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Idi Amin

Idi Amin addresses the United Nations General Assembly in New York, 1975

In office
January 25, 1971 – April 11, 1979
Vice President Mustafa Adrisi
Preceded by Milton Obote
Succeeded by Yusufu Lule

Born c.1925
Koboko or Kampala[A]
Died 16 August 2003 (aged 77–78)
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Nationality Ugandan
Spouse(s) Malyamu Amin (divorced)
Kay Amin (divorced)
Nora Amin (divorced)
Madina Amin
Sarah Amin
Profession Ugandan Army officer
Religion Islam
.Idi Amin Dada (c.1925[A] – 16 August 2003) was the military dictator and President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the King's African Rifles, in 1946, and eventually held the rank of Major General and Commander of the Ugandan Army.^ In the 1940's Amin was recruited by a British colonial army officer.
  • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 January 1971, President Obote was overthrown by a military coup led by General Idi Amin.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Idi Amin," Maher told her, noting the Ugandan military dictator.
  • Former SoS Albright: Both Idi Amin and G.W. Bush are 'nuts' - Jerry Davich: Observations from the edge 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC blogs.post-trib.com [Source type: General]

.He took power in a military coup of January 1971, deposing Milton Obote.^ In a military coup in 1971, Amin ousted Ugandan leader Milton Obote and seized power.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This gave him the opportunity to seize power from President Milton Obote in a military coup in 1971.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Idi Amin seizes power in a coup in January 1971.
  • Idi Amin killer file 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amin's rule was characterised by human rights abuses, political repression, ethnic persecution, extrajudicial killings, nepotism, corruption and gross economic mismanagement.^ He was never tried for gross abuse of human rights.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Acholi and Langi tribes were particular objects of Amin's political persecution because Obote and many of his supporters belonged to those tribes and constituted the largest group in the army.
  • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Idi Amin may have had some abilities , some strengths, as any human being does -- these of course were corrupted.
  • Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin's 'Positive Qualities'? | NewsBusters.org 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

The number of people killed as a result of his regime is estimated by international observers and human rights groups to range from 100,000[1] to 500,000.
.Notable backers of Amin included Muammar al-Gaddafi's Libya, the Soviet Union and East Germany,[2][3][4] with early support for his regime coming from Great Britain, Israel, and Apartheid-era South Africa.^ Amin demanded that Israel recognize his regime as Britain has done.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin then turned to Colonel Muammar Muhammad al-Qadhafi and the Soviet Union for support.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandela in 1999 defied United Nations sanctions to visit Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's Libya.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

[5]
.In 1975–1976, Amin became the Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity, a pan-Africanist group designed to promote solidarity of the African states.^ I was a founder member of the Organisation of African Unity.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He became head of the Organisation of African Unity in 1975.

^ "One of the things that occurred to me is that up until Nelson Mandela, Idi Amin was the most famous African in history", states director Kevin Macdonald.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .During the 1977–1979 period, Uganda was appointed to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.^ During the same period, Uganda is appointed to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
  • Idi Amin killer file 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 1987, Henry Kyemba, who was Uganda's Health Minister, told Uganda's Human Rights Commission that Dora Bloch had been dragged from her hospital bed and murdered by two army officers close to Idi Amin.
  • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1977, Uganda's economy was in a shambles - as is every Islamic nation's.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] From 1977 to 1979, Amin titled himself as "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[B] Idi Amin Dada, VC,[C] DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular".[8]
.Dissent within Uganda and Amin's attempt to annex the Kagera province of Tanzania in 1978 led to the Uganda-Tanzania War and the demise of his regime.^ In October 1978, with the assistance of Libyan troops, Amin attempted to annex Kagera, the northern province of Tanzania (which shares a border with Uganda).
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1970s and early 1980s the nation suffered two bloody dictatorial regimes, under Idi Amin and Milton Obote, and two wars.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer, Denis Hills, a Uganda-based British subject, is sentenced to death by the regime for describing Amin as a "village tyrant".
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

Amin fled first to Libya, then to Saudi Arabia, where he died in 2003.

Contents

Early life and military career

.Amin never wrote an autobiography nor did he authorise any official written account of his life.^ For example, the American writer James Baldwin went to Ghana searching for it, never did, and wrote a savage tract dismissing it out of hand.

