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State of Idaho
Flag of Idaho State seal of Idaho
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Gem State, Spud State
Motto(s): Esto perpetua
before statehood, known as
the Idaho Territory
Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Idahoan
Capital Boise
Largest city Boise
Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area
Area  Ranked 14th in the US
 - Total 83,642 sq mi
(216,632 km2)
 - Width 305 miles (491 km)
 - Length 479 miles (771 km)
 - % water 0.98
 - Latitude 42° N to 49° N
 - Longitude 111°03′ W to 117°15′ W
Population  Ranked 39th in the US
 - Total 1,545,801 (2009 est.)[1]
1,293,953 (2000)
 - Density 15.64/sq mi  (6.04/km2)
Ranked 44th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Borah Peak[2]
12,668 ft  (3,862 m)
 - Mean 5,000 ft  (1,524 m)
 - Lowest point Snake River[2]
710 ft  (217 m)
Admission to Union  July 3, 1890 (43rd)
Governor C.L. "Butch" Otter (R)
Lieutenant Governor Brad Little (R)
U.S. Senators Mike Crapo (R)
Jim Risch (R)
U.S. House delegation 1-Walt Minnick (D)
2-Mike Simpson (R) (list)
Time zones  
 - north of Salmon River Pacific: UTC−8/−7
 - remainder Mountain: UTC−7/−6
Abbreviations ID US-ID
Website http://www.idaho.gov/
Idaho State Symbols
Animate insignia
Amphibian Eastern Tiger Salamander
Bird(s) Mountain Bluebird
Fish Cutthroat trout
Flower(s) Syringa
Insect Monarch Butterfly
Tree Western White Pine

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square Dance
Food Potato, Huckleberry
Fossil Hagerman horse
Gemstone Star garnet
Slogan(s) Great Potatoes. Tasty Destinations.
Soil Threebear
Song(s) Here We Have Idaho

Route marker(s)
Idaho Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Idaho
Released in 2007

Lists of United States state insignia
Idaho Listeni /ˈdəh/ is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans." Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890 as the 43rd state.
Idaho is a mostly mountainous state, with an area larger than all of New England. It is landlocked, surrounded by the states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Montana and the Canadian Province of British Columbia. However, the network of dams and locks on the Columbia River and Snake River make the city of Lewiston the farthest inland seaport on the west coast of the continental United States.
To residents of the state and regular visitors, Idaho is regarded as a highly outdoors-oriented community. Central Idaho is home to one of North America's oldest ski resorts, Sun Valley, where the world's first chairlift was installed. Snow sports are keystones of Idaho's identity, with a ski resort near almost every urban area. Whitewater rafting and kayaking are among the state's major pastimes. Hell's Canyon and the Salmon River boast some of North America's finest whitewater, with the nearby town of Riggins, ID serving as the state's informal whitewater capital. According to the US Census Bureau, in 2009 the population for Idaho was estimated to be 1,545,801.[1] The state's postal abbreviation is ID. Idaho's nickname is the Gem State because nearly every known gem has been found there.[3] In addition, Idaho is one of only two places in the world where star garnets can be found (the other is the Himalaya Mountains, in India), and is the only place six pointed star garnets have been found. The state motto is Esto Perpetua (Latin for "Let it be forever").
Idaho is the 14th largest state by land area.

Contents

Geography

Digitally colored elevation map of Idaho.
Idaho Population Density Map
Sixty percent of Idaho's land is held by the National Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management, and it leads the nation in forest service land as a percentage of total area.[4][5]
Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Boise, Idaho.
Crooked Creek in Gospel Hump Wilderness, Idaho
The Palouse region of North Idaho.
A scenic part of the Snake River in Idaho Falls.
Idaho borders six states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah are to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. .The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States.^ These can be important facts when searching for ancestors in this area of the United States.
  • Idaho Census Records Online 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are one of the largest employers of Pharmacists in the United States (operating over 1750 pharmacies nationwide) and have career opportunities for all who desire a rewarding future!
  • RXinsider | Idaho Pharmacy Jobs and Pharmacist Jobs in ID Throughout Every Practice Setting 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC allpharmacyjobs.com [Source type: News]

^ CVS/Caremark is one of the largest pharmaceutical services companies in the United States and one of the nation's leading prescription benefits managers (PBM).
  • RXinsider | Idaho Pharmacy Jobs and Pharmacist Jobs in ID Throughout Every Practice Setting 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC allpharmacyjobs.com [Source type: News]

For example, at 2.3 million acres (9,300 km²), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of Snake River rush through Hells Canyon, the deepest canyon in the United States.
Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than that of Niagara Falls. The major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, and the Payette River. The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon.[6]
Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington. The Sawtooth Range is often considered Idaho's most famous mountain range.[7] Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range, the White Cloud Mountains, the Lost River Range, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Salmon River Mountains.
Map of Idaho
Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls are in the Mountain Time Zone. (A legislative oddity (15 U.S.C. ch.6 §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone, but this error was corrected with a 2007 Amendment.)[8] Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, Lewiston, and Sandpoint are in the Pacific Time Zone and revolve commercially and culturally around Seattle through the second largest city, Spokane, Washington.

Climate

Idaho has much variation in its climate. Although the state's western border is located about 350 miles (560 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their highest points. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with a mostly elevated altitude.[9] The maritime influence is lowest in the southeastern part of the state where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences more extreme, showing a more continental climate.
Climate in Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 100 °F (38 °C) for the maximum temperature are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees very little snow. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer. Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. This is what led the railroad tycoon Harriman family to develop the most famous ski resort, Sun Valley.
.Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Idaho Cities.^ Utilities and a few wood products stocks of interest to Idaho investors also are trading closer to their highs than their lows.

^ A HUBZone is an area (within a city, a town, or a county) where the median household income is low or the level of unemployment is high.
  • Idaho Small Business Solutions - Links 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.idahobizhelp.org [Source type: News]

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boise 37/24 44/29 54/34 62/39 71/47 80/54 89/60 88/60 77/51 64/41 48/32 37/24
Lewiston 39/28 46/31 54/36 62/41 70/47 78/54 88/59 88/59 77/51 62/41 47/34 39/28
Pocatello 32/16 39/21 48/27 58/33 68/39 78/46 88/51 87/50 76/42 62/33 44/25 34/17
[5]

Lakes

History

.Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago.^ The IDAHO area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years.
  • IDAHO MOVING COMPANIES 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.zmoving.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ladies and gentlemen, as a member of the Idaho House of Representatives 32 years ago, I ran for Governor on the principle that “Idaho can become what America was meant to be.
  • C. L. “Butch” Otter - The State of Idaho Speech 2009 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC gov.idaho.gov [Source type: Original source]

Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. Native American tribes predominant in the area included the Nez Perce in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south.
Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. From 1843 to 1849 present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon. When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what was left of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory.
Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory on July 4, 1863 at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. The new territory included present-day Idaho and Montana and most of Wyoming. The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River both directions. The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson of the North West Company.[10][11] In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. This post, known as "MacKenzie's Post" or "Clearwater", operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned.[12][13] The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860.[14][15] The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861.
After some tribulation as a territory, including the illegal and chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston in December 1864 to Boise in January 1865, disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1877,[16] and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada which had been a state since 1863, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890. The economy of the state, which had been primarily supported by metal mining, shifted towards agriculture, forest products and tourism.
.In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries.^ Top Technology Business Assistance: Idaho Department of Commerce, Commercial Innovation Division - http://commerce.idaho.gov/technology .
  • Idaho Small Business Solutions - Links 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.idahobizhelp.org [Source type: News]

.Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.^ Technology and Entrepreneurial Center, Boise State University - http://www.bsutecenter.com .
  • Idaho Small Business Solutions - Links 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.idahobizhelp.org [Source type: News]

^ Miller, who had been in prison for more than 14 years of a 25-year sentence, claimed that the stated five-year minimum also was the maximum penalty that could be handed down.
  • The History of Sodomy Laws in the United States - Idaho 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.glapn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Web site is brought to you by the combined efforts of more than 20 local, state, and federal agencies.
  • Idaho Small Business Solutions - Links 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.idahobizhelp.org [Source type: News]

[17]
The Idaho State Historical Society and numerous local historical societies and museums preserve and promote Idaho’s cultural heritage.

