Ibn Taymiyyah: Wikis

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Ibn Taymiyyah
Full name Ibn Taymiyyah
Born 1263 CE [1]
Harran[2]
Died 1328 CE [1]
Damascus[2]
Era Medieval era
Region Syrian scholar
School initially Hanbali, later none
Notable ideas Return to Tawhid

Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263 – 1328), full name: Taqī ad-Dīn Abu 'l-ʿAbbās Ahmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd as-Salām Ibn Taymiya al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: تقي الدين أبو العباس أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني‎), was a famous Muslim scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources, the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Contents

Biography

Ibn Taymiyya was born in 1263 at Harran into a well-known family of theologians and died in Damascus, Syria, outside of the Muslim cemetery. His grandfather, Abu al-Barkat Majd ad-deen ibn Taymiyyah al-Hanbali (d. 1255) was a reputable teacher of the Hanbali school of law. Likewise, the scholarly achievements of ibn Taymiyyah's father, Shihab al-deen 'Abd al-Haleem ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1284) were well known. Because of the Mongol invasion, ibn Taymiyyah's family moved to Damascus in 1268 , which was then ruled by the Mamluks of Egypt. It was here that his father delivered sermons from the pulpit of the Umayyad Mosque, and ibn Taymiyyah followed in his footsteps by studying with the great scholars of his time, among them a woman scholar by the name Zaynab bint Makki from whom he learned Hadith.

Ibn Taymiyyah was an industrious student and acquainted himself with the secular and religious sciences of his time. He devoted special attention to Arabic literature and gained mastery over grammar and lexicography as well as studying mathematics and calligraphy. His scholarly zeal combined with his intense partisanship and hypergraphia led many contemporaries and later observers, most notably Ibn Battuta to consider him mentally unbalanced. [5]

As for the religions sciences, he studied jurisprudence from his father and became a representative of the Hanbali school of thought. Though he remained faithful throughout his life to that school, whose doctrines he had decisively mastered, he also acquired an extensive knowledge of the Islamic disciplines of the Qur'an and the Hadith. He also studied theology (kalam), philosophy, and Sufism,[6][citation needed] which he later rejected. He also refuted the Shia Raafidah as well as the Christians. His student Ibn ul-Qayyim al Jawziyyah authored the famous poem "O Christ-Worshipper" which unapologetically examined the dogma of the Trinity propounded by many Christian sects.

His troubles with government began when he went with a delegation of ulamaa to talk to Ghazan Khan, the Khan of the Mongol Ilkhans in Iran, to stop his attack on the Muslims. It is reported that not one of the ulamaa dared to say anything to the Khan except Ibn Taymiyyah who said: "You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Mu'adhdhins, Muftis, Imams and Shaykhs but you invaded us and reached our country for what? While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise. But you promised and broke your promise."[7]

Image of Ghazan Khan who was harshly rebuked by Ibn Taymiyyah.
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His struggle

Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the recourse to kalam towards understanding the Asma Wa Sifat (Divine Names and Attributes of God) as that was not the precedence established by the salaf. He argued that the companions and the early generations didn't resort to philosophical explanations towards understanding the Divine Names and Attributes. He further argued that had salaf found any benefit in resorting to Kalam they would have done it and encouraged it. Therefore, Ibn Taymiyyah was accused by his opponents albeit speciously that he was anthropomorphic in his stance towards Names and Attributes of Allah.

In fact, in his book Kitabul Wasitiyyah, Ibn Taymiya refutes the stance of the Mushabbihah (those who liken the creation with Allah: anthropomorphism) and those who deny, negate, and resort to allegorical/metaphorical interpretations of the Divine Names and Attributes. He contends that the methodology of the salaf is to take the middle path between the extremes of anthropomorphism and negation/distortion. He further states that salaf affirmed all the Names & Attributes of Allah without tashbih (establishing likeness), takyeef (speculating as to "how" they are manifested in the divine), ta'teel (negating/denying their apparent meaning, and without ta'weel (giving it secondary/symbolic meaning which is different from the apparent meaning).