^ Museveni said that Ugandan embassy officials in Saudi Arabia who went to visit Amin in hospital did not amuse him.

^ One British observer wrote: "I have never encountered a more benevolent and apparently popular leader than General Amin."

There are discrepancies regarding when and where he was born. .Most biographical sources hold that he was born in either Koboko or Kampala around 1925.[A] According to Fred Guweddeko, a researcher at Makerere University, Idi Amin was the son of Andreas Nyabire (1889–1976).^ Kampala: Makerere University, 1971.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Uganda - Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Kampala: Makerere University, 1975.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The world according to Idi Amin .
  • My brutal muse - theage.com.au 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.Nyabire, a member of the Kakwa ethnic group, converted from Roman Catholicism to Islam in 1910 and changed his name to Amin Dada.^ His father was originally a Catholic named Andreas Nyabire, who converted to Islam in 1910 and renamed himself Amin Dada.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin, a convert to Islam, fled to Libya, then Iraq and finally Saudi Arabia, where he was allowed to settle provided he stayed out of politics.

^ In 1962 Amin participated in stopping cattle rustling between neighboring ethnic groups in Karamoja (Uganda) and Turkana (Kenya).
  • Idi Amin Dada – FREE Idi Amin Dada information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Idi Amin Dada research 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abandoned by his father, Idi Amin grew up with his mother's family.^ Amin was brought up by his mother, who abandoned his father to move to Lugazi.
  • Idi Amin Dada – FREE Idi Amin Dada information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Idi Amin Dada research 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uganda has finally recovered from Idi Amins brutal dictatorship, opening up its sweeping mountains and parks bursting with wildlife.
  • Destination Guides - Uganda, East Africa - Wanderlust Travel Magazine 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.wanderlust.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Even his favourite child Moses Amin, who was showered with his father's affection as a child growing up in Entebbe in the 1970s (and thoroughly spoilt as a result) was not what he could have been, as a son of Amin.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

.Guweddeko states that Amin's mother was called Assa Aatte (1904–1970), an ethnic Lugbara and a traditional herbalist who treated members of Buganda royalty, among others.^ His mother, Assa Aatte, was the daughter of a Lugbara Sultan and an occultist.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Financial Times declared Amin "Man of the Week"; The Daily Telegraph called him "a welcome contrast to other African leaders and a staunch friend of Britain".
  • His Excellency Field Marshal Idi Amin Dada, ex-President of Uganda, Conqueror of the British Empire, Victorious Cross, Member of the Excellent Order of the Source of the Nile, (not to mention Wife-Eater, Beer-Swiller, Pub Singer, Bloody Dictator and Damne - Africa, World - The Independent 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Obote later calls Amin "the greatest brute an African mother has ever brought to life."
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amin joined an Islamic school in Bombo in 1941. After a few years, he left school with nothing more than a fourth grade education and did odd jobs before being recruited to the army by a British colonial army officer.^ In 1941, Idi Amin enrolled in the Garaya Islamic school at Bombo.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles of the British colonial army, and being both big and a good sportsman - he held the title of Ugandan heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960 - he attracted attention among his superiors.

^ Otherwise, life did not get really bad in the south until the price of coffee, Uganda's main export, began to fall in 1978, the year before Amin was thrown out.
  • His Excellency Field Marshal Idi Amin Dada, ex-President of Uganda, Conqueror of the British Empire, Victorious Cross, Member of the Excellent Order of the Source of the Nile, (not to mention Wife-Eater, Beer-Swiller, Pub Singer, Bloody Dictator and Damne - Africa, World - The Independent 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

[9]
Chronology of Amin's military promotions
 
King's African Rifles
1946 Joins King's African Rifles
1947 Private
1952 Corporal
1953 Sergeant
1958 Sergeant Major (acting as Platoon Commander)
1959 Effendi (Warrant Officer)
1961 Lieutenant (one of two of the first Ugandan CO's)
 
Uganda Army
1962 Captain
1963 Major
1964 Deputy Commander of the Army
1965 Colonel, Commander of the Army
1968 Major General
1971 Head of State
Chairman of the Defence Council
Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces
Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Air Staff
1975 Field Marshal