Origin of name

Lake Coeur d'Alene in North Idaho.
Idaho was possibly named as the result of a hoax (the so-called "Idahoax") although this is disputed. The exact origin of the name remains a mystery.[18] In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho," which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains." Willing later claimed that he had made up the name himself.[19][20] Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs".
However, the name "Idaho" did not go away. The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account that the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how".
The name "Idaho" may be derived from the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́" which means "enemy." The Comanches used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory.[21]
An excerpt from an Idaho History Textbook:
"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down". The second is "dah" which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark (!) does in the English language. The Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain".[22]
Chief Joseph Seltice, of the Coeur d'Alene Tribal Nation, posits another possible origin of the name. In his history of the tribe, Saga of the Coeur d'Alene Indians, he writes:
Some sources claim that the name "Idaho" comes from an Indian word, "Ee-dah-how," meaning "Gem of the Mountains." This expression may have come from some other Tribe, and it would have a different meaning for them than it would for the Coeur d'Alenes.
As the Coeur d'Alenes understood the word "Idaho," it would be more correctly pronounced "Ah-d'Hoo." It means "greetings by surprise," indicating friendship, but surprise.
The first syllable conveys to the mind, "All are welcome, from wherever you come; but keep the friendly peace. We welcome you with out-stretched arms, and this entitles us to permanent friendship."
The last syllable is a surprise and exclamation point. The expression means that all are welcome, "though we are surprised to see so many different strangers. The first dawn of day welcomes you as the sun rises." This expression was used by many of the Coeur d'Alenes on the Bitterroot Mountains to greet all who come.
So to all who read these words: "Welcome, with open arms! We're just surprised that there are so many of you!"

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1870 14,999
1880 32,610 117.4%
1890 88,548 171.5%
1900 161,772 82.7%
1910 325,594 101.3%
1920 431,866 32.6%
1930 445,032 3.0%
1940 524,873 17.9%
1950 588,637 12.1%
1960 667,191 13.3%
1970 712,567 6.8%
1980 943,935 32.5%
1990 1,006,749 6.7%
2000 1,293,953 28.5%
Est. 2009[1] 1,545,801 19.5%
As of 2005, Idaho has an estimated population of 1,429,096, which is an increase of 33,956, or 2.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 135,140, or 10.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 people (that is 111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.
This made Idaho the sixth fastest-growing state after Arizona, Nevada, Florida, Georgia, and Utah. .From 2004 to 2005, Idaho grew the third-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada and Arizona.^ All on one Marriage CD! Arizona, California, Idaho, and Nevada, 1850-1951 Marriage Index .
  • Idaho Census Records Online 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: Original source]

Nampa, the state's second largest city, has experienced particularly strong growth in recent years. According to census estimates Nampa has grown 22.1% to nearly 65,000 residents between 2000 and 2003. As of 2007, the population in Nampa was estimated at 84,000. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Meridian, Post Falls and Twin Falls.[6]
.Since 1990, Idaho's population has increased by 386,000 (38%).^ There are 94 physicians per 100,000 population in Idaho, ID. The US average is 170.
  • Idaho, Idaho (ID) - Sperling's BestPlaces 15 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Boise Metropolitan Area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston.
As of 2006, six official micropolitan statistical areas are based in Idaho. Twin Falls is the largest of these.
The center of population of Idaho is located in Custer County, in the town of Stanley.[23]
Demographics of Idaho (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 96.99% 0.65% 2.14% 1.36% 0.23%
2000 (Hispanic only) 7.53% 0.10% 0.28% 0.07% 0.03%
2005 (total population) 96.81% 0.84% 2.05% 1.48% 0.22%
2005 (Hispanic only) 8.70% 0.17% 0.27% 0.08% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 10.24% 42.33% 5.93% 20.25% 6.65%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 8.78% 33.87% 5.74% 19.96% 7.09%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 27.65% 89.80% 7.17% 25.37% 3.90%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (18.9%), English (18.1%), Irish (10%), American (8.4%), Norwegian (3.6%), and Swedish (3.5%).

Religion

A church in Idaho City.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Idaho Falls Temple.
According to the 15th annual Idaho Public Policy study ([7], 2004) by the Social Science Research Center at BSU, the ambiguous religious affiliations of Idahoans break down roughly as follows.
  • Protestant – 29.3%
  • LDS (Mormon) – 22.8%
  • Catholic – 14.3%
  • Non-Denominational Christian – 13.6%
  • None – 12.7%
  • Other – 7.2%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 311,425; (2008: 406,764) the Roman Catholic Church with 130,847; the Assemblies of God with 18,745; and the United Methodist Church with 17,683.[24]

Economy

American Falls Dam
Gross state product for 2004 was US$43.6 billion. The per capita income for 2004 was US$26,881. Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. All three varieties of wheat, Dark Northern Spring, Hard Red and Soft White are grown in the state. Nez Perce County is considered a premier Soft White growing locale.
Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is located in Gooding, Idaho. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group.[25] The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a government lab for nuclear energy research, is also an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries located across the nation.
Locally, a variety of industries are important. Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of a Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry year around climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Other examples would be ATK Corporation operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Two are sporting and one is defense contract. The Lewis-Clark Valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory. Four of the world's six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WA valley. Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Julietta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothchilds until Prohibition. In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state.
Today, the largest industry in Idaho is the science and technology sector. It accounts for over 25% of the State's total revenue and 70%+ of the State's exports (in dollars). Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology Inc., the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production.[8] Dell, Inc. operates a major customer support call center in Twin Falls. ON Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarter locates in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator in modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Coldwater Creek, a women's clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint. Fortune 500 Sun Microsystems has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Sun brings $4M in annual salaries and over $300M of revenue to the state each year.
A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including JC Penney (as The Golden Rule) in Twin Falls, Safeways in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston and Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Flying Service of Pasco, Washington, which became United Air Lines and subsequently Varney Air Group that became Continental Airlines.
The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.
The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.
Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 - 2006.[26]

Energy

Electricity Generation in Idaho
The energy landscape of Idaho is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. The Snake River Plain and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the best hydroelectric power resources in the nation and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power and wind power potential. These realities have shaped much of the state’s current energy landscape.
The state’s numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556 thousand MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho’s electricity output. Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127 thousand MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Coal-fired generation and the state’s small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state’s electricity output. The state produces 739 thousand MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand.[27]
While Idaho’s 515 trillion Btu total energy consumption is relatively low compared to other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation’s 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million Btu is currently just above the national average of 333 million Btu.[27] As the 13th largest state in land area, distance creates the additional problem of "line loss". When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled.
In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030.[28] This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho’s finite hydroelectric resources.[29] Given that Idaho has no crude oil reserves and a limited supply of natural gas, the state’s most realistic method of meeting this projected increase in demand is to develop its ample renewable resources or nuclear.[citation needed]

Transportation

The current state license plate design, modified since its introduction in 1991.
Major highways
Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking the two largest metropolitan areas of Boise in the south and Coeur d'Alene in the north. US-95 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated that the state's highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. Interstate 84 is the main highway linking the Southeast and Southwest portions of the state, along with Interstate 86 and Interstate 15.
Major federal aid highways in Idaho:
North
North/South
West/East
Southwest

Air Travel

Major airports include the Boise Airport serving the southwest region of Idaho, and the Spokane International Airport (located in Spokane, Washington), which serves northern Idaho. Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport serving the Palouse; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport; and the Pocatello Regional Airport.

Rail Travel

Idaho is served by two transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects North Idaho with Seattle, Portland and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. The BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner and Boundary Counties. The Union Pacific Railroad crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Green River, WY, and Ogden, Utah and serves Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls, and Pocatello. Amtrak's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint. There has been a push recently to return Amtrak service to southern Idaho as well.

Ports

The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. A series of dams and locks on the Snake River and Columbia River facilitate barge travel from here to Portland, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels.

