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An artist's impression of Ice age Earth at glacial maximum.
^ I hate the cold period of the year so, down with the glacial age ...but your ice shapes are so dreamy...like theSuperman planet Posted 13 months ago.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given that something had put the Earth into a state conducive to glaciation, what made the ice sheets grow and then retreat, over and over again?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.Based on: "Ice age terrestrial carbon changes revisited" by Thomas J. Crowley (Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol.^ But — based on how it has been described here — I can’t see Ice Age as being either.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We know the global warming industry got it’s start in the 70’s with the exploration of the return of this current ice age (are we still only in a brief warming trend?
  • Holdren’s Ice Age Tidal Wave - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 11, 2009 - 14:30 ET by Admesser I'd rather have global warming than a freaking ice age.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

9, 1995, pp. 377-389
The Antarctic ice sheet. Ice sheets expand during an ice age.
Variations in temperature, CO2, and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years
.The general term "ice age" or, more precisely, "glacial age" denotes a geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in an expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.^ A few more long temperature records: .
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supermooi vodka on the blue rocks ,.-) Behind this you find a lost polar bear eating his smoked salmon ( it's a spoilt polar bear ;-))) daar beneden ligt 90% van de ijsberg V V V Page 1, Explore The general term ice age or, more precisely, "glacial age" denotes a geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in an expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A hummock is a boss or rounded knoll of ice rising above the general level of an ice-field, Hummocky ice is caused by slow and unequal pressure in the main body of the packed ice, and by unequal structure and temperature at a later period.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An ice age is a natural system.^ Just how that could govern the ice ages remained uncertain, for the climate system turned out to be dauntingly complex.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Improved calculations said that the next ice age would not come naturally within the next ten thousand years or so.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of extra cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials". Glaciologically, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in the northern and southern hemispheres;[1] by this definition we are still in the ice age that began at the start of the Pleistocene (because the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets still exist).^ Figure 3 –Little Ice age and warm periods .
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greenland ice sheet is a daunting sight.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Davis believed he saw a pattern, in which the warm interglacial periods were long.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.More colloquially, "the ice age" refers to the most recent colder period that peaked at the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 20,000 years ago, in which extensive ice sheets lay over large parts of the North American and Eurasian continents.^ The image above shows the interpreted extent of glacial ice during the last glacial maximum 21,000 years ago.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.This article will use the term ice age in the former, glaciological, sense: glacials for colder periods during ice ages and interglacials for the warmer periods.^ I hate the cold period of the year so, down with the glacial age ...but your ice shapes are so dreamy...like theSuperman planet Posted 13 months ago.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But during the post-flood ice age, they began to use stone because it was so easily obtained and worked.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By participating in our Site activities, you certify that you meet the age and other eligibility requirements for this Site as set forth in our Terms of Use Agreement .
  • Ice Age - Three Melons | SPIKE 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Origin of ice age theory

In 1742 Pierre Martel (1706–1767), an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy.[3] Two years later he published an account of his journey. .He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the fact that the glaciers had once extended much farther.^ The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Erratics are boulders that have been transported long distances and deposited by glaciers.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glacial erratics comprise much of the fieldstone that has plagued generations of northern farmers.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] Later similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. .In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin (1767–1858) explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further.^ The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier (1786–1855) in 1834.[6] Comparable explanations are also known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland[7] and in Goethe's Scientific Work [8].^ After discussions with geologists and other Floods experts, it was agreed that this approach was overly simplistic and would not work as originally intended.
  • Section J: Interpretation 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such explanations could also be found in other parts of the world.^ Replication of similar samplings elsewhere by other researchers could be useful - before such opportunities have melted away.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra (1806–1878) visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850 the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers.[9]
Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder what had caused the dispersal of erratic material. From the middle of the 18th century some discussed ice as a means of transport. .The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas (1712–1772) was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions.^ Most investigators first come to it by air, past colossal bare cliffs where unimaginable quantities of ice pour down to the sea in a slow-motion flood.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reference to the sea creature which would be kept under close watch when its presence threatened coastal peoples also is suggestive of a time when such creatures still existed.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton (1726–1797), explained erratic boulders in the Alps with the action of glaciers.^ The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Two decades later, in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg (1780–1851) published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula.^ Now, two decades later, they have received the most prestigious prize in science.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

He regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon.[12] .Only a few years later, the Danish-Norwegian Geologist Jens Esmark (1763–1839) argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ice-ages did not begin until 2.5 million years ago, unless you wish to be difficult and go back a few hundred million years when the earth was a ball of ice 1,500 meters thick--twice.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very few visitors who travel to Israel and Jordan recognize the evidences left by the powerful, Biblical ice age precipitation in the days of Job.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations.^ Just as the tilt of the axis gives us summer and change, the wobble causes climate change - not greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Greenhouse gases could have caused an ice age, claim scientists - Telegraph 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It was a particularly tiny variation; the changes it caused should be trivial compared with the shorter-term and larger orbital shifts, not to mention all the other influences on climate.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But his results turned out to tell less about the causes of human evolution than about the causes of climate change.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He attempted to show that they originated from changes in the Earth's orbit.^ The timing of the cycles was apparently set by minor changes in sunlight caused by slow variations of the Earth's orbit.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I agree with you about the Milankovitch Cycles [these are cycles of changes in solar radiation reaching the Earth caused by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Years later, when scientists attempted to reproduce the results with they original data, they couldn't.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

[13] .During the following years, Esmark’s ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish, Scottish and German scientists.^ Rahm was part of the Clintons strategy team that kept Clinton fighting during the eight years of Ken Star investigation.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson (1774–1854) seemed to be relatively open towards Esmark's ideas. Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most probably prompted by Esmark.[14] In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi (1797–1849), professor of forestry at Dreissigacker, adopted Esmark's theory. .In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the temperate zones of the globe.^ This is not far north of the Antarctic where there is a giant ice cap today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.Independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz (1788–1859) in 1829, explained the dispersal of erratic boulders in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains and the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers.^ The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.
  • Ice Age reaches Amsterdam 2009! on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the Alps are the crushed contact points of these two landmasses which now are separate continents.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.When he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical.^ Please actually read and understand scientific papers before making up nonsensical articles misinterpreting their findings.
  • Greenhouse gases could have caused an ice age, claim scientists - Telegraph 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

[16] Finally, Venetz managed to convince his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps. His thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory. .In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentier’s case rather plutonistic assumptions, about earth history.^ It is accurate in all that it says about earth's history.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No, it ALL sucks, and we do actually talk quite a bit about how men are mis-represented in films and TV, as it’s all part of the same bad equation.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then add to that the fact that even when a man’s death does facilitate plot, it’s rarely women who carry the plot forward, but rather other men… .
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.[17] In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper (1803–1867) was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder where such masses of stone had come from. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held some lectures in Munich. .Schimper then assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration (“Verödungszeiten“) with a cold climate and frozen water.^ There is ample evidence of a cooling global climate and yet Al Gore is the only voice listened to?
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Before the twentieth century, when man-made greenhouse gas emissions really took off, there was an underlying stability to global climate.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extract “Before the twentieth century, when man-made greenhouse gas emissions really took off, there was an underlying stability to global climate.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz (1801–1873) and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, de Charpentier and possibly Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation. During Winter 1836/7 Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations. They mainly drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, of de Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. There are indications that Agassiz was already familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.[19] .At the beginning of 1837 Schimper coined the term ice age (“Eiszeit“).^ Ice Age is one of the worst children’s films I’ve ever seen in terms of gender portrayal.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not the beginning of the last ice age (see #13 above) but the beginning of the Younger Dryas, a reversal into glacial conditions at the end of the last glaciation.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The term 'ice age' is used in common parlance (as in the Scotsman article) to refer to the last glaciation, which is one of several in the series of glaciations that is correctly referred to as the last ice age.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] In July 1837 Agassiz presented their synthesis before the annual meeting of the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft at Neuchâtel. .The audience was very critical or even opposed the new theory because it contradicted the established opinions on climatic history.^ Even HuffPo inadvertently posted a vastly contradicting opinion piece.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The history of the measurement of ancient climates is inseparable from the history of this "astronomical" theory.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt they'll try to rubbish it because it blasphemes against 'climate catastrophe' theory.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most contemporary scientist thought that the earth had been gradually cooling down since its birth as a molten globe.[21]
In order to overcome this rejection, Agassiz embarked on geological fieldwork. He published his book Study on glaciers ("Études sur les glaciers") in 1840.[22] De Charpentier was put out by this as he had also been preparing a book about the glaciation of the Alps. De Charpentier felt that Agassiz should have given him precedence as it was he who had introduced Agassiz to in depth glacial research.[23] Besides that, Agassiz had, as a result of personal quarrels, omitted any mention of Schimper in his book.[24]
.Altogether, it took several decades until the ice age theory was fully accepted.^ It would be premature to claim an Ice Age is looming just because we have had one of our most brutal winters in decades.
  • Forget global warming: Welcome to the new Ice Age 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ One theory that made a great deal of sense to us was that warming leads to cooling and ushers in an 'ice age'.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than a gradual cooling over a decade, the ice age plunged Europe into the deep freeze, German Research Centre for Geosciences at Potsdam said.
  • Last Ice Age happened in less than year say scientists - Scotsman.com News 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This happened on an international scale in the second half of the 1870’s.[25]