Often cited is the famous incidence of Imam Malik in which he succinctly responded to a man who inquired: How did Allah rise over (istawa) over the Throne? He responded that rising over (istiwa) is known, "how" is not understood, having faith upon it is mandatory, and inquiring and questioning regarding such matters is a reprehensible innovation (bid'a). So Imam Malik affirms the apparent meaning without likening, establishing howness, and neither resorting to metaphorical explanations.

Ibn Taymiyyah also censured the scholars for blindly conforming to the precedence of early jurists without any resort to Qur'an & Sunnah. He contended that although juridical precedence has its place, blindly giving it authority without contextualization, sensitivity to societal changes, and evaluative mindset in light of Qur'an & Sunnah can lead to ignorance and stagnancy in Islamic Law. Ibn Taimiya likened the extremism of Taqleed (blind conformity to juridical precedence or school of thought) to the practice of Jews who took their rabbis as gods besides Allah.

Due to Ibn Taymiya's outspokenness, uncompromising deference to the salaf, and utter intolerance for any views other than his own, he was imprisoned several times for conflicting with the 'ijma of jurists and theologians of his day.

Apart from that, he led the resistance of the Mongol invasion of Damascus in 1300. In the years that followed, Ibn Taymiyyah was engaged in intensive polemic activity against: (1) the Kasrawan Shi'a in Lebanon, (2) the Rifa'i Sufi order, and (3) the ittihadiyah school, a school that grew out of the teaching of Ibn 'Arabi, whose views were widely denounced as heretical.

In 1306 Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned in the citadel of Cairo for eighteen months on the charge of anthropomorphism. He was incarcerated again in 1308 for several months.

Ibn Taymiyyah spent his last fifteen years in Damascus where a circle of disciples formed around him from every social class. The most famous of these, Ibn Qayyim, was to share in Ibn Taymiyyah's renewed persecutions. From August 1320 to February 1321 Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned on orders from Cairo in the citadel of Damascus for supporting a doctrine that would curtail the ease with which a Muslim man could traditionally divorce his wife.

Ibn Taymiyyah was also a staunch critic of veneration of tombs and treating them as place of worship and supplication. He stated that when a Muslim says "La ILAHA ILLA ALLAH" (also known as the Shahadah), he/she testifies that he/she will worship Allah and Allah alone. Therefore, going through intermediaries, invoking them, and seeking their assistance is an act of shirk (associating partners in the worship of Allah). Ibn Taymiya argued that salaf affirmed that belief in Tawheed entails believing in Allah's Lordship that He alone is the Rabb, and secondly one must worship Him and Him alone. Belief that Allah alone is worthy of worship is central to Islam and it is crucial reason why pagans of Muhammad's time rejected him even though they believed Allah as Rabb and affirmed His existence. However, they opposed Muhammad when it came to the second point, and that is to worship Allah alone, and repudiate completely worship, supplication, seeking assistance, and deification of any other object.

Ibn Taymiyyah further explains that worship (also known as ibada) has a broad scope in Islam for it requires complete uboodiyah(servitude) to Allah. Therefore, worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as five times daily prayers and fasting along with Dua (supplication), Istia'dha(seeking protection or refuge), Ist'ana (seeking help), and istigatha (seeking benefits). Therefore, making dua to something other than Allah, or seeking supernatural help and protection which is only befitting of a divine being from something other than Allah are acts of shirk and contradict Tawheed. Therefore, he strongly condemned those who excessively venerated graves and saints supplicating to them, invoking them in times of need, and seeking to draw closer to Allah through them. He condemned them for treating the saints who had passed away as intercessors, protectors, and benefactors for no one deserves to be Loved, Feared, Invoked in times of Need, sought refuge in, and supplicated to other than Allah. He concludes that seeking to draw closer to Allah by means of righteous intermediaries was the practice of pagans of Muhammad's time for they treated their idols as their intercessors with Allah.