Law and government

State capitol in Boise

State Constitution

The Constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. The constitution defines the form and function of the state government, and may be amended through plebiscite. Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc).

Idaho Code

All of Idaho's state laws are contained in the Idaho Code. The code is amended through the Legislature with the approval of the Governor.

State government

The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.
Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an original elected constitutional office. Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.
Idaho's government has an alcohol monopoly.

Executive Branch

The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican C. L. "Butch" Otter, who was elected in 2006.

Legislative Branch

Idaho's legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning that their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.
Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.
The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle.
See also List of Idaho senators and representatives

Judicial Branch

The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court. There is also an intermediate appellate court, the Idaho Court of Appeals, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. The state's District Courts serdistricts.[30]

Counties

Map of all Idaho's counties
Idaho is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1919 there were 44 counties in the state, ranging in size from 410 to 8,502 square miles (1,062 to 22,020 square kilometers).
County name County seat Year founded Population 2008 Est. Poulation Percentage Area (sq. m.) Area Percentage
Ada Boise 1864 380,920 25.00 % 1,060 1.21 %
Adams Council 1911 3,499 00.23 % 1,370 1.57 %
Bannock Pocatello 1893 80,812 05.30 % 1,147 1.31 %
Bear Lake Paris 1893 5,798 00.38 % 1,049 1.20 %
Benewah St. Maries 1915 9,352 00.61 % 784 0.90 %
Bingham Blackfoot 1885 43,903 02.88 % 2,120 2.42 %
Blaine Hailey 1895 21,731 01.43 % 2,661 3.04 %
Boise Idaho City 1864 7,504 00.49 % 1,907 2.18 %
Bonner Sandpoint 1907 41,168 02.70 % 1,920 2.19 %
Bonneville Idaho Falls 1911 99,135 06.51 % 1,901 2.17 %
Boundary Bonners Ferry 1915 10,962 00.72 % 1,278 1.46 %
Butte Arco 1917 2,751 00.18 % 2,234 2.55 %
Camas Fairfield 1917 1,126 00.07 % 1,079 1.23 %
Canyon Caldwell 1891 183,939 12.07 % 604 0.69 %
Caribou Soda Springs 1919 6,826 00.45 % 1,799 2.06 %
Cassia Burley 1879 21,348 01.40 % 2,580 2.95 %
Clark Dubois 1919 910 00.06 % 1,765 2.02 %
Clearwater Orofino 1911 8,176 00.54 % 2,488 2.84 %
Custer Challis 1881 4,254 00.28 % 4,937 5.64 %
Elmore Mountain Home 1889 28,997 01.90 % 3,101 3.54 %
Franklin Preston 1913 12,454 00.82 % 668 0.76 %
Fremont St. Anthony 1893 12,551 00.82 % 1,896 2.17 %
Gem Emmett 1915 16,513 01.08 % 566 0.65 %
Gooding County, Idaho Gooding 1913 14,295 00.94 % 734 0.84 %
Idaho Grangeville 1861/1864 15,448 01.01 % 8,502 9.71 %
Jefferson Rigby 1913 23,860 01.57 % 1,106 1.26 %
Jerome Jerome 1919 20,468 01.34 % 602 0.69 %
Kootenai Coeur d'Alene 1864 137,475 09.02 % 1,316 1.50 %
Latah Moscow 1886 35,906 02.36 % 1,077 1.23 %
Lemhi Salmon 1869 7,808 00.51 % 4,570 5.22 %
Lewis Nezperce 1911 3,594 00.24 % 480 0.55 %
Lincoln Shoshone 1895 4,503 00.30 % 1,206 1.38 %
Madison Rexburg 1914 37,456 02.46 % 473 0.54 %
Minidoka Rupert 1913 18,645 01.22 % 763 0.87 %
Nez Perce Lewiston 1861/1864 38,975 02.56 % 856 0.98 %
Oneida Malad City 1864 4,130 00.27 % 1,202 1.37 %
Owyhee Murphy 1863 10,877 00.71 % 7,697 8.79 %
Payette Payette 1917 22,966 01.51 % 410 0.47 %
Power American Falls 1913 7,683 00.50 % 1,443 1.65 %
Shoshone Wallace 1861/1864 12,913 00.85 % 2,636 3.01 %
Teton Driggs 1915 8,833 00.58 % 451 0.52 %
Twin Falls Twin Falls 1907 74,284 04.87 % 1,928 2.20 %
Valley Cascade 1917 8,862 00.58 % 3,734 4.27 %
Washington Weiser 1879 10,206 00.67 % 1,474 1.68 %
Total Counties: 44. Total 2008 Population Est.: 1,523,816. Total Area: 87,530 square miles.
Three counties were first designated as such by the Washington Territorial Legislature in 1861[31]; they were subsequently re-designated as Idaho counties in 1864. The 1861 Nez Perce county has since been broken up into Nez Perce, Lewis, Boundary, Benewah, Latah, Kootenai and Clearwater counties.
Idaho license plates begin with a county designation based on the first letter of the county's name. Where a letter is at the beginning of more than one name, the a number accompanies precedingly in alphabetical order. This reflects an anomalous coicidental situation wherein 10 counties begin with B, seven with C and four with L, which is 21 of the 44 counties.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 61.5% 403,012 36.1% 236,440
2004 68.38% 409,235 30.26% 181,098
2000 67.17% 336,937 27.64% 138,637
1996 52.18% 256,595 33.65% 165,443
1992 42.03% 202,645 28.42% 137,013
1988 62.08% 253,881 36.01% 147,272
1984 72.36% 297,523 26.39% 108,510
1980 66.46% 290,699 25.19% 110,192
1976 59.88% 204,151 37.12% 126,549
1972 64.24% 199,384 26.04% 80,826
1968 56.79% 165,369 30.66% 89,273
1964 49.08% 143,557 50.92% 148,920
1960 53.78% 161,597 46.22% 138,853
After the Civil War, many Midwestern and Southern Democrats moved to Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democrat-controlled. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican Presidents and were Republicans themselves. This led to sometimes bitter clashes between the two parties, including a range war with the Democrats backing the sheep herders and the Republicans the cattlemen. That ended with the "Diamondfield" Jack Davis murder trial. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.
Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho, as there was a polar shift in social and political stance between the two parties, when the Democrats became more liberal and the Republicans more conservative. At one time, Idaho had two Democratic parties, one being the mainstream and the other called the Anti-Mormon Democrats, lasting into the early 20th century. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Since World War II, most statewide elected officials have been Republicans. The last time the Democratic Party held a majority in either house of the state legislature was the House of Representatives in 1958 by one seat.
Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the House over the years, but the Senate delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senator Mike Crapo, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church has won reelection as a Democrat. Church was the last Idaho Democrat to win a U.S. Senate race, in 1974. Walt Minnick's 2008 win in the First Congressional District was the state's first Democratic Congressional victory in 16 years.
In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics as well. It has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater by less than two percentage points. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and with 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County, which contains the Sun Valley ski resort, supported John Kerry, who owns a home in the area. In 2008 Barack Obama's 36.1 percent[32] showing was the best for a Democratic presidential candidate in Idaho since 1976. However, Republican margins were narrower in 1992 and 1996.
In the 2006 elections, Republicans, led by gubernatorial candidate C. L. "Butch" Otter, won all the state's constitutional offices and retained both of the state's seats in the United States House of Representatives. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area.[33]
Republicans lost one of the House seats in 2008 to Minnick, but Republican Jim Risch retained Larry Craig's Senate seat for the GOP by a comfortable margin.[34]

Important cities and towns

Population > 100,000 (urbanized area)
Population > 50,000 (urbanized area)
Population > 30,000 (urbanized area)
Population > 10,000 (urbanized area)
Smaller Towns and Cities

National Parks, Reserves, Mounuments and Historic sites

National Recreation Areas

Hells Canyon National Recreation Area.