Evidence for ice ages

.There are three main types of evidence for ice ages: geological, chemical, and paleontological.^ There had been not one Ice Age but several.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparing the calculations with geological evidence for the timing of past ice ages, Köppen pronounced a good match.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Geological evidence for ice ages comes in various forms, including rock scouring and scratching, glacial moraines, drumlins, valley cutting, and the deposition of till or tillites and glacial erratics.^ By the late 1970s, most scientists were convinced that orbital variations acted as a "pacemaker" to set the timing of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before coming up with the idea of past glacial ages, scientists spent decades trying to understand how such deposits could form.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Successive glaciations tend to distort and erase the geological evidence, making it difficult to interpret. .Furthermore, this evidence was difficult to date exactly; early theories assumed that the glacials were short compared to the long interglacials.^ Subsections: Evidence and Speculations (to 1954) SEE BELOW, Reliable Dates and Temperatures (1955-1971) , Theories Confirmed (1971-1988) , After 1988 .
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The advent of sediment and ice cores revealed the true situation: glacials are long, interglacials short.^ Ice cores, ocean sediment cores, the geologic record, and studies of ancient plant and animal populations all demonstrate a regular cyclic pattern of Ice Age glacial maximums which each last about 100,000 years, separated by intervening warm interglacials, each lasting about 12,000 years .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Beyond such fascinating hints, however, the Greenland ice cores could say little about long-term cycles.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Older glacial deposits, interglacial river sediments and soils were eroded by the weight of the new advancing ice sheet nd mixed together to form the next layer of glacial deposits.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It took some time for the current theory to be worked out.^ By the 1940s, some climate textbooks were teaching that Milankovitch's theory gave a plausible solution to the problem of timing the ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The chemical evidence mainly consists of variations in the ratios of isotopes in fossils present in sediments and sedimentary rocks and ocean sediment cores. .For the most recent glacial periods ice cores provide climate proxies from their ice, and atmospheric samples from included bubbles of air.^ The most striking news from the ice was evidence that the level of CO 2 in the atmosphere had risen and fallen more or less in time with the temperature.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It reached back over a million years, and included the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which geologists dated at a bit over 700,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the reason that the visualizations in this module only model the most recent glacial event.
  • Ice Age Module 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jesse.usra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because water containing heavier isotopes has a higher heat of evaporation, its proportion decreases with colder conditions[26]. This allows a temperature record to be constructed. However, this evidence can be confounded by other factors recorded by isotope ratios.
The paleontological evidence consists of changes in the geographical distribution of fossils. .During a glacial period cold-adapted organisms spread into lower latitudes, and organisms that prefer warmer conditions become extinct or are squeezed into lower latitudes.^ During the cold period, the CO 2 level had been much lower than during the warm periods before and after.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are currently about 10,000 years into the current inter-glacial period.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The series of glacial periods had alternated with times of warmer climate, each cycle lasting many tens of thousands of years.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This evidence is also difficult to interpret because it requires (1) sequences of sediments covering a long period of time, over a wide range of latitudes and which are easily correlated; (2) ancient organisms which survive for several million years without change and whose temperature preferences are easily diagnosed; and (3) the finding of the relevant fossils, which requires a lot of luck.
.Despite the difficulties, analyses of ice core and ocean sediment cores has shown periods of glacials and interglacials over the past few million years.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ice cores, ocean sediment cores, the geologic record, and studies of ancient plant and animal populations all demonstrate a regular cyclic pattern of Ice Age glacial maximums which each last about 100,000 years, separated by intervening warm interglacials, each lasting about 12,000 years .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, lets crack off a few more ice flows from the glaciers in Greenland for greater effect.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.These also confirm the linkage between ice ages and continental crust phenomena such as glacial moraines, drumlins, and glacial erratics.^ Once that process is completed the Ice Age for these dino's will be upon them before they know what happened.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such violent storms would have been common near the great ice sheets and mountain glaciers which dominated much of Europe and the highlands of Asia Minor during the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These appear to have fallen from the heavens during Pleistocene times when the Jordan Valley was rifted and the land was mightily troubled by the influence of the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hence the continental crust phenomena are accepted as good evidence of earlier ice ages when they are found in layers created much earlier than the time range for which ice cores and ocean sediment cores are available.^ Ice cores, ocean sediment cores, the geologic record, and studies of ancient plant and animal populations all demonstrate a regular cyclic pattern of Ice Age glacial maximums which each last about 100,000 years, separated by intervening warm interglacials, each lasting about 12,000 years .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ By the late 1970s, most scientists were convinced that orbital variations acted as a "pacemaker" to set the timing of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They make the point that the Little Ice Age lasted from about 1300 to 1850, so just over 150 years later, we are in a general warming trend.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

Major ice ages

.
Ice age map of northern central Europe.
^ Posted by Paul Published: November 30, 2005 - 3:20 PM Scientist (cough) are now predicting an ice age in Europe...
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Novs- the "Ice Age" from a Gulf Stream shutdown would make western Europe, a tiny fraction of the planet, cooler, while global warming warms the planet as a whole.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ To these caves man turned for housing just as he did in Europe during the "ice age."
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Red: maximum limit of Weichselian ice age; yellow: Saale ice age at maximum (Drenthe stage); blue: Elster ice age maximum glaciation.
.There have been at least five major ice ages in the Earth's past.^ There was warming, it caused an ice age - bammo - problem solved.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ EDIT: When I say “in the case of movies like Ice Age,” I mean movies in which all, or the majority, of the characters are animals.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Outside these ages, the Earth seems to have been ice-free even in high latitudes.^ Burroughs does not seem to have any bias and hits the reader with a dizzying array of facts in this romp through the climate of the ice ages.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ These appear to have fallen from the heavens during Pleistocene times when the Jordan Valley was rifted and the land was mightily troubled by the influence of the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Rocks from the earliest well established ice age, called the Huronian, formed around 2.4 to 2.1 Ga (billion) years ago during the early Proterozoic Eon.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

Several hundreds of km of the Huronian Supergroup are exposed 10-100 km north the North Shore of Lake Huron extending from near St. Ste. Marie to Sudbury NE of Lake Huron. with giant layers of now-lithified till beds, dropstones, varves, outwash, scoured basement rocks. Correlative Huronian deposits have been found near Marquette, Michigan and correlation has been made with Paleoproterozic glacial deposits from Western Australia.
.The next well-documented ice age, and probably the most severe of the last billion years, occurred from 850 to 630 million years ago (the Cryogenian period) and may have produced a Snowball Earth in which glacial ice sheets reached the equator,[27] possibly being ended by the accumulation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 produced by volcanoes.^ Ice Age may not by itself be so terrible.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

