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Iceland
Ísland
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemLofsöngur
Location of  Iceland  (dark green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Reykjavík
64°08′N 21°56′W / 64.133°N 21.933°W / 64.133; -21.933
Ethnic groups  93% Icelandic,
7.0% other
(see demographics)
Demonym Icelander, Icelandic
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson
 -  Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir
 -  Althing President Ásta Ragnheiður Jóhannesdóttir
Establishment — Independence
 -  Free State of Iceland
See settlement of Iceland
930 
 -  Unified with Norway 1262 
 -  Norway enters Kalmar Union[a] 1388 
 -  Ceded to Denmark[b] 14 January 1814 
 -  Constitution granted, limited home rule 5 January 1874 
 -  Home rule expanded 1 February 1904 
 -  Kingdom of Iceland, personal union
with Denmark
1 December 1918 
 -  Fall of Denmark 9 April 1940 
 -  Republic of Iceland, personal union ends 17 June 1944 
Area
 -  Total 103,001 km2 (107th)
39,770 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.7
Population
 -  1 December 2009 estimate 317,593[c] (175th)
 -  Density 3.1/km2 (232nd)
7.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $11.899 billion[1] (134th)
 -  Per capita $37,242[1] (10th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $11.781 billion[1] (101st)
 -  Per capita $36,873[1] (8th)
Gini (2005) 25.0[d] (low) (4th)
HDI (2007) 0.969 (very high) (3rd)
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .is
Calling code 354
a. ^ Danish monarchy reached Iceland in 1380 with the reign of Olav IV in Norway.
b. ^ Iceland, the Faeroes and Greenland were formally Norwegian possessions until 1814 despite 400 years of Danish monarchy beforehand.
c. ^ "Statistics Iceland:Key figures". www.statice.is. 1 October 2002. http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1390. 
d. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States Government. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html#Govt. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
Iceland[note 1] (en-us-Iceland.ogg /ˈaɪslənd/ ) (Icelandic: Ísland (names of Iceland); IPA: [ˈislant]) is a European island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean.[6] It has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi).[7] Its capital and largest city is Reykjavík, whose surrounding area is home to some two-thirds of the national population. Located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland is volcanically and geologically active on a large scale; this defines the landscape. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterised by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many big glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Warmed by the Gulf Stream, Iceland has a temperate climate relative to its latitude and provides a habitable environment and nature.
According to Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in AD 874 when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent Norwegian settler on the island.[8][9] Others had visited the island earlier and stayed over winter. .Over the next centuries, people of Norse and Celtic origin settled in Iceland.^ The Republic of Iceland was uninhabited until the ninth century CE, when Irish hermits settled there.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.Until the 20th century, the Icelandic population relied largely on fisheries and agriculture, and was from 1262 to 1918 a part of the Norwegian, and later the Danish, monarchies.^ The Republic of Iceland was uninhabited until the ninth century CE, when Irish hermits settled there.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1918 Iceland became an associated state of Denmark until it recovered its independence in 1944.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.In the 20th century, Iceland's economy and welfare system developed quickly, and in recent decades the nation has implemented free trade in the European Economic Area, diversifying from fishing to new economic fields in services, finance and various industries.^ However, a 2006 report on Iceland from the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) expressed concerns in a number of areas.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Iceland has moved in recent years to strengthen its treatment of immigrants - most noticeably with the establishment of an Immigration Council to recommend policy and oversee implementation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.Iceland is a free market economy with low taxes compared with other OECD countries.^ Iceland has a strong economy, low unemployment and low inflation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[10] The country maintains a Nordic welfare system providing universal health care and post-secondary education for its citizens.[11] In recent years, Iceland has been one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. .In 2007, it was ranked as the most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, and the fourth most productive country per capita.^ Iceland is Europe's most sparsely populated country with an average of about three inhabitants per square km.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[12][13] In 2008, however, the nation's banking system systematically failed, causing significant economic contraction and political unrest that led to early parliamentary elections making Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir the country's Prime Minister.[14]
Icelandic culture is based on the nation's Norse heritage and its status as a developed and technologically advanced society. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse (particularly from Western Norway) and Celtic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is closely related to Faroese and some West Norwegian dialects. The country's cultural heritage includes traditional cuisine, poetry, and the medieval Icelanders' sagas.

Contents

History

Settlement and the establishment of the Commonwealth (874–1262)

Ingólfr Arnarson, the first permanent Norwegian settler in Iceland
The first people believed to have visited Iceland were members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission or hermits, also known as Papar, who came in the 8th century. No archaeological discoveries support this theory; the monks are supposed to have left with the arrival of Norsemen, who systematically settled in the period circa AD 870–930. The results of recent carbon dating work, published in the journal Skírnir, suggests that the country may have been settled as early as the second half of the 7th century.[15]
The first known permanent Norse settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, who built his homestead in Reykjavík in the year 874. Ingólfur was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Norsemen and their Irish slaves. By 930, most arable land had been claimed and the Althing, a legislative and judiciary parliament, was founded as the political hub of the Icelandic Commonwealth. Christianity was adopted circa 999–1000. The Commonwealth lasted until 1262 when the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains.

Middle Ages to the Early Modern Era

The internal struggles and civil strife of the Sturlung Era led to the signing of the Old Covenant, which brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown. Possession of Iceland passed to Denmark-Norway in the late 14th century, when the kingdoms of Norway and Denmark were united in the Kalmar Union. .In the ensuing centuries, Iceland became one of the poorest countries in Europe.^ Iceland is Europe's most sparsely populated country with an average of about three inhabitants per square km.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Infertile soil, volcanic eruptions, and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society whose subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture. The Black Death swept Iceland in 1402–04 and 1494–95, each time killing about half the population.[16]
Around the middle of the 16th century, King Christian III of Denmark began to impose Lutheranism on all his subjects. The last Catholic bishop in Iceland was beheaded in 1550, along with two of his sons. The country subsequently became fully Lutheran. Lutheranism has since remained the dominant religion. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland, while pirates from England, Spain and Algeria (Turkish Abductions) raided its coasts. A great smallpox epidemic in the 18th century killed around a third of the population.[17][18] In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted, with devastating effects. The years following the eruption, known as the Mist Hardships (Icelandic: Móðuharðindin), saw the death of over half of all livestock in the country, with ensuing famine in which around a quarter of the population died.

The Independence Movement and the World Wars (1814–1945)

Jón Sigurðsson, leader of the Icelandic independence movement
.In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel.^ When Norway separated from the Danish Crown in 1814, Iceland remained under Denmark's protection.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Iceland, however, remained a Danish dependency. Throughout the 19th century, the country's climate continued to grow worse, resulting in mass emigration to the New World, particularly Manitoba in Canada. About 15,000 out of a total population of 70,000 left.[19] However, a new national consciousness was revived, inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from continental Europe, and an Icelandic independence movement arose under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson.
In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule, which was expanded in 1904. The Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918, recognised Iceland as a fully sovereign state under the Danish king.
During World War II, Iceland joined Denmark in asserting neutrality. After the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940, the Icelandic parliament declared that the Icelandic government should assume the Danish king's duties and take control over foreign affairs and other matters previously handled by Denmark on behalf of Iceland. A month later, British Armed Forces occupied Iceland, violating Icelandic neutrality. In 1941, responsibility for the occupation was taken over by the United States. Allied occupation of Iceland lasted throughout the war.
On 31 December 1943, the Act of Union agreement expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the union with Denmark and establish a republic.[20] The vote was 97% in favour of ending the union and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland formally became an independent republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as the first president.

Recent history (1946–present)

British and Icelandic vessels clash in the Atlantic Ocean during the Cod Wars
In 1946, the Allied occupation force left Iceland, which formally became a member of NATO on 30 March 1949, amid domestic controversy and riots. On 5 May 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States. American troops returned to Iceland and remained throughout the Cold War, finally leaving on 30 September 2006.
The immediate post-war period was followed by substantial economic growth, driven by industrialisation of the fishing industry and Marshall aid. The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars—several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland's extension of its fishing limits. The economy was greatly diversified and liberalised when Iceland joined the European Economic Area in 1994.
During the period 2003–07, Iceland developed from a nation best known for its fishing industry into a country providing sophisticated financial services, but was consequently hit particularly hard by the 2008 global financial crisis, which extended into 2009.[21]

Geography

A map of Iceland with major towns marked
Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean just south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the small island of Grímsey off Iceland's northern coast, but not through mainland Iceland. Unlike neighbouring Greenland, Iceland is a part of Europe, not of North America, though geologically the island is part of both continental plates. Because of cultural, economic and linguistic similarities, Iceland is one of the Nordic countries and participates in Nordic cooperation. The closest bodies of land are Greenland (287 km (178 mi)) and the Faroe Islands (420 km (261 mi)). The closest distance to the mainland of Europe is 970 km (603 mi) (to Norway).
Iceland, as seen from space on 29 January 2004 (NASA).
Iceland is the world's 18th largest island, and Europe's second largest island following Great Britain. The main island is 101,826 km2 (39,315 sq mi) but the entire country is 103,000 km2 (39,768.5 sq mi) in size, of which 62.7% is tundra. Lakes and glaciers cover 14.3%; only 23% is vegetated.[22] The largest lakes are Þórisvatn (Reservoir): 83–88 km2 (32.0–34.0 sq mi) and Þingvallavatn: 82 km2 (31.7 sq mi); other important lakes include Lögurinn and Mývatn. Öskjuvatn is the deepest lake at 220 m (722 ft).[citation needed]
Geologically, Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms new oceanic crust. In addition to this, this part of the mid-ocean ridge is located atop a mantle plume causing Iceland to be subaerial. Iceland marks the boundary between both the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate since it has been created by rifting, and accretion through volcanism, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge—where the two plates meet.[23]
Many fjords punctuate its 4,970 km-long coastline, which is also where most settlements are situated. The island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland, are a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand and mountains. The major towns are the capital of Reykjavík, along with its outlying towns of Kópavogur, Hafnarfjörður and Garðabær, Reykjanesbær, where the international airport is located, and Akureyri, in northern Iceland. The island of Grímsey just south of the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland.[24] Iceland has three national parks: Vatnajökull National Park, Snæfellsjökull National Park, and Þingvellir National Park.[25]

Geological activity

The erupting Great Geysir in Haukadalur valley, the oldest known geyser in the world
.A geologically young land, Iceland is located on both the Iceland hotspot and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which runs right through it.^ Iceland is a volcanic island located in the North Atlantic between Greenland, Norway, Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

This combined location means that the island is highly geologically active and has many volcanoes, notably Hekla, Eldgjá, Herðubreið and Eldfell. .The volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783–1784 caused a famine that killed nearly a quarter of the island's population;[26] the eruption caused dust clouds and haze to appear over most of Europe and parts of Asia and Africa for several months afterward.^ Iceland is Europe's most sparsely populated country with an average of about three inhabitants per square km.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[27]
Dettifoss, located in northeast Iceland. It is the largest waterfall in Europe in terms of volume discharge, with an average water flow of 200 m3/second
There are also many geysers in Iceland, including Geysir, from which the English word is derived, as well as the famous Strokkur, which erupts every 5–10 minutes. After a phase of inactivity, Geysir started erupting again after a series of earthquakes in 2000.
With the widespread availability of geothermal power, and because many rivers and waterfalls are harnessed for hydroelectricity, most residents have inexpensive hot water and home heat. The island itself is composed primarily of basalt, a low-silica lava associated with effusive volcanism like Hawaii. Iceland, however, has various kinds of volcanoes, many of which produce more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite.[28]
Iceland controls Surtsey, one of the youngest islands in the world. .Named after Surtr, it rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between 8 November 1963 and 5 June 1968.[24] Only scientists researching the growth of new life are allowed to visit the island.^ Iceland is a volcanic island located in the North Atlantic between Greenland, Norway, Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[29]

Climate

Eyjafjallajökull glacier, one of the smallest glaciers of Iceland
The climate of Iceland's coast is subpolar oceanic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world. Regions in the world with similar climate include the Aleutian Islands, the Alaska Peninsula and Tierra del Fuego, although these regions are closer to the equator. Despite its proximity to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter. Ice incursions are rare, the last having occurred on the north coast in 1969.[30]
There are some variations in the climate between different parts of the island. Generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter and windier than the north. Low-lying inland areas in the north are the most arid. Snowfall in winter is more common in the north than the south (there is ca. 50% chance of a white Christmas in Reykjavík but ca. 70% in Akureyri).[citation needed] The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country.
The highest air temperature recorded was 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) on 22 June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the southeastern coast. The lowest was −38 °C (−36.4 °F) on 22 January 1918 at Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur in the northeastern hinterland. The temperature records for Reykjavík are 26.2 °C (79.2 °F) on 30 July 2008, and −24.5 °C (−12.1 °F) on 21 January 1918.
Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) (1961–1990)[31]
Location Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec All
Reykjavík[32] 1.9 2.8 3.2 5.7 9.4 11.7 13.3 13.0 10.1 6.8 3.4 2.2 High 7.0
-3.0 -2.1 -2.0 0.4 3.6 6.7 8.3 7.9 5.0 2.2 -1.3 -2.8 Low 1.9
Akureyri[33] 0.9 1.7 2.1 5.4 9.5 13.2 14.5 13.9 9.9 5.9 2.6 1.3 High 6.7
-5.5 -4.7 -4.2 -1.5 2.3 6.0 7.5 7.1 3.5 0.4 -3.5 -5.1 Low 0.2

Flora and fauna

Few plants and animals have migrated to the island or evolved locally since the last ice age, 10,000 years ago. There are around 1,300 known species of insects in Iceland, which is a rather low number compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic Fox, which came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the frozen sea. There are no native reptiles or amphibians on the island.[citation needed]
Phytogeographically, Iceland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Iceland belongs to the ecoregion of Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra. Approximately three-quarters of the island are barren of vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Iceland is the Northern Birch Betula pubescens, which formerly formed forest over much of Iceland along with "Aspen" (Populus Tremola), "Rowan" (Sorbus Aucuparia) and "Common Juniper" (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees.
Permanent human settlement greatly disturbed the isolated ecosystem of thin, volcanic soils and limited species diversity. The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Deforestation caused a loss of critical topsoil due to erosion, greatly reducing the ability of birches to grow back. Today, only a few small birch stands exist in isolated reserves. The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees, but does not compare to the original forests. Some of the planted forests include new foreign species.[citation needed]
The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep, cattle, chicken, goat and the sturdy Icelandic horse, as well as the Icelandic sheepdog. Many varieties of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a main contributor to Iceland's economy, accounting for more than half of the country's total exports. Wild mammals include the Arctic Fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits and reindeer. Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling on icebergs from Greenland. In May 2008 two polar bears arrived only two weeks apart. Birds, especially seabirds, are a very important part of Iceland's animal life. Puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs.[citation needed]
Commercial whaling is practiced intermittently[34][35] along with scientific whale hunts.[36] Whale watching has become an important part of Iceland's economy since 1997.[citation needed]

Government

Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic. The modern parliament, Alþingi (English: Althing), was founded in 1845 as an advisory body to the Danish monarch. It was widely seen as a re-establishment of the assembly founded in 930 in the Commonwealth period and suspended in 1799. Consequently, "it is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy."[37] It currently has 63 members, elected for a maximum period of four years.[38] The president is elected by popular vote for a term of four years, with no term limit. The government and local councils are elected separately from the presidential elections every four years.[39]
Stjórnarráðið, the seat of the executive branch of Iceland's government
The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial head of state and serves as a diplomat but can block a law voted by the parliament and put it to a national referendum. The current president is Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson. The head of government is the prime minister (currently Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir) who, together with the cabinet, is responsible for executive government. The cabinet is appointed by the president after a general election to Althing; however, the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how its seats are to be distributed, under the condition that it has a majority support in Althing. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves in a reasonable time does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet himself or herself. This has not happened since the republic was founded in 1944, but in 1942 the regent of the country (Sveinn Björnsson who had been installed in that position by the Althing in 1941) did appoint a non-parliamentary government. The regent had, for all practical purposes, the position of a president, and Sveinn in fact became the country's first president in 1944.
The governments of Iceland have almost always been coalitions with two or more parties involved, as no single political party has received a majority of seats in Althing during the republic. The extent of the political power possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars in Iceland; several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers but other provisions and traditions suggest differently. In 1980, Icelanders elected Vigdís Finnbogadóttir as president, the world's first directly elected female head of state. She retired from office in 1996.

Subdivisions

Iceland is divided into regions, constituencies, counties, and municipalities. There are eight regions which are primarily used for statistical purposes; the district court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division.[6] Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliamentary elections were the same as the regions, but by an amendment to the constitution, they were changed to the current six constituencies:
The redistricting change was made in order to balance the weight of different districts of the country, since previously a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area. The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system, but still exists.[6]
Iceland's 23 counties are, for the most part, historical divisions. Currently, Iceland is split up among 26 magistrates (sýslumenn, singular sýslumaður) who represent government in various capacities. Among their duties are tax collection, administering bankruptcy declarations, and performing civil marriages. After a police reorganisation in 2007, which combined police forces in multiple counties, about half of them are in charge of police forces.[6]
There are 79 municipalities in Iceland which govern local matters like schools, transport and zoning. These are the actual second-level subdivisions of Iceland, as the constituencies have no relevance except in elections and for statistical purposes. Reykjavík is by far the most populous municipality, about four times more populous than Kópavogur, the second one.[6]

Politics

Iceland has a left–right multi-party system. The biggest parties are the Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin), the Centre-right Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) and the Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð). Other political parties with seats in Althing are the centrist Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn) and the Citizens' Movement (Borgarahreyfingin). Many other parties exist on the municipal level, most of which only run locally in a single municipality.

Foreign relations

Nordic prime ministers in 2007
Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with the Nordic countries, Germany, the US, and the other NATO nations are particularly close. Icelanders remain especially proud of the role Iceland played in hosting the historic 1986 Reagan–Gorbachev summit in Reykjavík, which set the stage for the end of the Cold War. Iceland's principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights. Conflict with the United Kingdom led to a series of so-called Cod Wars in 1952–1956 as a result of the extension of Iceland's fishing zone from 3 to 4 nmi (5.6 to 7.4 km; 3.5 to 4.6 mi), 1958–61 following a further extension to 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi), 1972–73 with another extension to 50 nmi (92.6 km; 57.5 mi); and in 1975–76 another extension to 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi).
Iceland has no standing army. The U.S. Air Force maintained four to six interceptors at the Keflavík base, until 30 September 2006 when they were withdrawn.[citation needed] Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite much controversy in Iceland, deploying a Coast Guard EOD team to Iraq[40] which was replaced later by members of the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit. Iceland has also participated in the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan and the 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia. Despite the ongoing financial crisis the first new patrol ship for decades was launched on 29 April 2009.[41]
Iceland is a member of European Economic Area (EEA), which allows the country access to the single market of the European Union (EU). It is not a member of EU, but in July 2009 the Icelandic parliament, the Althingi, voted in favour of application for EU membership.[42] EU officials mentioned 2011 or 2012 as possible accession dates.[43] Iceland is also a member of the UN, NATO, EFTA and OECD.

Demographics

Citizenship of Iceland residents
(1 January 2008)[44]
Iceland 291,942 93.2%
Poland 8,488 2.71%
Lithuania 1,332 0.43%
Germany 984 0.31%
Denmark 966 0.31%
Portugal 890 0.28%
Philippines 743 0.24%
Ex-Yugoslavia 651 0.21%
United States 598 0.19%
Thailand 545 0.17%
Latvia 431 0.14%
United Kingdom 420 0.13%
Sweden 407 0.13%
China (PRC) 379 0.12%
Ex-Czechoslovakia 365 0.12%
Norway 301 0.10%
others 3,934 1.26%
Total 313,376 100%
Total (excluding Icelanders) 21,434 6.8%
Reykjavík, Iceland's largest metropolitan area and the centre of the Greater Reykjavík Area which, with a population of 200,000, makes for 64% of Iceland's population.
The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Celtic origin. This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses. One such genetics study has indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Celtic origin.[45]
Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement. The biopharmaceutical company deCODE Genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database which attempts to cover all of Iceland's known inhabitants. It sees the database, called Íslendingabók, as a valuable tool for conducting research on genetic diseases, given the relative isolation of Iceland's population.
The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40,000–60,000 in the period from initial settlement until the mid-19th century. During that time, cold winters, ashfall from volcanic eruptions, and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times. The first census was carried out in 1703 and revealed that the population was then 50,358. After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during 1783–84 the population reached a low of about 40,000. Improving living conditions have triggered a rapid increase in population since the mid-19th century—from about 60,000 in 1850 to 320,000 in 2008.
Population estimate
Year Population
2008 313,376
2009 319,442
2010 317,440
2020 340,095
2030 368,468
2040 391,983
2050 408,835
Source: Statistics Iceland[46]
In December 2007, 33,678 people (13.5% of the total population) living in Iceland had been born abroad, including children of Icelandic parents living abroad. 19,000 people (6% of the population) held foreign citizenship. Polish people make up the far largest minority nationality (see table on the right for more details), and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce. About 8,000 Poles now live in Iceland, 1,500 of them in Reyðarfjörður where they make up 75 percent of the workforce who are building the Fjarðarál aluminium plant.[47] The recent surge in immigration has been credited to a labour shortage because of the booming economy at the time, while restrictions on the movement of people from the Eastern European countries that joined the EU / European Economic Area in 2004 have been lifted. Large-scale construction projects in the east of Iceland (see Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project) have also brought in many people whose stay is expected to be temporary.
The Icelandic financial crisis threatens to push many immigrants—mostly those from Poland—back home.[48]
The southwest corner of Iceland is the most densely populated region. It is also the location of the capital Reykjavík, the northernmost capital in the world. The largest towns outside the greater Reykjavík area are Akureyri and Reykjanesbær, although the latter is relatively close to the capital.
Greenland was first settled by some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red in the late 10th century.[49] The total population reached a high point of perhaps 5,000 and developed independent institutions before disappearing by 1500.[50] From Greenland the Norsemen launched expeditions to settle in Vinland, but these attempts to colonise North America were soon abandoned in the face of hostility from the indigenous peoples.[51] Immigration to the United States and Canada began in the 1870s. Today, Canada has over 88,000 people of Icelandic descent.[52] There are more than 40,000 Americans of Icelandic descent according to the 2000 U.S. census.[53]

10 most populous urban centres in Iceland

Largest cities and towns in Iceland

Rank City Population Constituency
1 Reykjavik 119,110 Reykjavik North/South
2 Kópavogur 30,401 Southwest
3 Hafnarfjörður 26,031 Southwest
4 Akureyri 17,481 Northeast
5 Reykjanesbær 14,099 Southwest
6 Garðabær 10,584 Reykjavik South
7 Mosfellsbær 8,517 Reykjavik North
8 Árborg 7,928 Southwest
9 Akranes 6,630 Northwest
10 Fjarðabyggð 4,736 Eastern
Data is from the population census of 1 October 2009.

Language

Iceland's official written and spoken language is Icelandic, a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse. It has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages, has preserved more verb and noun inflection, and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages. It is the only living language to retain the runic letter Þ. The closest living language to Icelandic is Faroese. In education, the use of Icelandic Sign Language for Iceland's deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide.
English is widely spoken as a secondary language. Danish is also widely understood and spoken. Studying both languages is a mandatory part of the compulsory school curriculum.[54] Other commonly spoken languages are German, Norwegian and Swedish. Danish is mostly spoken in a way largely comprehensible to Swedes and Norwegians—it is often referred to as Skandinavíska (i. e. Scandinavian) in Iceland.[55]
Rather than using family names as is the custom in all mainland European nations, the Icelanders use patronymics. The patronymic follows the person's given name, e.g. Ólafur Jónsson ("Ólafur, Jón's son") or Katrín Karlsdóttir ("Katrín, Karl's daughter"). It is for this reason that the Icelandic telephone directory is listed alphabetically by first name rather than surname.