National Wildlife Refuges

National Conservation Areas

State Parks

Education

Colleges and universities

Idaho State University in Pocatello.
University of Idaho in Moscow.
Boise State University in Boise.
The Idaho State Board of Education oversees three comprehensive universities. The University of Idaho in Moscow was the first university in the state (founded in 1889). A land-grant institution, the UI is the state's flagship university. Idaho State University in Pocatello opened in 1901 as the Academy of Idaho and was granted university status in 1963. Boise State University is the most recent school to attain university status in Idaho, and is primarily geared toward being a commuter school for part-time undergraduate students. The school opened in 1932 as Boise Junior College and became Boise State University in 1974. Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston is the only public, non-university 4 year college in Idaho.
Idaho has three regional community colleges: North Idaho College in Coeur d'Alene; College of Southern Idaho in Twin Falls; and The College of Western Idaho in Nampa, which opened in 2009.
Private institutions in Idaho are Brigham Young University-Idaho in Rexburg, which is affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; The College of Idaho in Caldwell, which still maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; Northwest Nazarene University in Nampa; and New Saint Andrews College in Moscow, of reformed Christian theological background.

Sports

Club Sport League
Boise Hawks Baseball Minor League Baseball
Boise State Broncos NCAA Div I FBS - WAC
Idaho Vandals NCAA Div I FBS - WAC
Idaho State Bengals NCAA Div I FCS - Big Sky
Idaho Falls Chukars Baseball Minor League Baseball
Idaho Stampede Basketball NBA Development League
Boise Burn Arena football af2
Idaho Steelheads Ice hockey East Coast Hockey League
Boise is the host to the largest 5 km run for women, the St. Luke's Women's Fitness Celebration.

Official State Emblems

Nezperceindians1895ish.jpg
Philadelphus shrub.jpg

Notable Idahoans

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  2. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  3. ^ Just, Rick. "Star Garnet." Idaho Snapshots. Meridian, Idaho: Radio Idaho, 1990. 9.
  4. ^ Western States Data Public Land Acreage
  5. ^ http://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/2007/Table_4.htm
  6. ^ http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h2812.html
  7. ^ http://www.idahoaclimbingguide.com/id27.htm
  8. ^ http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/15C6.txt
  9. ^ http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/narratives/IDAHO.htm
  10. ^ David Thompson's Trading Post, Idaho Forts, American Forts Network
  11. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1995) [1968]. The Great Columbia Plain (Weyerhaeuser Environmental Classic edition ed.). University of Washington Press. pp. 36, 55. ISBN 0-295-97485-0. 
  12. ^ Fur Trade Posts In Idaho, Idaho State Historical Society
  13. ^ Donald MacKenzie's Post, Idaho Forts, American Forts Network
  14. ^ Bennett, Eldon T.. "An Early History of Franklin". Franklin, Idaho. http://www.franklinidaho.org/History2.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  15. ^ "Elias Davidson Pierce and the Founding of Pierce" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. August 1966. http://www.idahohistory.net/Reference%20Series/0008.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  16. ^ "Mormon" Entry for The Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States, David S.Tanenhaus
  17. ^ "The Power of Idaho". Idaho Economic Development Association. 2004. http://ieda.biz/white.html. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "Idaho - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257036681681058. 
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ [3] etymonline.com
  22. ^ "IDAHO in the Pacific Northwest". Barber -Martin. 1956. Caxton Printers Ltd. Library of Congress 55-5192.
  23. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  24. ^ "State Membership Report - Idaho". Association of Religion Data Archives. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/16_2000.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  25. ^ "Zuivelzicht" April 25, 2007
  26. ^ "Facts At a Glance". Idaho Lottery. 2007. http://idaholottery.com/facts.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-29. 
  27. ^ a b "Idaho Energy Profile". Energy Information Administration. 2009. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=ID. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  28. ^ [www.energy.idaho.gov/idahostrategicenergyalliance/d/isea_faq.pdf "Idaho Strategic Energy Alliance Frequently Asked Questions"]. Idaho Strategic Energy Alliance. 2009. www.energy.idaho.gov/idahostrategicenergyalliance/d/isea_faq.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  29. ^ "Idaho Energy Complex". Idaho Energy Complex. 2009. http://idahoenergycomplex.org/faq.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  30. ^ "Idaho District Court Websites". Isc.idaho.gov. http://www.isc.idaho.gov/district.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  31. ^ http://www.idahohistory.net/pierce.html
  32. ^ Idaho Secretary of State Election Division, "November 4, 2008 General Election Results"
  33. ^ [4]
  34. ^ 2008 statewide totals
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n http://gov.idaho.gov/fyi/symbols/symbols_index.html
  36. ^ Idaho history homepage

External links

Related information

Preceded by
Washington
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on July 3, 1890 (43rd)
Succeeded by
Wyoming

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Volcanic landscape in Idaho
Volcanic landscape in Idaho
Idaho [1] is one of the Rocky Mountains states of the United States of America. Idaho is a rugged state, with 10,000 - 12,500 ft (3000 - 3800m) snow-capped mountains, whitewater rivers (one running through the deepest river canyon in the U.S.), forests, high desert, and plenty of wilderness. Most of the land north of Boise is National or State Forest.

Regions

North Idaho is sometimes considered part of the Pacific Northwest. It's where the rolling grain-covered hills of the Palouse give way to the Bitterroot (Rocky) Mountains. South Idaho is usually considered part of the Intermountain West, and is in the Mountain timezone.
Northern Idaho
North Central Idaho
Southwestern Idaho
Central Idaho
South Central Idaho
Eastern Idaho
Southeastern Idaho

Cities

All of the following cities are good bases for outdoor activities within their regions.
  • Boise— Idaho's capital and largest city, some high tech employment
  • Coeur d'Alene— Northern Idaho city nestled by mountains and excellent recreational lakes
  • Idaho Falls— The commercial and agricultural center of Eastern Idaho, home of the Idaho National Engineering Labs
  • Moscow— Home of the University of Idaho, combination agricultural and college town
  • Shelley— Home of the Spud Day celebration
  • Stanley Proximity to the Sawtooth Mountains offers numerous outdoor activities
  • Twin Falls — Idaho's youngest major city and the hub of the South Central Idaho region.
  • Pocatello— Southern Idaho town. Home of Idaho State University
  • Sandpoint— Great skiing and a great lake
  • Custer Ghost Town
  • Sun Valley -- the first great ski resort in the U.S.
  • Craters of the Moon National Monument -- volcanic park with vast fields of seemingly lifeless lava, fun lava tubes to explore
  • Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness -- follows the Snake River through Hells Canyon (as deep as 9,300 feet, much deeper than the Grand Canyon) north towards Lewiston, where the Clearwater and Snake River meet
  • Yellowstone National Park -- Second only to Yosemite as the most majestic National Park in the lower 48 states, but weirder, more colorful, and more spectacular, filled with hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles. Mostly within Wyoming, but the most notable feature, Old Faithful is probably most easily reached from Idaho Falls via West Yellowstone, Montana - though the park road is only open in summer (May to early November).
  • The Nez Perce Indian Reservation, home to Native Americans whose forebears helped Lewis and Clark through the winter during their expedition, is just East of Lewiston.
  • City of Rocks National Reserve -- Located on the southern edge of the state. Popular with hikers and rock climbers for its maze of massive boulders (some over 100 meters in height).
  • Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail - Between May 1804 and September 1806, 32 men, one woman, and a baby traveled from the plains of the Midwest to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. They called themselves the Corps of Discovery.
  • Sawtooth National Recreation Area Largest national recreation area in the United States