"The presence of ice on the continents and pack ice on the oceans would inhibit both silicate weathering and photosynthesis, which are the two major sinks for CO2 at present."[28] It has been suggested that the end of this ice age was responsible for the subsequent Ediacaran and Cambrian Explosion, though this model is recent and controversial.
.A minor ice age, the Andean-Saharan, occurred from 460 to 430 million years ago, during the Late Ordovician and the Silurian period.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.There were extensive polar ice caps at intervals from 350 to 260 million years ago in South Africa during the Carboniferous and early Permian Periods, associated with the Karoo Ice Age.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There had been not one Ice Age but several.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Correlatives are known from Argentina, also forming in the center of the ancient supercontinent Gondwanaland.
.The Karoo Ice Age occurred from 360 to 260 million years ago.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a hundred years their field had concerned itself above all with the ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It reached back over a million years, and included the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which geologists dated at a bit over 700,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is named after the glacial tills found in the Karoo region of South Africa where evidence for this ice age was first clearly identified.^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have no doubt that much of the lake was still there in the days of Job for the Biblical evidence strongly suggests that the Biblical ice age was well into retreat by Job's day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Very few visitors who travel to Israel and Jordan recognize the evidences left by the powerful, Biblical ice age precipitation in the days of Job.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is thought that this ice age was largely the cause of the evolution of land plants with the onset of the Devonian period.^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These appear to have fallen from the heavens during Pleistocene times when the Jordan Valley was rifted and the land was mightily troubled by the influence of the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These near-eyewitness accounts also would provide us much forgotten material about what happened when the Biblical ice age arrived and what caused it.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Earth during this time was covered with an immense degree of vegetation compared to earlier times, and this caused a long term increase in planetary oxygen levels and reduction of CO2 levels that resulted in this ice age.^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ By the late 1970s, most scientists were convinced that orbital variations acted as a "pacemaker" to set the timing of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An ice sheet on Antarctica began to grow some 20 million years ago.^ It reached back over a million years, and included the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which geologists dated at a bit over 700,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He reported, among other things, that the last ice age had come to a surprisingly abrupt end, starting sometime around 15,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue with climate change is not what happened 1000 years ago (which we do have some reliable data for, btw).
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.The current ice age, the Pliocene-Quaternary glaciation, started about 2.58 million years ago during the late Pliocene when the spread of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere began.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.Since then, the world has seen cycles of glaciation with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40,000- and 100,000-year time scales called glacials (glacial advance) and interglacials (glacial retreat).^ Here too the 100,000-year cycle stood out.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stupendous ice sheets had slowly ground south and retreated, time and again.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet it was the 100,000-year cycle that dominated the record.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earth is currently in an interglacial, and the last glacial period ended about 10,000 years ago.^ We are currently about 10,000 years into the current inter-glacial period.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.All that remains of the continental ice sheets are the Greenland, Antarctic ice sheets and smaller glaciers such as on Baffin Island.^ The Greenland ice sheet is a daunting sight.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond such fascinating hints, however, the Greenland ice cores could say little about long-term cycles.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given that something had put the Earth into a state conducive to glaciation, what made the ice sheets grow and then retreat, over and over again?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sediment records showing the fluctuating sequences of glacials and interglacials during the last several million years.
.Ice ages can be further divided by location and time; for example, the names Riss (180,000–130,000 years bp) and Würm (70,000–10,000 years bp) refer specifically to glaciation in the Alpine region.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or by 10,000 times!
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

Note that the maximum extent of the ice is not maintained for the full interval. .Unfortunately, the scouring action of each glaciation tends to remove most of the evidence of prior ice sheets almost completely, except in regions where the later sheet does not achieve full coverage.^ And that evidence unquestionably indicates that the ice epoch followed the separation of the continents and the massive diastrophism of the latter half of the so called "Mesozoic Era" and most of the "Cenozoic Era."
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Glacials and interglacials

Shows the pattern of temperature and ice volume changes associated with recent glacials and interglacials
Minimum (interglacial, black) and maximum (glacial, grey) glaciation of the northern hemisphere
Minimum (interglacial, black) and maximum (glacial, grey) glaciation of the southern hemisphere
.Within the ice ages (or at least within the last one), more temperate and more severe periods occur.^ While meditating about the problem of an ice age within Biblical times, a thought struck me.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result he wants to place the ice age in a setting which began more than a million years ago with its influence continuing to retreat even today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But perhaps one of the most interesting things pointing to an ice age environment for the book of Job is the fact that there were cave men in his day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The colder periods are called glacial periods, the warmer periods interglacials, such as the Eemian Stage.^ The series of glacial periods had alternated with times of warmer climate, each cycle lasting many tens of thousands of years.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much rarer were glacial epochs like our own, lasting a few millions of years, in which periods of glaciation alternated with warmer "interglacial" periods like the present.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The layers showed glacial and interglacial periods much like those seen in the ice cores.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Glacials are characterized by cooler and drier climates over most of the Earth and large land and sea ice masses extending outward from the poles.^ That larger lake is called "Lake Lisan" after the "tongue" of land which once extended far out into the Dead Sea from its eastern shore.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Mountain glaciers in otherwise unglaciated areas extend to lower elevations due to a lower snow line. .Sea levels drop due to the removal of large volumes of water above sea level in the icecaps.^ The expression, "compassed the waters with bounds," in verse 10 would refer to the act of establishing sea level in the third solar day of creation.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

There is evidence that ocean circulation patterns are disrupted by glaciations. Since the Earth has significant continental glaciation in the Arctic and Antarctic, we are currently in a glacial minimum of a glaciation. Such a period between glacial maxima is known as an interglacial.
.The Earth has been in an interglacial period known as the Holocene for more than 11,000 years.^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ For more than a thousand years, Islam ruled the world, until the fall of the caliphate.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are currently about 10,000 years into the current inter-glacial period.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.It was conventional wisdom that "the typical interglacial period lasts about 12,000 years," but this has been called into question recently.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And really, that's about it when it comes time to answer these questions for the American people: "What have we accomplished after almost three years of fighting?
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, an article in Nature[29] argues that the current interglacial might be most analogous to a previous interglacial that lasted 28,000 years.^ It reached back over a million years, and included the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which geologists dated at a bit over 700,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He reported, among other things, that the last ice age had come to a surprisingly abrupt end, starting sometime around 15,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most prominent feature turned out to be a 100,000-year cycle — evidently a key to the entire climate puzzle.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Predicted changes in orbital forcing suggest that the next glacial period would begin at least 50,000 years from now, even in absence of human-made global warming [30] (see Milankovitch cycles).^ January 11, 2009 - 22:50 ET by Ole_Sarge Whether it's a "little ice age" such as experienced from the early 1200s to the middle of the 1800s, or a full ice pack expansion that has not been seen since the late glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago; it's not determined.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Other consequences of global warming, such as glaciers melting and global temperatures rising, are already well established.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The man-made global warming theory is like returning to the incorrect assumption that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.Moreover, anthropogenic forcing from increased greenhouse gases might outweigh orbital forcing for as long as intensive use of fossil fuels continues[31].^ They've had no reduction in greenhouse gases, but a 5 percent to 10 percent increase in the [cost of] standard of living.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Are the Increases in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases During the Industrial Era Caused by Human Activities?
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.At a meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 17, 2008), scientists detailed evidence in support of the controversial idea that the introduction of large-scale rice agriculture in Asia, coupled with extensive deforestation in Europe began to alter world climate by pumping significant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over the last 1,000 years.^ We are currently about 10,000 years into the current inter-glacial period.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Obama in March waved off controversy over a $410 billion spending bill that also was riddled with earmarks, arguing that it represented "last year’s business."

.In turn, a warmer atmosphere heated the oceans making them much less efficient storehouses of carbon dioxide and reinforcing global warming, possibly forestalling the onset of a new glacial age.^ Login or register to post comments New Section on Jeremiah Films - Global Warming Debate .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Other consequences of global warming, such as glaciers melting and global temperatures rising, are already well established.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ January 11, 2009 - 14:30 ET by Admesser I'd rather have global warming than a freaking ice age.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

[32]

Positive and negative feedbacks in glacial periods

.Each glacial period is subject to positive feedback which makes it more severe and negative feedback which mitigates and (in all cases so far) eventually ends it.^ Your use of the Site is subject to all applicable local, state, national laws and regulations and, in some cases, international treaties.
  • Ice Age - Three Melons | SPIKE 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ You want some more nuance, where I talk about movies that have positive as well as negative points, you are welcome to read my other posts !!!
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The glacial periods of the ice ages likewise seemed to follow a cyclical pattern, on a far grander timescale.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Processes which make glacial periods more severe