Opponents and critics of Ibn Taymiyah claim that he rejected Intercession completely as proved in Qur'an and Sunnah. However, his proponents argue citing evidence from his writings that the type of intercession Ibn Taymiya rejected was the type not sanctioned by Qur'an or Sunnah and neither by the conduct of Salaf. In fact, Ibn Taymiya upheld that anyone who rejected the Intercession of Muhammad on the day of Judgment had indeed disbelieved. He also affirmed that Allah will allow the martyrs, scholars, memorizers of Qur'an, and angels to intercede on behalf of the believers on the Day of Judgement. However, what he condemned was asking them while they are no longer alive for their intercession since two conditions of Intercession are that (1) Allah chooses the intercessor, and (2) chooses the people on whose behalf intercession is possible. Therefore, Allah should be asked when intercession is sought.

Furthermore, Ibn Taymiyyah states that types of intercession that are legal are: (1) Intercession through the Names and Attributes of Allah, (2) intercession through one's good deed, and (3) intercession through requesting the righteous people who are alive for dua. He further explains that on the day of Judgement, Muhammad and everyone else will be alive and therefore, their intercession can be sought just like in this world, we ask each other to make dua for the other. Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the notion that saints and prophets should be invoked for intercession while they have departed from this world. He argues that Allah is the Most Merciful, and seeking intercession and intermediaries towards forgiveness implies that a saint or a prophet is more merciful and understanding than Allah.

Ibn Taymiyyah was known for his prodigious memory and encyclopedic knowledge. Al-Subkî said: "He memorized a lot and did not discipline himself with a shaykh." He taught, authored books, gave formal legal opinions, and generally distinguished himself for his quick wit and photographic memory.[8] And about his encyclopedic knowledge, we learn from Kamaal ad-Deen Ibn az-Zamlakaanee, who debated with Ibn Taymiyyah on more than one occasion, that:

Whenever he was questioned on a particular field of knowledge, the one who witnessed and heard (the answer) concluded that he had knowledge of any other field and that no one possessed such as his knowledge. The jurists of all groups, whenever they sat with him, they would benefit from him regarding their own schools of thought in areas they previously were unaware of. It is not known that he debated anyone whereby the discussion carne to a standstill or that whenever he spoke on about a particular field of knowledge – whether it be related to the sciences of the Sharee'ah or else – that he would not then excel the specialists of that field and those who are affiliated to it." [9]

Views

Jihad

Ibn Taymiyyah is known for his devotion to jihad

the best of the forms of voluntary service man can devote to God. The ulema agree in proclaiming it superior to pilgrimage, for men, and to the `umra, as well as to prayer and supererogatory fasts, as is shown in the Book and in the Prophetic Sunnah.[10]

Mongol invasion

What has been called Ibn Taymiyyah "most famous" fatwa[11] was issued against the Mongols (or Tartars), in the Mamluk's war. Ibn Taymiyyah declaring jihad upon the Mongols not only permissible, but obligatory. He based this ruling on the grounds that the Mongols could not be true Muslims despite the fact that they had converted to Sunni Islam because they ruled using 'man-made laws' (their traditional Yassa code) rather than Islamic law or Shari'ah, and thus were living in a state of jahiliyya, or pre-Islamic pagan ignorance.[12][13]

Madh'hab

Ibn Taymiyyah held that much of the Islamic scholarship of his time had declined into modes that were inherently against the proper understanding of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. He strove to:

  1. revive the Islamic faith's understanding of true adherence to Tawhid,
  2. eradicate beliefs and customs that he held to be foreign to Islam, and
  3. to rejuvenate correct Islamic thought and its related sciences.

Ibn Taymiyyah believed that the first three generations of Islam (Arabic: Salaf) – Muhammad, his companions, and the followers of the companions from the earliest generations of Muslims – were the best role models for Islamic life. Their practice, together with the Qur'an, constituted a seemingly infallible guide to life. Any deviation from their practice was viewed as bidah, or innovation, and to be forbidden.

Meaning of the Qur'an

When it came to the Divine Names and Attributes, Ibn Taimiyyah held that apparent meanings of the words are to be affirmed. He rejected resorting to allegorical interpretations, speculative theology (kalam), and other philosophical methodologies when it came to understanding Divine Essence and Being. Ibn Taimiyyah firmly believed that Divine Names and Attributes are to be understood as understood by the salaf: without likening them to the creation, without distorting their meaning, and without negating them.