Understand

Idaho's nickname is "The Gem State," although the motto on the state's license plates reads "Famous Potatoes." This often has the unfortunate result that anyone who has heard of Idaho imagines the state as a vast expanse of potato farms, with grizzled inhabitants living in cabins with no running water. In reality, the cabins mostly have running water. Some even have indoor plumbing.
Idaho is increasingly becoming a mix of both city and rural life. Some Idahoans do live in cabins in the middle of nowhere, but others live in urbane condominiums in downtown Boise. Indeed, Boise is now the largest metropolitan area in the Rocky Mountains region of the US outside of Colorado. Most of the other major cities in Idaho have also experienced significant growth over the past 20 years.
In part because of this growth, some longtime Idahoans are openly disdainful of newcomers in general, and ex-Californians in particular. However, this rarely translates into an expression of ill will towards visitors.
Idaho is typical of several other western states, e.g., Oregon, Washington, and California, in that there are really two states in one. The northern part of Idaho is characterized by mountains, lakes, forests and rivers. While the southern half has some spectacular mountains (the Owyhees and parts of the Tetons), it is mostly high-plains desert similar to the Inland Empire of southern California.
Most of the world-famous Idaho potatoes are grown in Eastern Idaho. Onions are an important cash crop in southwestern Idaho near the Oregon border, while sugar beets are prevalent in the Twin Falls area. As many crops are irrigated in the otherwise arid Snake River Plain, water is an extremely important and potentially explosive political issue in Idaho.
Northern Idaho farming is characterized by dry land wheat, barley, and legume crops. Logging is also a big part of the northern Idaho economy, although not as much as in the past due to environmental activism. A favorite bumper sticker in north Idaho is "If You Don't Like Logging, Try Using Plastic Bags For Toilet Paper." Similar to Washington and Oregon, there is a great disparity in the population of each half of the state. North Idaho is significantly less populated than the southern half.
Idaho is second only to Utah in the number of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints, or Mormons, as a percentage of the population. Mormon religion and culture are particularly prevalent in Eastern Idaho, where the faith is at least as strong as anywhere in Utah. However, the LDS Church's influence diminishes considerably as one travels north of Boise towards the panhandle.
Southern Idaho is home to one of the largest populations of Basque people in the world outside the Basque Country itself. Public displays of Ikurriña flags and car stickers are somewhat common, even in rural areas. The state even issues a Basque specialty automobile license plate. Next scheduled for 2010, a major Basque festival known as Jaialdi is celebrated in Boise every five years.
A common misconception is that Idaho is somehow a racist or Neo-Nazi state. Around 1980, a Neo-Nazi and white separatist brought a band of followers to Hayden Lake near Coeur d'Alene and began regularly making the local and national news with his racist provocations. Although the local residents vigorously disapproved and regularly held much bigger counter-demonstrations, the Neo-Nazi image has stuck. Idahoans breathed a collective sigh of relief in 2001 when the 20 acre compound owned by the "church" was handed over to a woman who had filed a lawsuit against them after being assaulted by their guards, and many of the racists left the state.
Southeastern Idaho, with its sparse topsoil, was greatly affected by the rising water level of prehistoric Lake Bonneville to the south, a lake which covered most of what is now the states of Utah and Nevada. At a point roughly near Twin Falls, the rising waters broke through into the region in an ancient, massive flood, channeling the floodwater westward for what is estimated to have lasted for approximately seven weeks, almost completely draining the ancient lake and creating the massive, lengthy, and spectacular Snake River Canyon that we know today. The massive flood stripped the region's topsoil down to bedrock, tumbling huge, multi-story high boulders downstream, where eventually the boulders and other heavier materials dropped out and were deposited in and along the Snake River streambed. The stripped topsoil, a much lighter material, eventually was deposited well to the west, creating fertile farming regions well adapted to growing potatoes. Because of the great flood and the stripping of the region's topsoil, much of the agriculture in southeastern Idaho's thin layer of topsoil must be supported by fertilization as well as irrigation.

Talk

English is almost universally spoken and understood, except that potatoes are sometimes called "spuds" and there's a bit of a rural twang as you get out to the logging and farming areas. Spanish is spoken by a significant Hispanic minority, but it's not as widely spoken as a second language as it is in the Southwest, so don't expect to be able to get by speaking Spanish without considerable difficulty.
Idaho public lands
Idaho public lands

By plane

There are currently no direct international flights into or out of anywhere in Idaho. If you're coming in from overseas, rest assured you'll go through United States customs before boarding a flight to an Idaho location.
By far the largest airport in the state, Boise Airport (IATA: BOI) (ICAO: KBOI) is the main airport in southern Idaho. Flights to and from Boise are available from most major cities in the western United States, as well as Minneapolis and Chicago. Boise Airport also offers a good selection of charter flight services.
Northern Idaho is primarily served by Spokane International Airport (IATA: GEG) (ICAO: KGEG), located in eastern Washington approximately 20 miles (32 km) from the Idaho border. The non-stop schedule to and from Spokane is similar to Boise. Despite the airport's name, there are currently no scheduled direct international flights to Spokane.
Other Idaho airports include Idaho Falls Regional Airport (IATA: IDA) (ICAO: KIDA) in eastern Idaho, and the seasonal, tourist-based Friedman Memorial Airport (IATA: SUN) (ICAO: KSUN) near Sun Valley. Idaho Falls is a good flight destination for nearby Yellowstone National Park.
Smaller airports, such as in Lewiston (LWS), Twin Falls (TWF) and Pocatello (PIH) offer only a limited commercial flight schedule. In the case of the latter two, the only commercial flights available are to and from Salt Lake City.
Airlines serving Boise include Delta, Frontier, Horizon, Southwest, United and US Airways. Spokane is served by the same carriers, as well as by Alaska Airlines.
SkyWest Airlines serves several Idaho cities from its Salt Lake City hub, including Boise, Lewiston, Idaho Falls, Twin Falls and Pocatello.

By car

You could also drive to North Idaho from Seattle or more easily from Spokane.

By train

The lone city in Idaho with rail passenger service is in the panhandle at Sandpoint. Amtrak's "Empire Builder" stops in Sandpoint in the middle of the night (just before midnight westbound, about 230 AM eastbound) on its daily runs between Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul/Minneapolis, Glacier National Park, Spokane, and Portland/Seattle.

Get around

Apart from modest public transportation systems in the major cities, Idaho has no mass transit to speak of. The only Amtrak stop in the state is in Sandpoint in the far northern panhandle. Otherwise it's all driving or flying.

By car

Idaho is served by several Interstate highways. I-90 in North Idaho passes through Coeur d'Alene. I-84 enters Idaho at the Oregon border, serves the Boise metro area and passes near Twin Falls en route to Salt Lake City. I-15 serves the Eastern Idaho cities of Pocatello and Idaho Falls. The short I-86 in South Central and Eastern Idaho connects I-84 and I-15.
Most other main roads in the state are two-lane highways. In more remote locations unpaved roads are commonplace. Pay close attention to current road conditions while traveling, particularly in winter. You know you're from Idaho when your elderly grandparents think it's normal to arrive at Christmas (or even just for a weekend visit) after driving 400 miles through blizzards and along winding two lane river roads.
Crossing into Montana often involves going through mountain passes. This is particularly true when not on I-90 or I-15. In the winter, check with the highway department for pass conditions -- many passes are closed from the first snow until mid-April.
The two-lane US 95 and Idaho State Highway 55 serve as the only intrastate connections between North Idaho and the rest of the state. Even in ideal weather conditions, traveling by car from North Idaho to Eastern Idaho invariably involves a drive through Boise or through Missoula, Montana. Either way, you'll drive 600 - 700 miles when it's something like 300 miles as the crow flies.

By plane

Flying is an expensive but wonderful way to get around and see the majestic scenery. Although many of the state's smaller airports have no commercial flights at all, while others (such as Twin Falls) don't have regular flights to other parts of the state, backcountry flights are available from many locations, and you get to fly through canyons and into remote airstrips that are nearly unreachable any other way. Examples are McCall Aviation and Selway Aviation in Central Idaho. If you just want to go city-to-city, call Horizon Airlines.

