] The average taxi is a small car, which seats four people and the driver. A danfo is a van, meanwhile, which seats seven people and the driver. This does not mean that more people will not be accommodated; often both taxis and danfos carry as many passengers as can squeeze into the vehicle. Danfos have an additional staff member. He is the "conductor," who arranges fare agreements and keeps track of delivery points. He is often to be seen holding onto the frame of the van while hanging out the door in order to locate potential fares.[citation needed] In December 2008 Governor Alao Akala Commissioned 55 brand new buses for interstate transport service which is to be used by Trans City Transport Company (TCTC) Eleyele, Ibadan www.transcitytransport.com with a promise to commence intracity transport service very early next year.

Geography

Ibadan is located in southwestern Nigeria about 120 km east of the border with the Republic of Benin in the forest zone close to the boundary between the forest and the savanna. The city ranges in elevation from 150 m in the valley area, to 275 m above sea level on the major north-south ridge which crosses the central part of the city

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Population

Until 1970, Ibadan was the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa [2]. In 1952, it was estimated that the total area of the city was approximately 103.8 km2 [4] However, only 36.2 km2 was built up. This meant that the remaining 67 km2 were devoted to non-urban uses, such as farmlands, river floodplains, forest reserves and water bodies. These “non-urban land uses” disappeared in the 1960s: an aerial photograph in 1973 revealed that the urban land-scape had completely spread over about 100 km2. The land area increased from 136 km2 in 1981 to 210-240 km2 in 1988-89 (Areola, 1994: 101). By the year 2000, it is estimated that Ibadan covered 400 km2 [5]. The growth of the built-up area during the second half of the 20th century (from 40 km2 in the 1950s to 250 km2 in the 1990s) shows clearly that there has been an underestimation of the total growth of the city. In the 1980s, the Ibadan-Lagos expressway generated the greatest urban sprawl (east and north of the city), followed by the Eleiyele expressway (west of the city). Since then, Ibadan city has spread further into the neighbouring local government areas of Akinyele and Egbeda in particular.

Cityscape

A panorama taken from Mapo Hill.

Monuments, landmarks, and other locations

There is a museum in the building of the Institute of African Studies, which exhibits several remarkable pre-historic bronze carvings and statues. The city has several well stocked libraries, and is home to the first television station in Africa. Dugbe Market is the nerve center of Ibadan's transport and trading network. The best method to move about the city is to use reference points and notable landmarks. The city also has a zoological garden located inside the University of Ibadan, and a botanical garden located at Agodi.

The Bower Memorial Tower to the east on Oke Aàre (Aare's Hill) ("Aare" in Yoruba means commander-in-chief or generalissimo), which can be seen from practically any point in the city; it also provides an excellent view of the whole city from the top. Another prominent landmark, Cocoa House, was the first skyscraper in Africa. It is one of the few skyscrapers in the city and is at the hub of Ibadan's commercial center. Other attractions include Mapo Hall -- the colonial style city hall -- perched on top of a hill, "Oke Mapo," Mapo Hill ("oke" is hill in Yoruba), the Trans-Wonderland amusement park, the cultural centre Mokola and Liberty Stadium, the first stadium in Africa. The first citadel of higher learning, University of Ibadan (formerly the University College of Ibadan), and the first teaching hospital in Nigeria, University College Hospital, UCH, were both built in this ancient but, highly important city. Ibadan is also home to the legendary Shooting Stars FC -- a professional Football Club. There are some good golf courses: the Ibadan Golf Club is a large 18-hole challenge and the Barracks course has just been extended to 18 holes. The most challenging and exclusive is the IITA Golf Club based on the 1,000 hectare premises of IITA.

Economy

With its strategic location on the non-operational railway line connecting Lagos to Kano, the city is a major center for trade in cassava, cocoa, cotton, timber, rubber, and palm oil. The main industries in the area include the processing of agricultural products; flour-milling, leather-working and furniture-making. There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine in its environs, and there are several cattle ranches, a dairy farm as well as a commercial abattoir in Ibadan.

List of people from Ibadan

Ibadan natives of note include:

Sister Cities

References

  1. ^ National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria, provisional results of the 2006 Population Census.
  2. ^ a b Lyold, P.C et.al (1967). The City of Ibadan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521112178. 
  3. ^ "National Agricultural Research Institutes". ARCH. http://www.arcnigeria.org/research_inst.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  4. ^ Areola, O. "The Spatial Growth of Ibadan City and its impact on the rural Hinterland" in M.O Filani, F.O Akintola and C.O Ikporukpo edited Ibadan Region, Rex Charles Publication, Ibadan, 1994 page 99.
  5. ^ Onibokun, P. and Faniran A., Urban research in Nigeria. IFRA and CASSAD, Ibadan, 1995
  6. ^ Cleveland Sister Cities.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Ibadan is the former capital of the entire South Western region of Nigeria excluding Lagos, and currently the capital of Oyo State. It's historic significance in the affairs of the declining Oyo Empire have endowed it with a lot of places to see and it's location at the edge of the Yoruba heartland makes it an ideal location for an exploration of the major Yoruba cities which might not always have as many developed facilities for the foreigner as Ibadan has.

Attractions:

  • Bower Memorial Tower, Mokola Hill.  edit
  • The University of Ibadan, Oyo Road.  edit

Activities: *

Shops: *

Restaurants: *

Bars and clubs: *

Hotels: * Premier Hotel, Mokola Road.  edit

Other listings: *


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

IBADAN, a town of British West Africa, in Yorubaland, Southern Nigeria, 123 m. by rail N.E. of Lagos, and about 50 m. N.E. of Abeokuta. Pop. (1910 estimated at 150,000. The town occupies the slope of a hill, and stretches into the valley through which the river Ona flows. It is enclosed by mud walls, which have a circuit of 18 m., and is encompassed by cultivated land 5 or 6 m. in breadth. The native houses are all low, thatched structures, enclosing a square court, and the only break in the mud wall is the door. There are numerous mosques, orishas (idol-houses) and open spaces shaded with trees. There are a few buildings in the European style. Most of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture; but a great variety of handicrafts is also carried on. Ibadan is the capital of one of the Yoruba states and enjoys a large measure of autonomy. Nominally the state is subject to the alafin (ruler) of Oyo; but it is virtually independent. The administration is in the hands of two chiefs, a civil and a military, the bale and the balogun; these together form the highest court of appeal. There is also an iyaloda or mother of the town, to whom are submitted all the disputes of the women. Ibadan long had a feud with Abeokuta, but on the establishment of the British protectorate the intertribal wars were stopped. In 1862 the people of Ibadan destroyed Ijaya, a neighbouring town of 60,000 inhabitants. A British resident and a detachment of Hausa troops are stationed at Ibadan.

See also Yorubas, Abeokuta and Lagos.


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