Ibn Taimiyyah's opponent often charged Ibn Taimiyyah with anthropomorphism on the grounds that he affirmed the apparent meanings of the words such as "Hand" and "Face" of Allah. However, in his various books, Ibn Taimiyyah categorically rejects likening Allah to the creation, and considered it to be an act of kufr (disbelief), and staunchly denounced the mushabbihas.

However, Ibn Taiymiyyah argued that just as one of the names of Allah is As-Samee (The All-Hearing), and since you human beings are also capable of hearing does not mean there is similarity between the Creator and the created. Rather, Allah is All-Hearing "in a manner that befits His Majesty." Similarly, when Qur'an states that Allah has the attribute of a Face, than this attribute is specific only to Him without having any similarity to the creation even though creation has a face.

It should be noted that Ibn Taimiyyah was not a dhahiri (those who take the apparent/literal meaning in matters of jurisprudence thus rejecting analogical reasoning, purpose, and wisdom behind the rulings as a source of understanding and deducing Islamic Law). Ibn Taimiyyah referred to all four major school of thoughts but presented the opinion which he thought was the strongest given the evidence.

Sufism

He rejected the creed popular amongst many Sufis entirely (the Ash`ari creed) in many of his works, especially al-Aqeedat al-Waasittiyah wherein he refuted the Asha'ira, the Jahmiyya and the Mu'tazila

Nevertheless, Ibn Taymiyah was praised by the Sufi Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Qawwam, who said: "Our Sufism became sound only at the hands of Ibn Taymiyah."[14]

Shi'a

Ibn Taymiyyah believed Shia Islam to be a heresy and developed a formal refutation of Shi'ism that is popular with modern day Sunni opponents. He sanctioned violence against Shia,[15] and has been said to "set the tone" for much later conflict between the two movements.[15] He also rejected the Shi'ite dogma of the Imamate on the grounds that there is no mention of Imamate in the Quran or in the established Sunnah of the Prophet. He argued the Quran has no esoteric meaning since it should be read literally.

Non-Muslims

Ibn Taymiyyah strongly opposed borrowing from Christianity or other non-Muslim religions. In his text On the Necessity of the Straight Path (kitab iqtida al-sirat al-mustaqim) he preached that the beginning of Muslim life was the point at which `a perfect dissimilarity with the non-Muslims has been achieved.` To this end he opposed the celebration of the Prophet Muhammad's birthday or the construction of mosques around the tombs of Sufi "saints" saying: `Many of them [the Muslims] do not even know of the Christian origins of these practices. Accursed be Christianity and its adherents!` [16]

Shrines

Since he was a strong proponent of Tawhid, ibn Taymiyyah opposed giving any undue religious honors to shrines (even that of Jerusalem, Al-Aqsa), to approach or rival in any way the Islamic sanctity of the two most holy mosques within Islam, Mecca (Masjid al Haram) and Medina (Masjid al-Nabawi).[17]

On governance and Islamic history

Ibn Taymiyya eulogized various Islamic rulers throughout history, notably, Abu Mansur Sebuk Tigin, the pious 10th century Ghaznavid ruler. Sebük Tigin had grown concerned over the increasing amount of innovation (commonly known as bidah) in the Islamic creed, and he consequently censured those who he believed were promulgating heretical doctrines or beliefs that contravened orthodox Sunni principles.[18]

Ibn Taymiyyah duly eulogized the Ghaznavid ruler, stating that:

He commanded that Ahlul Bidah be publicly cursed on the minbars, and as a result the Jahmiyyah, Rafida, Hulooliyah, Mu'tazilah, and Qadariyah were all publicly cursed, along with the Asharites.[19]

Ibahah

Muslim jurists have long held that the legal tradition initiated by the Qur'an includes a principle of permissibility, or Ibahah (Arabic إباحة), especially as applied to commercial transaction. "Nothing in them [voluntary transactions] is forbidden," said Ibn Taymiyyah, "unless God and His Messenger have decreed them to be forbidden." The idea is founded upon two verses in the Qur'an, 4:29 and 5:1.