See

Northern Idaho

There are many bald eagles in northern Idaho. A good place to see them is Lake Coeur d' Alene. Take I-90 East and exit at the Harrison exit. Lake Coeur d'Alene is 25 miles long with more than 135 miles of shoreline. The lake is an average of 120 feet deep.
Coeur d'Alene (pop. 38,388 in 2004 census) has become known as the playground of the Pacific Northwest for luxury accommodations and a wealth of recreation and attractions in a stunning natural setting. The lavish Coeur d'Alene Resort draws thousands annually to be prepared by its Mobile four-star accommodations and to play its posh golf course.
Finished in 1853, The Cataldo Mission, located east of Coeur d'Alene on I-90 is the oldest standing building in Idaho. The Old Mission (built 1848-1853) was a combined effort of the missionaries and over 300 native Catholics.
Silver Mountain Ski and Summer Resort, located 30 miles east of Coeur d'Alene, is home to the world's longest single-stage gondola. Enjoy a scenic ride and take in the great views along the 20-minute ride to the top.
Wallace, on I-90, is known for the fact that every downtown building is on the National Register of Historic Places. Wallace is also famous for its mining history and included in that history is the Oasis Bordello Museum. When the final occupants of the Oasis Rooms left in January 1988 (the last recorded date in the "hotel" registry), they seemed to have left in a hurry. Clothing, makeup, toiletries, food and personal items were all left behind. An accurate and tastefully-presented twenty-minute tour of the upper rooms explains the mystery of the ladies' hasty departure and gives a glimpse into the town's bawdy past with details that range from poignant to hilarious. Also of interest in the Wallace area is the Sierra Silver Mine Tour. This is the only tour of its kind in the Northwest. It offers a rare opportunity to personally experience the underground world of mining in the richest silver district on earth. Also the main city in which the movie "Dante's Peak", starring Pierce Brosnan, was filmed. Wallace is also nicked named "The Center of the Universe" When entering the town walking or driving there will be a sign pointing down towards a cross walk which is where the center of the universe is supposed to be.
Not far from Wallace, Kellogg has metal sculptures of a dragon and knight, a gold panner, an elk (in front of the local chapter of the ELKS), a big wildcat (which is the high school's mascot) in front of the local pool, a miner and donkey, and the best was the Red Baron. All seemed to be made of scraps of metal from different things, but they are large! Mine tours (approx. 30 min.) are given at Crystal Gold Mine. Kellogg was the site of one of the worst U.S. mining accidents; a statue of a miner holding high a rock drill guards dozens of impromptu headstones at the Sunshine Mine Disaster Memorial. Miner's Hat Realty, a building shaped like a big miner's hard hat, complete with giant carbide lamp can be seen from I-90 on the north side of the road.

Central Idaho

A giant dog created in Cottonwood, Dog Bark Park is one of America's latest additions to the type of roadside architecture popular in the early days of automobile vacation travel when travelers would often buy gas, eat meals or stay overnight in a building that looked like something else. Dog Bark Park Inn offers an expansive continental self-serve breakfast featuring their family's secret recipe for The Prairie's Best Fruited Granola.

Southern Idaho

Craters of the Moon National Monument, 18 mi W of Arco on Hwy 20, is an amazing part of the natural landscape. The visitors center and the opportunity to climb a cinder cone make this a worthwhile stop on an otherwise uneventful road. Be sure to bring water, especially in spring and summer. With a couple flashlights, you can explore the lava caves.
Idaho Potato Expo, 130 NW Main St., Blackfoot. Hours: Nov-Mar, M-F, 9:30AM-3PM; Apr-Oct, M-Sa, 9:30AM-5PM. Perhaps most amazing: the world's largest potato chip, a 25x14-inch Pringle created in 1991 by Proctor & Gamble engineers. This pizza-sized potato snack is in its own display case.

Buy

As in the rest of the United States, credit cards are widely accepted. You'll have little to no difficulty with Visa or MasterCard. American Express and Discover are also accepted but not quite as universally, especially in smaller towns. You may very well have problems if you present a JCB card for payment as most Idahoans have neither seen nor heard of them.
Personal checks are usually only accepted if local to the immediate area, and even that is slowly but surely becoming a thing of the past. Travelers checks are likely to warrant confused looks if presented outside of tourist areas.
If paying in cash, US dollars are the way to go, although Canadian dollars may be accepted by some merchants in the extreme north near the border. Occasionally Canadian coins become intermingled with US change and may be accepted at face value, or even given as change back to you. This can and does occur even in southern Idaho. Even so, don't be put off if they're refused. Paper currency, however, is all US dollars; if you're south of Sandpoint, don't even try anything else.
Sales tax in Idaho is currently 6 percent, which is assessed on most goods including food. The tax is collected at the time of sale, regardless of whether you're from Idaho or not. Some municipalities (mainly in tourist areas), as well as Nez Perce County in north central Idaho also assess a local sales tax in addition to the state tax. There are also taxes included in lodging costs at hotels, motels and campgrounds. Some services are not subject to sales tax.
Native American tribes in Idaho are currently exempt from charging sales taxes on tobacco products. The Nez Perce Tribe charges an alternative tobacco tax to fund scholarships on the tribe's reservation near Lewiston, while the Shoshone Bannock Tribes on the Fort Hall Reservation near Pocatello don't charge tobacco sales taxes at all.
Tipping your server or bartender is considered good etiquette at sit-down restaurants and bars, but is generally not expected elsewhere. Even so many Idahoans consider tipping optional - especially in rural areas - so good tips tend to be appreciated by waitstaff much more so than in other places.
Idaho souvenirs almost always follow one of two themes: outdoor topics such as hunting, camping, fishing and skiing, or potatoes. The latter can be particularly kitschy, with characters such as "Darth Tater" and "Spudbob Starchpants" available for purchase at just about any convenience store or truck stop.

Do

Winter activities such as, skiing, snowshoeing, snowboarding, snowmobiling, and even camping are popular, both with tourists and residents.
Summer activities In the summer, Idaho has world-class boating (try a jet boat leaving from Lewiston), whitewater rafting, camping, hunting, fishing, mountain biking, and hiking. Rodeo is also popular in the more rural areas.
The Lewis and Clark Trail runs through North Idaho, through the twin cities of Lewiston (Idaho), and Clarkston, Washington.
A bicycle trail, the Trail of The Couer d'Alenes, runs in northern Idaho from the west all the way to Montana. Other trails that are popular include: the Route of the Hiawatha trail, tha Latah Trail, and the Bill Chipman Palouse Trail. These trails range anywhere from 7 miles to 72 miles long. The rails-to-trails project is responsible for transforming abandoned train routes to hiking, biking, and walking trails. One of the longest trails in the nation is being worked on in Northern Idaho.
Gateway to Recreation
  • Idaho has more whitewater rafting than any other state excluding Alaska.
  • Top-destination ski resorts
  • Saint Anthony Sand Dunes, Brunaeu Sand Dunes
  • Pristine Wilderness areas including one of the largest continuous wilderness areas in the lower 48 states: The Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness.
  • Destination resort towns
  • Thousands of lakes
  • Rugged mountains including Mount Borah, Idaho's tallest at 12,662 feet.
  • back-country vistas
Idaho's Salmon River of No Return originates just south of Stanley. Idaho's Salmon River, the longest free-flowing river in the United States floats through the largest wilderness in the Lower 48. This trip is usually six days long and includes historic ranches and homesteads, fishing, hot springs, and class III - IV rapids. A limited number of private boaters and rafting companies explore 85 mile wilderness section of the Salmon River.

Eat

The food is pretty much middle American. There are a few ingredients that are Idaho specialties, like Idaho Rainbow Trout, and of course the Famous Potatoes. Moscow proclaims itself the "Dried Pea and Lentil Capitol of the World," so I guess those are Idahoan too. In the college towns (Moscow, Boise, Pocatello, Idaho Falls), it's pretty easy to find organic and vegetarian food, but in the rural areas you might have a hard time finding a meal without beef.
In much of Idaho, particularly the southern portions, a popular condiment is "fry sauce", a combination of ketchup and mayonnaise. Fry sauce is primarily a Utah condiment but it is also popular in nearby areas, especially those with significant Mormon populations.