Religion

Hallgrímskirkja (Church of Hallgrímur) in Reykjavík.
Icelanders enjoy freedom of religion under the constitution, though the National Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the state church. The National Registry keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In 2005, Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows:[56]
  • 80.7% members of the National Church of Iceland.
  • 6.2% members of unregistered religious organisations or with no specified religious affiliation.
  • 4.9% members of the Free Lutheran Churches of Reykjavík and Hafnarfjörður.
  • 2.8% not members of any religious group.
  • 2.5% members of the Roman Catholic Church, which has a Diocese of Reykjavík (see also Bishop of Reykjavík (Catholic)).
The remaining 2.9% includes around 20–25 other Christian denominations while around 1% belong to non-Christian religious organisations. The largest non-Christian denomination is Ásatrúarfélagið, a neopagan group.[57]
Religious attendance is relatively low,[58][59] as in the other Nordic countries. The above statistics represent administrative membership of religious organisations which does not necessarily closely reflect the belief demographics of the population of Iceland. According to Froese (2001), 23% of the inhabitants are either atheist or agnostic.[60]

Economy and infrastructure

Akureyri is the largest town in Iceland outside of the greater Reykjavík area. Most rural towns are based on the fishing industry, which provides 40% of Iceland's exports.
In 2007, Iceland was the seventh most productive country in the world per capita (US$54,858), and the fifth most productive by GDP at purchasing power parity ($40,112). Except for its abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power, Iceland lacks natural resources; historically its economy depended heavily on the fishing industry, which still provides almost 40% of export earnings and employs 8% of the work force. The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks and drops in world prices for its main material exports: fish and fish products, aluminium, and ferrosilicon. Whaling in Iceland has been historically significant. Although the Icelandic economy still relies heavily on fishing, its importance is diminishing as the travel industry and other service, technology and various other industries grow.[citation needed]
Although Iceland is a highly developed country, it is still one of the most newly industrialised in Europe. Until the 20th century, it was among the poorest countries in Western Europe. However, strong economic growth has led Iceland to be ranked first in the United Nations' Human Development Index report for 2007/2008,[12] and the fourteenth longest-living nation with a life expectancy at birth of 80.67 years.[6] Many political parties remain opposed to EU membership, primarily due to Icelanders' concern about losing control over their natural resources.[citation needed]
A 500 króna banknote. The Icelandic króna is the national currency of Iceland
The national currency of Iceland is the Icelandic króna (ISK). An extensive poll, released on 11 September 2007, by Capacent Gallup showed that 53% of respondents were in favour of adopting the euro, 37% opposed and 10% undecided.[61] Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, including software production, biotechnology, and financial services. Despite the decision to resume commercial whale hunting in 2006, the tourism sector is expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale-watching. Iceland's agriculture industry consists mainly of potatoes, green vegetables (in greenhouses), mutton and dairy products.[62] The financial centre is Borgartún in Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks. Iceland's stock market, the Iceland Stock Exchange (ISE), was established in 1985.[63]
Iceland ranked 5th in the Index of Economic Freedom 2006 and 14th in 2008. Iceland has a flat tax system. The main personal income tax rate is a flat 22.75 percent and combined with municipal taxes the total tax rate is not more than 35.72%, and there are many deductions.[64] The corporate tax rate is a flat 18 percent, one of the lowest in the world.[64] Other taxes include a value-added tax; a net wealth tax was eliminated in 2006. Employment regulations are relatively flexible. Property rights are strong and Iceland is one of the few countries where they are applied to fishery management.[64] Taxpayers pay various subsidies to each other, similar to European countries with welfare state, but the spending is less than in most European countries.
Despite low tax rates, overall taxation and consumption is still much higher than countries such as Ireland.[citation needed] According to OECD, agricultural support is the highest among OECD countries and an impediment to structural change. Also, health care and education spending have relatively poor return by OECD measures. OECD Economic survey of Iceland 2008 highlighted Iceland's challenges in currency and macroeconomic policy.[65] There was a currency crisis that started in the spring of 2008, and on 6 October trading in Iceland's banks was suspended as the government battled to save the economy.[66]

2008–2009 economic crisis

The Reykjavík headquarters of Kaupthing bank
Iceland has been hit especially hard by the ongoing late 2000s recession, because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis. Before the crash of the three largest banks in Iceland, Glitnir, Landsbanki and Kaupthing, their combined debt exceeded approximately six times the nation's gross domestic product of 14 billion ($19 billion).[67][68] In October 2008, the Icelandic parliament passed emergency legislation to minimise the impact of the financial crisis. The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks.[69] Icelandic officials, including central bank governor Davíð Oddsson, stated that the state did not intend to take over any of the banks' foreign debts or assets. Instead, new banks were established around the domestic operations of the banks, and the old banks will be run into bankruptcy. The Icelandic economic crisis has been a matter of great concern in international media.
On 28 October 2008, the Icelandic government raised interest rates to 18%, (as of July 2009, it is 12%) a move which was forced in part by the terms of acquiring a loan from the IMF. After the rate hike, trading on the Icelandic króna finally resumed on the open market, with valuation at around 250 ISK per Euro, less than one-third the value of the 1:70 exchange rate during most of 2008, and a significant drop from the 1:150 exchange ratio of the week before. Iceland has appealed to Nordic countries for an additional €4 billion in aid to avert the continuing crisis.[70]
On 26 January 2009, the coalition government collapsed due to the public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis. A new left-wing government was formed a week later and immediately set about removing Central Bank governor Davíð Oddsson and his aides from the bank through changes in law. Oddsson was removed on 26 February 2009.[71]

Transportation

The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through: 1.Reykjavík, 2.Borgarnes, 3.Blönduós, 4.Akureyri, 5.Egilsstaðir, 6.Höfn, 7.Selfoss.
The social structure of Iceland is very dependent upon the personal car, and the main mode of transport is by road. The country has a high level of car ownership per capita, with a car for every 1.5 inhabitants.[72] Iceland has 13,034 km (8,099 mi) of administered roads, of which 4,617 km (2,869 mi) are paved and 8,338 km (5,181 mi) are not. Today, roads are being improved throughout the country and freeways are being built in and around Reykjavík. A great number of roads remain unpaved to this day, mostly little used rural roads. The road speed limits are 50 km/h (31 mph) in towns, 80 km/h (50 mph) on gravel country roads and 90 km/h (56 mph) is the limit on hard-surfaced roads.[73] Iceland currently has no railways.
Route 1, or the Ring Road (Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur), was completed in 1974, and is a main road that runs around Iceland and connects all the inhabited parts of the island (the interior of the island is uninhabited). The road is 1,337 km (831 mi) long. It has one lane in each direction, except near larger towns and cities and in the Hvalfjörður Tunnel where it has more lanes. Most smaller bridges on it are single lane and made of wood and/or steel. Most of the road's length is paved with asphalt, in the east 5 km (3 mi) of road are currently being moved and are gravel but will be paved soon (as of 29 September 2008).
The main hub for international transport is Keflavík International Airport, which serves Reykjavík and the country in general. It is 48 km (30 mi) to the west of Reykjavík. Domestic flights, flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands and business flights operate mostly out of Reykjavík Airport, which lies in the city centre. Most general aviation traffic is also in Reykjavík. There are 103 registered airports and airfields in Iceland; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas. The biggest airport in Iceland is Keflavík International Airport and the biggest airfield is Geitamelur, a four-runway field around 100 km (62 mi) east of Reykjavík, dedicated exclusively to gliding.

Energy

The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station services the Greater Reykjavík Area's hot water needs. Virtually all of Iceland's electricity comes from renewable resources.[74]
Renewable sourcesgeothermal and hydro power—provide effectively all of Iceland's electricity[74] and around 80% of the nation's total energy,[74] with most of the remainder from imported oil used in transportation and in the fishing fleet.[75][76] Iceland expects to be energy-independent by 2050. Iceland's largest geothermal power plants are Hellisheiði and Nesjavellir,[77][78] while Kárahnjúkavirkjun is the country's largest hydroelectric power station.[79]
Icelanders emit 10.0 tonnes of CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gases per capita, which is higher than many European nations. This is due to the wide use of personal transport and a large fishing fleet. Iceland is one of the few countries that have filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells. It is also one of a few countries currently capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at a reasonable cost, because of Iceland's plentiful renewable sources of energy.
Iceland has never produced oil or gas. On January 22, 2009 Iceland announced its first round of offshore licensing to companies looking to explore for hydrocarbons in a region northeast of Iceland, known as the Dreki area.[80]

Education and science

Reykjavík Junior College (Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík), located in downtown Reykjavík, is the oldest gymnasium in Iceland
The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines. However, the playschools and the primary and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities.
Nursery school or leikskóli, is non-compulsory education for children younger than six years, and is the first step in the education system. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994. They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.
Compulsory education, or grunnskóli, comprises primary and lower secondary education, which often is conducted at the same institution. Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 16 years. The school year lasts nine months, and begins between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. The minimum number of school days was once 170, but after a new teachers' wage contract, it increased to 180. Lessons take place five days a week. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Icelandic secondary education as the 27th in the world, significantly below the OECD average.[81]
Upper secondary education or framhaldsskóli follows lower secondary education. These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. It is not compulsory, but everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education. This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996. All schools in Iceland are mixed sex schools. The largest seat of higher education is the University of Iceland, which has its main campus in central Reykjavík. Other schools offering university-level instruction include Reykjavík University, University of Akureyri and Bifrost University.

Culture

Icelandic culture has its roots in Norse traditions. Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas which were written during the High and Late Middle Ages. Icelanders place relatively great importance on independence and self-sufficiency; in a European Commission public opinion analysis over 85% of Icelanders found independence to be "very important" contrasted with the EU25 average of 53%, and 47% for the Norwegians, and 49% for the Danes.[82]
Some traditional beliefs remain today; for example, some Icelanders either believe in elves or are unwilling to rule out their existence.[83] Iceland ranks first on the Human Development Index, and was recently ranked the fourth happiest country in the world.[84]
Iceland is progressive in terms of lesbian, gay bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) matters. In 1996, Parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, covering nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage. In 2006, by unanimous vote of Parliament, further legislation was passed, granting same-sex couples the same rights as different-sex couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment.

Literature

An example from Brennu-Njáls saga. The sagas are a significant part of the Icelandic heritage
Iceland's best-known classical works of literature are the Icelanders' sagas, prose epics set in Iceland's age of settlement. The most famous of these include Njáls saga, about an epic blood feud, and Grœnlendinga saga and Eiríks saga, describing the discovery and settlement of Greenland and Vinland (modern Newfoundland). Egils saga, Laxdæla saga, Grettis saga, Gísla saga and Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu are also notable and popular Icelanders' sagas.
A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. Important compositions since the 15th to the 19th century include sacred verse, most famously the Passion Hymns of Hallgrímur Pétursson, and rímur, rhyming epic poems. Originating in the 14th century, rímur were popular into the 19th century, when the development of new literary forms was provoked by the influential, National-Romantic writer Jónas Hallgrímsson. In recent times, Iceland has produced many great writers, the best-known of which is arguably Halldór Laxness who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1955. Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet.

Art

The poet Steinn Steinarr by Einar Hákonarson, one of Iceland's best known artists
The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement to home rule and independence, which was very active in this period.
Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of Þórarinn Þorláksson, who, following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen, returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924, almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape. Several other Icelandic men and women artists learned in Denmark Academy at that time, including Ásgrímur Jónsson, who together with Þórarinn created a distinctive portrayal of Iceland's landscape in a romantic naturalistic style. Other landscape artists quickly followed in the footsteps of Þórarinn and Ásgrímur. These included Jóhannes Kjarval and Júlíana Sveinsdóttir. Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment. Einar Hákonarson is an expressionistic and figurative painter who by some is considered to have brought the figure back into Icelandic painting. In the 1980s many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work.
Traditional Icelandic turf houses. Until the 20th century, the vast majority of Icelanders lived in rural areas.
In the recent years artistic practice has multiplied, and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large scale projects and exhibitions. The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank has been a significant portion of the trend of self organised spaces, exhibitions and projects.[citation needed] The Living Art Museum, Reykjavík Municipal Art Museum and the National Gallery of Iceland are the larger, more established institutions, curating shows and festivals.
Icelandic architecture draws from Scandinavian influences. The scarcity of native trees resulted in traditional houses being covered by grass and turf.

Music

Icelandic music is related to Nordic music, and includes vibrant Electronic music, folk and pop traditions, including medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative rock band The Sugarcubes, singers Björk and Emiliana Torrini; and Sigur Rós. The national anthem of Iceland is Lofsöngur, written by Matthías Jochumsson, with music by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson.[85]
Singer Björk; one of the most famous people from Iceland.
Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious. Hallgrímur Pétursson wrote many Protestant hymns in the 17th century. Icelandic music was modernised in the 19th century, when Magnús Stephensen brought pipe organs, which were followed by harmoniums
Other vital traditions of Icelandic music are epic alliterative and rhyming ballads called rímur. Rímur are epic tales, usually a cappella, which can be traced back to skaldic poetry, using complex metaphors and elaborate rhyme schemes. The best known rímur poet of the 19th century was Sigurður Breiðfjörð (1798–1846). A modern revitalisation of the tradition began in 1929 with the formation of the organisation Iðunn.[86]
Icelandic contemporary music consists of a big group of bands, ranging from pop-rock groups such as Bang Gang, Quarashi and Amiina to solo ballad singers like Bubbi Morthens, Megas and Björgvin Halldórsson. Independent music is also very strong in Iceland, with bands such as múm, Sigur Rós and solo artists Emiliana Torrini and Mugison being fairly well-known outside Iceland.
Many Icelandic artists and bands have had great success internationally, most notably Björk and Sigur Rós but also Quarashi, Hera, Ampop, Mínus and múm. The main music festival is arguably Iceland Airwaves, an annual event on the Icelandic music scene, where Icelandic bands along with foreign ones occupy the clubs of Reykjavík for a week.

Media

Icelandic director Baltasar Kormákur, best known for the films 101 Reykjavík and Jar City
Iceland's largest television stations are the state-run Sjónvarpið and the privately owned Stöð 2, Skjár einn and ÍNN. Smaller stations exist, many of them local. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior. The main radio stations are Rás 1, Rás 2 and Bylgjan. The daily newspapers are Morgunblaðið and Fréttablaðið. The most popular websites are the news sites Vísir and Mbl.is.[87]
Iceland is home to television network Nick Jr.'s LazyTown (Icelandic: Latibær), a children's television programme created by Magnús Scheving. It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over 100 countries, including the UK, the Americas and Sweden.[88] The LazyTown studios are located in Garðabær.
Actress Anita Briem, known for her performance in Showtime's The Tudors, is Icelandic. Briem starred in the 2008 film Journey to the Center of the Earth, which shot scenes in Iceland.

Cuisine

Iceland liver sausage
Most national Icelandic foods are based around fish, lamb and dairy products. Þorramatur is a national food consisting of many dishes and is usually consumed around the month of Þorri, which begins on the first Friday after 19 January. Traditional dishes include skyr, cured ram scrota, cured shark, singed sheep heads and black pudding.
The modern Icelandic diet is very diverse, and includes cuisines from all over the world. As in other Western societies, fast food restaurants are widespread.

Sport

Eiður Smári Guðjohnsen, Iceland's best known football player
Sport is an important part of the Icelandic culture. The main traditional sport in Iceland is Glíma, a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times.
Popular sports are football, track and field, handball and basketball. Handball is often referred to as a national sport, Iceland's team is one of the top-ranked teams in the world and Icelandic women are surprisingly good at football relative to the size of the country, the national team ranked 19th by FIFA. Iceland has excellent conditions for ice and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking is preferred by the general public. Iceland is also a world class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the center of activity. Iceland also has the most World's Strongest Man competition wins with 8 titles shared evenly between Magnús Ver Magnússon and Jon Pall Sigmarsson.
The oldest sport association in Iceland is the Reykjavík Shooting Association, founded 1867. Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century and was heavily encouraged by politicians and others pushing for Icelandic independence. Shooting remains popular and all types of shooting with small arms is practiced in the country.[89]

See also

Icelandic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Notes

  1. ^ The country's official name is Iceland. Although many sources—including the CIA World Factbook,[2] Encyclopedia Britannica,[3] and the United Nations[4]—give "Republic of Iceland" (or "Lýðveldið Ísland" in Icelandic) as the official name, this conventional long name is actually not the official name of the country. The word "republic" is used only descriptively of the country's form of government and is not part of the country's actual name. This has been explained in a letter from the the Office of the Prime Minister of Iceland to Ari Páll Kristinsson, Associate Professor at the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies.[5]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d "Iceland". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=176&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=53&pr.y=10. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  2. ^ "Iceland". The World Factbook. CIA. 20 January 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ic.html. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  3. ^ "Iceland". Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281235/Iceland. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (pdf). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. August 2009. p. 48. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/UNGEGN-Working-Groups/UNGEGN%20WG%20Country%20Names%20Document%20-%20August%202009.pdf. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  5. ^ "Hvert er formlegt heiti landsins okkar?" (in Icelandic). Vísindavefurinn. http://www.visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=54970. Retrieved 21 February 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "CIA – The World Fact book – Iceland". Government. United States Government. 20 July 2006. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ic.html. Retrieved 6 August 2006. 
  7. ^ "Statistics Iceland". Government. The National Statistical Institute of Iceland. 14 September 2008. http://www.statice.is#Govt. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Tomasson, Richard F. (1980). Iceland, the first new society. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0913-6. 
  9. ^ I. Marc Carlson. "History of Medieval Greenland". Personal.utulsa.edu. http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~Marc-Carlson/history/grontime.html. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  10. ^ "OECD Tax Database". Oecd.org. http://www.oecd.org/document/60/0,2340,en_2649_34533_1942460_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  11. ^ (Icelandic) http://www.borg.hi.is/ChildWelfare
  12. ^ a b "Human Development Report 2007/2008". hdr.undp.org. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  13. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. http://imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/01/data/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2006&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=%2C&br=1&pr1.x=20&pr1.y=14&c=512%2C941%2C914%2C446%2C612%2C666%2C614%2C668%2C311%2C672%2C213%2C946%2C911%2C137%2C193%2C962%2C122%2C674%2C912hugxgbufghdgfhsg136%2C466%2C343%2C112%2C158%2C111%2C439%2C298%2C916%2C927%2C664%2C846%2C826%2C299%2C542%2C582%2C443%2C474%2C917%2C754%2C544%2C698&s=NGDPDPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  14. ^ Moody, Jonas (2009-01-30). "Iceland Picks the World's First Openly Gay PM". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1875032,00.html. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  15. ^ "Mikið verk óunnið við rannsóknir" (in Icelandic). RÚV. 2009-11-06. http://www.ruv.is/heim/frettir/frett/store64/item310447. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  16. ^ "6th-10th century AD - page 14 | Past & Present". Findarticles.com. 2009-06-02. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n156/ai_20059971/pg_14. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  17. ^ "Iceland: Milestones in Icelandic History". Iceland.vefur.is. http://iceland.vefur.is/iceland_history/history.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  18. ^ "The History of Iceland (Gunnar Karlsson) - book review". Dannyreviews.com. http://dannyreviews.com/h/Iceland.html. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  19. ^ "For Iceland, an exodus of workers". New York Times. 2008-12-05. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/12/05/business/iceland.php. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  20. ^ Id. at p.48
  21. ^ Lewis, Michael (April 2009). "Wall Street on the Tundra". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2009/04/iceland200904?printable=true&currentPage=all. 
  22. ^ "National Land Survey of Iceland". www.statice.is. unknown. http://www.lmi.is/landsurvey.nsf/pages/index.html/. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  23. ^ "Geology of Iceland". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/Geology/. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  24. ^ a b "CIA – The World Factbook – Iceland". Geography. United States Government. 2006-07-20. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ic.html. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  25. ^ "National Parks". Umhverfisstofnun. 2002. http://english.ust.is/National-Parks/Protectedareas/Nationalparks/. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  26. ^ "Late Holocene climate". Academic.emporia.edu. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec19/holocene.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  27. ^ "Atmospheric impact of the 1783–1784 Laki Eruption: Part II Climatic effect of sulphate aerosol". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 2003. http://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/30/09/86/PDF/acpd-3-1599-2003.pdf. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  28. ^ "The Petrology of Thingmuli, a Tertiary Volcano in Eastern Iceland". Carmichael. Oxford Journals. 1964. http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/435. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  29. ^ "Surtsey volcano". Iceland.vefur.is. http://iceland.vefur.is/iceland_nature/Volcanoes_in_Iceland/surtsey.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  30. ^ Climate, History and the Modern World; Lamb H., 1995, Longman Publ.
  31. ^ Icelandic Climatic Data (English introduction), Veðurstofa Íslands (Icelandic Meteorological Office)
  32. ^ Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart from above site
  33. ^ Akureyri weather station (#422) climatic means chart from above site
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Bibliography

  • Jonsson, Asgeir (2008). Why Iceland? How One of the World's Smallest Countries Became the Meltdown's Biggest Casualty. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0071632843. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Iceland
noframe
Location
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Flag
Image:ic-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Reykjavík, the northernmost capital in the world
Government Constitutional republic
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Area 103,000 km2
Population 320,169 (Oct 2008)
Language Icelandic; English widely understood
Religion Lutheran (official) 80.7%, other Protestant 4.1%, Roman Catholic 2.5%, Buddhist 0.2%, etc. (www.statice.is)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code 354
Internet TLD .is
Time Zone UTC
Iceland [1], (Icelandic: Ísland) is a mountainous island nation in the north Atlantic Ocean, located between Europe and North America. Though not part of the continental mainland, the country is considered European. The name of the country - Iceland - may not be that appropriate: although 10% of Iceland is covered by glaciers, it has a surprisingly mild climate and countless geothermal hot-spots. The native spelling ("Ísland") is appropriate in English as well.

Other destinations

It's a shame most visitors don't stray far from the capital as some of the most memorable sights in Iceland are further afield. There are many excursions offered by tour companies, readily available from any of the main centres such as Reykjavík and Akureyri. They will fly you around and take you out to the glaciers and to the big volcanoes for a reasonable price. However, the cheapest option is to drive around with a rented car since none of these sites have entry fees.
National Parks:
  • Þingvellir National Park (pronounced "THING-vet-lihr") - National Park and a UNESCO World Heritage site. 30 to 50 km (20 - 30 mi) east of Reykjavík. Interesting for a number of reasons: Not only is it the original site of the longest running parliament in the world (the name literally means 'parliamentary fields'), it's also where the North-American and European continental shelf plates are being torn apart.
  • Vatnajökull National Park - Iceland's newest national park was founded on June 7th, 2008 and includes the former Skaftafell and Jokulsargljufur National Parks. Vatnajökull National Park is Europe's largest national park at 12,000 km2, covering about 12% of the surface of Iceland. The park is home to Iceland's highest mountain (Hvannadalshnúkur), largest glacier (Vatnajökull), and Europe's most powerful waterfall (Dettifoss).
  • Snæfellsjökull National Park - Located on the tip of the Snæfellsnes Peninsula in southern Iceland, this park is home to the ice-covered volcanic crater that was the setting for Jules Verne's book Journey to the Center of the Earth.
Other Attractions:
  • Blue Lagoon - (Icelandic: Bláa Lónið) Famous outdoor pool and health centre. The spa is in Grindavík on the Reykjanes Peninsula, south-western Iceland. It is situated approximately 13 km (8 mi) from the Keflavík International Airport and 39 km (24 mi) from Reykjavík. This geothermal spa in the middle of a lava field with its milky blue water is quite surreal. Admission does not include towel rental, which was €4.
  • Mývatn - A lake region near Akureyri in the North of Iceland, Mývatn has an unearthly appearance owing to special types of volcanic craters throughout the lake. There are plenty of activities in this area: Smajfall (desert where sulphuric steam comes out of the ground) and Dimmuborgir (aka The Black City aka The Gates of Hell).
  • Gullfoss - The Golden Falls. On the edge of the inhospitable Interior of Iceland about 60 miles east of Reykjavík, the river Hvítá plunges down a double cascade to create what many people believe is the most beautiful waterfall in Iceland
  • Geysir - Geothermal hot spot located 10km west of Gullfoss. Geysir itself (from which the English word "geyser" derives) is no longer active, but fortunately Strokkur next door goes off every five to ten minutes.
Map of Iceland
Map of Iceland
  • Jökulsárlón (The Jökulsár Lagoon) - The majestic glacial lagoon in southeast Iceland and is located near Höfn on Route 1. Breiðamerkurjökull glacier retreated very quickly from 1920 to 1965 leaving this breathtaking lagoon, which is up to 190 m deep. Ice breaks off from the glacier keeping the lagoon stocked with icebergs all year round. The James Bond film Die Another Day was filmed here in 2002.
  • Landmannalaugar - A region of outstanding natural beauty reachable by bus (or 4x4) from Reykjavík. .Situated in the Interior, it gives a taste of the uninhabited highlands at Iceland’s core.
  • Hafnarfjörður - City of elves and an annual Viking festival
  • Skagafjordur The home of the icelandic horse, Glacial river rafting, Old turfhouse / Folk museum Glaumbær and Historical Nature Park Island Drangey
  • Vestmannaeyjar (Westman Islands) - Pompei of the North, volcanic island, great birdlife, largest puffin colony of Europe.^ Iceland is a volcanic island located in the North Atlantic between Greenland, Norway, Great Britain and Ireland.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Home About us Contact us News Updates Advanced search ›› Directory › Europe › Iceland › Iceland Overview Quick search ›› .
    • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

    The new island of Surtsey.

Understand

Iceland is a stunningly beautiful place if you enjoy strange and desolate landscapes. Because it is so close to the Arctic Circle, the amount of daylight varies dramatically by season. The sun sets briefly each night in June, but it doesn't get fully dark before it comes back up again. In the March and September equinoxes, days and nights are of about equal length, as elsewhere in the world. If you go in December, it's almost 20 hours of gloom and darkness. Summer is definitely the best time to go, and even then the tourist traffic is still mild. The midnight sun is a beautiful sight and one definitely not to be missed. It is easy to lose track of time when the sun is still high in the sky at 11PM. Early or late winter, however, can be surprisingly good times to visit. In late January, daylight is from about 10AM to 5PM, prices are lower than in the high season, and the snow-blanketed landscape is eerily beautiful. (Some sites are, however, inaccessible in the winter).
Ms. Pétursdóttir or Ms. Guðrún?
Iceland maintains another Norse tradition: the custom of using patronyms rather than surnames. An Icelander's given name is followed by his or her parent's first name (usually the father's), in the genitive case, and the suffix -son or -dóttir, e.g. Guðrún Pétursdóttir (Guðrún, Pétur's daughter). Members of the same family can therefore have many different "surnames", which can sometimes create confusion for visitors. Because of the patronymic last names Icelanders use first names, e.g. phone books are alphabetized by first name rather than last name. This also applies when addressing an individual. Icelanders would never expect to be addressed as Mr. or Ms. Jónsson/-dóttir no matter how important they might be.
Iceland was settled by Nordic and Celtic people in the 9th century AD - tradition says that the first permanent settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, a Norwegian Viking who made his home where Reykjavik now stands. The Icelanders still basically speak the language of the Vikings. Iceland has received a great number of immigrants over the last 10 years. In the last 5 years the population of immigrants has doubled. Most of these people (from Eastern Europe and South East Asia) come for employment. Immigrants in Iceland are now well over 10% of the population, giving Iceland a larger proportion of immigration than Norway, Sweden etc. Icelanders also continue to use the old Norse patronymic system, which was formerly in use in Norway, Denmark, Sweden and the Faroe Islands well into the 19th century, until their governments decided that their people should adopt a surname.

Climate

Despite its name, Iceland has surprisingly mild winters for a country at that latitude owing to the warming effect of the Atlantic Gulf Stream. Iceland enjoys a maritime temperate climate and the winters are often compared with those of New England (though the winds in winter can be bitter). However the rapidly changing weather has given rise to the local saying: 'If you don't like the weather, wait fifteen minutes!' It's the kind of place where it's not unusual to get rained on and sunburnt at the same time - some Icelandic people also believe that if the winter is hard and long then the summer will be good and warm. The summers are usually colder and windier than elsewhere at the same latitude (the effect of the ocean again) and 20 to 25°C is considered quite warm.

Get in

Visas

Iceland is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

Iceland is easily reached via air and the international airport is Keflavík (IATA: KEF; ICAO: BIKF), in the southwest of the country about 40 km from Reykjavík. The airport itself is quite barren; if you have a lengthy layover you should bring books or other forms of entertainment.
An airport transfer bus service (called the FlyBus [2]) runs between the airport and Reykjavík bus terminal via various hotels (1950 ISK one way, 45 minutes). A return is 400 ISK cheaper than 2 singles. Another great option is to take the bus which stops at the Blue Lagoon either to or from the airport, then continues every half hour or so to Reykjavík. (Netbus, [3])
For an extra 650 ISK (total fee 2200 ISK) you can purchase a Flybus+ [4] trip which includes drop-off (and pick-up, if requested) at a select list of hotels in the Greater Reykjavík Area [5]. Even if you're not staying at one of these hotels they might be within walking distance of where you want to go, so depending on your destination using the Flybus as a personal taxi service may be economical.
Be warned, a metered taxi from the airport to Reykjavík costs about 9500 ISK.
Nonstop flights on Icelandair [6] are available at the best value from the U.S. and Canada, with gateways in New York City (JFK), Seattle, Boston, Halifax, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Toronto, and Orlando (Sanford). Destinations beyond Iceland include most major European cities (i.e. Amsterdam, Bergen, Berlin, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Glasgow, Helsinki, London, Oslo, Madrid, Manchester, Milan, Munich, Paris, and Stockholm, with newly added cities Dusseldorf and Stavanger), with Icelandair's hub-and-spoke network connecting via Keflavík in Iceland. (Please note that some destinations are seasonal.) You can also have a stopover in Iceland en route to Europe at no additional airfare. That's two destinations for the price of one!
Another option is Iceland Express [7] which flies from Copenhagen and London (Gatwick) to Keflavik (with additional service during the summer month to Warsaw (Frederic Chopin), Frankfurt-Hahn, Berlin (Schönefeld), Friedrichshafen, Alicante, Gothenburg and Stockholm (Arlanda). New connections have been added in 2007 from Copenhagen directly to Akureyri and Egilsstadir.
In addition, SAS offers flights from Oslo and Stockholm.