Ice and snow increase the Earth's albedo, i.e. they make it reflect more of the sun's energy and absorb less. Hence, when the air temperature decreases, ice and snow fields grow, and this continues until competition with a negative feedback mechanism forces the system to an equilibrium. Also, the reduction in forests caused by the ice's expansion increases albedo.
.Another theory proposed by Ewing and Donn in 1956[33] hypothesized that an ice-free Arctic Ocean leads to increased snowfall at high latitudes.^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.When low-temperature ice covers the Arctic Ocean there is little evaporation or sublimation and the polar regions are quite dry in terms of precipitation, comparable to the amount found in mid-latitude deserts.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ But in a comparison of the climate clues found there in Genesis 36 with those found in the book of Job, little similarity is found.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This almost limitless supply of atmospheric moisture continued to reduce surface temperatures until the seas in the polar regions dropped below the freezing point.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This low precipitation allows high-latitude snowfalls to melt during the summer. .An ice-free Arctic Ocean absorbs solar radiation during the long summer days, and evaporates more water into the Arctic atmosphere.^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ This great shield of water vapor above the atmosphere had protected prediluvian man from the high energy radiation which now steadily enters our atmosphere.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The expression, "compassed the waters with bounds," in verse 10 would refer to the act of establishing sea level in the third solar day of creation.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.With higher precipitation, portions of this snow may not melt during the summer and so glacial ice can form at lower altitudes and more southerly latitudes, reducing the temperatures over land by increased albedo as noted above.^ It began to snow at higher elevations and at higher latitudes.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Other consequences of global warming, such as glaciers melting and global temperatures rising, are already well established.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.Furthermore, under this hypothesis the lack of oceanic pack ice allows increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, warming the Arctic and cooling the North Atlantic.^ The dramatic finding [STOP THE TAPE] comes from a study of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic, which found a 30% reduction in the warm currents that carry water north from the Gulf Stream.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The North Atlantic is dominated by the Gulf Stream - currents that bring warm water north from the tropics.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.(Current projected consequences of global warming include a largely ice-free Arctic Ocean within 5–20 years, see Arctic shrinkage.^ Keywords: climate change, global warming, ice ages,greenhouse effect, CO2, carbon dioxide, methane, CH4, paleoclimate "The origin of these climatic trends...
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he earth is currently warming as a result of the natural Ice Age cycle, and as the oceans get warmer, they release increasing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The warming phase of the 1500-year climate cycle will bring some moderate changes in global temperatures.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

) .Additional fresh water flowing into the North Atlantic during a warming cycle may also reduce the global ocean water circulation (see Shutdown of thermohaline circulation).^ It's also well established that IF the massive glaciers of Greenland were to melt (and they are melting, as established by satellite imagery and on-the-ground research), the fresh water from those glaciers would enter the north atlantic, lowering the salinity of the water that fuels the Gulf Stream.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ That period may be short term or long term, but that doesn't change the fact that, despite the predictions of the "climate scientists" who INSISTS that we are experiencing Global Warming, we are, IN FACT, experiencing Global Cooling.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Parents need to know that because of global warming, the heroes are in peril from rising waters and they are stalked by somewhat scary-looking underwater creatures.

.Such a reduction (by reducing the effects of the Gulf Stream) would have a cooling effect on northern Europe, which in turn would lead to increased low-latitude snow retention during the summer.^ Such purchases would not only prepare the nation for a possible cooling, but also fuel the economy and create jobs.
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Croll argued that this would change the pattern of trade winds, leading to the deflection of warming currents like the Gulf Stream, and finally a self-sustaining ice age.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect was never expected to correlate with sunlight in the Southern Hemisphere, which is mostly ocean where snow would never accumulate.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has also been suggested that during an extensive ice age glaciers may move through the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, extending into the North Atlantic ocean to an extent that the Gulf Stream is blocked.^ Ice Age may not by itself be so terrible.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ It should be obvious that Job and those people of the time when he passed through the trials of the Biblical ice age were well acquainted with metal technologies.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Processes which mitigate glacial periods

.Ice sheets that form during glaciations cause erosion of the land beneath them.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Such violent storms would have been common near the great ice sheets and mountain glaciers which dominated much of Europe and the highlands of Asia Minor during the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These appear to have fallen from the heavens during Pleistocene times when the Jordan Valley was rifted and the land was mightily troubled by the influence of the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.After some time, this will reduce land above sea level and thus diminish the amount of space on which ice sheets can form.^ Tall buildings obstruct the night sky and reduce the amount of re-radiated energy escaping to space”…….
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This mitigates the albedo feedback, as does the lowering in sea level that accompanies the formation of ice sheets.
Another factor is the increased aridity occurring with glacial maxima, which reduces the precipitation available to maintain glaciation. .The glacial retreat induced by this or any other process can be amplified by similar inverse positive feedbacks as for glacial advances.^ Although throughout the world some glaciers are receding, others are advancing.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

Causes of ice ages

.The causes of ice ages are not fully understood for both the large-scale ice age periods and the smaller ebb and flow of glacial–interglacial periods within an ice age.^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, lets crack off a few more ice flows from the glaciers in Greenland for greater effect.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.The consensus is that several factors are important: atmospheric composition (the concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane); changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun known as Milankovitch cycles (and possibly the Sun's orbit around the galaxy); the motion of tectonic plates resulting in changes in the relative location and amount of continental and oceanic crust on the Earth's surface, which affect wind and ocean currents; variations in solar output; the orbital dynamics of the Earth-Moon system; and the impact of relatively large meteorites, and volcanism including eruptions of supervolcanoes.^ The important thing to understand is that the changes in atmospheric CO2 over the past century are unprecedented--the change has been enormous and rapid.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ According to D'Aleo, the spike in NOAA climate data is a result of location changes where the data is recorded.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ You really think that we humies are capable of rivalling the average volcano in carbon dioxide output?
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

Some of these factors influence each other. .For example, changes in Earth's atmospheric composition (especially the concentrations of greenhouse gases) may alter the climate, while climate change itself can change the atmospheric composition (for example by changing the rate at which weathering removes CO2).^ Why would almost every nation on Earth agree to a climate change treaty if the threats weren't credible?
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The Earth's climate system is complex and will be altered by greenhouse emissions (which include methane and other gases as well).
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Just because your own body is altering itself doesn’t make that change less significant.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maureen Raymo, William Ruddiman and others propose that the Tibetan and Colorado Plateaus are immense CO2 "scrubbers" with a capacity to remove enough CO2 from the global atmosphere to be a significant causal factor of the 40 million year Cenozoic Cooling trend.^ The answer was that changes in atmospheric CO 2 and methane physically linked the two hemispheres, popwerfully warming or cooling the planet as a whole.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Antarctic record, atmospheric CO 2 levels over the past 750,000 years had cycled between about 180 and 280 parts per million.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They further claim that approximately half of their uplift (and CO2 "scrubbing" capacity) occurred in the past 10 million years.^ The data confirmed that there had been dozens of major glaciations during the past couple of million years, not the four or so enshrined in textbooks.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In just a single century, CO2 levels have increased more than they have during any 10,000+ year period of the Earth's history.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Within that natural cycle, about every 110,000 years global temperatures, followed by global CO2 levels, have peaked at approximately the same levels which they are at today .
  • Global Warming Update: 'Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age' | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

[34][35]

Changes in Earth's atmosphere

.There is evidence that greenhouse gas levels fell at the start of ice ages and rose during the retreat of the ice sheets, but it is difficult to establish cause and effect (see the notes above on the role of weathering).^ There had been not one Ice Age but several.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was warming, it caused an ice age - bammo - problem solved.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Greenhouse gas levels may also have been affected by other factors which have been proposed as causes of ice ages, such as the movement of continents and volcanism.^ Ice Age may not by itself be so terrible.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Snowball Earth hypothesis maintains that the severe freezing in the late Proterozoic was ended by an increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and some supporters of Snowball Earth argue that it was caused by a reduction in atmospheric CO2.^ The most striking news from the ice was evidence that the level of CO 2 in the atmosphere had risen and fallen more or less in time with the temperature.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An important clue came from some especially good ice core records that timed precisely the changes in the levels of CO 2 and methane.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 14, 2009 - 09:31 ET by Hunter12 CO2 causes Solarbonite levels to increase.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

The hypothesis also warns of future Snowball Earths.
.The August 2009 edition of Science provides further evidence that changes in solar insolation provide the initial trigger for the Earth to warm after an Ice Age, with secondary factors like increases in greenhouse gases accounting for the magnitude of the change.^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The man-made global warming theory is like returning to the incorrect assumption that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