Drink

Idaho liquor laws aren't as stringent as in neighboring Utah, but they are more restrictive than places like Nevada. As in the rest of the United States, 21 is the drinking age; expect to get carded if you look like you're under 30.
Specific rules governing bars vary slightly from county to county, but generally speaking bars close at 2 AM in the larger cities and 1 AM just about everywhere else. Last call means last call in Idaho; bar owners risk hefty fines or worse if they're caught serving even one minute past closing time.
Full-strength beer and wine are readily available in supermarkets and convenience stores (although if you're not a fan of mass-produced American-style lagers, the selection can often leave something to be desired). Hard liquor must be purchased at a state store. Freestanding state liquor stores are common in the larger cities, although private markets may double as the local state store in small towns. Stores stop selling beer and wine at the same time the bars close in that particular county.
The college towns have a good selection of bars, including the occasional microbrewery. You'll have to look hard to find any sort of interesting music scene in any but the largest cities, where there is a wide variety of types of bars from which to choose. In the more rural areas, you'll be stuck drinking at a country western bar or...well, that's about it. You might come across a place that will play classic rock, but even those are hard to find, unless you know where to look. Ask a local, because podunk and nice are usually synonyms out there.
On the plus side, almost every bar but the very swankiest has drink specials at least 3 nights a week. $1.50 wells, $2 pints, doubles for single prices...

Stay safe

The weather in Idaho can be fickle and extreme compared to other parts of the world. Mountains make their own weather, and it can be sunny one moment and stormy the next. If you are taking part in some outdoor activity, be prepared. Most importantly, use your common sense.

Respect

Generally speaking societal norms in Idaho are similar to other areas in the United States. However, Idahoans do tend to be slightly more familiar than others in the country. Especially in rural areas, complete strangers will wave to you as you drive by. Don't be afraid to wave back.
Idahoans are extremely sensitive to any allegation that the state is somehow a neo-Nazi enclave, and will be very quick to inform you otherwise if the subject comes up. This is particularly true in the Coeur d'Alene area, which experienced a very small but highly publicized group of neo-Nazis firsthand.
While Idahoans are genuinely proud of their potato-growing heritage, a litany of "spud" jokes and references tends to wear thin quickly.
Conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons is nothing new in Idaho and remains sensitive here, perhaps even more so than in Utah. While anything resembling open hostility on either side is exceptionally rare, the subject can make some people visibly uncomfortable.

Contact

Idaho is one of the few remaining US states with only one telephone area code statewide: 208. Although there has been talk of an area code split or overlay due to the state's continued growth, nothing is currently planned along those lines. Most localities support emergency 911 services.
Cell phone service is reliable in all of the major cities as well as most other parts of the state. The only places you're likely to encounter trouble are deep in the mountains. That said, large no service zones do exist; the further you travel into the back country, the less likely you'll be able to call someone if you get in trouble. In rural areas some carriers may have a noticeably better presence than others.
All Idaho ZIP postal codes begin with "83-". Only the larger cities use more than one ZIP code.
Public WiFi access is available at most larger hotels, as well as throughout the city of Ketchum in Blaine County.
  • Washington - Across Idaho's northwestern border the state of Washington offers a less-traveled landscape that varies from mountainous to desert-like conditions.
  • Oregon - The state's southwestern neighbor is known for lush forests and craggy mountains, but the portion of the state that immediately borders Idaho is sparsely-populated and features a near-desert landscape.
  • Nevada - The Silver State borders Idaho to the southwest.
  • Utah - The rugged mountains and excellent skiing of Utah are a short drive across Idaho's southern border.
  • Wyoming - Located to Idaho's southeast, Wyoming is home to most of the landmass of Yellowstone National Park and provides an excellent opportunity to experience America's cowboy heritage.
  • Montana - Some of America's most rugged and remote country is shared along Idaho's eastern border with Montana.
  • British Columbia - Crossing the state's tiny northern border into Canada leads into the mountainous terrain of southeastern British Columbia.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Idaho

Etymology

When a name was being selected for new territory, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested "Idaho," which he claimed was a Native American term meaning "gem of the mountains". It was later revealed Willing had made up the name himself.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Idaho
Plural
-
Idaho
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Boise.

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

Singular
Idaho
Plural
Idahos
Idaho (plural Idahos)
  1. An Idaho potato.

See also

External links

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of adhio
  • hoida

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Idaho
Flag of Idaho State seal of Idaho
Flag of Idaho SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Gem State, Spud State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Esto perpetua
Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English [1]
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Boise
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Boise
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Boise metropolitan area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 14thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 83,642 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(216,632 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 305 miles (491 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 479 miles (771 km)
 - % water 0.98
 - Latitude 43.19 N to 49° N
 - Longitude 112.35′ W to 117°15′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 39thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 1,293,953
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 15.64/sq mi 
6.04/km² (44th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Borah Peak[1]
12,662 ft  (3,862 m)
 - Mean 5,000 ft  (1,524 m)
 - Lowest point Snake River[1]
710 ft  (217 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  July 3, 1890 (43rd)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Butch Otter (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Larry Craig (R)
Mike Crapo (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - north of Salmon River Pacific: UTC−8/−7
 - remainder Mountain: UTC 7/ 6
Abbreviations IDImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-IDImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.idaho.gov/

The State of Idaho (IPA: /ˈaɪdəhoʊ/) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The state's largest city, and capital, is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans." Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state.

According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2004, Idaho had an estimated population of 1,393,262. The state's postal abbreviation is ID. Idaho is nicknamed the Gem State because of its abundance of natural resources. The state motto is Esto Perpetua (Latin for "Let it be perpetual").

Contents

Geography

Map of Idaho
Idaho Population Density Map
Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Boise, Idaho.
Crooked Creek in Gospel Hump Wilderness, Idaho
The Palouse region of northern Idaho.
A scenic part of the Snake River in Idaho Falls.
Sunset over the Snake River Plain near Chubbuck.
Further information: List of Idaho countiesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif

Idaho borders the states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Montana, Wyoming and the Canadian province of British Columbia (the Idaho-BC border is 48 miles (77 km) long). The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. It is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, placid lakes and steep canyons. The waters of Snake River rush through Hells Canyon, the deepest canyon in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than that of Niagara Falls.

The major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clearwater River and the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Boise River and the Payette River. The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland seaport in the Pacific Northwest.

Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest point, 745 ft (227 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington.

Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls are in the Mountain Time Zone. Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, and Lewiston, are in the Pacific Time Zone.

Climate

Idaho has much variation in its climate. Although the state's western border is located 300 miles (480 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their highest points. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with a mostly elevated altitude. The maritime influence is lowest in the southeastern part of the state where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences more extreme, showing a more continental climate.

Summers in Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 100 °F for the maximum temperature are rare. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer. Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Idaho Cities.
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boise 37/24 44/29 54/34 62/39 71/47 80/54 89/60 88/60 77/51 64/41 48/32 37/24
Lewiston 39/28 46/31 54/36 62/41 70/47 78/54 88/59 88/59 77/51 62/41 47/34 39/28
Pocatello 32/16 39/21 48/27 58/33 68/39 78/46 88/51 87/50 76/42 62/33 44/25 34/17
[2]

Lakes

Adjacent States and Provinces

History

Main article: History of Idaho

Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. Native American tribes predominant in the area included the Nez Perce in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south.

Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and United Kingdom until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory in 1863, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. The new territory included most of present-day Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. The first organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860.[3][4]

After some tribulation as a territory, including the chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston to Boise, disenfranchisement of the large Mormon minority and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory and the state of Nevada, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890. The economy of the state, which had been primarily supported by metal mining, shifted towards agriculture and tourism.

In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.[2]

The Idaho State Historical Society preserves and promotes Idaho’s cultural heritage.

Origin of name

Idaho is the only state that was likely named as the result of a hoax (the so called "Idahoax"). In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho," which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains." Willing later claimed that he had made up the name himself[5][6]. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861.

However, the name "Idaho" did not go away. The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.

Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account that the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how".

An excerpt from an Idaho History Textbook:
"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down". The second is "dah" which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for just the same thing in Indian that the exclamation mark (!) does in the English language. The Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain".
"IDAHO in the Pacific Northwest". Barber -Martin. 1956. Caxton Printers Ltd. Library of Congress 55-5192.

Demographics

The skyline of Boise at night.
As of 2005, Idaho has an estimated population of 1,429,096, which is an increase of 33,956, or 2.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 135,140, or 10.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 people (that is 111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.