By boat

Smyril Line [8] operate a weekly service from Hanstholm (Denmark) and Bergen (Norway) for most of the year. The ferry sails in two nights from Bergen to Seyðisfjörður, on the east coast of Iceland, via Torshavn, in the Faeroe Islands.
Between mid-June and late August, the ferry usually calls at Scrabster, on the northern tip of Scotland. Scrabster is easily accessible from the railway station at Thurso, and the sailing time to Iceland is only one night. Service to Scrabster was suspended in the summer of 2009 due to the severe economic conditions, and the company has not announced any return of service in 2010.

Get around

By plane

Aircraft in Iceland are like buses or trains elsewhere - they're the main form of internal travel other than the roads. Be warned though, that the ride can be a bit bumpy if you're entering one of the fjords like Akureyri.
Scheduled service to nearby destinations, including Greenland and Faroe Islands, is provided by Air Iceland [9].
Road in central Iceland
Road in central Iceland
A car offers the most flexibility for travel around Iceland. Numerous agencies rent vehicles, and ferries allow individuals to bring their own car with them. Rental prices are high - expect to pay at least ISK4000 per day for a two wheel drive vehicle, and upwards of ISK12,000 per day for a four-wheel drive vehicle; these prices include basic car insurance, but additional insurance may be purchased to protect against damage from gravel or other common mishaps. Read the fine-print however, because the things that usually break (windshield, tires, bottom of the car) are usually excluded. Travelers can see the majority of Iceland's sights with a two-wheel drive vehicle, but those interested in venturing into the interior or to places such as Landmannalaugar will need four-wheel drive - and long experience at the wheel - as roads are rough and rivers may need to be crossed. In some locations it's best not to travel alone due to the difficult terrain and weather conditions. Be aware that renting a four wheel drive vehicle may require reservations made several months in advance as these vehicles are in high demand. In addition, renting cars on-location is almost never cheaper than doing so in advance, and car rentals, including at the airport, are not open around the clock.
Driving in Iceland is on the right side of the road. Headlights and seatbelts for all passengers must be on at all times. There is one main highway, Route 1-Ring Road, that encircles the country.
Gas can generally be obtained 24 hours at self-service stations using a charge or credit card, but you will need a PIN number for that card. Alternatively, most stations sell prepaid cards that can be used to buy gas after-hours. If traveling around the country, the gas tank should be kept near full because stations can be 100-200 km (62 to 124 mi) apart. Petrol costs (as of summer 2009) are around ISK185 per litre. Because of Iceland's ever-changing weather, one should keep extra food and know where guesthouses/hotels are located in case of a road closure.
Most mountain roads are closed until the end of June, or even longer because of wet and muddy conditions which make them totally impassable. When these roads are opened for traffic many of them can only be negotiated by four wheel drive vehicles. The roads requiring four wheel drive (and possibly snow tires) are route numbers with an "F" prefix, e.g. F128. The general speed limit on Icelandic rural roads is 90 km/h on paved surface and 80 km/h on gravel, in urban areas the general speed limit is 50 km/h. There are some exceptions from the general limits that are specifically signed as such (the limit is never higher than 90 though) but be aware that the general speed limit is usually not indicated by signs. Speed cameras are posted around the country, and fines can easily reach ISK 50,000 - 130,000. The DUI limit is 0.05%, with a minimum fine of ISK 70,000 - don't drink and drive.
Drivers in Iceland should familiarize themselves with road signs and be prepared for Iceland's unique driving conditions. The roads in Iceland are of a high quality, typically made from slightly rough black basalt. Crossing rivers can be very dangerous, particularly if it has been raining, and should be done with great caution. Driving on gravel can be a challenge, and loss of control on cliff-side roads can easily be fatal. There are two signs in particular that foreigners should pay attention to. First, "malbik endar" means that the road changes from a paved road to a gravel road. Slow down before these changes, for one can lose control easily. Also "einbreið brú" means that a one-lane bridge is approaching. Arrive at the bridge slowly and assess the situation. If another car has arrived at the bridge first allow them the right of way.
If you are travelling by road a great site to check is the Iceland Meteorological Office [10] who have an excellent set of pages including the Icelandic Road Administration [11] on all of the main roads.

By bus

BSI Travel [12] runs regular bus service to most parts of the country, especially around the Ring Road (Route 1). Special offers include 1-4 week unlimited bus travel round the Ring Road (optionally with travel round the West Fjords); one time-unlimited breakable journey around the Ring Road in either direction. The BSI tours to the interior, in special 4x4 buses, are a much cheaper and more relaxing alternative to driving and serve most major locations (e.g. Landmannalaugar, Thorsmork, Aksja etc). Tours to the interior are only scheduled for the summer months.
Some of the largest day tours and sightseeing companies include Iceland Excursions - Gray Line Iceland [13] and Reykjavik Excursions [14]. They operate tours all year round and bus routes all over the West, South and East part of the country, while SBA-Nordurleid [15] operates routes all over the North and East of Iceland.
A Golden Circle tour is available from Reykjavík which will take you round the Gulfoss waterfall, geysers, the crater, the Garden of Eden (a souvenir shop and restaurant) and the Mid-Atlantic rift/place of Iceland's first Parliament. Although you don't get much time at each stop the guide will tell you about Iceland's history and some general information.

By bicycle

Cycling is a good way to experience Iceland, and provides a very different experience to other means of transport. You should bring your own touring bike, as buying a bike locally can be expensive. Traffic in and out of Reykjavík is heavy, otherwise, it's OK. You can cycle safely on the Ring Road, or take the bike on the buses (which are equipped with bicycle racks) serving the Ring Road and do side trips. However, if going self-supported, considering the weather and conditions, it is strongly advisable to have a previous touring experience.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is a cheap way of getting around in Iceland. The country is among the safest in the world, people are quite friendly and the percentage of drivers who do give rides is high, especially in the off-season. However, low traffic in areas outside Reykjavik makes hitchhiking in Iceland an endurance challenge. Even on the main ring-road the frequency of cars is often less than one car per hour in the east. Nearly everybody speaks English and most drivers are interested in conversations.
Hitchhiking into the interior is tough, but everything works if you have enough time - calculating in days, not in hours. For longer distances or less touristic areas be prepared with some food, water and a tent or similar. The weather can be awful and sometimes spoils the fun of this way of travelling.

Talk

The official language of Iceland is Icelandic (íslenska), which remains very similar to, although not quite the same as 13th-century Norse. Icelandic writing uses the Latin alphabet, but with two characters long ago lost from English: eth (Ð, ð), pronounced like the voiced th of "them", and thorn (Þ, þ), pronounced like the unvoiced th of "thick". Materials in English often substitute "dh" and "th" respectively, so eg. Fjörður is written Fjordhur and þingvellir is written Thingvellir. Loanwords are shunned and new words are regularly made for concepts like computers, known as tölva ("number-prophetess"). Speakers of Scandinavian languages like Danish, Norwegian, Swedish or Faroese will be able to puzzle out many written words, but are unlikely to understand the spoken language.
Most Icelanders speak English, but it doesn't hurt to know your 'please and thank you' to make things go a little more smoothly. Many people have basic knowledge of German, the Scandinavian languages (Danish in particular) and some Spanish and French too. At college level, Icelandic students choose a "third language" to study, often between Spanish, German, French or Italian for example. Many students also opt to study a fourth language. Danish and English are taught at an elementary school level.
Consult the Icelandic phrasebook for more information.
  • The Blue Lagoon [16] is a geothermal spa and the most famous sight in Iceland. For passengers departing or arriving on afternoon flights Reykjavík Excursions [17] offers airport transfers which include a visit to the Blue Lagoon (from 3400 ISK).
A bus [18] from the Main Bus Station in Reykjavík takes 40 minutes and costs 3000 ISK, including admission to the Blue Lagoon. They have a fantastic system in place at the Blue Lagoon. When you pay your entry you can rent swimsuits and towels. You are given a bracelet with chip technology that you use to operate the lockers in the changing rooms, and also records the amount of anything you wish to buy while you are there - lunch, drink, souvenir, disposable camera - and when you turn in the bracelet as you leave you then pay for the day's fun. You could easily spend an entire afternoon, or this makes a great stop on the way to or from the airport.
For an out of the way drive rent a car and travel along the southern part of the ring road to the town of Vík with its magnificent black sand beaches, rock outcroppings, glaciers, and lava fields.
South-central Iceland, easily accessible by car or tour from Reykjavík, has a number of sights;
  • The Gullfoss [19] waterfall is quite spectacular.
  • Geysir [20], the namesake of all geysers, and its neighbour Strokkur which erupts every five minutes or so.
  • Þingvellir National Park, a beautiful landscape of water-cut lava fields, which is historically important as the site of Iceland's parliament from 930 AD.
The rest of Iceland also has amazing sights;
  • Vatnajökull glacier is in Southeast Iceland and is Europe's largest glacier.
  • Jökulsárlón, the largest glacier lake in Iceland, is located off Route 1 and part of Vatnajökull glacier.
  • Near Dyrholaey, there are several places that have horses for rent at a very reasonable price.
  • In the colder months, one may frequently get stunning views of the Aurora Borealis, a.k.a. Northern Lights anywhere away from city lights.
  • Husavík is home to the Icelandic Phallological Museum [21].
  • The Iceland Saga Trail Association [22] is an association for those involved in history- and saga-related tourism in Iceland. The members offer museums, exhibitions, heritage sites, festivals and the sites of certain sagas.
  • Iceland offers many hiking opportunities. Hiking in Iceland is no easy business, strong walking boots which support your ankle are recommended as the terrain is usually craggy lava rock or springy moss with hidden holes!
  • Iceland is not well known for skiing or big ski areas but the town of Akureyri in the north has a great little ski area and the mountains of the Troll Peninsula offer world class terrain for ski touring, ski mountaineering and heli skiing.
  • Ice climbing is great with world class frozen waterfalls and plenty of glaciers.
  • Glacier hiking is one of Iceland´s most popular tourist things to do with the area of Skaftafell in the SE being the center of activity.
  • There are some good opportunities to go mobiling and this can provide access to otherwise inaccessable areas.

Buy

The local currency is the Icelandic króna (ISK), and its value collapsed quite dramatically during the 2008 economic crisis. As of December 2008, it trades at around 1 EUR = 200 ISK, less than half its value a year earlier. This has also made local prices more affordable for the visitor, although the prices of imported goods have risen rapidly.
You will get a better rate of exchange if you buy and sell your króna in Iceland itself. .Just about every establishment in Iceland will accept a credit card, including taxis, gas stations, souvenir stands, and even the most remote guest house, so it is not necessary to carry large amounts of Icelandic currency.^ Iceland is Europe's most sparsely populated country with an average of about three inhabitants per square km.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Iceland has moved in recent years to strengthen its treatment of immigrants - most noticeably with the establishment of an Immigration Council to recommend policy and oversee implementation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

However, due to the currency's instability some credit cards are still wary of króna transactions, so check with your bank before you go and don't rely entirely on plastic.
Following the 2008 economic crisis, foreign trading in the króna has been restricted, so you may struggle to get króna notes in your home country. As at March 2009 we found the only method was to find old stock at Bureaux de Change which carried it in stock, such as Marks & Spencer.

Costs

Getting to Iceland can be done very cheaply: Icelandair and Iceland Express both offer many excellent fares and promotions. However, as soon as one steps off the plane the situation changes quite drastically - prices in Iceland can be vastly higher than in other parts of the world, particularly for items such as food and alcohol. The difference in prices between Iceland and the rest of Northern Europe is much less; petrol is cheaper, for example.
Useful discount card schemes exist for tourists, the two most significant being Norden Voyager Card[23], operated by the Norden Association of Iceland, and Reykjavik City Card, operated by the City of Reykjavik.
When shopping for food or other necessities, look for Bónus or Krónan shops, as they offer considerably lower prices than the others. This is at the expense of quality, of course.
Expect to spend around 600 to 800ISK on a beer or a glass of wine, 2500ISK on a pizza for one person, or 270 ISK on a city bus ride.
Cigarettes cost around 850 ISK for a packet of 20. Be aware that the law in Iceland states that cigarettes may not be on show in the shop, however most gas stations, supermarkets and newsagents will sell them.

Shopping

Typical Icelandic products that make good souvenirs include:
  • Icelandic wool products. Icelandic sheep are a unique breed that produce a soft and durable wool, and Icelandic woolen goods (hats, gloves etc.) are soft and warm; don't just buy them for other people if you plan to visit the interior.
  • Arts and crafts. Iceland has a huge number of great little craft shops that sell everything from musical baskets and wonderful weird porcelain sculptures to paintings, glasswork, and jewelery. An interesting note is that the National Galleries tend to carry the same artist's work in the gift shops rather than the usual mass-marketed products found in so many other museums.
  • Local music. There is a plethora of interesting local music CDs (beyond just Björk and Sigur Rós) worth hunting for. Obscurities worth picking up include Eberg [24], Hera [25], Worm is Green, Múm, Singapore Sling, and Bellatrix. Be warned that many of these CDs are often available back home as imports for much lower prices. CDs tend to cost 1500 to 2000 Kr.

Eat

Icelandic cuisine has changed a lot in the last few decades from involving mainly lamb or fish in some form or other, as the popularity of other types of food has increased. A vegetarian diet is more tricky to maintain but there are several vegetarian restaurants in Reykjavík and vegetarian dishes widely available at other restaurants.
Distinctively Icelandic foods include:
  • fish
  • harðfiskur, dried fish pieces eaten as a snack with butter (also good with coleslaw)
  • skyr, a yoghurt-like dairy product available in flavoured and unflavoured varieties all over the country
  • hangikjöt, smoked lamb
  • smoked lamb sausage
  • svið, singed sheep's head
  • Slátur, consists of lifrarpylsa, a sausage made from the offal of sheep, and blóðmör which is similar to lyfrapylsa only with the sheep's blood mixed into it.
Iceland is famous for its whale meat, being one of the few places in the world where it is possible to eat Minke whale. Whilst many westerners may have strong feelings about the morality of the hunting and eating of whale, it is advisable to read up on both sides of the arguments before making your mind up. Whaling has long been a tradition of Icelanders and is a proud part of their heritage, so do not rush to judge. Most restaurants that cater to tourists will sell whale meat, and if you are feeling a little more adventurous some places will serve grated puffin with it if you ask.
During the Þorri season (late January-Early February) many Icelanders enjoy Þorramatur, a selection of traditional Icelandic cuisine which usually contain the following: hákarl (putrefied shark cubes), Sviðasulta (head cheese made from svið), Lundabaggi (Sheep's fat) and hrútspungar (pickled ram's testicles). Þorramatur is usually served at gatherings known as Þorrablót. If you find yourself invited to a Þorrablót do not be afraid to (politely) refuse some of the more unpalatable delicacies, as many Icelanders chose to do so as well. Don't worry about going hungry, though, as many of the more "normal" foods mentioned above are almost always available too. If uncertain which is which, do not be afraid to ask the caterers for assistance.
A similar event to Þorrablót is Þorláksmessa, celebrated on 23 December each year. During this day you might find yourself invited to skötuveislur where cured skate is served. As with Þorrablót, you can politely refuse to partake in the skate (other type of fish is usually served alongside it for the less adventurous). A word of warning though, the pungent smell that accompanies the cooking of cured skate is very strong and sticks to hair and clothing very easily. Do not wear formal (expensive) clothing at these gatherings, especially not clothing you intend to wear during Christmas.
Any Icelanders' first choice of fast food is usually the pylsa or hot dog. It is usually served with a choice of fried onions, fresh onions, ketchup, mustard and remoulade. It is cheap compared with other fast food staples at around 200 kr, and is sold in every one of the small convenience stores/eateries/video rentals/sweet shops that litter Icelandic towns.
Food prices are particularly high in Iceland - the following sample prices were accurate as of summer 2008:
  • ISK 400 - 1500 for a hamburger.
  • ISK 150 - 250 for a hotdog
  • ISK 1500 - 3500 for a three-course meal in a restaurant.

Drink

Tap water is safe to drink in Iceland and it is one of the countries with cleanest water in the world. Coffee is easy to find and is comparable to what is found throughout Europe. Juices are generally imported and made from concentrate.
Alcoholic drinks are very expensive compared to the UK and USA - as an example, half litre of Viking beer in a bar will cost approximately ISK 600. Liquor can be purchased at licensed bars, restaurants, or VinBud [26], the state monopoly. The local Icelandic drinks such as Brennivín ("Black death") contain a fairly high alcohol content, so pace yourself while at the bars.
The local beer brands are:
  • Egils [27]: Lite, Gull, Pilsner, Premium, El Grillo
  • Vífillfell [28]: Thule, Gull, Lite, Víking
  • Bruggsmiðjan [29]: Kaldi
  • Ölvisholt Brewery [30]: Skjálfti
Visitors arriving by air should note that there is a duty free store for arriving passengers where they can buy cheap alcohol (at least cheap compared to Iceland). To find the duty free store just follow the Icelanders. No Icelander in their right mind will pass the duty free store upon arrival! Be sure to not exceed the allowance which is 1L strong alcohol and 1L light wine (less than 22%) or 1L strong and 6L of beer. The strong alcohol can be exchanged for either 1L light wine or 6L beer.
Drinking age in Iceland is 20 for all alcoholic beverages.

Sleep

If you're visiting in summertime you won't regret bringing an eye mask with you. During the height of summer there is no actual darkness and in the north, the sun might just dip for a few minutes below the horizon.
The hotels are usually fairly basic around the island but you can usually get a room even in August just by phoning them up and reserving it before you get there. They are very clean and well maintained, light and airy with nothing at all that could even remotely be considered 'dingy'. They are expensive though. Fosshotels [31] is a chain of tourist class hotels. The chain focuses on friendlier atmosphere. Fosshotels are situated all around Iceland, close to the island's most treasured nature spots. Icelandair Hotels [32] which include the Edda [33] summer hotels and the Icelandair hotels. Icelandair Hotels are upscale, Scandinavian style hotels located in most major cities of Iceland. Most notable is the Nordica on the outskirts of downtown Reykjavík.
Guesthouses are between hotels and hostels in prices and services. At some times if travelling in groups the guesthouses can be cheaper than the hostels. Guesthouses will usually have more space than a hostel with a shared bathroom that is cleaner and less crowded.
The members are farmers who offer accommodation to travellers in their homes, guesthouses, country-hotels and cottages. The association was founded in 1980 and from 1990 Icelandic Farm Holidays has been a fully licensed Tour operator and a Travel agent. The accommodation is diverse; made up beds in four different categories, with or without private bathroom, sleeping bag accommodation, cottages and camping. Some of the farms offer also various recreation; horse riding, fishing, hunting, sailing, swimming, glacier tours, golf, etc.
Iceland has many hostels throughout the entire country. They can be found on Hostelling International Iceland [34].
If you're travelling on a budget, camping is your best bet. There are sites located throughout the country, especially at places you'd want to visit. They range from fully-equipped (hot showers, washing machines, cooking facilities) to farmers' fields with a cold-water tap. Expect to pay 500-1000 Kr per person per night. If you intend to camp in Iceland you must be prepared for the cold, 3 season sleeping bags are essential and an inner, I would also highly recommend thick pyjamas and a warm hat! A bedding roll is also useful as you may end up sleeping on very rough ground...and that's just not very comfortable at all! Don't wait until last minute to find a place to camp. Campers and mobile homes have become immensely popular among Icelanders and they take up a lot of space. You could arrive at a large camping ground that's so filled up with campers and mobile homes that you'll have no place to pitch your tent.
Trekkers will need to use some of the mountain huts, either government or privately-run. These range from dormitory accommodation to fully-staffed facilities. Booking ahead is likely to be necessary at popular times of year (and they may only be accessible in summertime).

Work

Unemployment in Iceland is rising and the wages are crashing, right now Iceland is not a place to come in hopes of finding work. Work permits are required for citizens of most countries. The exceptions are citizens of the Nordic Countries (Greenland, Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Åland Islands, Finland) and EU/EEA countries. As of May 1, 2006 there are no restrictions on the latest entrants into the EU.
Work permits can be very difficult to get if you do not come from any of the aforementioned countries, as Iceland has a relatively strict immigration policy.
Beware of offers for contracted work in Iceland. Your wage levels may be lower than average and your rights may be affected. Iceland is a highly unionized society with over 90% of the workforce in labour unions.
A great resource is the Directorate of Labour [35] website.
Risks on Iceland
Crime/violence: Low
Some alcohol-related violence
Authorities/corruption: Low
Transportation: Low to Elevated
Countryside roads may be in poor shape
Health: Low
Nature: Low to Elevated
Some areas are prone to earthquakes, landslides and volcanoes.
Emergency 'phone number: 112
Iceland is among the safest places in the world, so there is almost no chance of getting robbed or harassed. This, however, excludes Reykjavík, which has recently begun to suffer of some petty theft, and monthly news of night-time rapes and beatings downtown. Also, use common sense when visiting the night life, partying in down town Reykjavik can get pretty wild and mixed with alcohol, you shouldn’t be surprised to see a lot of arguments and fights. If you see this happening, if anything just alert the next police officer you see, and don't be a hero. There is a certain group of Icelanders who aren’t very keen to foreigners since Iceland is experiencing the largest immigration wave ever. However this usually only applies more to the younger xenophobic generation, but nevertheless, bear in mind a little caution, but don’t let it prevent you from having fun.

Nature

Iceland is a country where nature is the supreme ruler. Always do what the signs tell you to do. If there are no signs, be aware of cracks in the lava you are walking on, that the weather changes very rapidly, and that the sea is a cruel mistress and might sweep you away, even if you're just standing on a beach. Also, be wary of volcanic eruptions, althought this is less likely than the other dangers.
Malbik Endar: Paved road ends.
Malbik Endar: Paved road ends.
Einbreið Brú: Single-lane bridge. The closer driver has priority when crossing the bridge. Some longer bridges include passing points.
Einbreið Brú: Single-lane bridge. The closer driver has priority when crossing the bridge. Some longer bridges include passing points.
Driving around Iceland can be difficult or even dangerous. Inform yourself on local conditions and make sure your vehicle and driving skills are up to the task. Be aware that many roads (even parts of the main country road) are unpaved and can turn into slippery mud during the summer. There have been a number of instances where foreigners, unprepared for Icelandic roads, have been in accidents, some of them fatal. Since the roads are very quiet and the distances between settlements great, some Icelanders abuse this by speeding considerably. Sheep sometimes roam near the roads or even on them, so always have your eyes open and be on the look out for sheep. Check out the following website for up-to-date road-condition information: [36].

Drugs

The Icelandic Narcotics Police has a very strict policy on drugs; minimum fine for possession of under 1 gram (3/100 of an oz.) of any illegal substance can result in a fine of over 30000 ISK ($373/€237/£188 in June 2008).

Stay healthy

The medical facilities in Iceland are good and available free to European Union citizens with a valid E-111 form or its replacement ID card. Scandinavian citizens must show valid passport and medical insurance to be treated.
Infectious diseases aren't a problem in Iceland. Inoculations aren't required except if you are arriving from countries that suffer from infectious diseases like cholera.
The biggest threat to your health is likely to be accidental injury or bad weather. Always make sure you have more than adequately warm and waterproof clothing. Selection of appropriate clothing is especially important in Iceland and can even be a matter of life and death. The most known Icelandic outdoor wear brand is 66°North [37] (the latitude of the Arctic Circle) which has been tried and tested by Icelanders in rough conditions for 80 years. Exercise extra caution in geothermal areas.
  • Some Icelanders believe in the hidden people — called huldufólk — and a few claim to have seen them. They are analogous to elves, but are often considered separate. There is even a museum in Reykjavík devoted to the hidden people. This is an ancient Icelandic belief and most Icelanders respect the tradition. Skepticism thus can appear rude.
  • Many tourists, including other Europeans, see Icelanders as gruff and unapproachable. This is generally just a first impression and most people are friendly and helpful.
  • Tipping is not expected in Iceland, but well appreciated. Only tip for exceptional service.
  • Punctuality is not as important in Iceland as elsewhere, and people may not appear until 15 minutes later than the stated time, and may appear as 1 hour late at parties or other social gatherings.
  • If speaking English, Icelanders may use the word fuck more often than expected by Anglophones. Brusque opinions are commonly expressed and should not be taken badly.
  • The global economic crisis is a sensitive issue - remember that ordinary Icelanders did not profit from their country's involvement in foreign investments - on the contrary, they have suffered a considerable loss of purchasing power.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ICELAND (Dan. .Island), an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Denmark.^ Island ), an island in the North Atlantic Ocean , belonging to Denmark .

^ It is situated in the middle of the North-Atlantic Ocean.
  • About Iceland at the 4x4offroads.com website 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.4x4offroads.com [Source type: General]

^ A mere 20 million years ago, the island was born from the North Atlantic seabed in a huge volcanic eruption like the ones that are still going on today.
  • Iceland Vacations, Iceland Travel Deals, Luxury Tours and Luxury Cruise Line Deals 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

.Its extreme northerly point is touched by the Arctic Circle; it lies between 13° 22' and 24° 35' W., and between 63° 12' and 66° 33' N., and has an area of 4 0 ,437 sq.^ Its extreme northerly point is touched by the Arctic Circle; it lies between 13° 22' and 24° 35' W., and between 63° 12' and 66° 33' N., and has an area of 4 0 ,437 sq.

^ The glaciers are a reminder of Iceland’s proximity to the Arctic Circle , which nearly touches its northernmost peninsula.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iceland is an island in the north Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway just south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Culture of Iceland - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. Its length is 298 m. and its breadth .194 m., the shape being a rough oval, broken at the north-west, where a peninsula, diversified by a great number of fjords, projects from the main portion of the island.^ The power of nature and the magnificence of a land being actively shaped are most visible to me as I circle the island along the ring road, leaving from Reykjavik and driving along the south coast from west to east.

^ The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Bre161fjor6r), 2 as well as the many bays on the north, which are 1 Jtikull, plural jtiklar, Icel.

^ A small peninsula, with very sinuous outline, lies at the north-western end, and is connected with the main body by a narrow isthmus.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The total length of the coast-line is about 3730 m., of which approximately one-third belongs to the north-western peninsula.^ The total length of the coast-line is about 3730 m., of which approximately one-third belongs to the north-western peninsula.