[36]
.William Ruddiman has proposed the early anthropocene hypothesis, according to which the anthropocene era, as some people call the most recent period in the Earth's history when the activities of the human race first began to have a significant global impact on the Earth's climate and ecosystems, did not begin in the 18th century with the advent of the Industrial Era, but dates back to 8,000 years ago, due to intense farming activities of our early agrarian ancestors.^ It reached back over a million years, and included the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which geologists dated at a bit over 700,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "By comparison, human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation produce 130 times more CO2 than all the world's volcanoes put together (adding 26,000 million tons of CO2 to the atmosphere each year, the equivalent of 8,000 Kilaueas (Hawaii's most active volcano).
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Climatic changes this extreme haven't happened in recent history.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.It was at that time that atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations stopped following the periodic pattern of the Milankovitch cycles.^ The propaganda of the oil & gas industries in trying to fight the scientific research which is showing increased temperature changes in the climate are following the same patterns and tactics as the tobacco industry.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The world's countries will probably not cut their greenhouse gas emissions enough, in time, to keep the warming from going past 2 degrees celsius.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ If Emissions of Greenhouse Gases are Reduced, How Quickly do Their Concentrations in the Atmosphere Decrease?
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.In his overdue-glaciation hypothesis Ruddiman states that an incipient ice age would probably have begun several thousand years ago, but the arrival of that scheduled ice age was forestalled by the activities of early farmers.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most recent ice age had ended ten thousand years or so ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There had been not one Ice Age but several.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Position of the continents

.The geological record appears to show that ice ages start when the continents are in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles and thus allow ice sheets to form.^ Comparing the calculations with geological evidence for the timing of past ice ages, Köppen pronounced a good match.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was warming, it caused an ice age - bammo - problem solved.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.The ice sheets increase the Earth's reflectivity and thus reduce the absorption of solar radiation.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Many early thermometer-stands were open to poleward, allowing reflected solar radiation to affect the thermometers by day, and permitting radiative heat-loss at night.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With less radiation absorbed the atmosphere cools; the cooling allows the ice sheets to grow, which further increases reflectivity in a positive feedback loop.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The most striking news from the ice was evidence that the level of CO 2 in the atmosphere had risen and fallen more or less in time with the temperature.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way plankton absorbed oxygen at a given temperature did not matter so much as what proportion of each isotope was left in the sea water as ice sheets came and went.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ice age continues until the reduction in weathering causes an increase in the greenhouse effect.^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

There are three known configurations of the continents which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles:
  • A continent sits on top of a pole, as Antarctica does today.
  • A polar sea is almost land-locked, as the Arctic Ocean is today.
  • A supercontinent covers most of the equator, as Rodinia did during the Cryogenian period.
.Since today's Earth has a continent over the South Pole and an almost land-locked ocean over the North Pole, geologists believe that Earth will continue to endure glacial periods in the geologically near future.^ Geological and oceanographic studies had shown that over the course of millions of years, now and then the Earth's entire magnetic field flipped: the North magnetic pole became the South magnetic pole and vice-versa.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calculating how the cycle should continue in the future, in 1966 Emiliani predicted that "a new glaciation will begin within a few thousand years."
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He includes an amazing amount of information about the violence of that time of great geological activity during the period in which he lived in the land.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some scientists believe that the Himalayas are a major factor in the current ice age, because these mountains have increased Earth's total rainfall and therefore the rate at which CO2 is washed out of the atmosphere, decreasing the greenhouse effect.^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But during the post-flood ice age, they began to use stone because it was so easily obtained and worked.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The Himalayas' formation started about 70 million years ago when the Indo-Australian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate, and the Himalayas are still rising by about 5 mm per year because the Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm/year.^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Simple observations of surface features were joined by inventive methods for measuring what a region's climate had been like thousands or even millions of years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result he wants to place the ice age in a setting which began more than a million years ago with its influence continuing to retreat even today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene, 40 million years ago.^ As a result he wants to place the ice age in a setting which began more than a million years ago with its influence continuing to retreat even today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference between models which simulate flight and those that simulate the Earth's long term atmospheric evolution is that the former have been tested against empirical data and pilot experience.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The temperature varied from year to year, or decade to decade, but stayed within a certain range and averaged out to an approximately steady level.” .
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fluctuations in ocean currents

.Another important contribution to ancient climate regimes is the variation of ocean currents, which are modified by continent position, sea levels, salinity as well as other factors.^ Ancient coral reefs were perched at various elevations above the present sea level on islands that geological forces were gradually uplifting.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They actually admit that they effect ocean currents hence the world's climate.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ That entire area has been uplifted today so that this beach lies well above sea level.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

They have the ability to cool (e.g. aiding the creation of Antarctic ice) and the ability to warm (e.g. giving the British Isles a temperate as opposed to a boreal climate). .The closing of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 million years ago may have ushered in the present period of strong glaciation over North America by ending the exchange of water between the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On to the north in northern Turkey, in present day Russia and across Europe the land was gripped in a fierce winter that may have lasted for several generations.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]
Analyses suggest that ocean current fluctuations can adequately account for recent glacial oscillations. .During the last glacial period the sea-level has fluctuated 20–30 m as water was sequestered, primarily in the northern hemisphere ice sheets.^ Posted by Paul Published: November 30, 2005 - 3:20 PM Scientist (cough) are now predicting an ice age in Europe...
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During some periods the Northern Hemisphere would get slightly less sunlight during the winter than it would get during other centuries.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When ice collected and the sea level dropped sufficiently, flow through the Bering Strait (the narrow strait between Siberia and Alaska is ~50 m deep today) was reduced, resulting in increased flow from the North Atlantic.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ It was a sea that filled both the Sea of Galilee to the north and the Dead Sea, joining them in a great lake that left beaches hundreds of feet above the present level of the Jordan River which joins them.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result he wants to place the ice age in a setting which began more than a million years ago with its influence continuing to retreat even today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.This realigned the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic, increasing heat transport into the Arctic, which melted the polar ice accumulation and reduced other continental ice sheets.^ Climate models until now have not properly accounted for the wind's effects on ocean circulation, so researchers have compensated by over-emphasizing the role of manmade warming on polar ice melt.
  • Forget global warming: Welcome to the new Ice Age 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ As the continental ice sheets formed and then melted, they had locked up and then released so much water that the oceans had dropped and risen many tens of meters.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given that something had put the Earth into a state conducive to glaciation, what made the ice sheets grow and then retreat, over and over again?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder water from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation.^ As winter sets in the northern hemisphere it's frankly logical to consider that the ocean water is not getting as much energy as it did during the summer.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

[39]

Uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding mountain areas above the snowline

.Matthias Kuhle's geological theory of Ice Age development was suggested by the existence of an ice sheet covering the Tibetan plateau during the Ice Ages (Last Glacial Maximum?^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ But during the post-flood ice age, they began to use stone because it was so easily obtained and worked.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have no doubt that much of the lake was still there in the days of Job for the Biblical evidence strongly suggests that the Biblical ice age was well into retreat by Job's day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

). The plate-tectonic uplift of Tibet past the snow-line has led to a c. .2.4 million km² ice surface with a 70% greater albedo than the bare land surface.^ As a result he wants to place the ice age in a setting which began more than a million years ago with its influence continuing to retreat even today.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age.^ How can an ice age be caused by global warming?
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ I have no doubt that much of the lake was still there in the days of Job for the Biblical evidence strongly suggests that the Biblical ice age was well into retreat by Job's day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extrapolating the cycles into the future, Kukla thought the next shift to an ice age "is due very soon."
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because this highland is at a subtropical latitude, with 4 to 5 times the insolation of high-latitude areas, what would be Earth's strongest heating surface has turned into a cooling surface.^ Paved surfaces are not subject to the cooling effect of evapotranspiration” 4.The entropy effect “Lighting,A/C,combustion engine heat”.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kuhle explains the interglacial periods by the 100 000-year cycle of radiation changes due to variations of the Earth's orbit.^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In just a single century, CO2 levels have increased more than they have during any 10,000+ year period of the Earth's history.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

This comparatively insignificant warming, when combined with the lowering of the Nordic inland ice areas and Tibet due to the weight of the superimposed ice-load, has led to the repeated complete thawing of the inland ice areas. [40][41][42]

Variations in Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles)

.The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit around the sun.^ The variation in the intensity of sunlight that was computed for the 100,000-year astronomical cycle came from a minor change in orbital eccentricity — a slight stretching of the Earth's path around the sun out of a perfect circle.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five separate cores confirmed that variations in the Earth's orbit drove the coming and going of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking farther back, Suess found hints of a roughly 40,000-year cycle, which sounded like the 41,000-year cycle that Milankovitch had computed for slight variations in the inclination of the Earth's axis.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each cycle has a different length, so at some times their effects reinforce each other and at other times they (partially) cancel each other.^ I think to some extent it’s a test: can the other party stand up to us and give as good as they get, or will they wimp out?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are entirely peaceful, at least probably up to the point at which some Nazi-like organization on the model of the Republican Party launches a blitzkrieg to invade and destroy them.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They just said, in effect, “This is stupid, you’re wasting your time, get a life.” .
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