Quotes

  • “What can my enemies possibly do to me? My paradise is in my heart; wherever I go it goes with me, inseparable from me. For me, prison is a place of (religious) retreat; execution is my opportunity for martyrdom; and exile from my town is but a chance to travel.” [20]
  • "The perfection of tawhid is found when there remains nothing in the heart except [the remembrance of] Allah, the servant is left loving those He loves and what He loves, hating those He hates and what He hates, showing allegiance to those He has allegiance to, showing enmity to those He shows enmity towards, ordering what He orders and prohibiting what He prohibits."[21]
  • "Sins are like chains and locks preventing their perpetrator from roaming the vast garden of tawhid and reaping the fruits of righteous actions." [22]
  • "The one who is (truly) imprisoned is the one whose heart is imprisoned from Allah, and the captivated one is the one whose desires have enslaved him." [23]

Legacy

Analogical reasoning

Ibn Taymiyyah argued against the certainty of syllogistic arguments and in favour of analogy. His argument is that concepts founded on induction are themselves not certain but only probable, and thus a syllogism based on such concepts is no more certain than an argument based on analogy. He further claimed that induction itself is founded on a process of analogy. His model of analogical reasoning was based on that of juridical arguments.[24][25] This model of analogy has been used in the work of John F. Sowa.[25]

Students and intellectual heirs

Historical views

Throughout history, many scholars and thinkers have praised ibn Taymiyyah and his works.

Ibn Taymiyya's views and manners created intense controversy both in his life and after his death.

  • Imâm S.alâh. al-Dîn al-S.afadî said: "The Shaykh, Imâm, and erudite scholar Taqî al-Dîn Ah.mad ibn Taymiyya – Allâh have mercy on him! – was immensely learned but he had a defective intelligence (`aqluhu nâqis.) that embroiled him into perils and made him fall into hardships." [26]
  • Ibn Taymiyyah's student and renowned scholar in his own right, Ibn Kathir stated:

    He (Ibn Taymiyyah) was knowledgeable in fiqh. And it was said that he was more knowledgeable of fiqh of the madh'habs than the followers of those very same madh'habs, (both) in his time and other than his time. He was a scholar of the fundamental issues, the subsidiary issues, of grammar, language, and other textual and intellectual sciences. And no scholar of a science would speak to him except that he thought the science was of speciality of Ibn Taymiyyah. As for Hadith, then he was the carrier of its flag, a Hafidh, able to distinguish the weak from the strong and fully acquainted with the narrators.[27]

  • Ibn Taymiyyah's other student, Al-Dhahabi stated:

    Ibn Taymiyyah...the matchless individual of the time with respect to knowledge, cognizance, intelligence, memorisation, generosity, asceticism, excessive braveness and abundancy of (written) works. May Allah rectify and direct him. And we, by the praise of Allah, are not amongst those who exaggerate about him and nor are we of those who are harsh and rough with him. No one with perfection like that of the Imams and Tabieen and their successors has been seen and I did not see him (Ibn Taymiyyah) except engrossed in a book.[28]}} Adh-Dhahabi however, after praising his teacher Ibn Taymiyya, also states: "He also had some strange opinions on account of which he was attacked." [29]

  • Al-Sakhâwî noted: "Certain people gave rise to disavowal and a general reluctance to make use of their knowledge despite their stature in knowledge, pious scrupulosity, and asceticism. The reason for this was the looseness of their tongues and their tactlessness in blunt speech and excessive criticism, such as Ibn H.azm and Ibn Taymiyya, who were subsequently tried and harmed."[30]
  • The widely-known Hanbali scholar, Ibn Rajab stated:

    He (Ibn Taymiyyah) is the Imam, the legal jurist, the Mujtahid, the Scholar of Hadith, the Hafiz, the Explainer of the Quran, the Ascetic, Taqi ad-Din Abu al-Abbas Shaykh al-Islam, the most knowledgable of the knowledgable. It is not possible to exaggerate his renown when he is mentioned and his fame does not require us to write a lengthy tract on him. He, may Allah have mercy upon him, was unique in his time and with respect to understanding the Quran and knowledge of the realities of faith...[31]

  • The famed Shafi scholar, Al-Mizzi stated: "I have not seen the likes of him (Ibn Taymiyyah) and his own eye had not seen the likes of him. I have not seen one who has more knowledge than he of the Book of the Sunnah of his Messenger, nor one who followed them more closely."[32]
  • The famous muhaddith, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani stated:

    The acclaim of Taqi ad-Din (Ibn Taymiyyah) is more renowned than that of the Sun and titling him Shaykh al-Islam of his era remains until our time upon the virtuous tongues. It will continue tomorrow just as it was yesterday. No one refutes this but a person who is ignorant of his prestige or one who turns away from justice...[33]

More modern thinkers include an 18th century Arabian scholar named Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, who studied the works of ibn Taymiyyah and aimed to revive his teachings.