^ Most of the more than 5,000 residents had to be evacuated, and—although the harbour remained intact—about one-third of the town was destroyed.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small peninsula, with very sinuous outline, lies at the north-western end, and is connected with the main body by a narrow isthmus.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Iceland is a plateau or tableland, built up of volcanic rocks of older and younger formation, and pierced on all sides by fjords and valleys.^ Iceland is a plateau or tableland, built up of volcanic rocks of older and younger formation, and pierced on all sides by fjords and valleys.

^ He told them that by law, all icelandic houses must be built strong enough to withstand earthquakes.
  • Christmas in Iceland | Free Audio Story 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC storynory.com [Source type: General]

^ The region has a surprising richness of bird life and arctic vegetation, wonderful rock formations and surroundings where the Icelandic mythology of elves and trolls comes to life.
  • Iceland tour packages , Iceland winter tour - Scandinavian American World Tours 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.scandinaviantravel.com [Source type: General]

.Compared with the tableland, the lowlands have a relatively small area, namely, one-fourteenth of the whole; but these lowlands are almost the only parts of the island which are inhabited.^ Compared with the tableland, the lowlands have a relatively small area, namely, one-fourteenth of the whole; but these lowlands are almost the only parts of the island which are inhabited.

^ Bus tour of the only inhabited island, Heimaey where in 1973 a great volcaniv eruption nearly destroyed the town while ironically greatly improving its harbour!
  • Iceland tour packages , Iceland winter tour - Scandinavian American World Tours 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.scandinaviantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ We have gorgeous national parks but they are only small, ‘managed’ islands within a land that bares only a passing resemblance to the wild beauty it once possessed.

.In consequence of the rigour of its climate, the central tableland is absolutely uninhabitable.^ In consequence of the rigour of its climate, the central tableland is absolutely uninhabitable.

.At the outside, not more than onefourth of the area of Iceland is inhabited; the rest consists of elevated deserts, lava streams and glaciers.^ Glaciers cover more of the land in Iceland than in all of Europe.
  • Iceland - Country overview, Location and size, Population, Agriculture, Fishing, Industry, Energy, Services, Tourism 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Altogether, more than 120 glaciers are known in Iceland.

^ At the outside, not more than onefourth of the area of Iceland is inhabited; the rest consists of elevated deserts, lava streams and glaciers.

.The north-west peninsula is separated from the main mass of the island by the bays Hunafloi and Bre151fjor6r, so that there are really two tablelands, a larger and a smaller.^ The north-west peninsula is separated from the main mass of the island by the bays Hunafloi and Bre151fjor6r, so that there are really two tablelands, a larger and a smaller.

^ Small groups of these are to be seen here and there, but the growth of a real forest is prevented by the terrible storms which sweep over the island.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Bre161fjor6r), 2 as well as the many bays on the north, which are 1 Jtikull, plural jtiklar, Icel.

.The isthmus which connects the two is only m.^ The isthmus which connects the two is only m.

across, but has an altitude of 748 ft. .The mean elevation of the north-west peninsula is 2000 ft.^ Elevations in the uplands average between about 610 and 915 m (about 2000 and 3000 ft).

.The fjords and glens which cut into it are shut in by precipitous walls of basalt, which plainly shows that they have been formed by erosion through the mass of the plateau.^ The fjords and glens which cut into it are shut in by precipitous walls of basalt , which plainly shows that they have been formed by erosion through the mass of the plateau.

^ They dont bite, but we walked into a swarm, we kept our mouths shut and ears and eyes covered.

^ In a few locations they installed test slabs of permeable concrete, which allows water to filter through into the ground.

.The surface of this tableland is also bare and desolate, being covered with gravel and fragments of rock.^ The surface of this tableland is also bare and desolate, being covered with gravel and fragments of rock.

^ The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

.Here and there are large straggling snowfields, the largest being Glamu and Drangajokull,' on the culminating points of the plateau.^ Here and there are large straggling snowfields, the largest being Glamu and Drangajokull,' on the culminating points of the plateau.

^ The island itself is a geologically young basalt plateau, averaging 2,000 ft (610 m) in height (raefajkull, c.6,950 ft/2,120 m high, is the highest point) and culminating in vast icefields, of which the Vatnajkull, in the southeast, is the largest.
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The island itself is a geologically young basalt plateau, averaging 2,000 ft (610 m) in height (Öraefajökull, c.6,950 ft/2,120 m high, is the highest point) and culminating in vast icefields, of which the Vatnajökull, in the southeast, is the largest.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only inhabited districts are the shores of the fjords, where grass grows capable of supporting sheep; but a large proportion of the population gain their livelihood by fishing.^ The only inhabited districts are the shores of the fjords, where grass grows capable of supporting sheep ; but a large proportion of the population gain their livelihood by fishing.

^ Given independence and population growth, along with new sources of outside capital, the government focused on the development of industrial fishing and the infrastructure to support it.
  • Culture of Iceland - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.

.The other and larger tableland, which constitutes the substantial part of Iceland, reaches its culminating point in the south-east, in the gigantic snowfield of Vatnajokull, which covers 3300 sq.^ The largest snowfields are Vatnajokull (3280 sq.

^ The other and larger tableland, which constitutes the substantial part of Iceland, reaches its culminating point in the south-east, in the gigantic snowfield of Vatnajokull, which covers 3300 sq.

^ The mean annual temperature is 37.2 ° F. in Stykkisholmr on Bre151fjdr6r, 38.3° at Eyrarbakki in the south of Iceland, 41° at Vestmannayjar, 36° at Akureyri in the north, 36.7° on Berufjor6r in the east, and 30.6° at Mddrudalr on the central tableland.

m. .The axis of highest elevation of Iceland stretches from north-west to south-east, from the head of HvammsfjoriSr to Hornafjor5r, and from this water-parting the rivers descend on both sides.^ The axis of highest elevation of Iceland stretches from north-west to south-east, from the head of HvammsfjoriSr to Hornafjor5r, and from this water-parting the rivers descend on both sides.

^ It is highest on the tableland, on the north side of Vatnajokull, and lowest on the north-west peninsula, to the south of North Cape .

^ Formerly Iceland was divided into four quarters, the east, the south, the west and north.

.The crest of the water-parting is crowned by a chain of snow-capped mountains, separated by broad patches of lower ground.^ The crest of the water-parting is crowned by a chain of snow -capped mountains, separated by broad patches of lower ground.

^ The lower part of Gullfoss, where the water falls over a wide ledge into a narrow canyon, reminiscent of Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continuing north-west, between Hofsjokull and the next snow-capped mountain, Langjokull, lies Kjolur (2000 ft.

.They are really a chain of minor plateaus which rise 4500 to 6250 ft.^ They are really a chain of minor plateaus which rise 4500 to 6250 ft.

above sea-level and .2000 to 3000 ft.^ Elevations in the uplands average between about 610 and 915 m (about 2000 and 3000 ft).

above the tableland itself. .In the extreme east is Vatnajokull, which is separated from Tungnafellsjokull by Vonarskard (3300 ft.^ In the extreme east is Vatnajokull, which is separated from Tungnafellsjokull by Vonarskard (3300 ft.

^ The other and larger tableland, which constitutes the substantial part of Iceland, reaches its culminating point in the south-east, in the gigantic snowfield of Vatnajokull, which covers 3300 sq.

). .Between Tungnafellsjokull and Hofsjokull lies the broad depression of Sprengisandr (2130 ft.^ Between Tungnafellsjokull and Hofsjokull lies the broad depression of Sprengisandr (2130 ft.

^ Continuing north-west, between Hofsjokull and the next snow-capped mountain, Langjokull, lies Kjolur (2000 ft.

^ Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has a depth of not more than 84 ft.

). .Continuing north-west, between Hofsjokull and the next snow-capped mountain, Langjokull, lies Kjolur (2000 ft.^ Continuing north-west, between Hofsjokull and the next snow-capped mountain, Langjokull, lies Kjolur (2000 ft.

^ The mean elevation of the north-west peninsula is 2000 ft.

^ The Sami nomads of Russia buried their elders in the far north, a limbo between this world and the next.

); and between .Langjokull and Eiriksjokull, Flosaskard (2630 ft.^ Langjokull and Eiriksjokull, Flosaskard (2630 ft.

). .To the north of the j oklar last mentioned there are a number of lakes, all well stocked with fish.^ To the north of the j oklar last mentioned there are a number of lakes, all well stocked with fish .

^ It remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.
  • Flag Counter » Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The economy is highly sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as fluctuations in world prices for aluminum and ferrosilicon, its main exports.
  • Icelandic Krona, Information on the Currency of Iceland, ISK 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Numerous valleys or glens penetrate into the tableland, especially on the north and east, and between them long mountain spurs, sections of the tableland which have resisted the action of erosion, thrust themselves towards the sea.^ Numerous valleys or glens penetrate into the tableland, especially on the north and east, and between them long mountain spurs, sections of the tableland which have resisted the action of erosion, thrust themselves towards the sea.

^ Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK .
  • Flag Counter » Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Huge glacier tongues reach menacingly down the steep-sided valleys towards the sea.

.Of these the most considerable is the mass crowned by Myrdalsjokull, which stretches towards the south.^ Of these the most considerable is the mass crowned by Myrdalsjokull, which stretches towards the south.

^ The most dramatic of these is the Skeiarrsandur that stretches some 25 miles between icecap and ocean from Npsstaur to rfi.

.The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.^ The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

^ The surface of this tableland is also bare and desolate, being covered with gravel and fragments of rock.

^ On the west of Mount Hekla this plain connects by a regular slope directly with the tableland, to the great injury of its inhabited districts, which are thus exposed to the clouds of pumice dust and driftsand that cover large areas of the interior.

.Save the lower parts of the larger glens, there are no lowlands on the north and east.^ Save the lower parts of the larger glens, there are no lowlands on the north and east.

^ Iceland’s creatures are larger-than-life too: there’s no better place on earth to come eye-to-eye with sleek, spouting whales than in Húsavík .
  • Iceland Travel Information and Travel Guide - Lonely Planet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Mist is commonly prevalent on the east coast; at Berufjdr5r there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in the year.

.The south coast is flat next the sea; but immediately underneath Vatnajokull there is a strip of gravel and sand, brought down and deposited by the glacial streams.^ The south coast is flat next the sea; but immediately underneath Vatnajokull there is a strip of gravel and sand , brought down and deposited by the glacial streams.

^ From there I had enough time to continue on towards the west coast to Borgarnes, where I stayed the next night.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Huge glacier tongues reach menacingly down the steep-sided valleys towards the sea.

.The largest low-lying plain of Iceland, lying between Myrdalsjokull and Reykjanes, has an area of about 1550 sq.^ The largest low-lying plain of Iceland, lying between Myrdalsjokull and Reykjanes, has an area of about 1550 sq.

^ Iceland , an island about the size of Kentucky, lies in the north Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and just touches the ...

^ District Archives of Akureyri The local archive was organized in 1967 and is full of letters, pictures and lots of interesting facts about this large area in the north of Iceland.
  • everything for your trip to iceland - planet iceland - travel portal for the adventurous tourist 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.planeticeland.com [Source type: General]

m. .In its lowest parts this plain barely keeps above sea-level, but it rises gradually towards the interior, terminating in a ramification of valleys.^ In its lowest parts this plain barely keeps above sea-level, but it rises gradually towards the interior, terminating in a ramification of valleys.

^ The interior is as bare and as plain as the exterior.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the barren and rocky plateau, the average height of which is 2000 feet above the level of the sea, rise extensive glaciers ( jökull ; pl.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its maximum altitude is attained at 381 ft.^ Its maximum altitude is attained at 381 ft.

near Geysir. .On the west of Mount Hekla this plain connects by a regular slope directly with the tableland, to the great injury of its inhabited districts, which are thus exposed to the clouds of pumice dust and driftsand that cover large areas of the interior.^ On the west of Mount Hekla this plain connects by a regular slope directly with the tableland, to the great injury of its inhabited districts, which are thus exposed to the clouds of pumice dust and driftsand that cover large areas of the interior.

^ The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

^ Without exception the great neves of Iceland belong to the interior tableland.

.Nevertheless the greater part of this lowland plain produces good grass, and is relatively well inhabited.^ Nevertheless the greater part of this lowland plain produces good grass, and is relatively well inhabited.

^ Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.

^ Compared with the tableland, the lowlands have a relatively small area, namely, one-fourteenth of the whole; but these lowlands are almost the only parts of the island which are inhabited.

.The plain is drained by three rivers - Markarfljot, Thjorsa and Oelfusa - all of large volume, and numerous smaller streams.^ The rivers, though short, are numerous and carry a large volume of water.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The plain is drained by three rivers - Markarfljot, Thjorsa and Oelfusa - all of large volume, and numerous smaller streams.

.Towards the west there exist a number of warm springs.^ Towards the west there exist a number of warm springs.

^ From there I had enough time to continue on towards the west coast to Borgarnes, where I stayed the next night.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

There is another lowland plain around the head of Faxafl61, nearly 400 sq. m. in extent. .As a rule the surface of this second plain is very marshy.^ As a rule the surface of this second plain is very marshy.

.Several dales or glens penetrate the central tableland; the eastern part of this lowland is called BorgarfjorNr, the western part Myrar.^ Several dales or glens penetrate the central tableland; the eastern part of this lowland is called BorgarfjorNr, the western part Myrar.

^ Compared with the tableland, the lowlands have a relatively small area, namely, one-fourteenth of the whole; but these lowlands are almost the only parts of the island which are inhabited.

^ Save the lower parts of the larger glens, there are no lowlands on the north and east.

.The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Bre161fjor6r), 2 as well as the many bays on the north, which are 1 Jtikull, plural jtiklar, Icel.^ The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Bre161fjor6r), 2 as well as the many bays on the north, which are 1 Jtikull, plural jtiklar, Icel.

^ Iceland, Europe’s second largest island after Great Britain, is located in the North Atlantic ocean in an active volcanic area.
  • Adventure Travel Through Iceland With World Expeditions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

^ Signs of elevation subsequent to the Glacial epoch are common all round the island, especially on the north-west peninsula.

snowfield, glacier.
.2 Floi, bay; fjtiro'r, fjord.^ Floi, bay; fjtiro'r, fjord .

separated from one another by rocky promontories, appear to owe their origin to subsidences of the surface; whereas the fjords of the north-west peninsula, which make excellent harbours, and those of the east coast seem to be the result chiefly of erosion.
Table of contents

Glaciers

.An area of 5170 sq.^ An area of 5170 sq.

m. is covered with snowfields and glaciers. This extraordinary development of ice and snow is due to the raw, moist climate, the large rainfall and the low summer temperature. .The snow-line varies greatly in different parts of the island, its range being from 1300 to 4250 ft.^ Canadian troops followed and in July 1941 Iceland came under US protection when the island was defined as being part of the western hemisphere .
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some variations in the climate between different parts of 70% in Akureyri).
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is highest on the tableland, on the north side of Vatnajokull, and lowest on the north-west peninsula, to the south of North Cape.^ It is highest on the tableland, on the north side of Vatnajokull, and lowest on the north-west peninsula, to the south of North Cape .

^ The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The country's extreme dimensions are about 305 km (about 190 mi) from north to south and about 485 km (about 300 mi) from east to west.

.Without exception the great neves of Iceland belong to the interior tableland.^ Without exception the great neves of Iceland belong to the interior tableland.

.They consist of slightly rounded domes or billowy snowfields of vast thickness.^ They consist of slightly rounded domes or billowy snowfields of vast thickness.

.In external appearance they bear a closer resemblance to the glaciers of the Polar regions than to those of the Alps.^ In external appearance they bear a closer resemblance to the glaciers of the Polar regions than to those of the Alps .

^ Does the fact that the citizens of the countries in the Europe give significantly less to charity as a percent of gdp than US citizens mean that they are less concerned of the those less fortunate?
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The largest snowfields are Vatnajokull (3280 sq.^ The largest snowfields are Vatnajokull (3280 sq.

^ The other and larger tableland, which constitutes the substantial part of Iceland, reaches its culminating point in the south-east, in the gigantic snowfield of Vatnajokull, which covers 3300 sq.

m.), .Hofsjiikull (520) Langjokull (500) and Myrdals jokull (390).^ Hofsjiikull (520) Langjokull (500) and Myrdals jokull (390).

.The glaciers which stream off from these snowfields are often of vast extent, e.g. the largest glacier of Vatnajokull has an area of 150 to 200 sq.^ The largest snowfields are Vatnajokull (3280 sq.

^ Vatnajokull has an area of 150 to 200 sq.

^ The glaciers which stream off from these snowfields are often of vast extent, e.g.

m., but the greater number are small. .Altogether, more than 120 glaciers are known in Iceland.^ Altogether, more than 120 glaciers are known in Iceland.

^ Enlarge Image Iceland — In Iceland, the whale watching industry contributes more to the national economy than commercial whaling did before it was put on hold in the '80s.
  • Iceland resumes commercial whaling | Greenpeace International 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ Its whale watching industry is known around the world, and brings in more revenue than whaling possibly could.
  • Iceland resumes commercial whaling | Greenpeace International 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

.It is on the south side of Vatnajokull that they descend lowest; the lower end of Breidamerkurjokull was in the year 1894 only 30 ft.^ Just looked at their website and they aren’t currently offering glacier sleds (only sleds lower down on dog trolleys) but presumably they will be beginning in December.
  • Seven Things to Do in Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nomadicmatt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because at this time of year the full moon is only up for a brief time, and because sunset takes so long, you end up with the bizarre combination of the full moon and the sun setting at the same time.

above sea-level. .The glaciers of the north-west peninsula also descend nearly to sea-level.^ The glaciers of the north-west peninsula also descend nearly to sea-level.

^ From the barren and rocky plateau, the average height of which is 2000 feet above the level of the sea, rise extensive glaciers ( jökull ; pl.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The glaciers are a reminder of Iceland’s proximity to the Arctic Circle , which nearly touches its northernmost peninsula.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great number of streams of large volume is due to the moist climate and the abundance of glaciers, and the milky white or yellowish-brown colour of their waters (whence the common name Hvita, white) is due to the glacial clays.^ The great number of streams of large volume is due to the moist climate and the abundance of glaciers, and the milky white or yellowish-brown colour of their waters (whence the common name Hvita, white) is due to the glacial clays.

^ Foxes are common, both the white and the blue occurring; mice and the brown rat have been introduced, though one variety of mouse is possibly indigenous.

^ The number of poets in modern times is large, but there are few great names.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The majority of them change their courses very often, and vary greatly in volume; frequently they are impetuous torrents, forming numerous waterfalls.^ The majority of them change their courses very often, and vary greatly in volume; frequently they are impetuous torrents, forming numerous waterfalls.

^ Pathetic, they showed very little about the riots that took place in greece, and of course the Gaza protest here in London and various other cities.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are open daily, often until 10.30pm in summer, and the admission fee is very low.

.Iceland also possesses a great number of lakes, the largest being Thingvallavatn 3 and Thorisvatn, each about 27 sq.^ Iceland also possesses a great number of lakes, the largest being Thingvallavatn 3 and Thorisvatn, each about 27 sq.

^ Iceland, Europe’s second largest island after Great Britain, is located in the North Atlantic ocean in an active volcanic area.
  • Adventure Travel Through Iceland With World Expeditions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

^ The largest lakes are Þórisvatn ( Reservoir ): 83–88 km² (32-34 sq mi) and Þingvallavatn : 82 km² (32 sq mi); other important lakes include Lögurinn and Mývatn .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. in area. .Myvatn, in the north, is well known from the natural beauty of its surroundings.^ Myvatn, in the north, is well known from the natural beauty of its surroundings.

^ The whole area from the river Thjórsá in the west to Hjörleifshöfda in the east is known for it’s powerful and fascinating nature, both magnificent and beautiful.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Above its surface tower a great number of volcanoes and several craters, and its waters are alive with water-fowl, a multitude of ducks of various species breeding on its islands.^ Above its surface tower a great number of volcanoes and several craters, and its waters are alive with water- fowl , a multitude of ducks of various species breeding on its islands.

^ The eider duck , which breeds on the islands of Breit51fjor6r, is a source of livelihood to the inhabitants, as are also the many kinds of sea-fowl which breed on the sea-cliffs.

^ Iceland is remarkable for the number of its volcanoes, craters, and thermal springs and for the frequency of its earthquakes.

.The lakes of Iceland owe their origin to different causes, some being due to glacial erosion, others to volcanic subsidence.^ The lakes of Iceland owe their origin to different causes, some being due to glacial erosion, others to volcanic subsidence.

^ Much of Iceland 's popularity is due to its natural features, which include glaciers, hot springs, geysers, active ...

^ The unusual black iceberg is caused by an accumulation of wind-blown volcanic black sand on the glacier.

.Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has a depth of not more than 84 ft.^ Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has a depth of not more than 84 ft.

^ I don't want to hear any more of this depression talk from you unless you can tell me that you have put a significant portion (more than half) of your portfolio in puts and shorts.
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between Tungnafellsjokull and Hofsjokull lies the broad depression of Sprengisandr (2130 ft.

.The group of lakes called Fiskiviitn (or Veidivotn), which lie in a desolate region to the west of Vatnajokull, consist for the most part of crater lakes.^ The group of lakes called Fiskiviitn (or Veidivotn), which lie in a desolate region to the west of Vatnajokull, consist for the most part of crater lakes.

^ The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.

^ In and around the lake are numerous so-called pseudo craters.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.^ The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.

^ Mývatn, a lake in the north of Iceland.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The glaciers of the north-west peninsula also descend nearly to sea-level.

volcanic the valleys numerous lakes are found at the backs of the old moraines.

Volcanoes

.Iceland is one of the most volcanic regions of the earth; volcanic activity has gone on continuously from the formation of the island in the Tertiary period down to the present time.^ Iceland is one of the most volcanic regions of the earth; volcanic activity has gone on continuously from the formation of the island in the Tertiary period down to the present time.

^ Ucla Extension Online Classes - Distance Education Iceland UCLA Extension is one of the nations leaders in online learning, offering opportunities to learn anywhere and at any time.

^ Over the ten centuries since the first Norse settlers arrived in their longships, Icelanders have learned the hard way to live with their volatile island - one of the most volcanic places on earth - treating it with a mix of respect, dread, and black humor.
  • Iceland | Islands.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.islands.com [Source type: General]

.So far as is known, there have in historic times been eruptions from twenty-five volcanic vents.^ So far as is known, there have in historic times been eruptions from twenty-five volcanic vents.

^ Iceland’s best-known volcano, Hekla , erupted four times in the 20th century: in 1947, 1970, 1980, and 1991; it also had a series of small eruptions in 2000.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 1783.

.Altogether 107 volcanoes are known to exist in Iceland, with thousands of craters, great and small.^ Altogether 107 volcanoes are known to exist in Iceland, with thousands of craters, great and small.

^ Iceland’s best-known volcano, Hekla , erupted four times in the 20th century: in 1947, 1970, 1980, and 1991; it also had a series of small eruptions in 2000.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent times, Iceland has produced many great writers, the best-known of which is arguably Halldór Laxness who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1955.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lava-streams which have flowed from them since the Glacial epoch now cover an area of 4650 sq.^ The lava-streams which have flowed from them since the Glacial epoch now cover an area of 4650 sq.

^ Less than one-fifth of Iceland is covered in vegetation, and the majority is barren mountains, lava beds, glaciers and ice fields.
  • Adventure Travel Through Iceland With World Expeditions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

^ This belongs to the year 1783, and covers an area of 218 sq.

m. .They are grouped in dense masses round the volcanoes from which they have flowed, the bulk of the lava dating from outbreaks which occurred in prehistoric times.^ They are grouped in dense masses round the volcanoes from which they have flowed, the bulk of the lava dating from outbreaks which occurred in prehistoric times.

^ One of the most active volcanic regions in the world, Iceland contains about 200 volcanoes and accounts for one-third of Earth’s total lava flow.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is estimated that since the year ad 1500 about one-third of the Earth’s total lava flow has poured out of the volcanoes of Iceland.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The largest volume of lava which has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which came from the craters of Laki at Skapta.^ The largest volume of lava which has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which came from the craters of Laki at Skapta.

^ On one occasion, I battled bad roads and unmarked paths to cross a lava field in a storm to get to Dettifoss, the largest waterfall in Europe.
  • Iceland | Islands.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.islands.com [Source type: General]

^ The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 1783.

.This belongs to the year 1783, and covers an area of 218 sq.^ This belongs to the year 1783, and covers an area of 218 sq.

^ The lava-streams which have flowed from them since the Glacial epoch now cover an area of 4650 sq.

^ It is the accretion of countless eruptions from over twenty volcanoes, and covers an area of 1300 sq.m.

m., and amounts to a volume represented by a cube each of whose sides measures 72 m. .The largest unbroken lava-field in Iceland is Oda6ahraun (Lava of Evil Deeds), upon the tableland north from Vatnajokull (2000 to 4000 ft.^ The largest unbroken lava-field in Iceland is Oda6ahraun (Lava of Evil Deeds), upon the tableland north from Vatnajokull (2000 to 4000 ft.

^ On one occasion, I battled bad roads and unmarked paths to cross a lava field in a storm to get to Dettifoss, the largest waterfall in Europe.
  • Iceland | Islands.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.islands.com [Source type: General]

^ Less than one-fifth of Iceland is covered in vegetation, and the majority is barren mountains, lava beds, glaciers and ice fields.
  • Adventure Travel Through Iceland With World Expeditions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

above sea-level). .It is the accretion of countless eruptions from over twenty volcanoes, and covers an area of 1300 sq.m.^ It is the accretion of countless eruptions from over twenty volcanoes, and covers an area of 1300 sq.m.

^ This belongs to the year 1783, and covers an area of 218 sq.

^ The lava-streams which have flowed from them since the Glacial epoch now cover an area of 4650 sq.

(or, including all its ramifications and minor detached streams, 1700 sq. m.), and its volume would fill a cube measuring 13.4 m. in every direction. .As regards their superficies, the lava-streams differ greatly.^ As regards their superficies, the lava-streams differ greatly.

.Sometimes they are very uneven and jagged (apalhraun), consisting of blocks of lava loosely flung together in the utmost confusion.^ Sometimes they are very uneven and jagged ( apalhraun ), consisting of blocks of lava loosely flung together in the utmost confusion.

^ When thick lava flows cool very slowly, they sometimes crystallize to form large columns with polygonal cross sections, so-called column basalts.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.The great lava-fields, however, are composed of vast sheets of lava, ruptured and riven in divers ways (helluhraun). The smooth surface of the viscous billowy lava is further diversified by long twisted " ropes," curving backwards and forwards up and down the undulations.^ The smooth surface of the viscous billowy lava is further diversified by long twisted " ropes," curving backwards and forwards up and down the undulations.

^ The great lava-fields, however, are composed of vast sheets of lava, ruptured and riven in divers ways ( helluhraun).