It is very unlikely that the Milankovitch cycles can start or end an ice age (series of glacial periods):
  • Even when their effects reinforce each other they are not strong enough.
  • The "peaks" (effects reinforce each other) and "troughs" (effects cancel each other) are much more regular and much more frequent than the observed ice ages.
Past and future of daily average insolation at top of the atmosphere on the day of the summer solstice, at 65 N latitude.
.In contrast, there is strong evidence that the Milankovitch cycles affect the occurrence of glacial and interglacial periods within an ice age.^ There had been not one Ice Age but several.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, in the light of the very clear and God given physical evidence, it is impossible to hold that the ice age caused the Noahic flood.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For one thing, there was no solid reason to suppose that our current interglacial period would be of average length and was therefore nearing its end.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The present ice ages are the most studied and best understood, particularly the last 400,000 years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But perhaps one of the most interesting things pointing to an ice age environment for the book of Job is the fact that there were cave men in his day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Within this period, the match of glacial/interglacial frequencies to the Milanković orbital forcing periods is so close that orbital forcing is generally accepted. .The combined effects of the changing distance to the Sun, the precession of the Earth's axis, and the changing tilt of the Earth's axis redistribute the sunlight received by the Earth.^ Lehr pointed out the "silliness" of not including the sun's impact on the earth's climate - a factor often neglected by many of the global climate change alarmist.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

Of particular importance are changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis, which affect the intensity of seasons. .For example, the amount of solar influx in July at 65 degrees north latitude varies by as much as 25% (from 450 W/m² to 550 W/m²).^ Year, and 20 degree latitude bands, south to north.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is widely believed that ice sheets advance when summers become too cool to melt all of the accumulated snowfall from the previous winter.^ As the continental ice sheets formed and then melted, they had locked up and then released so much water that the oceans had dropped and risen many tens of meters.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A review of ice sheets (which added yet another factor, permafrost melting beneath a sheet) is Clark et al.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fossil reefs gave witness to how sea level had risen and fallen as ice sheets built up on the continents and melted away.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some workers believe that the strength of the orbital forcing is too small to trigger glaciations, but feedback mechanisms like CO2 may explain this mismatch.^ It seemed likely that eventually the modelers would produce a suite of feedbacks that would entirely explain the schedule of the ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small rise or fall in temperature seemed likely to cause a rise or fall in the gas levels (for example, when seawater got warmer it would evaporate some CO 2 into the atmosphere, whereas it would absorb the gas during a cooling period).
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would have killed for that book when I was a little girl … I grew up on things like very old Boy Scout handbooks, which might explain some things about me.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

.While Milankovitch forcing predicts that cyclic changes in the Earth's orbital parameters can be expressed in the glaciation record, additional explanations are necessary to explain which cycles are observed to be most important in the timing of glacial–interglacial periods.^ By the late 1970s, most scientists were convinced that orbital variations acted as a "pacemaker" to set the timing of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That period may be short term or long term, but that doesn't change the fact that, despite the predictions of the "climate scientists" who INSISTS that we are experiencing Global Warming, we are, IN FACT, experiencing Global Cooling.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ The variation in the intensity of sunlight that was computed for the 100,000-year astronomical cycle came from a minor change in orbital eccentricity — a slight stretching of the Earth's path around the sun out of a perfect circle.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, during the last 800,000 years, the dominant period of glacial–interglacial oscillation has been 100,000 years, which corresponds to changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and orbital inclination.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The UK has the longest instrumental records of anywhere in the world, allowing recent climate changes to be judged in the context of the last 250-350 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Yet this is by far the weakest of the three frequencies predicted by Milankovitch. .During the period 3.0–0.8 million years ago, the dominant pattern of glaciation corresponded to the 41,000-year period of changes in Earth's obliquity (tilt of the axis).^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am working on an article covering the period 1912-1940 and also going way back in time to the Arctic Ipiatuk of 2000 years ago.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reasons for dominance of one frequency versus another are poorly understood and an active area of current research, but the answer probably relates to some form of resonance in the Earth's climate system.^ For one thing, there was no solid reason to suppose that our current interglacial period would be of average length and was therefore nearing its end.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe that the Hudson Bay area is not only fascinating in many respects (Nastapoka Arc), but one of the key components in the climatic events dominating the North Atlantic region.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experts understood that "the response characteristics of the Earth's climate system have themselves evolved," so that the details of cycling could well change.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "traditional" Milankovitch explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the 100,000-year cycle over the last 8 cycles.^ Here too the 100,000-year cycle stood out.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one reviewer said, "The sheer number of explanations for the 100,000-year cycle...
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet it was the 100,000-year cycle that dominated the record.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard A. Muller and Gordon J. MacDonald [1] [2] [3] and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit also has a 100,000-year cycle of orbital inclination.^ I'll allow one for this, but two points is out of the question.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I'm correct you are going to see Democrats coming out publicly in ones and twos supporting Murtha beginning after the New Year.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "I believe Mr. Obama and his economic team are well placed to dig us out of this recession in the next 18 months to two years.
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.They proposed that these variations in orbital inclination lead to variations in insolation, as the earth moves in and out of known dust bands in the solar system.^ He withholds the waters and they dry up; also he sends them out and they overturn the earth!"
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They ignore the fact that the archaeology of these caves records the fact that perfectly modern man and physically degraded Neanderthal man moved into these caves together.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He withholds the waters and they dry up: also he sends them out and they overturn the earth."
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although this is a different mechanism to the traditional view, the "predicted" periods over the last 400,000 years are nearly the same.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extrapolating the curves ahead, the group predicted cooling for the next 20,000 years.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The series of glacial periods had alternated with times of warmer climate, each cycle lasting many tens of thousands of years.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Muller and MacDonald theory, in turn, has been challenged by Jose Antonio Rial [4].
.Another worker, William Ruddiman, has suggested a model that explains the 100,000-year cycle by the modulating effect of eccentricity (weak 100,000-year cycle) on precession (26,000-year cycle) combined with greenhouse gas feedbacks in the 41,000- and 26,000-year cycles.^ The variation in the intensity of sunlight that was computed for the 100,000-year astronomical cycle came from a minor change in orbital eccentricity — a slight stretching of the Earth's path around the sun out of a perfect circle.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would take much more study to determine just what combination of effects determined the shape of glacial cycles.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emiliani too, reporting a cycle of roughly 50,000 years, was increasingly confident that orbital changes set the timing of ice ages.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet another theory has been advanced by Peter Huybers who argued that the 41,000-year cycle has always been dominant, but that the Earth has entered a mode of climate behavior where only the second or third cycle triggers an ice age.^ This would have a positive effect on life on earth, if we were entering an "ice age".
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ Were we drifting toward another ice age?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ice Age has been out for what, four years?
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

.This would imply that the 100,000-year periodicity is really an illusion created by averaging together cycles lasting 80,000 and 120,000 years (Nature 434, 2005, [5]).^ Here too the 100,000-year cycle stood out.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet it was the 100,000-year cycle that dominated the record.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This theory is consistent with a simple empirical multi-state model proposed by Didier Paillard [6]. Paillard suggests that the late Pleistocene glacial cycles can be seen as jumps between three quasi-stable climate states. .The jumps are induced by the orbital forcing, while in the early Pleistocene the 41,000-year glacial cycles resulted from jumps between only two climate states.^ Here too the 100,000-year cycle stood out.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seemed that the climate system had two fairly stable modes, brief warmth and more enduring cold, with relatively rapid shifts between them.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cycles were tentatively identified, including one with a 13,000 year length.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A dynamical model explaining this behavior was proposed by Peter Ditlevsen [7]. .This is in support of the suggestion that the late Pleistocene glacial cycles are not due to the weak 100,000-year eccentricity cycle, but a non-linear response to mainly the 41,000-year obliquity cycle.^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Variations in the Sun's energy output

There are at least two types of variation in the Sun's energy output:
  • In the very long term, astrophysicists believe that the sun's output increases by about 10% per billion (109) years.
  • Shorter-term variations such as sunspot cycles, and longer episodes such as the Maunder minimum, which occurred during the coldest part of the Little Ice Age.
.The long-term increase in the Sun's output cannot be a cause of ice ages.^ This is what's causing the sun's output levels to drop .
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ So what had caused the ice ages?
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Riding Sun linked with Global warming causing ice age .
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