Ibn Taymiyyah is also revered as an intellectual and spiritual exemplar by many contemporary Salafis.

Works

Ibn Taymiyyah left a considerable body of work (350 works listed by his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya[34] and 500 by other student al-Dhahabi[35]) that has been republished extensively in Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and India. His work extended and justified his religious and political involvements and was characterized by its rich content, sobriety, and skillful polemical style. Extant books and essays written by ibn Taymiyyah include:

  • A Great Compilation of Fatwa—(Majmu al-Fatwa al-Kubra) This was collected centuries after his death, and contains several of the works mentioned below.
  • Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah—(The Pathway of as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah)—Volumes 1–4
  • Majmoo' al-Fatawa—(Compilation of Fatawa) Volumes 1–36
  • al-Aqeedah Al-Hamawiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Hamawiyyah)
  • al-Aqeedah Al-Waasittiyah—(The Creed to the People of Waasittiyah)
  • al-Asma wa's-Sifaat—(Allah's Names and Attributes) Volumes 1–2
  • 'al-Iman—(Faith)
  • al-Jawab as Sahih li man Baddala Din al-Masih (Literally, "The Correct Response to those who have Corrupted the Deen (Religion) of the Messiah"; A Muslim theologian's response to Christianity)—seven volumes, over a thousand pages.
  • as-Sarim al-Maslul ‘ala Shatim ar-RasulThe Drawn Sword against those who insult the Messenger. Written in response to an incident in which Ibn Taymiyyah heard a Christian insulting Muhammad. The book is well-known because he wrote it entirely by memory, while in jail, and quoting more than hundreds of references.[36]
  • Fatawa al-Kubra
  • Fatawa al-Misriyyah
  • ar-Radd 'ala al-Mantiqiyyin (Refutation of Greek Logicians)
  • Naqd at-Ta'sis
  • al-Uboodiyyah—(Subjection to Allah)
  • Iqtida' as-Sirat al-Mustaqim'—(Following The Straight Path)
  • al-Siyasa al-shar'iyya
  • at-Tawassul wal-Waseela
  • Sharh Futuh al-Ghayb—(Commentary on Revelations of the Unseen by Abdul-Qadir Gilani)

Some of his other works have been translated to English. They include:

  • The Friends of Allah and the Friends of Shaytan
  • Kitab al Iman: The Book of Faith
  • Diseases of the Hearts and their Cures
  • The Relief from Distress
  • Fundamentals of Enjoining Good & Forbidding Evil
  • The Concise Legacy
  • The Goodly Word
  • The Madinan Way
  • Ibn Taymiyya against the Greek logicians