^ Vast lava fields have been created by volcanoes, and many eruptions have caused widespread devastation.

.Moreover, there are gigantic fissures, running for several miles, caused by subsidences of the underlying sections.^ Moreover, there are gigantic fissures, running for several miles, caused by subsidences of the underlying sections.

^ Nevertheless much has been done to improve such paths as there are, and several miles of driving roads have been made, more particularly in the south.

^ The watershed of Iceland runs roughly east-west; the chief river, the Jkuls, flows N into the Axarfjrur (there are several other rivers of the same name).
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The best-known fissure of this character is Almannagjá at Thingvellir.^ The best-known fissure of this character is Almannagjá at Thingvellir.

.On the occasion of outbreaks the fine ashes are scattered over a large portion of the island, and sometimes carried far across the Atlantic.^ On the occasion of outbreaks the fine ashes are scattered over a large portion of the island, and sometimes carried far across the Atlantic .

^ The outbreak of Laki in 1783 occasioned the loss of 11,500 cattle, 28,000 horses and 190,500 sheep - that is to say, 53% of the cattle in the island, 77% of the horses and 82% of the sheep.

^ On several occasions there have been volcanic outbreaks under the sea outside the peninsula of Reykjanes, islands appearing and afterwards disappearing again.

.After the eruption of Katla in 1625 the ashes were blown as far as Bergen in Norway, and when Askja was in eruption in 1875 a rain of ashes fell on the west coast of Norway II hours 40 minutes, and at Stockholm 15 hours, afterwards.^ After the eruption of Katla in 1625 the ashes were blown as far as Bergen in Norway , and when Askja was in eruption in 1875 a rain of ashes fell on the west coast of Norway II hours 40 minutes, and at Stockholm 15 hours, afterwards.

^ Villagers may only get a 15 or 30 minute warning before an eruption occurs.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We continued on to Norway, travelling from Bergen to West Spitzbergen on a coastal mail boat.

.The volcanic ash frequently proves extremely harmful, destroying the pastures so that the sheep and cattle die of hunger and disease.^ Furthermore, a volcanic eruption in 1783 filled the air with ash, thereby destroying many of the crops and leading to the demise of an eighth of the Icelandic population.

.The outbreak of Laki in 1783 occasioned the loss of 11,500 cattle, 28,000 horses and 190,500 sheep - that is to say, 53% of the cattle in the island, 77% of the horses and 82% of the sheep.^ The outbreak of Laki in 1783 occasioned the loss of 11,500 cattle, 28,000 horses and 190,500 sheep - that is to say, 53% of the cattle in the island, 77% of the horses and 82% of the sheep.

^ In 1991 the country had about 511,000 sheep, 78,000 cattle, and 74,000 horses.

^ The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep , cattle , chicken , goat and the sturdy Icelandic horse .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After that the island was visited by a famine, which destroyed 95 00 people, or one-fifth of the total population.^ After that the island was visited by a famine , which destroyed 95 00 people, or one-fifth of the total population.

^ I visited one of the valleys where the hidden people are supposed to live.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In December 2007, 33,678 people (13.5% of the total population) Fjarðarál aluminium plant.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield-shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.^ The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone -shaped, like Vesuvius , built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola -shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield -shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.

^ The volcanoes, reaching deep into the unstable interior of the Earth, are explained by the fact that Iceland is located on top of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge .
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sitting on top of active volcanoes and geothermal hotspots, you almost want to check the weather report before venturing out in case your day is interrupted by rattling earth, stampeding lava, or showering ash.

.For the most part the individual craters are low, generally not exceeding 300 to Soo ft.^ For the most part the individual craters are low, generally not exceeding 300 to Soo ft.

^ The group of lakes called Fiskiviitn (or Veidivotn), which lie in a desolate region to the west of Vatnajokull, consist for the most part of crater lakes.

.These crater chains are both very common and often very long.^ These crater chains are both very common and often very long.

^ There are often long intervals between the successive outbreaks, and many of the volcanoes (and this is especially true of the chains of craters) have only vented themselves in a solitary outburst.

.The chain of Laki, which was formed in 1783, extends 20 m., and embraces about one hundred separate craters.^ The chain of Laki, which was formed in 1783, extends 20 m., and embraces about one hundred separate craters.

^ The former contain thirty or thirty-two pews generally unpainted, with room for about one hundred persons .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest volume of lava which has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which came from the craters of Laki at Skapta.

.Sometimes, however, the lava-streams are vomited straight out of gigantic fissures in the earth without any crater being formed.^ Sometimes, however, the lava-streams are vomited straight out of gigantic fissures in the earth without any crater being formed.

^ Testaments to the constantly evolving earth are everywhere – lava fields, hot rivers, craters, and glaciers dominate our views daily.
  • Iceland Hiking Tours | Iceland Walking Tours | Iceland Adventure Travel 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC boundlessjourneys.com [Source type: General]

^ It is estimated that since the year ad 1500 about one-third of the Earth’s total lava flow has poured out of the volcanoes of Iceland.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the Icelandic volcanoes during their periods of quiescence are covered with snow and ice.^ [Credits : Floris Leeuwenberg—The Cover Story/Corbis] Meeting site of the first Althing (Icelandic parliament), in present-day Thingvellir, Ice.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Iceland has various kinds of volcanoes, many of which produce more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Water Glacier"--Icelanders are renowned for their creative use of language) as well as many active volcanoes.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then when an outbreak occurs the snow and ice melt, and in that way they sometimes give rise to serious catastrophes (jokulhlaup), through large areas being suddenly inundated by great floods of water, which bear masses of ice floating on their surface.^ Then when an outbreak occurs the snow and ice melt, and in that way they sometimes give rise to serious catastrophes ( jokulhlaup ), through large areas being suddenly inundated by great floods of water, which bear masses of ice floating on their surface.

^ Catastrophic flooding occurs here regularly, as geothermal activity melts the glaciers and causes a tremendous amount of water to flood the delta.
  • Iceland Hiking Tours | Iceland Walking Tours | Iceland Adventure Travel 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC boundlessjourneys.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear is an occasional visitant, being brought to the coast by the Greenland drift-ice.

.Katla caused very serious destruction in this way by converting several cultivated districts into barren wastes.^ Katla caused very serious destruction in this way by converting several cultivated districts into barren wastes.

.In the same way in the year 1362 Oeraefajdkull, the loftiest mountain in Iceland (6424 ft.^ In the same way in the year 1362 Oeraefajdkull, the loftiest mountain in Iceland (6424 ft.

), swept forty farms, together with their inhabitants and live stock, bodily into the ocean. .The best-known volcano is Hekla (5108 ft.^ The best-known volcano is Hekla (5108 ft.

^ Iceland’s best-known volcano, Hekla , erupted four times in the 20th century: in 1947, 1970, 1980, and 1991; it also had a series of small eruptions in 2000.
  • Iceland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), which was in eruption eighteen times within the historic period down to .1845. Katla during the same period was active thirteen times down to 1860. The largest volcano is Askja, situated in the middle of the lava-field of Odaoahraun.^ Katla during the same period was active thirteen times down to 1860.

^ The largest volcano is Askja, situated in the middle of the lava-field of Odaoahraun.

^ On one occasion, I battled bad roads and unmarked paths to cross a lava field in a storm to get to Dettifoss, the largest waterfall in Europe.
  • Iceland | Islands.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.islands.com [Source type: General]

.Its crater measures 34 sq.^ Its crater measures 34 sq.

m. in area. .At Myvatn there are several volcanoes, which were particularly active in the years 1724-1730. On several occasions there have been volcanic outbreaks under the sea outside the peninsula of Reykjanes, islands appearing and afterwards disappearing again.^ At Myvatn there are several volcanoes, which were particularly active in the years 1724-1730.

^ On several occasions there have been volcanic outbreaks under the sea outside the peninsula of Reykjanes, islands appearing and afterwards disappearing again.

^ This combined location means that geologically the island is extremely active, having many volcanoes , notably Hekla , Eldgjá , Herðubreið and Eldfell .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 1783. Iceland, however, possesses no constantly active volcano.^ The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 1783.

^ Iceland, however, possesses no constantly active volcano.

^ The only species missing is human, but don't worry -- at least 3 people have pledged their organs to the museum -- once they are no longer needed.

.There are often long intervals between the successive outbreaks, and many of the volcanoes (and this is especially true of the chains of craters) have only vented themselves in a solitary outburst.^ These crater chains are both very common and often very long.

^ There are often long intervals between the successive outbreaks, and many of the volcanoes (and this is especially true of the chains of craters) have only vented themselves in a solitary outburst.

^ The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 1783.

.Earthquakes are frequent, especially in the districts which are peculiarly volcanic.^ Earthquakes are frequent, especially in the districts which are peculiarly volcanic.

.Historical evidence goes to show that they are closely associated with three naturally defined regions: (I) the region between Skjalfandi and Axarfjdrllr in the north, where violent earth tremblings are extremely common; (2) at Faxafloi, where minor vibrations are frequent; (3) the southern lowlands, between Reykjanes and Myrdalsj6kull, have frequently been devastated by violent earthquake shocks, with great loss of property and life, e.g. on the 14th16th of August 1784, when 92 farmsteads were totally destroyed, and 372 farmsteads and II churches were seriously damaged; and again in August and September 1896, when another terrible earthquake destroyed 161 farmsteads and damaged 155 others.^ August 1784, when 92 farmsteads were totally destroyed, and 372 farmsteads and II churches were seriously damaged; and again in August and September 1896, when another terrible earthquake destroyed 161 farmsteads and damaged 155 others.

^ Historical evidence goes to show that they are closely associated with three naturally defined regions: (I) the region between Skjalfandi and Axarfjdrllr in the north, where violent earth tremblings are extremely common; (2) at Faxafloi, where minor vibrations are frequent; (3) the southern lowlands, between Reykjanes and Myrdalsj6kull, have frequently been devastated by violent earthquake shocks, with great loss of property and life, e.g.

^ Backward industrial conditions and frequent cataclysms of nature (earthquakes, floods, etc.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hot springs are found in every part of Iceland, both singly and in groups; they are particularly numerous in the western portion of the southern lowlands, where amongst others is the famous Geyser.^ Hot springs are found in every part of Iceland, both singly and in groups; they are particularly numerous in the western portion of the southern lowlands, where amongst others is the famous Geyser .

^ Hot springs abound and are used for inexpensive heating; the great Geysir is particularly famous.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Canadian troops followed and in July 1941 Iceland came under US protection when the island was defined as being part of the western hemisphere .
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sulphur springs and boiling mud lakes are also general in the volcanic districts; and in places there are carbonic acid springs, these more especially on the peninsula of Snaefellsnes, north of Faxafloi.^ Sulphur springs and boiling mud lakes are also general in the volcanic districts; and in places there are carbonic acid springs, these more especially on the peninsula of Snaefellsnes, north of Faxafloi.

^ The Hotel Reynihlid is a modern hotel situated by Lake Myvatn in a nature preserve in northern Iceland, 480 kilometres north of the city of Reykjavik and five kilometres from volcanic mud spring and lava fields.

^ The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geology

.Iceland is built up almost entirely of volcanic rocks, none of them older, however, than the middle of the Tertiary period.^ Iceland is built up almost entirely of volcanic rocks, none of them older, however, than the middle of the Tertiary period.

^ The varied and heterogenic population of Iceland is surprisingly inbred, and is made up entirely of Assassin Ninja Penguins (Spheniscidae Eudyptes Ninjitsu).
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There is no way that the Icelandic population can assume responsibility for the private debt" that the banks have built up, Mr. Haarde said Wednesday.
  • Europe scrambles as Iceland's banks fail 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.The earlier flows were probably contemporaneous with those of Greenland, the Faeroes, the western islands of Scotland and the north-east of Ireland.^ Iceland is an island in the north Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway just south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Culture of Iceland - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iceland is a volcanic island located in the North Atlantic between Greenland, Norway, Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ "Snow-avalanche and debris-flow hazards in the fjords of north-western Iceland, mitigation and prevention".

.The principal varieties are basalt and palagonitic breccias, the former covering two-thirds of the entire area, the latter the remaining one-third.^ The principal varieties are basalt and palagonitic breccias, the former covering two-thirds of the entire area, the latter the remaining one-third.

^ In 2000, says Richard Portes, a professor of economics at London Business School, two-thirds of their financing came from domestic sources and one-third from abroad.
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former contain thirty or thirty-two pews generally unpainted, with room for about one hundred persons.
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Compared with these two systems, all other formations have an insignificant development.^ Compared with these two systems, all other formations have an insignificant development.

.The palagonitic breccias, which stretch in an irregular belt across the island, are younger than the basalt.^ The palagonitic breccias, which stretch in an irregular belt across the island, are younger than the basalt.

^ The principal varieties are basalt and palagonitic breccias, the former covering two-thirds of the entire area, the latter the remaining one-third.

.In the north-west, north and east the coasts are formed of basalt, and rise in steep, gloomy walls of rock to altitudes of 3000 ft.^ In the north-west, north and east the coasts are formed of basalt, and rise in steep, gloomy walls of rock to altitudes of 3000 ft.

^ The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.

^ Oh yes the sun rises just east of north and sets just west of north.

and more above sea-level. .Deposits of clay, with remains of plants of the Tertiary period, lignite and tree-trunks pressed flat, which the Icelanders call surtarbrandur, occur in places in the heart of the basalt formation.^ Deposits of clay , with remains of plants of the Tertiary period, lignite and tree -trunks pressed flat, which the Icelanders call surtarbrandur, occur in places in the heart of the basalt formation.

^ All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, there occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this rock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a distance.

^ A flat-topped rectangular stone formation with a hole through it called ‘Toin’ gives Dyrhólaey its name.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These fossiliferous strata are developed in greatest thickness in the north-west peninsula.^ These fossiliferous strata are developed in greatest thickness in the north-west peninsula.

^ It is highest on the tableland, on the north side of Vatnajokull, and lowest on the north-west peninsula, to the south of North Cape .

^ The north-west peninsula is separated from the main mass of the island by the bays Hunafloi and Bre151fjor6r, so that there are really two tablelands, a larger and a smaller.

.Indeed, in some few places well-marked impressions of leaves and fruit have been discovered, proving that in Tertiary times Iceland possessed extensive forests, and its annual mean temperature must have been at least 48° Fahr., whereas the present mean is 35.6°.^ Indeed, in some few places well-marked impressions of leaves and fruit have been discovered, proving that in Tertiary times Iceland possessed extensive forests, and its annual mean temperature must have been at least 48° Fahr., whereas the present mean is 35.6°.

^ More I have visited Iceland a few times.
  • Reykjavik Hotels, Vacations and Tourism, Reykjavik, Iceland Travel Guide - AOL Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.aol.com [Source type: General]

^ NATURAL DISASTERS AND CLIMATE Iceland is located in an active seismic zone, with frequent earthquakes, as well as volcanic eruptions occurring every few years.
  • Iceland Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The palagonitic breccias, which attain their greatest development in the south of the island and on the tableland, consist of reddish, brown or yellowish rocks, tuffs and breccias, belonging to several different groups or divisions, the youngest of which seems to be of a date subsequent to the Glacial epoch.^ The palagonitic breccias, which attain their greatest development in the south of the island and on the tableland, consist of reddish, brown or yellowish rocks, tuffs and breccias, belonging to several different groups or divisions, the youngest of which seems to be of a date subsequent to the Glacial epoch.

^ The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

^ The palagonitic breccias, which stretch in an irregular belt across the island, are younger than the basalt.

.All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, there occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this rock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a distance.^ All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, there occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this rock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a distance.

^ There is no constitutional right to bear arms in Iceland, but parliament intends to rectify this in 2010 by guaranteeing all citizens of Iceland the right to arm bears, and blow things up.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deposits of clay , with remains of plants of the Tertiary period, lignite and tree -trunks pressed flat, which the Icelanders call surtarbrandur, occur in places in the heart of the basalt formation.

.In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro, a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.^ In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro , a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.

^ GEOGRAPHY Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iceland is an island in the north Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway just south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Culture of Iceland - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Near Husavik in the north there have been found marine deposits containing a number of marine shells; they belong to the Red Crag division of the Pliocene.^ Near Husavik in the north there have been found marine deposits containing a number of marine shells; they belong to the Red Crag division of the Pliocene .

^ There are found strikingly developed marine terraces of gravel, shore lines and surf beaches marked on the solid rock.

^ To the north of the j oklar last mentioned there are a number of lakes, all well stocked with fish .

.In the middle of Iceland, where the geological foundation is tuff and breccias, large areas are buried under ancient outflows of lava, which bear evidences of glacial scratching.^ About 79% of Iceland's land area, which is of recent volcanic origin, consists of glaciers, lakes, a mountainous lava desert (highest elevation 2,000 meters--6,590 ft.
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Half of the population in Iceland lives in the capital city of Reykjavik, and the six municipalities in the Greater Reykjavik area are largely made up of small towns.
  • Reykjavik Hotels, Vacations and Tourism, Reykjavik, Iceland Travel Guide - AOL Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.aol.com [Source type: General]

^ At the north end of this area is the Ásbyrgi canyon, a valley carved out of a lava flow by an ancient large-volume flood.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.These lava streams, which are of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater openings, such as may be seen at the present day.^ These lava streams, which are of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater openings, such as may be seen at the present day.

^ The textures of the lava fields, volcanic rocks, and glacial gravel do not create the kind of places you’d want to spread out your blanket for a picnic.

^ The landscape displays the influences both of volcanoes (lava flows), and glaciers (e.g.
  • http://www.latemeetings.com/iceland/index.aspx 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.latemeetings.com [Source type: News]

.During the Glacial epoch the whole of Iceland was covered by a vast sheet of inland ice, except for a few small isolated peaks rising along its outer margins.^ During the Glacial epoch the whole of Iceland was covered by a vast sheet of inland ice, except for a few small isolated peaks rising along its outer margins.

^ There are tourist accommodations outside of Reykjavik, but except for some hotels in larger towns these are few and far between, and during the summer when tourism is at its peak can require booking in advance.

^ A small group of Icelanders even left for Brazil, but the journey was difficult and few followed behind them.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ice-cap had on the tableland a thickness of 2300 to 2600 ft.^ This ice-cap had on the tableland a thickness of 2300 to 2600 ft.

.Rocks scored by glacial ice and showing plain indications of striation, together with thousands of erratic blocks, are found scattered all over Iceland.^ Rocks scored by glacial ice and showing plain indications of striation, together with thousands of erratic blocks, are found scattered all over Iceland.

^ Icelanders found America, Canada, Mexico and Greenland sometime before 1000 CE but failed to colonize them out of either cowardice or just plain stupidity.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iceland has excellent conditions for ice and rock climbing , although mountain climbing and hiking is preferred by the general public.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Signs of elevation subsequent to the Glacial epoch are common all round the island, especially on the north-west peninsula.^ The glaciers of the north-west peninsula also descend nearly to sea-level.

^ Signs of elevation subsequent to the Glacial epoch are common all round the island, especially on the north-west peninsula.

^ The mean elevation of the north-west peninsula is 2000 ft.

.There are found strikingly developed marine terraces of gravel, shore lines and surf beaches marked on the solid rock.^ There are found strikingly developed marine terraces of gravel, shore lines and surf beaches marked on the solid rock.

^ Near Husavik in the north there have been found marine deposits containing a number of marine shells; they belong to the Red Crag division of the Pliocene .

.In several places there are traces of shells; and sometimes skeletal remains of whales and walruses, as well as ancient driftwood, have been discovered at tolerable distances from the present coast.^ In several places there are traces of shells; and sometimes skeletal remains of whales and walruses, as well as ancient driftwood, have been discovered at tolerable distances from the present coast.

^ There is really no need for whaling, anything that whales can provide can be provided through other means just as well.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the south-east coast there is a place near Dyrhólaey with some lava pinnacles and lava arches carved by ocean waves.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

The ancient shore-lines occur at two different altitudes. Along the higher, 230 to 260 ft. above the existing sea-level, shells have been found which are characteristic of high .Arctic latitudes and no longer exist in Iceland; whereas on the lower shore-line, Too to 130 ft., the shells belong to species which occur amongst the coast fauna of the present day.^ Arctic latitudes and no longer exist in Iceland; whereas on the lower shore-line, Too to 130 ft., the shells belong to species which occur amongst the coast fauna of the present day.

^ While special characters for the Icelandic letters "eth" and "thorn" exist in HTML, they do not look anything like the Icelandic letters, at least on my browser, so I am using "d" and "th" instead.
  • Private Creation and Enforcement of Law: A Historical Case 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC daviddfriedman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mist is commonly prevalent on the east coast; at Berufjdr5r there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in the year.

.The geysers and other hot springs are due to the same causes as the active volcanoes, and the earthquakes are probably manifestations of the same forces.^ The geysers and other hot springs are due to the same causes as the active volcanoes, and the earthquakes are probably manifestations of the same forces.

^ Several tourists are scalded each year because they get too close to an erupting geyser or because they fall or step into a hot spring or boiling mud pot.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lakes of Iceland owe their origin to different causes, some being due to glacial erosion, others to volcanic subsidence.

.A feature of special interest to geologists in the present conditions of the island is the great power of the wind both as a transporting and denuding agent.^ A feature of special interest to geologists in the present conditions of the island is the great power of the wind both as a transporting and denuding agent .

^ The most noticeable feature of Samso’s energy system is the 11 wind turbines that are spread across the island in groups of 5, 3, and 3.

^ Another interesting feature of the Skógar Museum is its Transport, Communication and Technology Museum.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rock sculpture is often very similar to that of a tropical desert.'^ The rock sculpture is often very similar to that of a tropical desert .'

Climate. - .Considering its high latitude and situation, Iceland has a relatively mild climate.^ Considering its high latitude and situation, Iceland has a relatively mild climate.

^ Because of the Gulf Stream's moderating influence, the climate is characterized by damp, cool summers and relatively mild but windy winters.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The meteorological conditions vary greatly, however, in different parts of the island.^ The meteorological conditions vary greatly, however, in different parts of the island.

^ There are some variations in the climate between different parts of 70% in Akureyri).
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The snow-line varies greatly in different parts of the island, its range being from 1300 to 4250 ft.

.In the south and east the weather is generally changeable, stormy and moist; whilst on the north the rainfall is less.^ The rainfall on the south and east coasts is considerable, e.g.

^ In the south and east the weather is generally changeable, stormy and moist; whilst on the north the rainfall is less.

^ GEOGRAPHY Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The climate of the interior tableland approximates to the continental type and is often extremely cold.^ The climate of the interior tableland approximates to the continental type and is often extremely cold.

.The mean annual temperature is 37.2 ° F. in Stykkisholmr on Bre151fjdr6r, 38.3° at Eyrarbakki in the south of Iceland, 41° at Vestmannayjar, 36° at Akureyri in the north, 36.7° on Berufjor6r in the east, and 30.6° at Mddrudalr on the central tableland.^ The mean annual temperature is 37.2 ° F. in Stykkisholmr on Bre151fjdr6r, 38.3° at Eyrarbakki in the south of Iceland, 41° at Vestmannayjar, 36° at Akureyri in the north, 36.7° on Berufjor6r in the east, and 30.6° at Mddrudalr on the central tableland.

^ GEOGRAPHY Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

The range is great not only from year to year, but also from month to month. .For instance, at Stykkisholmr the highest annual mean for March was 39.7°, and the lowest 8°, during a period of thirty-eight years.^ For instance, at Stykkisholmr the highest annual mean for March was 39.7°, and the lowest 8°, during a period of thirty-eight years.

^ The winter means of the south and west coasts average 32° and 31.7° respectively; the summer means, 48.2° and so'; the annual means, 37-4° and 39.2 °.

.Iceland lies contiguous to that part of the north Atlantic in which the shifting areas of low pressure prevail, so that storms are frequent and the barometer is seldom firm.^ Iceland lies contiguous to that part of the north Atlantic in which the shifting areas of low pressure prevail, so that storms are frequent and the barometer is seldom firm.

^ GEOGRAPHY Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The island called Iceland, which, though really a part of America, is considered, because of its population and history as forming a part of Europe, is situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, between 63 deg.
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The barometric pressure at sea-level in the south-west of Iceland during the period 1878-1900 varied between 30.8 and 27.1 in.^ The barometric pressure at sea-level in the south-west of Iceland during the period 1878-1900 varied between 30.8 and 27.1 in.

^ The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Iceland Express is an official sponsor of Reykjavík International Film Festival , taking place in various warm and cozy Reykjavík cinemas from 17 to 27 September this year.
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

.The climate of the coasts is relatively mild in summer, but tolerably cold in winter.^ The climate of the coasts is relatively mild in summer, but tolerably cold in winter.

^ The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate.
  • Iceland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland News - Breaking World Iceland News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Because of the Gulf Stream's moderating influence, the climate is characterized by damp, cool summers and relatively mild but windy winters.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iceland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Iceland Page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The winter means of the north and east coasts average 31.7° and 31.3° F. respectively; the summer means, 42.8° and 44.6°; and the means of the year, 33 I° and 35-6°.^ Mist is commonly prevalent on the east coast; at Berufjdr5r there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in the year.

^ On the whole, during the 19th century, the north coast was free from ice on an average of one year in every four or five.

^ The winter means of the north and east coasts average 31.7° and 31.3° F. respectively; the summer means, 42.8° and 44.6°; and the means of the year, 33 I° and 35-6°.

.The winter means of the south and west coasts average 32° and 31.7° respectively; the summer means, 48.2° and so'; the annual means, 37-4° and 39.2 °.^ The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf Stream , and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently brings with it a quantity of drift -ice, and thus exercises a considerable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it blocks the north coast in the summer months.

^ For instance, at Stykkisholmr the highest annual mean for March was 39.7°, and the lowest 8°, during a period of thirty-eight years.

^ The winter means of the south and west coasts average 32° and 31.7° respectively; the summer means, 48.2° and so'; the annual means, 37-4° and 39.2 °.

.The rainfall on the south and east coasts is considerable, e.g. at Vestmannayjar, 49.4 in.^ The rainfall on the south and east coasts is considerable, e.g.

^ After I got my rental car, I headed south to the coast and then east.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the south-east coast there is a place near Dyrhólaey with some lava pinnacles and lava arches carved by ocean waves.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

in the year; at Berufjdre'S.r, 43.6 in. .On the west coast it is less, e.g. 24.3 in.^ On the west coast it is less, e.g.

at .Stykkisholmr; but least of all on the north coast, being only 14.6 in.^ Stykkisholmr; but least of all on the north coast, being only 14.6 in.

on the island of .Grimsey, which lies off that coast.^ Grimsey, which lies off that coast.

.Mist is commonly prevalent on the east coast; at Berufjdr5r there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in the year.^ There were no strikes during the year.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mist is commonly prevalent on the east coast; at Berufjdr5r there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in the year.