Volcanism

.Volcanic eruptions may have contributed to the inception and/or the end of ice age periods.^ Ice Age may not by itself be so terrible.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the "Ice Age" ends, his fossilized pronouncements defending Bush's War will be "relegated to the dust bin of history."
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He reported, among other things, that the last ice age had come to a surprisingly abrupt end, starting sometime around 15,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One suggested explanation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum is that undersea volcanoes released methane from clathrates and thus caused a large and rapid increase in the greenhouse effect.^ Juraj V. (09:17:31) : According to IPCC, “it is very likely, the most of the post WWII temperature increase has been caused by emissions of greenhouse gases.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are the Increases in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases During the Industrial Era Caused by Human Activities?
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

.There appears to be no geological evidence for such eruptions at the right time, but this does not prove they did not happen.^ Comparing the calculations with geological evidence for the timing of past ice ages, Köppen pronounced a good match.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denita TwoDragons : No, the real crux of the issue is: Are liberals simply this stupid by birth, or did they get this way due to heavy cannabis use?
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ I have no doubt that much of the lake was still there in the days of Job for the Biblical evidence strongly suggests that the Biblical ice age was well into retreat by Job's day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Recent glacial and interglacial phases

.
Northern hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages.
^ Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe.
  • Ice Age (2002) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ But during the post-flood ice age, they began to use stone because it was so easily obtained and worked.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He reported, among other things, that the last ice age had come to a surprisingly abrupt end, starting sometime around 15,000 years ago.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The set up of 3 to 4 km thick ice sheets caused a sea level lowering of about 120 m.

Glacial stages in North America

.The major glacial stages of the current ice age in North America are the Illinoian, Sangamonian and Wisconsin stages.^ Emiliani had stoutly maintained — there had been not four major ice ages, but dozens.
  • Past Climate Cycles: Ice Age Speculations 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EDIT: When I say “in the case of movies like Ice Age,” I mean movies in which all, or the majority, of the characters are animals.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Giant clam shells and multitudes of smaller cockle shells can be found in the great ice age erosion canyons which cut through these to the east and north.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The use of the Nebraskan, Afton, Kansan, and Yarmouthian (Yarmouth) stages to subdivide the ice age in North America have been discontinued by Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists.^ But during the post-flood ice age, they began to use stone because it was so easily obtained and worked.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Giant clam shells and multitudes of smaller cockle shells can be found in the great ice age erosion canyons which cut through these to the east and north.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.These stages have all been merged into the Pre-Illinoian Stage in the 1980s.^ A similar phenomenon lies northeast of Burney, California on the southeastern end of the Klamath Mountains where these begin to merge into the Sierras.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[43][44][45]
.During the most recent North American glaciation, during the latter part of the Wisconsin Stage (26,000 to 13,300 years ago), ice sheets extended to about 45 degrees north latitude.^ Year, and 20 degree latitude bands, south to north.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not about one million years ago but about 5,000 years ago.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Swiss glaciologists have determined that this was a period during which alpine glaciers reached their maximum extent in 10,000 years.
  • Little Ice Age thermometers – History and Reliability « Watts Up With That? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These sheets were 3 to 4 km thick.[44]
This Wisconsin glaciation left widespread impacts on the North American landscape. .The Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes were carved by ice deepening old valleys.^ They are considerably more recent than the great layer of Cenozoic materials which the Biblical ice epoch has stripped from these mountains and deposited in the Great Valley.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pleistocene Epoch, the Biblical ice age, was a time when the great Jordan valley was coming into existence.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the lands of Israel and Jordan man was living south of the area where great ice fingers continued to cover the highlands of Europe and Asia Minor for decades.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Most of the lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin were gouged out by glaciers and later filled with glacial meltwaters. The old Teays River drainage system was radically altered and largely reshaped into the Ohio River drainage system. Other rivers were dammed and diverted to new channels, such as the Niagara, which formed a dramatic waterfall and gorge, when the waterflow encountered a limestone escarpment. Another similar waterfall, at the present Clark Reservation State Park near Syracuse, New York, is now dry.
The area from Long Island to Nantucket was formed from glacial till, and the plethora of lakes on the Canadian Shield in northern Canada can be almost entirely attributed to the action of the ice. .As the ice retreated and the rock dust dried, winds carried the material hundreds of miles, forming beds of loess many dozens of feet thick in the Missouri Valley.^ As I remember, it lies about 600 feet below the giant beaches of the lake which covered many square miles in the day when Job lived near the same great rift valley where it passes between Israel and Jordan.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I first recognized a glacial valley in that kind of material at 10,000 feet on the jeep road to Cuzco, the ancient capital of the Incas.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It also provided a constant source for torrential rainfall where that was possible and snows which built up be to hundreds and even thousands of feet in many areas.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Isostatic rebound continues to reshape the Great Lakes and other areas formerly under the weight of the ice sheets.^ Ice age lakes in that area, enormously enriched with silica by the explosions of Mt.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the lands of Israel and Jordan man was living south of the area where great ice fingers continued to cover the highlands of Europe and Asia Minor for decades.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many evidences that man lived in that valley as the ice age declined and as that great lake gradually retreated to its present configuration as two lakes.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

The Driftless Zone, a portion of western and southwestern Wisconsin along with parts of adjacent Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois, was not covered by glaciers.

Effects of glaciation

Scandinavia exhibits some of the typical effects of ice age glaciation such as fjords and lakes.
.Although the last glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago, its effects can still be felt today.^ I also was convinced that the period had not lasted for over a million years.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And they still haven’t figured out that kids are a lot more cognizant of what’s going on than they think.
  • Ice Age: setting female characters back a few millennia… | The Hathor Legacy 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC thehathorlegacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why is cleaning up the Middle East less worth doing today than was cleaning up Europe 65 years ago?
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, the moving ice carved out landscape in Canada, (See Canadian Arctic Archipelago) Greenland, northern Eurasia and Antarctica. The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.
.The weight of the ice sheets was so great that they deformed the Earth's crust and mantle.^ They are considerably more recent than the great layer of Cenozoic materials which the Biblical ice epoch has stripped from these mountains and deposited in the Great Valley.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They simply are waves which have bee set in motion by movement of the crust of the earth beneath the sea.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This great crack in the earth was formed in the crust when God literally overturned mountains, split apart the crust of the earth, and caused great volcanic action in places.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the ice sheets melted, the ice-covered land rebounded (see Post-glacial rebound).^ To put the icing on this mephitic post of yours I would like to see your reference to where Bin Laden "has clearly stated he wants to be the next Khalifa of the Muslim world."
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the lands of Israel and Jordan man was living south of the area where great ice fingers continued to cover the highlands of Europe and Asia Minor for decades.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the high viscosity of the Earth, the flow of mantle rocks which controls the rebound process is very slow – at a rate of about 1 cm/year near the center of rebound today.^ To the poster Bullwinkle, infrared data only tells us the surface temperature of the ocean, but doesn't give meaningful information about ocean currents and flow rate.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ ISHAC BADAWI, Lebach Refugee Center, Germany: [through interpreter] He had been in prison for about a year, and authorities did not know his country of origin.
  • The Ice Age Has Ended 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

.During glaciation, water was taken from the oceans to form the ice at high latitudes, thus global sea level dropped by about 120 meters, exposing the continental shelves and forming land-bridges between land-masses for animals to migrate.^ He includes an amazing amount of information about the violence of that time of great geological activity during the period in which he lived in the land.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One writer in particular had recorded a remarkable amount of information about life during that exceedingly violent period in the land of Israel.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These appear to have fallen from the heavens during Pleistocene times when the Jordan Valley was rifted and the land was mightily troubled by the influence of the ice age.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.During deglaciation, the melted ice-water returned to the oceans, causing sea level to rise.^ In any case, the sea could have frozen over only one time in history and that was during the Pleistocene, Biblical ice age!
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The expression, "compassed the waters with bounds," in verse 10 would refer to the act of establishing sea level in the third solar day of creation.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As winter sets in the northern hemisphere it's frankly logical to consider that the ocean water is not getting as much energy as it did during the summer.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.This process can cause sudden shifts in coastlines and hydration systems resulting in newly submerged lands, emerging lands, collapsed ice dams resulting in salination of lakes, new ice dams creating vast areas of freshwater, and a general alteration in regional weather patterns on a large but temporary scale.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Ice age lakes in that area, enormously enriched with silica by the explosions of Mt.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He describes what it was like to live in the eastern Mediterranean coastline lands when tidal waves were roaring ashore, generated by great crustal movement.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