This makes Idaho the sixth fastest-growing state after Arizona, Nevada, Florida, Georgia, and Utah. From 2004 to 2005, Idaho grew the third-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada and Arizona.

Nampa, the state's second largest city, has experienced particularly strong growth in recent years. According to census estimates Nampa has grown 22.1% to nearly 65,000 residents between 2000 and 2003. As of 2007, the population in Nampa was estimated at 84,000. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Meridian, Post Falls and Twin Falls [7].

Since 1990, Idaho's population has increased by 386,000 (38%).

The Boise Metropolitan Area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston.

As of 2006, six official micropolitan statistical areas are based in Idaho. Twin Falls is the largest of these.

The center of population of Idaho is located in Custer County, in the town of Stanley [8]. {{US DemogTable|Idaho|03-16.csv|= | 96.99| 0.65| 2.14| 1.36| 0.23|= | 7.53| 0.10| 0.28| 0.07| 0.03|= | 96.81| 0.84| 2.05| 1.48| 0.22|= | 8.70| 0.17| 0.27| 0.08| 0.03|= | 10.24| 42.33| 5.93| 20.25| 6.65|= | 8.78| 33.87| 5.74| 19.96| 7.09|= | 27.65| 89.80| 7.17| 25.37| 3.90}} The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (18.9%), English (18.1%), Irish (10%), American (8.4%), Norwegian (3.6%), Swedish (3.5%).

Religion

A church in Idaho City
Greek Orthodox Church in Pocatello.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Idaho Falls Temple.

In 2004, the religious affiliations of Idahoans were surveyed as: [9]

In 2001, the religious affiliations of the people of Idaho were surveyed as: [10] [11]

  • Other Religions – <1%
  • Non-Religious – 20%

As with many other Western states, the percentage of Idaho's population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is higher than the national average.

Economy

Gross state product for 2004 was US$43.6 billion. The per capita income for 2004 was US$26,881. Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one third of the potatoes grown in the United States.

American Falls Dam, American Falls, Idaho.

Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is located in Gooding. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group.[4] The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a government lab for nuclear energy research, is also an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries located across the nation.

Today, the largest industry in Idaho is the science and technology sector. It amounts for over 25% of the State's total revenue and 70%+ of the State's exports (in dollars). Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology Inc., the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise, in southwestern Idaho, since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to Laserjet printers production.[12]. Dell operates a major customer support call center in Twin Falls. AMI Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarter locates in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator in state-of-the-art integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services and structured digital products.

The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.

The state sales tax is 6%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.

Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 - 2006.[5]

Transportation

Main article: List of Idaho State Highways

Major highways

North

North/South

Southwest

West/East

</td></tr></table>

Law and government

Boise, Idaho, state capitol

State government

The constitution of Idaho provides for 3 branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.

Since 1946 statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an original elected constitutional office. Afterwards it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.

Idaho is an alcohol monopoly or Alcoholic beverage control state.

Executive Branch

Further information: List of Idaho GovernorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Further information: Lieutenant Governor of IdahoImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif

The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican C. L. "Butch" Otter, who was elected in 2006.

Legislative Branch

Idaho's legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning that their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.

Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.

The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle.

See also List of Idaho senators and representatives

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 68.38% 409,235 30.26% 181,098
2000 67.17% 336,937 27.64% 138,637
1996 52.18% 256,595 33.65% 165,443
1992 42.03% 202,645 28.42% 137,013
1988 62.08% 253,881 36.01% 147,272
1984 72.36% 297,523 26.39% 108,510
1980 66.46% 290,699 25.19% 110,192
1976 59.88% 204,151 37.12% 126,549
1972 64.24% 199,384 26.04% 80,826
1968 56.79% 165,369 30.66% 89,273
1964 49.08% 143,557 50.92% 148,920
1960 53.78% 161,597 46.22% 138,853

After the Civil War, many Southern Democrats moved to Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democratic. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican Presidents and were Republicans themselves. This led to sometimes bitter clashes between the two parties. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.

Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho, as there was a polar shift in social and political stance between the two parties, when the Democrats became more liberal and the Republicans more conservative. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Since World War II, most statewide elected officials have been Republicans.

Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the House over the years, but the Senate delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senators Larry Craig and Mike Crapo, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church has won reelection as a Democrat. Church was the last Idaho Democrat to win a U.S. Senate race in 1974. No Democrat has won a U.S. House race in Idaho since Larry LaRocco in 1992.

In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics as well. It has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater by less than two percentage points. In 2004, George W. Bush carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County, which contains the Sun Valley ski resort, supported John Kerry, who owns a home in the area.

In the 2006 elections, Republicans led by Governor-elect C. L. "Butch" Otter won all of the state's constitutional offices and retained both of the state's seats in the United States House of Representatives. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area. [13]

Important cities and towns

Population > 50,000 (urbanized area)

Population > 30,000 (urbanized area)

Population > 10,000 (urbanized area)

Smaller Towns and Cities

National Parks of Idaho

City of Rocks National Reserve, Idaho, USA
Craters of the Moon National Monument.

National Recreation Areas

National Wildlife Refuges

National Conservation Areas

State Parks

See also: List of Idaho state parks
Lake Coeur d'Alene in northern Idaho.

Education

Colleges and universities

Idaho State University in Pocatello.

Sports

Club Sport League
Boise Hawks Baseball Minor League Baseball
Idaho Falls Chukars Baseball Minor League Baseball
Idaho Stampede Basketball NBA Development League
Boise Burn Arena football af2
Idaho Steelheads Ice hockey East Coast Hockey League

Boise is the host to the largest 5 K run for women, the St. Luke's Women's Fitness Celebration.

Official State Emblems

Notable Idahoans

See List of people from Idaho.

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  2. ^ The Power of Idaho. Idaho Economic Development Association (2004). Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  3. ^ .The official LDS web site states there are 385,131 of its church members in Idaho, which equals 27% of Idaho's population,
  4. ^ "Zuivelzicht" 25 April 2007
  5. ^ Facts At a Glance. Idaho Lottery (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-29.

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Idaho


Preceded by
Washington
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on July 3, 1890 (43rd)
Succeeded by
Wyoming

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 45° N 114° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Idaho. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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Simple English

State of Idaho
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Idaho]]
Flag of Idaho Seal of Idaho
Also called: Gem State
Saying(s): Esto perpetua
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted]]
Official language(s) None
Capital Boise
Largest city Boise
Area  Ranked 14th
 - Total 83,642 sq mi
(216,632 km²)
 - Width 305 miles (491 km)
 - Length 479 miles (771 km)
 - % water 0.98
 - Latitude 42° N to 49° N
 - Longitude 111° W to 117° W
Number of people  Ranked 39th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (44th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Borah Peak[1]
12,662 ft  (3,862 m)
 - Average 5,000 ft  (1,524 m)
 - Lowest point Snake River[1]
710 ft  (217 m)
Became part of the U.S.  July 3, 1890 (43rd)
Governor Butch Otter (R)
U.S. Senators Larry Craig (R)
Mike Crapo (R)
Time zones  
 - north of Salmon River Pacific: UTC−8/−7
 - remainder Mountain: UTC 7/ 6
Abbreviations ID US-ID
Web site www.idaho.gov/

Idaho is a state in the United States. Its capital and biggest city is Boise. Idaho potatoes are famous around the country.

Idaho became a state in 1890. Its current Governor is Butch Otter. It is the 11th largest state in land area. The population of Idaho is estimated at 1,523,816 by the United States Census Bureau in 2008.

Idaho is bordered by Washington on the west, Montana on the east, Utah and Nevada on the south and the country of Canada on the north side. The climate in Idaho can sometimes be hot, reaching up to 100 °F. Humidity is normally low with cooler evenings in summer months. In winter, temperatures normally drop to lower twenty's, upper teens. Very rarely, the temperature drops to several degrees below zero.

Idaho's state motto is Esto perpetua. This is Latin for "Let it be forever".

References

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Idaho, which are similar to those in the above article.








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