^ What I get from my reading of the sagas is that > there were laws, but no mechanism of enforcement, > criminal or civil, other than self-help.

.The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf Stream, and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently brings with it a quantity of drift-ice, and thus exercises a considerable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it blocks the north coast in the summer months.^ The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf Stream , and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently brings with it a quantity of drift -ice, and thus exercises a considerable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it blocks the north coast in the summer months.

^ The rainfall on the south and east coasts is considerable, e.g.

^ The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Bre161fjor6r), 2 as well as the many bays on the north, which are 1 Jtikull, plural jtiklar, Icel.

.On the whole, during the 19th century, the north coast was free from ice on an average of one year in every four or five.^ On the whole, during the 19th century, the north coast was free from ice on an average of one year in every four or five.

^ Elections for the office of presidency, parliament and town councils are all held every four years, the most recent in 2004, 2003 and 2006, respectively.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ The total length of the coast-line is about 3730 m., of which approximately one-third belongs to the north-western peninsula.

.The clearness of the atmosphere has been frequently remarked.^ The clearness of the atmosphere has been frequently remarked.

.Thunderstorms occur mostly in winter.^ Thunderstorms occur mostly in winter.

Flora

.The vegetation presents the characteristics of an Arctic European type, and is tolerably uniform throughout the island, the differences even on the tableland being slight.^ The vegetation presents the characteristics of an Arctic European type, and is tolerably uniform throughout the island, the differences even on the tableland being slight.

^ Even naughty children get a present from Santa – and don’t believe anyone who tells you different.” .
  • Christmas in Iceland | Free Audio Story 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC storynory.com [Source type: General]

^ Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.

At present 435 species of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams are known; the lower orders have been little investigated. .The grasses are of the greatest importance to the inhabitants, for upon them they are dependent for the keep of their live stock.^ The grasses are of the greatest importance to the inhabitants, for upon them they are dependent for the keep of their live stock.

.Heather covers large tracts, and also affords pasture for sheep.^ Heather covers large tracts, and also affords pasture for sheep.

.The development of forest trees is insignificant.^ The development of forest trees is insignificant.

.Birch woods exist in a good many places, especially in the warmer valleys; but the trees are very short, scarcely attaining more than 3 to 10 ft.^ Birch woods exist in a good many places, especially in the warmer valleys; but the trees are very short, scarcely attaining more than 3 to 10 ft.

^ Icelanders emit 10.0 tonnes of CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gases per capita, which is higher than many European Iceland's plentiful renewable sources of energy.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Britain, many mums go to Iceland, after Kerry Katona of Atomic Kitten did biased adverts saying that single male parent were not very good.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

in height. .In a few places, however, they reach 13 to 20 ft.^ In a few places, however, they reach 13 to 20 ft.

^ In a couple of places they reach ocean inlets and produce icebergs.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

and occasionally more. .A few mountain ash or rowan trees (Sorbus aucuparia) are found singly here and there, and attain to 30 ft.^ A few mountain ash or rowan trees ( Sorbus aucuparia ) are found singly here and there, and attain to 30 ft.

^ In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro , a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.

^ Birch woods exist in a good many places, especially in the warmer valleys; but the trees are very short, scarcely attaining more than 3 to 10 ft.

in height. .Willows are also pretty general, the highest in growth being Salix phyllicifolia, 7 to to ft.^ Willows are also pretty general, the highest in growth being Salix phyllicifolia, 7 to to ft.

.The wild flora of Iceland is small and delicate, with bright bloom, the heaths being especially admired.^ The wild flora of Iceland is small and delicate, with bright bloom , the heaths being especially admired.

Wild crowberries and bilberries are the only fruit found in the island.

Fauna

.The Icelandic fauna is of a sub-Arctic type.^ The Icelandic fauna is of a sub-Arctic type.

But while the species are few, the individuals are often numerous. .The land 1 See Th.^ The land 1 See Th.

.Thoroddsen, " Explorations in Iceland during the years 1881-1898," Geographical Journal, vol.^ Thoroddsen, " Explorations in Iceland during the years 1881-1898," Geographical Journal, vol.

^ To a degree, the wealth Iceland enjoyed during the boom years was a mirage.
  • Iceland Created a Vast Bubble, Leaving Wreckage Everywhere When It Popped - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

xiii. .(1899), PP. 251-274, 480-513, with map.^ PP. 251-274, 480-513, with map .

mammals are very poorly represented; and it is doubtful whether any species is indigenous. .The polar bear is an occasional visitant, being brought to the coast by the Greenland drift-ice.^ The polar bear is an occasional visitant, being brought to the coast by the Greenland drift-ice.

^ Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling on icebergs from Greenland.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This shift in religious affiliate also correlates directly with the rise of homosexuality in Greenland, as its single resident finally had phone sex with a polar bear.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Foxes are common, both the white and the blue occurring; mice and the brown rat have been introduced, though one variety of mouse is possibly indigenous.^ Wild mammals include the Arctic Fox , mink , mice , rats , rabbits and reindeer .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reindeer were introduced in 1770. The marine mammalia are numerous.^ The marine mammalia are numerous.

^ Reindeer were introduced in 1770.

.The walrus is now seldom seen, although in prehistoric times it was common.^ The walrus is now seldom seen, although in prehistoric times it was common.

^ This we want to do in this country, each of us individually and in common in these difficult, yet hopeful times, which are now at hand.
  • Roman Catholic Diocese of Reykjavik, Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholica.is [Source type: Original source]

.There are numerous species of seals; and the seas abound in whales.^ There are numerous species of seals ; and the seas abound in whales.

.Of birds there are over loo species, more than one-half being aquatic.^ Consequently, more than one half of the studies were inconclusive.

^ There are more poets, writers and playwrights published per capita in Iceland than any other nation in the world.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many varieties of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a main contributor to Iceland's economy, accounting for more than half of its total exports.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the interior the whistling swan is common, and numerous varieties of ducks are found in the lakes.^ In the interior the whistling swan is common, and numerous varieties of ducks are found in the lakes.

.The eider duck, which breeds on the islands of Breit51fjor6r, is a source of livelihood to the inhabitants, as are also the many kinds of sea-fowl which breed on the sea-cliffs.^ The eider duck , which breeds on the islands of Breit51fjor6r, is a source of livelihood to the inhabitants, as are also the many kinds of sea-fowl which breed on the sea-cliffs.

^ Above its surface tower a great number of volcanoes and several craters, and its waters are alive with water- fowl , a multitude of ducks of various species breeding on its islands.

Iceland possesses neither reptiles nor batrachians. The fish fauna is abundant in individuals, some sixty-eight species being found off the coasts. .The cod fisheries are amongst the most important in the world.^ The cod fisheries are amongst the most important in the world.

.Large quantities of herring, plaice and halibut are also taken.^ Large quantities of herring , plaice and halibut are also taken.

.Many of the rivers abound in salmon, and trout are plentiful in the lakes and streams.^ Many of the rivers abound in salmon , and trout are plentiful in the lakes and streams.

Population and Towns

.The census of 1890 gave a total population of 70,927, and this number had increased by 1901 to 78,489. The increase during the 19th century was 27,000, while at least 15,600 Icelanders emigrated to America, chiefly to Manitoba, from 1872 to the close of the century.^ About 15,000 out of a total population of 70,000 left.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iceland's most famous painters are Ásgrímur Jónsson, Jón Stefánsson, and Jóhannes Kjarval, all of whom worked during the first half of the 20th century.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike its literature, Iceland's fine arts did not flourish until the 19th century because the population was small and scattered.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The largest town is Reykjavik on Faxafloi, with 6700 inhabitants, the capital of the island, and the place of residence of the governorgeneral and the bishop.^ The largest town is Reykjavik on Faxafloi, with 6700 inhabitants, the capital of the island, and the place of residence of the governorgeneral and the bishop .

^ The seat of government and meeting-place of the legislative body (the Althing) with its two chambers, is Reykjavik, which is at the same time the capital of the country and the see of the Lutheran bishop ; its population approximates 10,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest towns outside the greater Reykjavík area are Akureyri and Reykjanesbær , although the latter is relatively close to the capital.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here the Althing meets; and here, further, are the principal public institutions of the island (library, schools, &c.^ Here the Althing meets; and here, further, are the principal public institutions of the island (library, schools, &c.

). .The town possesses a statue to Thorvaldsen, the famous sculptor, who was of Icelandic descent.^ No human being of any importance has ever been produced by the Icelandic gene pool , but here's a list of people who think they're famous anyway.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One person most famous in Iceland for preserving Icelandic history and culture is Thórdur Tómasson, who has been collecting artifacts since he was a teenager.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the most famous person to come to Iceland for the RIFF? .
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

.The remaining towns include Isafjoror (pop.^ The remaining towns include Isafjoror (pop.

r000) on the north-west peninsula, .Akureyri (r000) on the north and Seydisfjor6r (800) in the east.^ Akureyri (r000) on the north and Seydisfjor6r (800) in the east.

^ East and north of Akureyri, Iceland’s northern capital, lies Húsavík , the gateway to some of Iceland’s most varied and fascinating natural landscapes.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Industries

.The principal occupation of the Icelanders is cattle-breeding, and more particularly sheep-breeding, although the fishing industries have come rapidly to the front in modern times.^ The principal occupation of the Icelanders is cattle-breeding, and more particularly sheep-breeding, although the fishing industries have come rapidly to the front in modern times.

^ The breeding of sheep and horses is the principal occupation in Iceland.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep , cattle , chicken , goat and the sturdy Icelandic horse .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1850, 82% of the population were dependent upon cattle-breeding and 7% upon fishing; in 1890 the numbers were 64% and 18% respectively.^ In 1850, 82% of the population were dependent upon cattle-breeding and 7% upon fishing; in 1890 the numbers were 64% and 18% respectively.

^ The principal occupation of the Icelanders is cattle-breeding, and more particularly sheep-breeding, although the fishing industries have come rapidly to the front in modern times.

^ Cattle-breeding has declined in importance, while the number of sheep has increased.

.The culture of grain is not practised in Iceland; all bread-stuffs are imported.^ But, I'm no economist - are the Icelandic debts big enough to seriously make waves in an economy as big as the UK's relative to all the other stuff that's going on?
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read all about the other Cultural Learnings of Iceland to Make Benefit the World: Skyr , Kókómjólk , Lýsi , Appelsín and the mysterious case of the Blue Ópal .
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Read all about the other Cultural Learnings of Iceland to Make Benefit the World: Skyr , Kókómjólk , Lýsi and Appelsín .
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

.In ancient times barley was grown in some places, but it never paid for the cost of cultivation.^ In ancient times barley was grown in some places, but it never paid for the cost of cultivation.

^ During the year, 94 of 108 persons placed in custody spent some time in isolation.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travellers should never leave valuables in their car and passports and money should be kept in a safe place at all times.
  • Iceland Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Cattle-breeding has declined in importance, while the number of sheep has increased.^ Cattle-breeding has declined in importance, while the number of sheep has increased.

^ In 1850, 82% of the population were dependent upon cattle-breeding and 7% upon fishing; in 1890 the numbers were 64% and 18% respectively.

^ The principal occupation of the Icelanders is cattle-breeding, and more particularly sheep-breeding, although the fishing industries have come rapidly to the front in modern times.

.Formerly gardening was of no importance, but considerable progress has been made in this branch in modern times, as also in the cultivation of potatoes and turnips.^ Formerly gardening was of no importance, but considerable progress has been made in this branch in modern times, as also in the cultivation of potatoes and turnips.

Fruit-trees will not thrive; but black and red currants and rhubarb are grown, the last-named doing excellently. .Iceland possesses four agricultural schools, one agricultural society, and small agricultural associations in nearly every district.^ Iceland possesses four agricultural schools, one agricultural society, and small agricultural associations in nearly every district.

^ On the whole, during the 19th century, the north coast was free from ice on an average of one year in every four or five.

^ At Reykjavik there are a Latin school, a medical school and a theological school; at Modruvellir and Hafnarfjdror, modern high schools ( Realschulen); and in addition to these there are four agricultural schools, a school of navigation, and three girls' schools.

.The fisheries give employment to about 12,000 people.^ The fisheries give employment to about 12,000 people.

^ Normally they use the big rubber boats that hold about 10 - 12 people.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Last year, about 70,000 people showed up, and we hear that not all of them were actually gay!
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

For the most part the fishing is carried on from open boats, notwithstanding the dangers of so stormy a coast. .But larger decked vessels have come into increasing use.^ Coming down from the mountains, looking at the cloud deck below into the fjord.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.In summer the waters are visited by a great number of foreign fishermen, inclusive of about 300 fishing-boats from French ports, as well as by fishing-boats from the Faeroes and Norway, and steam trawlers from England.^ In summer the waters are visited by a great number of foreign fishermen, inclusive of about 300 fishing-boats from French ports, as well as by fishing-boats from the Faeroes and Norway, and steam trawlers from England .

^ To the north of the j oklar last mentioned there are a number of lakes, all well stocked with fish .

^ This is an old fishing boat as well with a less than honorable place.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Excellent profit is made in certain parts of the island from the herring fishery; this is especially the case on the east coast.^ Excellent profit is made in certain parts of the island from the herring fishery; this is especially the case on the east coast.

^ In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro , a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.

.There are marine insurance societies and a school of navigation at Reykjavik.^ There are marine insurance societies and a school of navigation at Reykjavik.

^ At Reykjavik there are a Latin school, a medical school and a theological school; at Modruvellir and Hafnarfjdror, modern high schools ( Realschulen); and in addition to these there are four agricultural schools, a school of navigation, and three girls' schools.

^ There is a modern asylum for leprosy at Laugarnes near Reykjavik, and a medical school at Reykjavik, opened in 1876.

.The export of fish and fish products has greatly increased.^ The export of fish and fish products has greatly increased.

^ Fish and other marine products accounted for about 40 percent of the country's exports.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1849 to 1855 the annual average exported was 1480 tons; whereas at the close of the century (in 1899) it amounted to 11,339 tons and 68,079 barrels of oil, valued at L276,596.

Commerce

.From the first colonization of the island down to the 14th century the trade was in the hands of native Icelanders and Norsemen; in the 15th century it was chiefly in the hands of the English, in the 16th of Germans from the Hanse towns.^ From the first colonization of the island down to the 14th century the trade was in the hands of native Icelanders and Norsemen; in the 15th century it was chiefly in the hands of the English, in the 16th of Germans from the Hanse towns.

^ Iceland's most famous painters are Ásgrímur Jónsson, Jón Stefánsson, and Jóhannes Kjarval, all of whom worked during the first half of the 20th century.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is beyond question that it is principally to her Catholic clergy that Iceland is indebted for the origin and prosperous growth of her earlier literature, down to the middle of the sixteenth century" (Hermann, vol.
  • Iceland - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.From 1602 to 1786 commerce was a monopoly of the Danish government; in the latter year it was declared free to all Danish subjects and in 1854 free to all nations.^ From 1602 to 1786 commerce was a monopoly of the Danish government; in the latter year it was declared free to all Danish subjects and in 1854 free to all nations.

.Since 1874, when Iceland obtained her own administration, commerce has increased considerably.^ Iceland has greatly increased its international profile since the early 1990s.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus the total value of the imports and exports together in 1849 did not exceed £170,000; while in1891-1895the imports averaged £356,000 and the exports £340,000. In 1902 imports were valued at £J96,193 and exports at £511,083. Trade is almost entirely with Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Norway and Sweden, in this order according to value.^ Their value of imports are more than value of exports.
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade is almost entirely with Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Norway and Sweden , in this order according to value.

^ In 1902 imports were valued at £J96,193 and exports at £511,083.

.The principal native products exported are live sheep, horses, salt meat, wool and hides, to which must be added the fish products - cod, train-oil, herring and salmon - eiderdown and woollen wares.^ The export of fish and fish products has greatly increased.

^ The principal native products exported are live sheep, horses, salt meat , wool and hides, to which must be added the fish products - cod, train -oil, herring and salmon - eiderdown and woollen wares.

^ The spinning , weaving and knitting of wool is a widespread industry, and the native tweed ( va Smal ) is the principal material for the clothing of the inhabitants.

.The spinning, weaving and knitting of wool is a widespread industry, and the native tweed (va Smal) is the principal material for the clothing of the inhabitants.^ The spinning , weaving and knitting of wool is a widespread industry, and the native tweed ( va Smal ) is the principal material for the clothing of the inhabitants.

.The imports consist principally of cereals and flour, coffee, sugar, ale, wines and spirits, tobacco, manufactured wares, iron and metal wares, timber, salt, coal, &c.^ The imports consist principally of cereals and flour , coffee , sugar , ale , wines and spirits , tobacco , manufactured wares, iron and metal wares, timber , salt, coal , &c.

^ Iceland has her own customs service, but the only import duties levied are upon spirits, tobacco, coffee and sugar, and in each case the duties are fairly low.

.The money, weights and measures in use are the same as in Denmark.^ The money, weights and measures in use are the same as in Denmark.

The Islands Bank in Reykjavik (1904) is authorized to issue bank-notes up to £133,900 in total value.

Communications

.All land journeys are made on horseback, and in the remoter parts all goods have to be transported by the same means.^ All land journeys are made on horseback, and in the remoter parts all goods have to be transported by the same means.

^ She was once part of a sculpture made from iceland's littlist glacier to improve the land, which only had ice before.
  • Iceland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One good part here is that all the natural attractions are free to visit.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.^ Even the good roads had bad parts.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For almost all of Icelandic history there were no towns in Iceland, only farms.

^ This is in part due to the fact that there are sheep everywhere, so trees have no chance of growing.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless much has been done to improve such paths as there are, and several miles of driving roads have been made, more particularly in the south.^ Nevertheless much has been done to improve such paths as there are, and several miles of driving roads have been made, more particularly in the south.

^ There are not all that many unpaved roads where you can drive faster than that.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Myvatn there are several volcanoes, which were particularly active in the years 1724-1730.

.Since 1888 many bridges have been built; previous to that year there was none.^ There is a house that had many structural problems because it was built too close to an elf rock.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You know that since June 28, 2008, in the entire Catholic Church there have been many lectures, congresses and liturgical celebrations.
  • Roman Catholic Diocese of Reykjavik, Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.catholica.is [Source type: Original source]

.The larger rivers have been spanned by iron swing-bridges, and the Blanda is crossed by a fixed iron bridge.^ The larger rivers have been spanned by iron swing-bridges, and the Blanda is crossed by a fixed iron bridge.

Postal connexion is maintained with Denmark by steamers, which sail from Copenhagen and call at Leith. .Besides, steamers go round the island, touching at nearly every port.^ Besides, steamers go round the island, touching at nearly every port.

Religion

The Icelanders are Lutherans. .For ecclesiastical purposes the island is divided into 20 deaneries and 142 parishes, and the affairs of each ecclesiastical parish are administered by a parish council, and in each deanery by a district (hjera6) council.^ A five-member Judicial Council appointed by the Minister of Justice administered the eight district courts, and the Supreme Court administers itself.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a living falls vacant, the governor-general of the island, after consultation with the bishop, selects three candidates, and from these the congregation chooses one, the election being subsequently confirmed by the governor-general.^ When a living falls vacant, the governor-general of the island, after consultation with the bishop, selects three candidates, and from these the congregation chooses one, the election being subsequently confirmed by the governor-general.

^ The king appoints a governor-general ( landshofoingi ) who is resident in the island and carries on the government on the responsibility of the minister.

^ The general sanitary affairs of the island are under the control of a chief surgeon (national physician) who lives in Reykjavik, and has superintendence over the doctors and the medical school.

In the case of certain livings, however, the election requires confirmation by the crown. .In 1847 a theological seminary was founded at Reykjavik, and there the majority of the Icelandic ministry are educated; some, however, are graduates of the university of Copenhagen.^ In 1847 a theological seminary was founded at Reykjavik, and there the majority of the Icelandic ministry are educated; some, however, are graduates of the university of Copenhagen.

^ In the beginning of the 'eighties a new school arose - having its origin in the colony of Icelandic students at the University of Copenhagen.

^ Central Highlands: Not too far from Reykjavik, this vast area contains some of the most fascinating photographic terrain in Iceland.

Health

.The public health has greatly improved in modern times; the death-rate of young children has especially diminished.^ Processing of asylum cases could take 1 year or more, during which time asylum seekers were eligible for state-subsidized health care but could not work or enroll their children in public schools.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children The Government was strongly committed to children's rights and welfare; it amply funded a system of public education and health care.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This improvement is due to greater cleanliness, better dwellings, better nourishment, and the increase in the number of doctors. .There are now doctors in all parts of the country, whereas formerly there were hardly any in the island.^ There are now doctors in all parts of the country, whereas formerly there were hardly any in the island.

^ Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.

^ In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro , a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.

.There is a modern asylum for leprosy at Laugarnes near Reykjavik, and a medical school at Reykjavik, opened in 1876. The general sanitary affairs of the island are under the control of a chief surgeon (national physician) who lives in Reykjavik, and has superintendence over the doctors and the medical school.^ The general sanitary affairs of the island are under the control of a chief surgeon (national physician) who lives in Reykjavik, and has superintendence over the doctors and the medical school.

^ There is a modern asylum for leprosy at Laugarnes near Reykjavik, and a medical school at Reykjavik, opened in 1876.

^ The king appoints a governor-general ( landshofoingi ) who is resident in the island and carries on the government on the responsibility of the minister.

Government

.According to the constitution granted to Iceland in 1874, the king of Denmark shares the legislative power with the Althing, an assembly of 36 members, 30 of whom are elected by household suffrage, and 6 nominated by the king.^ In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and home rule, which was expanded in 1904.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the constitution granted to Iceland in 1874, the king of Denmark shares the legislative power with the Althing, an assembly of 36 members, 30 of whom are elected by household suffrage , and 6 nominated by the king.

^ The minister for Iceland, who resided in Copenhagen until 1903, when his office was transferred to Reykjavik, is responsible to the king and the Althing for the maintenance of the constitution, and he submits to the king for confirmation the legislative measures proposed by the Althing.

.The Althing meets every second year, and sits in two divisions, the upper and the lower.^ The Althing meets every second year, and sits in two divisions, the upper and the lower.

^ As the Althing only meets every other year, the budget is passed for two years at once.

^ The year was broken by the spring feasts and moots, the great Althing meeting at midsummer, the marriage and arval gatherings after the summer, and the long yule feasts at midwinter.

.The upper, division consists of the 6 members nominated by the king and 6 elected by the representatives of the people out of their own body.^ The upper, division consists of the 6 members nominated by the king and 6 elected by the representatives of the people out of their own body.

^ The lower division consists of the remaining 24 representative members.

^ According to the constitution granted to Iceland in 1874, the king of Denmark shares the legislative power with the Althing, an assembly of 36 members, 30 of whom are elected by household suffrage , and 6 nominated by the king.

.The lower division consists of the remaining 24 representative members.^ The lower division consists of the remaining 24 representative members.

^ The upper, division consists of the 6 members nominated by the king and 6 elected by the representatives of the people out of their own body.

.The minister for Iceland, who resided in Copenhagen until 1903, when his office was transferred to Reykjavik, is responsible to the king and the Althing for the maintenance of the constitution, and he submits to the king for confirmation the legislative measures proposed by the Althing.^ The minister for Iceland, who resided in Copenhagen until 1903, when his office was transferred to Reykjavik, is responsible to the king and the Althing for the maintenance of the constitution, and he submits to the king for confirmation the legislative measures proposed by the Althing.

^ The head of government is the prime minister , Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir , who, together with the cabinet, is responsible for executive government .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution, written in 1874, was revised in 1903, and a minister for Icelandic affairs, residing in Reykjavík, was made responsible to the Althingi.

.The king appoints a governor-general (landshofoingi) who is resident in the island and carries on the government on the responsibility of the minister.^ The king appoints a governor-general ( landshofoingi ) who is resident in the island and carries on the government on the responsibility of the minister.

^ The minister for Iceland, who resided in Copenhagen until 1903, when his office was transferred to Reykjavik, is responsible to the king and the Althing for the maintenance of the constitution, and he submits to the king for confirmation the legislative measures proposed by the Althing.

^ The head of government is the prime minister , Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir , who, together with the cabinet, is responsible for executive government .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Formerly Iceland was divided into four quarters, the east, the south, the west and north.^ Formerly Iceland was divided into four quarters, the east, the south, the west and north.

^ Reykjavík North and Reykjavík South (city regions); Southwest (four geographically separate suburban areas around Reykjavík); Northwest and Northeast (north half of Iceland, split); and, South (south half of Iceland, excluding Reykjavík and suburbs).
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Althing, and a speaker to speak a single " law " (principally that followed by the Gula -moot in Norway); the Reforms of Thord Gellir (964), settling a fixed number of moots and chieftaincies, dividing the island into four quarters (thus characterized by Ari: north, thickest settled, most famous; east, first completely settled; south, best land and greatest chiefs; west, remarkable for noble families), to each of which a head-court, the " quarter-court," was assigned; and the Innovations of Skapti (ascribed in the saga to Nial) the Law- Speaker (d.

.Now the north and 'the east are united under.^ Now the north and 'the east are united under.

one governor, and the south and the west under another. .The island is further divided into 18 syslur (counties), and these again into 169 hreppur (rapes) or poor-law districts.^ The island is further divided into 18 syslur (counties), and these again into 169 hreppur (rapes) or poor-law districts.

^ Iceland is divided into regions , constituencies , counties , and municipalities .
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For ecclesiastical purposes the island is divided into 20 deaneries and 142 parishes, and the affairs of each ecclesiastical parish are administered by a parish council, and in each deanery by a district ( hjera6) council.

.Responsible to the governors are the sheriffs (syslumenn), who act as tax gatherers, notaries public and judges of first instance; the sheriff has in every hreppur an assistant, called hreppstjOri. In every hreppur there is also a representative committee, who administer the poor laws, and look after the general concerns of the hreppur. These committees are controlled by the committees of the syslur (county boards), and these again are under the control of the amtsra5 (quarter board), consisting of three members.^ In every hreppur there is also a representative committee, who administer the poor laws, and look after the general concerns of the hreppur.

^ Responsible to the governors are the sheriffs ( syslumenn ), who act as tax gatherers, notaries public and judges of first instance; the sheriff has in every hreppur an assistant, called hreppstjOri.

^ These committees are controlled by the committees of the syslur (county boards), and these again are under the control of the amtsra5 (quarter board), consisting of three members.

.From the sheriff courts appeals lie to the superior court at Reykjavik, consisting of three judges.^ From the sheriff courts appeals lie to the superior court at Reykjavik, consisting of three judges.

^ Depending upon the seriousness of the case, a Supreme Court panel could have from three to seven judges.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Appeals may be taken in all criminal cases and most civil cases to the supreme court at Copenhagen.^ Appeals may be taken in all criminal cases and most civil cases to the supreme court at Copenhagen.