It can even cause temporary reglaciation. .This type of chaotic pattern of rapidly changing land, ice, saltwater and freshwater has been proposed as the likely model for the Baltic and Scandinavian regions, as well as much of central North America at the end of the last glacial maximum, with the present-day coastlines only being achieved in the last few millennia of prehistory.^ I have no doubt that much of the lake was still there in the days of Job for the Biblical evidence strongly suggests that the Biblical ice age was well into retreat by Job's day.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On to the north in northern Turkey, in present day Russia and across Europe the land was gripped in a fierce winter that may have lasted for several generations.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have flown alongside enormous glaciers along the west coast of North America and South America from southern Alaska to just south of the equator in Ecuador and Peru.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also, the effect of elevation on Scandinavia submerged a vast continental plain that had existed under much of what is now the North Sea, connecting the British Isles to Continental Europe.^ Now if my suggestion that at one time the Red Sea had a narrow bay which reached even to the north of the present Sea of Galilee, this might be possible.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reference to the sea creature which would be kept under close watch when its presence threatened coastal peoples also is suggestive of a time when such creatures still existed.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The changes are so big they should have cut oceanic heating of Europe by about one-fifth – enough to cool the British Isles by 1°C and Scandinavia by 2°C. "We haven’t seen it yet," he points out.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

.The redistribution of ice-water on the surface of the Earth and the flow of mantle rocks causes changes in the gravitational field as well as changes to the distribution of the moment of inertia of the Earth.^ What Caused the Ice Ages and Other Important Climate Changes Before the Industrial Era?
  • CNN Segment Warns of the Coming Ice Age | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 20:020 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

These changes to the moment of inertia result in a change in the angular velocity, axis, and wobble of the Earth's rotation (see Post-glacial rebound). The weight of the redistributed surface mass loaded the lithosphere, caused it to flexure and also induced stress within the Earth. The presence of the glaciers generally suppressed the movement of faults below (Johnston 1989, Wu & Hasegawa 1996, Turpeinen et al. 2008). However, during deglaciation, the faults experience accelerated slip, and earthquakes are triggered (see Post-glacial rebound). .Earthquakes triggered near the ice margin may in turn accelerate ice calving and may account for the Heinrich events (Hunt & Malin 1998).^ These near-eyewitness accounts also would provide us much forgotten material about what happened when the Biblical ice age arrived and what caused it.
  • On Finding an Ice-Age Book 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.As more ice is removed near the ice margin, more intraplate earthquakes are induced and this positive feedback may explain the fast collapse of ice sheets.^ The thickening of the ice sheets may very well be a result of increased precipitation, which is caused not by colder temperatures, but by more humid conditions.
  • Ice Age Predicted, Blamed on Global Warming (Wizbang) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ J. Imbrie and K.P.Imbrie, Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (Short Hills NJ: Enslow Publishers) 1979.
  2. ^ J. Gribbin, Future weather (New York: Penguin) 1982.
  3. ^ Rémis, Frédéric et Testus, Laurent. "Mais comment s’écoule donc un glacier ? Aperçu historique". C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006) and republished online by Science direct. pp. 368–385. Accessed 22 June 2009. Note: p.374
  4. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte [The Discovery of the Ice Ages. International Reception and Consequences for the Understanding of climate history], Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 69.
  5. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 106 et seqq.
  6. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 189.
  7. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 111 and 189.
  8. ^ Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: Geologische Probleme und Versuch ihrer Auflösung, Mineralogie und Geologie in Goethes Werke, Weimar 1892, ISBN 3-423-05946-X, book 73 (WA II,9), p. 253, 254.
  9. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 111.
  10. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 59.
  11. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 84 and 86.
  12. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 118-119.
  13. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 121 et seqq.
  14. ^ Davies, Gordon L.: The Earth in Decay. A History of British Geomorphology 1578-1878, London 1969, p. 267f. Cunningham, Frank F.: Forbes, James David Forbes. Pioneer Scottish Glaciologist, Edinburgh 1990, p. 15.
  15. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 179 et seqq.
  16. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 136-137.
  17. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 188-191.
  18. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 194-196.
  19. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 207-210.
  20. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 213.
  21. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 216-217.
  22. ^ Agassiz, Louis: Etudes sur les glaciers. Ouvrage accompagné d'un atlas de 32 planches, Neuchâtel, 1840.
  23. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 223-224. De Charpentier, Jean: Essais sur les glaciers et sur le terrain erratique du bassin du Rhône, Lausanne 1841.
  24. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 220-223.
  25. ^ Krüger, Tobias: Die Entdeckung der Eiszeiten. Internationale Rezeption und Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der Klimageschichte, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2439-4, p. 540-542.
  26. ^ How are past temperatures determined from an ice core?, Scientific American, September 20, 2004
  27. ^ Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth' simulations with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model.
  28. ^ Cryogenian Snowballs
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  31. ^ "Next Ice Age Delayed By Rising Carbon Dioxide Levels". ScienceDaily. 2007. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070829193436.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  32. ^ Did Early Climate Impact Divert a New Glacial Age? Newswise, Retrieved on December 17, 2008.
  33. ^ Ewing, Maurice and William L. Donn. 1956. A Theory of Ice Ages. Science 123:1061-6, Retrieved on 2009-02-24
  34. ^ Ruddiman, W.F. and J.E. Kutzbach. 1991. Plateau Uplift and Climate Change. Scientific American 264:66-74
  35. ^ a b Raymo, M.E., W.F. Ruddiman, and P.N. Froelich (1988) Influence of late Cenozoic mountain building on ocean geochemical cycles. Geology, v. 16, p. 649-653.
  36. ^ Clark, Peter U.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Carlson, Anders E.; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hostetler, Steven W. et al. (2009), "The Last Glacial Maximum", Science 325 (5941): 710–714, doi:10.1126/science.1172873 
  37. ^ Ruddiman, William F. (2003). "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago". Climatic Change 61 (3): 261–293. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa. http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~avf5/teaching/Files_pdf/Ruddiman2003.pdf. 
  38. ^ We are all Panamanians - formation of Isthmus of Panama may have started a series of climatic changes that led to evolution of hominids
  39. ^ Hu, Aixue; Gerald Meehl, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Claire Waelbroeck, Weiqing Han, Marie-France Loutre, Kurt Lambeck, Jerry X. Mitrovica & Nan Rosenbloom (Published online 10 January 2010). "Influence of Bering Strait flow and North Atlantic circulation on glacial sea-level changes". Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo729. 
  40. ^ Kuhle, M.(1988): The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages- An Autocycle Hypothesis. GeoJournal 17 (4, Tibet and High-Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I), 581-596.
  41. ^ Kuhle, M. (2004): The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and LGM) ice cover in High and Central Asia. Development in Quaternary Science 2c (Quaternary Glaciation - Extent and Chronology, Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, Eds: Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.), 175-199. (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam)
  42. ^ Kuhle, M. (2007): The Past Ice Stream Network in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Period and its glacial-isostatic, eustatic and climatic consequences. Tectonophysics 445 (1-2), 116-144
  43. ^ Hallberg, G.R., 1986, Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 5, pp. 11-15.
  44. ^ a b Richmond, G.M. and D.S. Fullerton, 1986, Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America. Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 5, pp. 183-196.
  45. ^ Gibbard, P.L., S. Boreham, K.M. Cohen and A. Moscariello, 2007, Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b., jpg version 844 KB. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England

External links


Simple English

An ice age is a period when for a long time the temperature of Earth's climate is very low. This leads to an expansion of the continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers.

Ice age is a phrase coined for the period of extensive ice sheets in the recent Pleistocene period. We now know that ice ages have happened a number of times in the past, the greatest and longest of which took place in the Proterozoic era, before multi-cellular eukaryotes evolved.

Stages

Within an ice age, there are stages. The longer cold stages are called glacials or glacial periods. The shorter warm periods are called interglacials.

We are still, in a sense, in an ice age, because the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets still exist. When speaking of the last two million years, the Pleistocene ice age, in the glacials there were extensive ice sheets over the North American and Eurasian continents. The last glacial ended about 11,000 years ago when the present interglacial started.

Many glacial periods have occurred during the last few million years, initially at 40,000-year frequency but more recently at 100,000-year frequencies. These are the best studied. There have been four major ice ages in the further past.

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