References

  1. ^ a b c Ibn Taymiyyah: Profile and Biography
  2. ^ a b Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din (1263–1328)
  3. ^ Mountains of Knowledge, pg 222
  4. ^ Mountains of Knowledge, pg 220
  5. ^ Little, Donald P. "Did Ibn Taymiyya Have a Screw Loose" Studia Islamica No. 41 (1975), pp. 93–111 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1595400
  6. ^ see aqidatul-waasitiyyah daarussalaam publications
  7. ^ SCHOLARS BIOGRAPHIES \ 8th Century \ Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
  8. ^ Al-Subkî, Fatâwâ cited in his al-I`tibâr (3rd epistle of al-Durra al-Mud.iyya p. 59)
  9. ^ Ar-Radd al-Waafir, pg. 58.
  10. ^ al-Siyasa al-Shar'iyya, translated in Laoust, Henri, Le traité de droit public d'Ibn Taimiya, Beirut, 1948, quoted in Kepel, Gilles, The Prophet and the Pharaoh, University of California Press, (2003), p.198
  11. ^ Janin, Hunt. Islamic law : the Sharia from Muhammad's time to the present by Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer , McFarland and Co. Publishers, 2007 p.79
  12. ^ Taqi al-Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya
  13. ^ Kepel, Gilles, The Prophet and the Pharaoh, (2003), p.194
  14. ^ "IBN TAYMIYAH (AH 661-728/1263-1328 CE), more fully Taqi al-Din Abu al-’Abbas Ahmad ibn ‘Abd alHalim ibn ‘Abd al-Salam al-Harra". Muslimphilosophy.com. 2007-09-06. http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/it/itya.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  15. ^ a b Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.94
  16. ^ Muhammad `Umar Memon, Ibn Taymiyya's Struggle against Popular Religion, with an annotated translation of Kitab Iqitada, the Hague, (1976) p.78, 210
  17. ^ "A Muslim Iconoclast (Ibn Taymiyyeh) on the 'Merits' of Jerusalem and Palestine", by Charles D. Matthews, Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 56 (1935), pp. 1–21. [Includes Arabic text of manuscript of Ibn Taymiyya's short work Qa'ida fi Ziyarat Bayt-il-Maqdis قاعدة في زيارة بيت المقدس]
  18. ^ The Ash'aris: in the Scales of Ahlus Sunnah, Shaykh al-Jasim, pg. 155
  19. ^ al-Jasim, pg. 155
  20. ^ IBN TAYMIYAH (AH 661-728/1263-1328 CE), more fully Taqi al-Din Abu al-’Abbas Ahmad ibn ‘Abd alHalim ibn ‘Abd al-Salam al-Harra
  21. ^ Ibn Qayyim, al-Madarij (3/485
  22. ^ Majmu Fatawa 14/49
  23. ^ Ibn Qayyim, al-Wabil, pg 69
  24. ^ Ruth Mas (1998). "Qiyas: A Study in Islamic Logic". Folia Orientalia 34: 113-128. ISSN 0015-5675. http://www.colorado.edu/ReligiousStudies/faculty/mas/LOGIC.pdf. 
  25. ^ a b John F. Sowa; Arun K. Majumdar (2003). "Analogical reasoning". Conceptual Structures for Knowledge Creation and Communication, Proceedings of ICCS 2003. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/analog.htm. , pp. 16-36
  26. ^ Al-S.afadî, Sharh. Lâmiyya al-`Ajam li al-T.ughrâ'î, in al-Nabahânî, Shawâhid al-H.aqq (p. 189).
  27. ^ Mountains of Knowledge, pg. 220, quoting Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah'(14/118-119)
  28. ^ Mountains of Knowledge, pg. 222–223
  29. ^ Al-Dhahabî, al-`Ibar (4:84).
  30. ^ al-Tawbîkh (p. 61)
  31. ^ Relief from Distress, pg. xxiii, footnote ibn Rajab, [2/387-392]
  32. ^ Bahajtul Baitar, Hayat Shaykh Al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, pg 21
  33. ^ Relief from distress, pg. xx–xxi, quoting Radd al-Wafir in footnote
  34. ^ Ibn Taimiyah
  35. ^ M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Pakistan Philosophical Congress, p. 798
  36. ^ Ibn Taymiyyah wrote the entire book ‘as-Sarim al-Maslul’ from memory!

Also:

  • Kepel, Gilles – Muslim extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and pharaoh. With a new preface for 2003. Translated from French by Jon Rothschild. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003. See p. 194–199.
  • Little, Donald P. – "Did Ibn Taymiyya have a screw loose?", Studia Islamica, 1975, Number 41, pp. 93–111.
  • Makdisi, G. – "Ibn Taymiyya: A Sufi of the Qadiriya Order", American Journal of Arabic Studies, 1973
  • Sivan, Emmanuel – Radical Islam: Medieval theology and modern politics. Enlarged edition. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990. See p. 94–107.
  • Michot, Yahya – Ibn Taymiyya: Muslims under non-Muslim Rule. Texts translated, annotated and presented in relation to six modern readings of the Mardin fatwa. Foreword by James Piscatori. Oxford & London: Interface Publications, 2006. ISBN 0-9554545-2-2.

External links


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