^ Depending upon the seriousness of the case, a Supreme Court panel could have from three to seven judges.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some countries or regions may not permit children to enter or, in some cases, leave the country or region without proper documentation such as a letter of consent or a court order.
  • Iceland Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Iceland has her own budget, the Althing having, by the constitution of 1874, the right to vote its own supplies.^ Iceland has her own budget , the Althing having, by the constitution of 1874, the right to vote its own supplies.

^ The thrall had a house of his own and was rather villein or serf than slave, having rights and a legal price by law.

^ Since 1874, when Iceland obtained her own administration, commerce has increased considerably.

.As the Althing only meets every other year, the budget is passed for two years at once.^ The Althing meets every second year, and sits in two divisions, the upper and the lower.

^ As the Althing only meets every other year, the budget is passed for two years at once.

^ The year was broken by the spring feasts and moots, the great Althing meeting at midsummer, the marriage and arval gatherings after the summer, and the long yule feasts at midwinter.

.The total income and expenditure are each about £ 70,000 per financial period.^ The total income and expenditure are each about £ 70,000 per financial period.

^ About 15,000 out of a total population of 70,000 left.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year, about 70,000 people showed up, and we hear that not all of them were actually gay!
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

.There is a national reserve fund of about £60,000, but no public debt; nor is there any contribution for either military or naval purposes.^ There were no military forces.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a national reserve fund of about £60,000, but no public debt; nor is there any contribution for either military or naval purposes.

^ The Freemason rule this country, they have there “church” next to riot on the clip, no one attack it, no one, there is unbelievable collective denial about the power of Freemason here.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Iceland has her own customs service, but the only import duties levied are upon spirits, tobacco, coffee and sugar, and in each case the duties are fairly low.^ Iceland is the only NATO country with no standing military of its own.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Education

.Education is pretty widespread amongst the people.^ Education is pretty widespread amongst the people.

.In the towns and fishing villages there are a few elementary schools, but often the children are instructed at home; in some places by peripatetic teachers.^ In the towns and fishing villages there are a few elementary schools, but often the children are instructed at home; in some places by peripatetic teachers.

^ There are tourist accommodations outside of Reykjavik, but except for some hotels in larger towns these are few and far between, and during the summer when tourism is at its peak can require booking in advance.

^ If you're a landscape photographer you know that there are precious few places left in the world that offer a dramatic and accessible landscape and that have not been photographed to death, the way the American southwest has.

.It is incumbent upon the clergy to see that all children are taught reading, writing and arithmetic.^ It is incumbent upon the clergy to see that all children are taught reading , writing and arithmetic .

.The people are great readers; considering the number of the inhabitants, books and periodicals have a very extensive circulation.^ The people are great readers; considering the number of the inhabitants, books and periodicals have a very extensive circulation.

^ Magnússon (1663-1730), for which the institute is named, was an Icelander who collected a great number of Icelandic manuscripts from all periods in Icelandic literary history.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eighteen newspapers are issued (once and twice a week), besides several journals, and Iceland has always been distinguished for her native literature. .At Reykjavik there are a Latin school, a medical school and a theological school; at Modruvellir and Hafnarfjdror, modern high schools (Realschulen); and in addition to these there are four agricultural schools, a school of navigation, and three girls' schools.^ At Reykjavik there are a Latin school, a medical school and a theological school; at Modruvellir and Hafnarfjdror, modern high schools ( Realschulen); and in addition to these there are four agricultural schools, a school of navigation, and three girls' schools.

^ There are marine insurance societies and a school of navigation at Reykjavik.

^ Iceland possesses four agricultural schools, one agricultural society, and small agricultural associations in nearly every district.

.The national library at Reykjavik contains some 40,000 volumes and 3000 MSS. At the same place there is also a valuable archaeological collection.^ The national library at Reykjavik contains some 40,000 volumes and 3000 MSS. At the same place there is also a valuable archaeological collection.

^ In the towns and fishing villages there are a few elementary schools, but often the children are instructed at home; in some places by peripatetic teachers.

^ On the south-east coast there is a place near Dyrhólaey with some lava pinnacles and lava arches carved by ocean waves.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amongst the learned societies are the Icelandic Literary Society (Bokmentafjelag), the society of the Friends of the People, and the Archaeological Society of Reykjavik.^ Amongst the learned societies are the Icelandic Literary Society ( Bokmentafjelag ), the society of the Friends of the People, and the Archaeological Society of Reykjavik.

^ I make more money out of this situation than most other people in Reykjavik or Iceland in general.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

I. The Commonwealth. eoo years.
870- 930
Poetry of Western Islands.
.Settlement of colonists from Western Isles and Norway.^ Settlement of colonists from Western Isles and Norway.

Heroic Age.
930- 980
Early Icelandic poets, chiefly abroad.
.Constitution worked out - Events of earlier sages take place.^ Constitution worked out - Events of earlier sages take place.

^ Kings' Lives; it seems to have been a complete epitome of his earlier works, together with an account of the constitutional history, ecclesiastical and civil, of Iceland.

^ Christianity comes in - Events of later sagas take place.

980 -1030
Icelandic poets abroad.
.Christianity comes in - Events of later sagas take place.^ Christianity comes in - Events of later sagas take place.

^ Modern readers think these sagas are the reflection of pagan Viking society, but they must take into account the sagas were written by Christians.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constitution worked out - Events of earlier sages take place.

Saga Telling.
1030-1100
First era of phonetic change.
.Peace - Ecclesiastical organization.^ Peace - Ecclesiastical organization.

1100-1150
and his school - THoxonn - .Vernacular writing begins.^ THoxonn - Vernacular writing begins.

The Literary
1150-1220
SAGA- WRITERS - Second generation of historians.
.First civil wars-1208-22 - Rise of Sturlungs.^ First civil wars-1208-22 - Rise of Sturlungs.

Age.
1220-1248
and his school - Biographers.
.Second civil wars, 1226-58 - Fall of Great Houses.^ Second civil wars, 1226-58 - Fall of Great Houses.

^ The first part of Islendinga (1202-1242) tells of the beginning and first part of the civil wars, the lives of Snorri and Sighvat, Sturla's uncles, of his cousin and namesake Sturla Sighvatsson, of Bishop Gudmund, and Thorwald Gizursson, - the fall of the Sturlungs, and with them the last hopes of the great houses to maintain the commonwealth, being the climax of the story.

^ The second part of Islendinga (1242-1262), which relates to the second part of the civil war, telling of the careers of Thord Kakali, Kolbein the Young, Earl Gizur and Hrafn Oddsson.

1248-1284
STIIRLA - Second era of phonetic change.
.Change of law, 1271 - Submission to Norwegian kings.^ Change of law, 1271 - Submission to Norwegian kings.

II. Medievalism. 250 years.
Continental
1284-1320
Collecting and editing - Foreign romances.
.Foreign influence through Norway.^ Foreign influence through Norway.

Influence
1320-1390
Annalists - Copyists - New Medieval poetry begins.
Great eruptions, 1362 and 1389 - Epidemics - Danish rule, 1380.
chiefly Norse.
1390-1413
Death of old traditions, &c.
.Epidemics - Norse trade - Close of intercourse with Norwa y.^ Epidemics - Norse trade - Close of intercourse with Norwa y.

Dark Age.
1413-1530
Only Medieval poetry flourishes.
.Isolation from Continent - English trade.^ Isolation from Continent - English trade.

.III. Reformation - Absole to Rule - Decay.^ III. Reformation - Absole to Rule - Decay.

320 years.
Reformation.
1530-1575
Onn - Printing - Third era of phonetic change.
.Religious struggle - New organization - Hance trade.^ Religious struggle - New organization - Hance trade.

Renaissance.
1575-1640
1640-1700
First antiquarians.
HAI.I.GRIns - Paper copies taken.
.Danish monopoly - Pirates' ravages.^ Danish monopoly - Pirates' ravages.

1700-1730
JoN VIDALIN - Arni Magnusson - MSS. taken abroad.
Smallpox kills one-third population, 1707.
Gradual
Decay.
1730-1768
1768-1800
1800-1850
Eggert Olafsson.
Finn Jonsson - Icelandic scholars abroad.
Rationalistic movement - European influences first felt.
? >,
Gq
Great famine, Io,000 die, 1759 - Sheep plague, 1762 - Eruption,
1765.
Great eruption, 1783.
Beginnings of recovery - Travellers make known island to Europe
- Free constitution in Denmark, 1848.
IV. Modern Iceland.
Recovery of
1850-1874
Modern thought and learning - Icelandic scholars abroad.
Increasing wealth and population - Free trade, 18J4 - Jon Sigurdsson and
Iceland.
home rule struggle.
1874
.Home rule granted.^ Home rule granted.

^ In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland limited home rule, which was expanded in scope in 1904.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and home rule, which was expanded in 1904.
  • Top20Iceland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Iceland! 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC top20iceland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Authorities

- .Among numerous works of Dr Thorvald Thoroddsen, see Geschichte der Islands Geographie (Leipzig, 1898); and the following articles in Geografisk Tidskrift (Copenhagen): " Om Islands geografiske og geologiske Undersogelse " (1893); " Islandske Fjorde og Bugter " (1901); " Geog.^ Among numerous works of Dr Thorvald Thoroddsen, see Geschichte der Islands Geographie (Leipzig, 1898); and the following articles in Geografisk Tidskrift (Copenhagen): " Om Islands geografiske og geologiske Undersogelse " (1893); " Islandske Fjorde og Bugter " (1901); " Geog.

^ See J. C. Poestion, Islandische Dichter der Neuzeit (Leipzig, 1897); C. Kuchler, Geschichte der isldndischen Dichtung der Neuzeit (Leipzig, 1896); Ph.

^ Of his numerous writings in Icelandic, Danish and German, the History of Icelandic Geography is a monumental work.

og geol. Unders. ved den sydlige .Del of Faxafloi paa Island " (1903); " Lavaorkener og Vulkaner paa Islands Hojland " (1905).^ Del of Faxafloi paa Island " (1903); " Lavaorkener og Vulkaner paa Islands Hojland " (1905).

.See also C. S. Forbes, Iceland (London, 1860); S. Baring-Gould, Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas (London, 1863); Sir R. F. Burton, Ultima Thule (Edinburgh, 1875); W. T. McCormick, A Ride across Iceland (London, 1892); J. Coles, Summer Travelling in Iceland (London, 1882); H. J. Johnston Lavis, " Notes on the Geography, Geology, Agriculture and Economics of Iceland," Scott.^ See also C. S. Forbes , Iceland (London, 1860); S. Baring-Gould , Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas (London, 1863); Sir R. F. Burton , Ultima Thule (Edinburgh, 1875); W. T. McCormick, A Ride across Iceland (London, 1892); J. Coles, Summer Travelling in Iceland (London, 1882); H. J. Johnston Lavis, " Notes on the Geography , Geology, Agriculture and Economics of Iceland," Scott.

^ The fantasy about Saga-Age Iceland as utopia (see link posted by Haukur at 9:14) is possibly the looniest thing I have ever seen emanating from any libertarian.

^ Yeah, Icelandic agricultural policy doesn't make much sense on from an economics viewpoint.

Geog. Mag.
xi. .(1895); W. Bisiker, Across Iceland (London, 1902); J. Hann, " Die Anomalien der Witterung auf Island in dem Zeitraume 1851-1900, &c.," Sitzungsberichte, Vienna Acad.^ W. Bisiker, Across Iceland (London, 1902); J. Hann, " Die Anomalien der Witterung auf Island in dem Zeitraume 1851-1900, &c.," Sitzungsberichte, Vienna Acad.

.Sci.
(1904); P. Hermann, Island in Vergangenheit and Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1907).^ P. Hermann, Island in Vergangenheit and Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1907).

Also Geografisk Tidskrift, and the Geographical Journal (London), passim. (TH. T.)

History

.Shortly after the discovery of Iceland by the Scandinavians, c. 850 (it had long been inhabited by a small colony of Irish Culdees), a stream of immigration set in towards it, which lasted for sixty years, and resulted in the establishment of some 4000 homesteads.^ Irish Culdees ), a stream of immigration set in towards it, which lasted for sixty years, and resulted in the establishment of some 4000 homesteads.

^ Shortly after the discovery of Iceland by the Scandinavians, c.

^ Much of Iceland's economic growth in recent years came as the result of a boom in domestic demand following the rapid expansion of the country's financial sector.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this immigration three distinct streams can be traced.^ In this immigration three distinct streams can be traced.

.(I) About 870-890 four great noblemen from Norway, Ingolf, Ketil Hang, Skalla-Grim and Thorolf, settled with their dependants in the south-west of the new found land.^ (I) About 870-890 four great noblemen from Norway, Ingolf, Ketil Hang, Skalla-Grim and Thorolf, settled with their dependants in the south-west of the new found land.

^ It is about 120 km (75 miles) east-west and about 80 km (50 miles) north-south.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eiríksson left this spot when he sailed west, eventually landing himself in the New World.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(2) In 890-900 there came from the western Islands Queen Aud, widow of Olaf the White, king of Dublin, preceded and followed by a number of her kinsmen and relations (many like herself being Table of Icelandic Literature and History. Christians), Helgi Biolan, Biorn the Eastern, Helgi the Lean, Ketil the Foolish, &c., who settled the best land in the island (west, north-west and north), and founded families who long swayed its destinies.^ There also came from the Western Islands'a fellowship of vikings seeking a free home in the north.

^ In 890-900 there came from the western Islands Queen Aud, widow of Olaf the White, king of Dublin , preceded and followed by a number of her kinsmen and relations (many like herself being Table of Icelandic Literature and History.

^ He, like so many Icelanders, was multitalented.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There also came from the Western Islands'a fellowship of vikings seeking a free home in the north.^ There also came from the Western Islands'a fellowship of vikings seeking a free home in the north.

^ The earlier flows were probably contemporaneous with those of Greenland , the Faeroes, the western islands of Scotland and the north-east of Ireland .

^ The north-west peninsula is separated from the main mass of the island by the bays Hunafloi and Bre151fjor6r, so that there are really two tablelands, a larger and a smaller.

.They had colonized the west in the viking times; they had " fought at Hafursfirth," helping their stay-at-home kinsmen against the centralization of the great head-king, who, when he had crushed opposition in Norway, followed up his victory by compelling them to flee or bow to his rule.^ They had colonized the west in the viking times; they had " fought at Hafursfirth," helping their stay-at-home kinsmen against the centralization of the great head-king, who, when he had crushed opposition in Norway, followed up his victory by compelling them to flee or bow to his rule.

^ From there I had enough time to continue on towards the west coast to Borgarnes, where I stayed the next night.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of causing problems and point fingers, they should be working with other countries to help find solutions on shoring up Iceland’s financial system.
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such were Ingimund the Old, Geirmund Hellskin, Thord Beardie (who had wed St Edmund's granddaughter,) Audun Shackle, Bryniulf the Old, Uni, to whom Harold promised the earldom of the new land if he could make the settlers acknowledge him as king (a hopeless project), and others by whom the north-west, north and east were almost completely " claimed."^ Such were Ingimund the Old, Geirmund Hellskin, Thord Beardie (who had wed St Edmund's granddaughter,) Audun Shackle, Bryniulf the Old, Uni, to whom Harold promised the earldom of the new land if he could make the settlers acknowledge him as king (a hopeless project), and others by whom the north-west, north and east were almost completely " claimed."

^ Twenty percent of Icelanders migrated west to the promised lands of America and Canada in the late 1800’s and early 20th century.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is about 120 km (75 miles) east-west and about 80 km (50 miles) north-south.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.(3) In goo-930 a few more incomers direct from Norway completed the settlement of the south, north-east and south-east.^ In goo-930 a few more incomers direct from Norway completed the settlement of the south, north-east and south-east.

^ GEOGRAPHY Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the south-east of the island, in the parish of Lon, there exist a few mountains of gabbro , a rock which does not occur in any other part of Iceland.

.Among them were Earl Hrollaug (half-brother of Hrolf Ganger and of the first earl of Orkney), Hialti, Hrafnkell Frey's priest, and the sons of Asbiorn.^ Among them were Earl Hrollaug (half-brother of Hrolf Ganger and of the first earl of Orkney ), Hialti, Hrafnkell Frey's priest , and the sons of Asbiorn.

.Fully three-quarters of the land was settled from the west, and among these immigrants there was no small proportion of Irish blood.^ Fully three-quarters of the land was settled from the west, and among these immigrants there was no small proportion of Irish blood.

^ It is to the west that the best sagas belong; it is to the west that nearly every classic writer whose name we know belongs; and it is precisely in the west that the admixture of Irish blood is greatest.

^ Throughout the greater part of the island there exist no proper roads even in the inhabited districts, but only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these.

.In 110o there were 4500 franklins, i.e. about 50,000 souls.^ In 110o there were 4500 franklins, i.e.

^ There is a national reserve fund of about £60,000, but no public debt; nor is there any contribution for either military or naval purposes.

.The unit of Icelandic politics was the homestead with its franklin-owner (buendi) its primal organization the hundredmoot (thing), its tie the gooorc5(godar) or chieftainship.^ The unit of Icelandic politics was the homestead with its franklin -owner ( buendi ) its primal organization the hundredmoot ( thing ), its tie the gooorc5(godar) or chieftainship.

.The chief who had led a band of kinsmen and dependants to the new land, taken a " claim " there, and parcelled it out among them, naturally became their leader, presiding as priest at the temple feasts and sacrifices of heathen times, acting as speaker of their moot, and as their representative towards the neighbouring chiefs.^ The chief who had led a band of kinsmen and dependants to the new land, taken a " claim " there, and parcelled it out among them, naturally became their leader, presiding as priest at the temple feasts and sacrifices of heathen times, acting as speaker of their moot , and as their representative towards the neighbouring chiefs.

^ The syslumadur was a multitasker who acted as a sheriff, judge and governor, similar to the godi in ancient times.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was not a feudal lord nor a local sheriff, for any franklin could change his g060r5 when he would, and the rights of "judgment by peers" were in full use; moreover, the office could be bequeathed, sold, divided or pledged by the possessor; still the goc51 had considerable power as long as the commonwealth lasted.^ He was not a feudal lord nor a local sheriff, for any franklin could change his g060r5 when he would, and the rights of "judgment by peers" were in full use; moreover, the office could be bequeathed, sold, divided or pledged by the possessor; still the goc51 had considerable power as long as the commonwealth lasted.

^ The most likely deal -- a tie-up of Landsbanki and Glitnir -- would still require the government to provide euros so Glitnir could make its payments.
  • Iceland Created a Vast Bubble, Leaving Wreckage Everywhere When It Popped - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.Disputes between neighbouring chiefs and their clients, and uncertainty as to the law, brought about the Constitution of Ulfliot (c. 930), which appointed a central moot for the whole island, the Althing, and a speaker to speak a single " law " (principally that followed by the Gula-moot in Norway); the Reforms of Thord Gellir (964), settling a fixed number of moots and chieftaincies, dividing the island into four quarters (thus characterized by Ari: north, thickest settled, most famous; east, first completely settled; south, best land and greatest chiefs; west, remarkable for noble families), to each of which a head-court, the " quarter-court," was assigned; and the Innovations of Skapti (ascribed in the saga to Nial) the Law- Speaker (d.^ Disputes between neighbouring chiefs and their clients, and uncertainty as to the law, brought about the Constitution of Ulfliot (c.

^ Althing, and a speaker to speak a single " law " (principally that followed by the Gula -moot in Norway); the Reforms of Thord Gellir (964), settling a fixed number of moots and chieftaincies, dividing the island into four quarters (thus characterized by Ari: north, thickest settled, most famous; east, first completely settled; south, best land and greatest chiefs; west, remarkable for noble families), to each of which a head-court, the " quarter-court," was assigned; and the Innovations of Skapti (ascribed in the saga to Nial) the Law- Speaker (d.

^ In goo-930 a few more incomers direct from Norway completed the settlement of the south, north-east and south-east.

1030), who set up a "fifth court " as the ultimate tribunal in criminal matters, and strengthened the community against the chiefs. .But here constitutional growth ceased: the law-making body made few and unimportant modifications of custom; the courts were too weak for the chiefs who misused and defied them; the speaker's power was not sufficiently supported; even the ecclesiastical innovations, while they secured peace for a time, provoked in the end the struggles which put an end to the commonwealth.^ But here constitutional growth ceased: the law-making body made few and unimportant modifications of custom; the courts were too weak for the chiefs who misused and defied them; the speaker's power was not sufficiently supported; even the ecclesiastical innovations, while they secured peace for a time, provoked in the end the struggles which put an end to the commonwealth.

^ Disputes between neighbouring chiefs and their clients, and uncertainty as to the law, brought about the Constitution of Ulfliot (c.

^ But by the second and third time they’re here, they have gained the Friend of Iceland status and should be treated as a local celeb, i.e.
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

Christianity was introduced c. 1000 from Norway. .Tithes were established in 1096, and an ecclesiastical code made c. 1125. The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.^ Tithes were established in 1096, and an ecclesiastical code made c.

^ The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.

^ The glebes and hospital lands were a fresh power in the hands of the crown, and the subservient Lutheran clergy became the most powerful class in the island, while the system of under-leasing at rackrent and short lease with unsecured tenant right extended over at least a quarter of the better land.

For the civil wars broke down the great houses who had monopolized the chieftaincies; and after violent struggles (in which the Sturlungs of the first generation perished at Orlygstad, 1238, and Reykiaholt, 1241, while of the second generation Thord Kakali was called away by the king in 1250, and Thorgils Skardi slain in 1258) the submission of the island to Norway quarter after quarter took place in 1262-1264, under Gizur's auspices, and the old Common Law was replaced by the New Norse Code " Ironside " in 1271.
.The political life and law of the old days is abundantly illustrated in the sagas (especially Eyrbyggia, Hensa-Thori, Reykdaela, Hrafnkell and Niala), the two collections of law-scrolls (Codex Regius, c. 1235, and Stadarhol's Book, c. 1271), the Libellus, the Liberfragments, and the Landnamabok of Ari, and the Diplomatarium.^ The political life and law of the old days is abundantly illustrated in the sagas (especially Eyrbyggia, Hensa-Thori, Reykdaela, Hrafnkell and Niala), the two collections of law-scrolls ( Codex Regius, c.

^ Eyrbyggia (890-1031) is the saga of politics, the most loosely woven of all the compound stories.

^ The saga of Thorgils Skardi (1252-1261) seems to have been the first of his works on Icelandic contemporary history; it deals with the life of his own nephew, especially his career in Iceland from 1252 to 1258.

.K. Maurer has made the subject his own in his Beitrdge, Island, Gragas, &c.^ K. Maurer has made the subject his own in his Beitrdge, Island, Gragas, &c.

.The medieval Icelandic church had two bishoprics, Skalholt (S., W. and E.) 1056, and Holar (N.) 1106, and about 175 parishes (two-thirds of which belonged to the southern bishopric).^ The total length of the coast-line is about 3730 m., of which approximately one-third belongs to the north-western peninsula.

^ The medieval Icelandic church had two bishoprics, Skalholt (S., W. and E.) 1056, and Holar (N.) 1106, and about 175 parishes (two-thirds of which belonged to the southern bishopric).

^ Skógafoss and Seljalandsfoss are two beautiful waterfalls in southern Iceland.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They belonged to the metropolitan see of Bremen, then to Lund, lastly to Nidaros, 1237. There were several religious foundations: Thingore (founded 1133), Thwera (1155), Hitardale (c. 1166), Kirkby Nunnery (1184), Stad Nunnery (1296) and Saurby (c. 1200) were Benedictine, while Ver (1168), Flatey after Holyfell (1172), Videy (1226), Madderfield Priory (1296) and Skrid Priory (14th century) were Augustinian.^ Near Husavik in the north there have been found marine deposits containing a number of marine shells; they belong to the Red Crag division of the Pliocene .

^ There were several religious foundations: Thingore (founded 1133), Thwera (1155), Hitardale ( c.

^ They belonged to the metropolitan see of Bremen , then to Lund , lastly to Nidaros, 1237.

.The bishops, elected by the people at the Althing till 1237, enjoyed considerable power; two, Thorlak of Skalholt and John of Holar, were publicly voted saints at the Althing, and one, Gudmund, received the title of " Good " by decree of the bishop and chapter.^ The bishops , elected by the people at the Althing till 1237, enjoyed considerable power; two, Thorlak of Skalholt and John of Holar, were publicly voted saints at the Althing, and one, Gudmund, received the title of " Good " by decree of the bishop and chapter.

^ He wrote Hungrvaka, lives of the first five bishops of Skalholt, and biographies of his patron Bishop Paul ( Peilssaga ) and also of St Thorlak ( Thorlakssaga).

^ Gudmundur the Good, Iceland’s patron saint, was bishop at Hólar from 1203-1237 and was said to perform many miracles throughout the land.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Full details as to ecclesiastical history will be found in the Biskupasogur (edited by Dr. Vigfusson).
.Iceland was not agricultural but pastoral, depending upon flocks and herds for subsistence, for, though rye and other grain would grow in favoured localities, the hay, self-sown, was the only regular crop.^ Iceland was not agricultural but pastoral , depending upon flocks and herds for subsistence, for, though rye and other grain would grow in favoured localities, the hay , self-sown, was the only regular crop .

^ Iceland’s signature beverage may have fallen out of favour with the local drinking classes, but fear not.
  • How do you like Iceland? - a blog by Iceland Express 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC blog.icelandexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ My understanding was that Iceland considered a 'viable agricultural sector' to be important as a matter of identity and self-determination, i.e.

.In some districts the fisheries and fowling Mode of were of importance, but nine-tenths of the population M i lved by their sheep and cattle.^ In some districts the fisheries and fowling Mode of were of importance, but nine-tenths of the population M i lved by their sheep and cattle.

^ The only inhabited districts are the shores of the fjords, where grass grows capable of supporting sheep ; but a large proportion of the population gain their livelihood by fishing.

^ Cattle-breeding has declined in importance, while the number of sheep has increased.

.Life on each home stead was regularly portioned out: out door occupations - fishing, shepherding, fowling, and the hay-making and fuel-gathering - occupying the summer; while in door business - weaving, tool-making, &c.^ Life on each home stead was regularly portioned out: out door occupations - fishing, shepherding, fowling, and the hay-making and fuel -gathering - occupying the summer; while in door business - weaving, tool-making, &c.

^ Site Map Home World U.S. Business Markets Market Data Tech Personal Finance Life & Style Opinion Autos Careers Real Estate Small Business Corrections Tools & Formats: .
  • Iceland Created a Vast Bubble, Leaving Wreckage Everywhere When It Popped - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

- filled up the long winter. .The year was broken by the spring feasts and moots, the great Althing meeting at midsummer, the marriage and arval gatherings after the summer, and the long yule feasts at midwinter.^ The year was broken by the spring feasts and moots, the great Althing meeting at midsummer, the marriage and arval gatherings after the summer, and the long yule feasts at midwinter.

^ The Althing meets every second year, and sits in two divisions, the upper and the lower.

^ As the Althing only meets every other year, the budget is passed for two years at once.

.There were but two degrees of men, free and unfree, though only the franklins had any political power; and, from the nature of the life, social intercourse was unrestrained and unfettered; gon and thrall lived the same lives, ate the same food, spoke the same tongue, and differed little in clothing or habits.^ There were but two degrees of men, free and unfree, though only the franklins had any political power; and, from the nature of the life, social intercourse was unrestrained and unfettered; gon and thrall lived the same lives, ate the same food, spoke the same tongue, and differed little in clothing or habits.

^ Not only large power stations use natural steam.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Life in the commonwealth was turbulent and anarchic, but free and varied; it produced men of mark , and fostered bravery, adventure and progress.

.The thrall had a house of his own and was rather villein or serf than slave, having rights and a legal price by law.^ The thrall had a house of his own and was rather villein or serf than slave, having rights and a legal price by law.

^ Iceland has her own budget , the Althing having, by the constitution of 1874, the right to vote its own supplies.

^ The problem is the protests will be put down rather quickly by all types of law enforcment and quite possibly our own military.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the heathen days many great chiefs passed part of their lives in Norway at the king's court, but after the establishment of Christianity in Iceland they kept more at home, visiting the continent, however, for purposes of state, suits with clergy, &c.^ During the heathen days many great chiefs passed part of their lives in Norway at the king's court, but after the establishment of Christianity in Iceland they kept more at home, visiting the continent, however, for purposes of state, suits with clergy, &c.

^ They had colonized the west in the viking times; they had " fought at Hafursfirth," helping their stay-at-home kinsmen against the centralization of the great head-king, who, when he had crushed opposition in Norway, followed up his victory by compelling them to flee or bow to his rule.

^ Snorri (1179-1241) wrote the Lives of the Kings (Heimskringla), from Olaf Tryggvason to Sigurd the Crusader inclusive; and we have them substantially as they came from his hand in the Great King Olaf's Saga; St Olaf's Saga, as in Heimskringla and the Stockholm MS.; and the succeeding Kings' Lives, as in Hulda and Hrokkinskinna, in which, however, a few episodes have been inserted.

.Trade was from the first almost entirely in foreign (Norse) hands.^ Trade was from the first almost entirely in foreign (Norse) hands.

^ Trade is almost entirely with Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Norway and Sweden , in this order according to value.

^ From the first colonization of the island down to the 14th century the trade was in the hands of native Icelanders and Norsemen; in the 15th century it was chiefly in the hands of the English, in the 16th of Germans from the Hanse towns.

.The introduction of a church system brought little change.^ The introduction of a church system brought little change.

.The great families put their members into orders, and so continued to enjoy the profits of the land which they had given to the church; the priests married and otherwise behaved like the franklins around them in everyday matters, farming, trading, going to law like laymen.^ The great families put their members into orders, and so continued to enjoy the profits of the land which they had given to the church; the priests married and otherwise behaved like the franklins around them in everyday matters, farming, trading, going to law like laymen.

^ Thingvellir means “assemby plains” it was here where Icelanders from all around the country would convene two weeks of the year to discuss matters of law, politics, arrange marriages, trade with each other, hear and compose sagas and most likely either start or avoid blood feuds.
  • Iceland: Land of Nature, the Sagas and Mystical Power Places by Christine Lynn Harvey 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.newliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the Riddara-Sogur they enjoyed great popularity in the 15th century, and gave matter for many Rimur.

.Life in the commonwealth was turbulent and anarchic, but free and varied; it produced men of mark, and fostered bravery, adventure and progress.^ Life in the commonwealth was turbulent and anarchic, but free and varied; it produced men of mark , and fostered bravery, adventure and progress.

.But on the union with Norway all this ceased, and there was left but a low dead level of poor peasant proprietors careless of all save how to live by as little labour as possible, and pay as few taxes as they could to their foreign rulers.^ But on the union with Norway all this ceased, and there was left but a low dead level of poor peasant proprietors careless of all save how to live by as little labour as possible, and pay as few taxes as they could to their foreign rulers.

^ I hear all the time that we “US-ians” keep making such a big deal about how much we give to the poor, or to other countries in aid.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Says: November 25th, 2008 at 2:34 pm all they had to do was pay the find.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The island received a foreign governor (Earl, Hirdstjori or Stiptamtsmadr as he was successively called), and was parcelled out into counties (syslur), administered by sheriffs (s-jislumadr) appointed by the king.^ The island received a foreign governor ( Earl, Hirdstjori or Stiptamtsmadr as he was successively called), and was parcelled out into counties ( syslur ), administered by sheriffs ( s-jislumadr ) appointed by the king.

^ The king appoints a governor-general ( landshofoingi ) who is resident in the island and carries on the government on the responsibility of the minister.

^ For ecclesiastical purposes the island is divided into 20 deaneries and 142 parishes, and the affairs of each ecclesiastical parish are administered by a parish council, and in each deanery by a district ( hjera6) council.

.A royal court took the place of the Althing courts; the local business of the local things was carried out by the (hreppstjori) bailiff, a subordinate of the sheriff; and the g050r5, things, quarter-courts, trial by jury, &c., were swept away by these innovations.^ A royal court took the place of the Althing courts; the local business of the local things was carried out by the ( hreppstjori ) bailiff , a subordinate of the sheriff; and the g050r5, things, quarter-courts, trial by jury , &c., were swept away by these innovations.

^ The law also took away the committees' power to terminate parental rights and provided that longer-term care decisions must be adjudicated in court.
  • Iceland 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The power of the crown was increased by the confiscation of the great Sturlung estates, which were underleased to farmers, while the early falling off of the Norse trade threatened to deprive the island of the means of existence; for the great epidemics and eruptions of the 1.4th century had gravely attacked its pastoral wealth and ruined much of its pasture and fishery.^ The power of the crown was increased by the confiscation of the great Sturlung estates, which were underleased to farmers, while the early falling off of the Norse trade threatened to deprive the island of the means of existence; for the great epidemics and eruptions of the 1.4th century had gravely attacked its pastoral wealth and ruined much of its pasture and fishery.

^ Epidemics - Norse trade - Close of intercourse with Norwa y.

^ HISTORY Iceland was settled in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, principally by people of Norse origin.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The union of the Three Crowns transferred the practical rule of Iceland to Denmark in 1280, and the old Treaty of Union, by which the island had reserved its essential rights, was disregarded by the absolute Danish monarchs; but, though new taxation was imposed, it was rather their careless neglect than their too active interference that damaged Iceland's interests.^ The union of the Three Crowns transferred the practical rule of Iceland to Denmark in 1280, and the old Treaty of Union, by which the island had reserved its essential rights, was disregarded by the absolute Danish monarchs; but, though new taxation was imposed, it was rather their careless neglect than their too active interference that damaged Iceland's interests.

^ When Norway separated from the Danish Crown in 1814, Iceland remained under Denmark's protection.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland 18 September 2009 6:56 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But for an English trade, which sprang up out of the halfsmuggling, half-buccaneering enterprise of the Bristol merchants, the island would have fared badly, for during the whole of the 15th century their trade with England, exporting sulphur, eiderdown (of which the English taught them the value), wool, and salt stock-fish, and importing as before wood, iron, honey, wine, grain and flax goods, was their only link with the outer world.^ But for an English trade, which sprang up out of the halfsmuggling, half-buccaneering enterprise of the Bristol merchants, the island would have fared badly, for during the whole of the 15th century their trade with England, exporting sulphur, eiderdown (of which the English taught them the value), wool, and salt stock-fish, and importing as before wood, iron, honey , wine , grain and flax goods, was their only link with the outer world.

^ Iceland's most famous painters are Ásgrímur Jónsson, Jón Stefánsson, and Jóhannes Kjarval, all of whom worked during the first half of the 20th century.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The imports consist principally of cereals and flour , coffee , sugar , ale , wines and spirits , tobacco , manufactured wares, iron and metal wares, timber , salt, coal , &c.

.This period of Iceland's existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its blessings; all spirit seemed to have died with the commonwealth; even shepherding and such agriculture as there had been sank to a lower stage; wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use and knowledge; architecture in timber became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to small undecked fishing-boats.^ I saw quite a few fishing boats.
  • Iceland - Land of Fire and Ice 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC gei.aerobaticsweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This period of Iceland's existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its blessings; all spirit seemed to have died with the commonwealth; even shepherding and such agriculture as there had been sank to a lower stage; wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use and knowledge; architecture in timber became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to small undecked fishing-boats.

^ Unlike its literature, Iceland's fine arts did not flourish until the 19th century because the population was small and scattered.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Reformation in Iceland wakened men's minds, but it left their circumstances little changed.^ The Reformation in Iceland wakened men's minds, but it left their circumstances little changed.

.Though the fires of martyrdom were never lighted in Iceland, the story of the easily accepted Reformation is not altogether Y P g a pleasant one.^ Though the fires of martyrdom were never lighted in Iceland, the story of the easily accepted Reformation is not altogether Y P g a pleasant one.

.When it was accomplished, the little knot of able men who came to the front did much in preserving the records of the past, while Odd and Hallgrim exhibit the noblest impulses of their time.^ When it was accomplished, the little knot of able men who came to the front did much in preserving the records of the past, while Odd and Hallgrim exhibit the noblest impulses of their time.

.While there was this revolution in religion a social and political revolution never came to Iceland.^ While there was this revolution in religion a social and political revolution never came to Iceland.

.The Hanse trade replaced the English for the worse; and the Danish monopoly which succeeded it when the Danish kings began to act again with vigour was still less profitable.^ The Hanse trade replaced the English for the worse; and the Danish monopoly which succeeded it when the Danish kings began to act again with vigour was still less profitable.

^ From the first colonization of the island down to the 14th century the trade was in the hands of native Icelanders and Norsemen; in the 15th century it was chiefly in the hands of the English, in the 16th of Germans from the Hanse towns.

.The glebes and hospital lands were a fresh power in the hands of the crown, and the subservient Lutheran clergy became the most powerful class in the island, while the system of under-leasing at rackrent and short lease with unsecured tenant right extended over at least a quarter of the better land.^ The glebes and hospital lands were a fresh power in the hands of the crown, and the subservient Lutheran clergy became the most powerful class in the island, while the system of under-leasing at rackrent and short lease with unsecured tenant right extended over at least a quarter of the better land.

^ The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.

.A new plague, that of the English, Gascon and Algerine pirates, marked the close of the 16th century and opening of the 17th, causing widespread panic and some devasta tion in 1579,1613-1616and 1627. Nothing points more to the helplessness of the natives' condition than their powerlessness against these foes.^ Nothing points more to the helplessness of the natives' condition than their powerlessness against these foes.

^ A new plague, that of the English, Gascon and Algerine pirates, marked the close of the 16th century and opening of the 17th, causing widespread panic and some devasta tion in 1579,1613-1616and 1627.

^ Matt's never more of a hack than when he uses pretty charts to make lame points.

.But the 18th century is the most gloomy in Iceland's annals.^ But the 18th century is the most gloomy in Iceland's annals.

^ Iceland's most famous painters are Ásgrímur Jónsson, Jón Stefánsson, and Jóhannes Kjarval, all of whom worked during the first half of the 20th century.
  • Iceland (11/09) 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smallpox, famine, sheep disease, and the eruptions of 1765 and 1783 follow each other in terrible succession.^ Smallpox, famine, sheep disease, and the eruptions of 1765 and 1783 follow each other in terrible succession.

^ Great famine, Io,000 die, 1759 - Sheep plague , 1762 - Eruption, 1765.

.Against such visitations, which reduced the population by about a fourth, little could be done.^ Against such visitations, which reduced the population by about a fourth, little could be done.

.The few literary men, whose work was done and whose books were published abroad, were only concerned with the past, and Jon Vidalin is the one man of mark, beside Eggert Olafsson, who worked and wrote for his own generation.'^ The few literary men, whose work was done and whose books were published abroad, were only concerned with the past, and Jon Vidalin is the one man of mark, beside Eggert Olafsson, who worked and wrote for his own generation.'

^ The first modern scientific work is the Iter per patriam of Eggert Olafsson and Biarni Paulsson, which gives an account of the physical peculiarities - fauna, flora, &c.

^ Besides these we may mention Torfhildur Holm, one of the few women who have distinguished themselves in Icelandic literature.

.Gradually the ideas which were agitating Europe spread through Scandinavia into Iceland, and its claims were more respectfully listened to.^ Gradually the ideas which were agitating Europe spread through Scandinavia into Iceland, and its claims were more respectfully listened to.

^ Aren't the people who sold Icelands citizens into slavery through debt is it's politicians who put the country in debt in the first place?
  • Iceland goes bankrupt - BusinessWeek 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their influence brought the Icelandic literature into new roads, and it is interesting to see how the tough Icelandic element gradually assimilates the foreign.

.The continental system, which, by its leading to the blockade of Denmark, threatened to starve Iceland,was neutralized by special action of the British government.^ The continental system, which, by its leading to the blockade of Denmark, threatened to starve Iceland,was neutralized by special action of the British government.

.Trade and fishery grew a little brisker, and at length the turn came.^ Trade and fishery grew a little brisker, and at length the turn came.

.The rationalistic movement, headed by Magnus Stephenson, a patriotic, narrow-minded lawyer, did little good as far as church reform went, but was accompanied by a more successful effort to educate the people.^ The rationalistic movement, headed by Magnus Stephenson, a patriotic, narrow-minded lawyer, did little good as far as church reform went, but was accompanied by a more successful effort to educate the people.

^ The Reformation in Iceland wakened men's minds, but it left their circumstances little changed.

^ To put 300+ million people in the same box is not only insulting, but shows your narrow-mindness.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.A Useful Knowledge Society was formed and did some honest work.^ A Useful Knowledge Society was formed and did some honest work.

.Newspapers and periodicals were published, and the very stir which the ecclesiastical disputes encouraged did good.^ Newspapers and periodicals were published, and the very stir which the ecclesiastical disputes encouraged did good.

.When free trade came, and when the free constitution of Denmark had produced its legitimate effects, the endeavours of a few patriots such as Jon Sigurdsson were able to push on the next generation a step further.^ When free trade came, and when the free constitution of Denmark had produced its legitimate effects, the endeavours of a few patriots such as Jon Sigurdsson were able to push on the next generation a step further.

^ Free constitution in Denmark, 1848.

^ Increasing wealth and population - Free trade , 18J4 - Jon Sigurdsson and .

.Questions of a modern political complexion arose; the cattle export controversy and the great home rule struggle began.^ Questions of a modern political complexion arose; the cattle export controversy and the great home rule struggle began.

.After thirty years' agitation home rule was conceded in 1874 (see above, Government).^ After thirty years ' agitation home rule was conceded in 1874 (see above, Government ).

.For the periods succeeding the union, Danish state papers and the History of Finn Jonsson are the best authority.^ For the periods succeeding the union, Danish state papers and the History of Finn Jonsson are the best authority.

(F. Y. P.)

Ancient Literature

Poetry

.Iceland has always borne a high renown for song, but has never produced a poet of the highest order, the qualities which in other lands were most sought for and admired in poetry being in Iceland lavished on the saga, a prose epic, while Icelandic poetry is to be rated very high for the one quality which its authors have ever aimed at - melody of sound.^ Previously, he ran the London branch of Iceland's second-biggest bank, Landsbanki Islands hf, and helped run one of its most-popular products, "Icesave," a service that led Britons to sock away money at high interest rates.
  • Iceland Created a Vast Bubble, Leaving Wreckage Everywhere When It Popped - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In a brief telephone interview in October, Mr. Oddsson said Iceland's foreign-currency reserves per capita were greater than most other countries.
  • Iceland Created a Vast Bubble, Leaving Wreckage Everywhere When It Popped - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ I make more money out of this situation than most other people in Reykjavik or Iceland in general.
  • Iceland Riots Precursor To U.S. Civil Unrest? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.To these generalizations there are few exceptions, though Icelandic literature includes a group of poems which possess qualities of high imagination, deep pathos, fresh love of nature, passionate dramatic power, and noble simplicity of language which Icelandic poetry lacks.^ To these generalizations there are few exceptions, though Icelandic literature includes a group of poems which possess qualities of high imagination, deep pathos, fresh love of nature, passionate dramatic power, and noble simplicity of language which Icelandic poetry lacks.

^ It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.

^ Besides these we may mention Torfhildur Holm, one of the few women who have distinguished themselves in Icelandic literature.

.The solution is that these poems do not belong to Iceland at all.^ The solution is that these poems do not belong to Iceland at all.

.They are the poetry of the " Western Islands."^ They are the poetry of the " Western Islands."

^ Poetry of Western Islands.

.It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.^ It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.

^ The Renaissance of Iceland dates from the beginning of the 17th century, when a school of antiquaries arose.

^ Influenced by Jonas Hallgrimsson with regard to language and poetic diction, but keeping unbroken the traditions of Icelandic medieval poetry maintained by Sigur5r Breic fjorc6 (1798-1846), is another school of poets, very unlike the first.

To this school, which is totally distinct from the Icelandic, ran its own course apart and perished before the 13th century, the following works belong (of their authors we have scarcely a name or two; their dates can be rarely exactly fixed, but they lie between the beginning of the 9th and the end of the 10th centuries), classified into groups:
(a) The Helgi trilogy (last third lost save a few verses, but preserved in prose in Hromund Gripsson's Saga), the Raising of Anganty and Death of Ilialmar (in Hervarar Saga), the fragments of a Volsung Lay (Volsungakiraoa) (part interpolated in earlier poems, part underlying the prose in Volsunga Saga), all by one poet, to whom Dr Vigfusson would also ascribe Voluspd, Vegtamskv15a, prymskvit'a, Grotta Song and Volundarkvioa.
(b) The Dramatic Poems : - Flyting of Loki, the For Skirnis, the Harbareslioo and several fragments, all one man's work, to whose school belong, probably, the Lay underlying the story of Ivar's death in Skioldunga Saga.
.(c) The Didactic Poetry : - Grimnismdl, Vaf pruonismdl, Alvissmal, &c.^ The Didactic Poetry : - Grimnismdl, Vaf pruonismdl, Alvissmal, &c.

.(d) The Genealogical and Mythological Poems : - HyndluljO, written for one of the Haurda-Kari family, so famous in the Orkneys; Ynglingatal and Haustlong, by Thiodolf of Hvin; Rig's Thul, &c.^ The Genealogical and Mythological Poems : - HyndluljO, written for one of the Haurda-Kari family, so famous in the Orkneys; Ynglingatal and Haustlong, by Thiodolf of Hvin; Rig's Thul, &c.

.(e) The Dirges and Battle Songs - such as that on Hafur-firth Battle Hrafnsmal, by Thiodolf of Hvin orThorbjorn Hornklofi, shortly after 870; Eirik's Dirge (Eiriksmdl) between 950 and 969; the DartLay on Clontarf Battle (1014); Biarka-mal (fragments of which we have, and paraphrase of more is found in Hrolf Kraki's Saga and in Saxo).^ The Dirges and Battle Songs - such as that on Hafur-firth Battle Hrafnsmal, by Thiodolf of Hvin orThorbjorn Hornklofi, shortly after 870; Eirik's Dirge ( Eiriksmdl ) between 950 and 969; the DartLay on Clontarf Battle (1014); Biarka-mal (fragments of which we have, and paraphrase of more is found in Hrolf Kraki's Saga and in Saxo).

^ The earlier part of it has perished save a fragment Sogu-brot, and citations and paraphrases in Saxo, and the mythical Ragnar Lodbrok's and Gongu-Hrolf's Sagas; the latter part, Lives of Harold Bluetooth and the Kings down to Sveyn II., is still in existence and known as Skioldunga.

^ This book he composed from the dictation of old men such as Odd Kolsson, from the genealogical poems, and from the various dirges, battle-songs and eulogia of the poets.

.There are also fragments of poems in Half's Saga, Asmund KappaBana's Saga, in the Latin verses of Saxo, and the Shield Lays (Ragnarsdrapa) by Bragi, &c., of this school, which closes with the Sun-Song, a powerful Christian Dantesque poem, recalling some of the early compositions of the Irish Church, and with the 12th-century Lay of Ragnar, Lay of Starkad, The Proverb Song (Havamal) and Krakumal, to which we may add those singular Gloss-poems, the Pulur, which also belong to the Western Isles.^ There are also fragments of poems in Half's Saga, Asmund KappaBana's Saga, in the Latin verses of Saxo, and the Shield Lays ( Ragnarsdrapa ) by Bragi , &c., of this school, which closes with the Sun-Song, a powerful Christian Dantesque poem, recalling some of the early compositions of the Irish Church, and with the 12th-century Lay of Ragnar, Lay of Starkad, The Proverb Song (Havamal ) and Krakumal, to which we may add those singular Gloss-poems, the Pulur, which also belong to the Western Isles.

^ The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology , language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay ( i.e.

^ To Greenland, Iceland's farthest colony, founded in the 10th century, we owe the two Lays of Atli, and probably HymiskviOa, which, though of a weirder, harsher cast, yet belong to the Western Isles school and not to Iceland.

.To Greenland, Iceland's farthest colony, founded in the 10th century, we owe the two Lays of Atli, and probably HymiskviOa, which, though of a weirder, harsher cast, yet belong to the Western Isles school and not to Iceland.^ To Greenland, Iceland's farthest colony, founded in the 10th century, we owe the two Lays of Atli, and probably HymiskviOa, which, though of a weirder, harsher cast, yet belong to the Western Isles school and not to Iceland.

^ It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.

^ In the beginning of the 'eighties a new school arose - having its origin in the colony of Icelandic students at the University of Copenhagen.

.In form all these poems belong to two or three classes: - kvioa, an epic " cantilena "; tal, a genealogical poem; drapa, songs of praise, &c., written in modifications of the old Teutonic metre which we know in Beowulf; galdr and lokkr, spell and charm songs in a more lyric measure; and mal, a dialogue poem, and liod, a lay, in elegiac measure suited to the subject.^ In form all these poems belong to two or three classes: - kvioa , an epic " cantilena "; tal, a genealogical poem; drapa, songs of praise, &c., written in modifications of the old Teutonic metre which we know in Beowulf ; galdr and lokkr, spell and charm songs in a more lyric measure; and mal , a dialogue poem, and liod, a lay, in elegiac measure suited to the subject.

^ The solution is that these poems do not belong to Iceland at all.

^ The Genealogical and Mythological Poems : - HyndluljO, written for one of the Haurda-Kari family, so famous in the Orkneys; Ynglingatal and Haustlong, by Thiodolf of Hvin; Rig's Thul, &c.

.The characteristics of this Western school are no doubt the result of the contact of Scandinavian colonists of the Viking-tide, living lives of the wildest adventure, with an imaginative and civilized race, that exercised upon them a very strong and lasting influence (the effects of which were also felt in Iceland, but in a different way).^ The characteristics of this Western school are no doubt the result of the contact of Scandinavian colonists of the Viking- tide , living lives of the wildest adventure, with an imaginative and civilized race, that exercised upon them a very strong and lasting influence (the effects of which were also felt in Iceland, but in a different way).

^ Influenced by Jonas Hallgrimsson with regard to language and poetic diction, but keeping unbroken the traditions of Icelandic medieval poetry maintained by Sigur5r Breic fjorc6 (1798-1846), is another school of poets, very unlike the first.

^ It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.

.The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology, language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay (i.e. Sigurd II., Fafnis's Lay, Sigrdrifa's Lay) and Hamdismal, all continental, and all entirely consonant to the remains of Old English poetry in metre, feeling and treatment, one can see that it is with this school that the Icelandic " makers " are in sympathy, and that from it their verse naturally descends.^ The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology , language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay ( i.e.

^ Sigurd II., Fafnis's Lay, Sigrdrifa's Lay) and Hamdismal, all continental, and all entirely consonant to the remains of Old English poetry in metre, feeling and treatment, one can see that it is with this school that the Icelandic " makers " are in sympathy, and that from it their verse naturally descends.

^ In 1381 Iceland and Norway were conquered by Denmark.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Iceland : Iceland Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.While shrewdness, plain straightforwardness, and a certain stern way of looking at life are common to both, the Icelandic school adds a complexity of structure and ornament, an elaborate mythological and enigmatical phraseology, and a regularity of rhyme, assonance, luxuriance, quantity and syllabification, which it caught from the Latin and Celtic poets, and adapted with exquisite ingenuity to its own main object, that of securing the greatest possible beauty of sound.^ While shrewdness, plain straightforwardness, and a certain stern way of looking at life are common to both, the Icelandic school adds a complexity of structure and ornament , an elaborate mythological and enigmatical phraseology, and a regularity of rhyme , assonance , luxuriance, quantity and syllabification, which it caught from the Latin and Celtic poets, and adapted with exquisite ingenuity to its own main object, that of securing the greatest possible beauty of sound.

^ Caught in the deeper seas a few kilometres from Reykjavik, it apparently provides a worthy battle once hooked and attracts serious deep sea anglers (both of them) to holiday in Iceland on a regular basis.
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^ The saga of Thorgils Skardi (1252-1261) seems to have been the first of his works on Icelandic contemporary history; it deals with the life of his own nephew, especially his career in Iceland from 1252 to 1258.

.1 Many of these poems were Englished in prose by the translator of Mallet, by B. Thorpe in his Scemund's Edda, and two or three by Messrs Morris and Magnussen, as appendices to their translation of Volsunga Saga. Earlier translations in verse are those in Dryden's Miscellany (vol.^ Earlier translations in verse are those in Dryden's Miscellany (vol.

^ Many of these poems were Englished in prose by the translator of Mallet, by B. Thorpe in his Scemund's Edda , and two or three by Messrs Morris and Magnussen, as appendices to their translation of Volsunga Saga.

^ In Nial's, Gisli's and Droplaug's Sons' Sagas there is good verse of a later poet, and in many sagas worthless rubbish foisted in as ornamental.

vi), .A. Cottle's Edda, Mathias's Translations, and W. Herbert's Old Icelandic Poetry. Gray's versions of Darradar-liod and Vegtamskvioa are well known.^ The change in the phonesis of the language is well illustrated by the new metres as compared with the old Icelandic.

^ Gray's versions of Darradar-liod and Vegtamskvioa are well known.

^ A. Cottle's Edda, Mathias's Translations, and W. Herbert's Old Icelandic Poetry.

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The first generations of Icelandic poets resemble in many ways the later troubadours; the books of the kings and the sagas are full of their strange lives.
^ The first generations of Icelandic poets resemble in many ways the later troubadours; the books of the kings and the sagas are full of their strange lives.

^ In Nial's, Gisli's and Droplaug's Sons' Sagas there is good verse of a later poet, and in many sagas worthless rubbish foisted in as ornamental.

^ Besides those sources, the Kings' Lives of Snorri and later authors contain a great deal of verse by Icelandic poets.

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