Colonial British Army

.Amin joined the King's African Rifles (KAR) of the British Colonial Army in 1946 as an assistant cook.^ He became an assistant cook in the King's African Rifles.
  • Obituary: Idi Amin | News | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He joins the King's African Rifles as an assistant cook.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin is raised by his mother, who becomes a camp follower of the King's African Rifles, a regiment of the British colonial army.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .He claimed he was forced to join the Army during World War II and that he served in the Burma Campaign,[11] but records indicate he was first enlisted after the war was concluded.^ He was attached first to the 11th East Africa Division, in which he fought as a rifleman in Burma during the closing days of the Second World War, and then to the 4th Uganda Battalion, in which he was dispatched to quell tribal marauders in northern Uganda.

^ "The Guardian" is the kind of inspirational movie that Hollywood made about the Army, Navy and Marines during World War II. Now, with inspiration in short supply, it's the Coast Guard's turn.
  • Film Review - WSJ.com 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ A parallel is drawn between the Indians in Uganda considered as undesirable similar to the Jews in Germany during the Second World War.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][12] .He was transferred to Kenya for infantry service as a private in 1947 and served in the 21st KAR infantry battalion in Gilgil, Kenya, until 1949. That year, his unit was deployed to Somalia to fight the Somali Shifta rebels.^ However, in 1946 he joined the King's African Rifles, KAR (Britain's colonial African troops), and served in Burma, Somalia, Kenya (during the British suppression of the Mau Mau) and Uganda.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1952 his brigade was deployed against the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya.^ In 1952, Amin, then a corporal, was sent to suppress the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, he was involved in operations against the Mau Mau in Kenya.

^ He was notorious for brutality and torture during the suppression of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya from 1952 to 1956, but he was rewarded with promotion rather than prosecution.

He was promoted to corporal the same year, then to sergeant in 1953.[9]
.In 1959 Amin was made effendi (warrant officer), the highest rank possible for a Black African in the colonial British Army of that time.^ He rose through the ranks, reaching sergeant-major before finally being made an effendi, the highest rank possible for a Black African serving in the British army.
  • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is made a warrant officer with the rank of 'effendi', a position specially created by the colonial army for noncommissioned Africans with leadership potential.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles of the British colonial army, and being both big and a good sportsman - he held the title of Ugandan heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960 - he attracted attention among his superiors.

.Amin returned to Uganda the same year and in 1961 he was promoted to lieutenant, becoming one of the first two Ugandans to become commissioned officers.^ It is reported that Amin wishes to return to Uganda.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin was one of the first.

^ Overlooking the charges of torture, Obote promotes Amin to major in 1963 and to colonel and deputy commander of the army and air force in 1964, the same year that Amin helps put down an army mutiny at Jinja, Uganda's second city.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was then assigned to quell the cattle rustling between Uganda's Karamojong and Kenya's Turkana nomads.^ Word spread about this good Muslim's sadistic treatment of tribesman suspected of being involved with cattle rustling in northern Uganda and the Turkana region in Kenya.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Troops under Amin's command commit the 'Turkana Massacre' while conducting an operation to suppress cattle stealing by tribesmen spilling into the north of Uganda from the neighbouring Turkana region of Kenya.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1962 he was promoted to captain and then, in 1963, to major. .The following year, he was appointed Deputy Commander of the Army.^ Overlooking the charges of torture, Obote promotes Amin to major in 1963 and to colonel and deputy commander of the army and air force in 1964, the same year that Amin helps put down an army mutiny at Jinja, Uganda's second city.
  • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was thus a big sigh of relief when the 46 year -old commander of the army dethroned his master.

^ Amin soon reached the rank of Colonel and was assigned as Deputy Commander of the Army and Air Force (which was a collection of carrier pigeons and a boomerang at this time).
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.Amin was an active athlete during his time in the army.^ A one-time heavyweight boxing champ and soldier in the British colonial army, Amin seized power on Jan.

^ Amin began his career as a successful but notoriously brutal leader in the Ugandan army, generally regarded as one of the best in Africa at the time.
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Amin: The Rise and Fall 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin soon reached the rank of Colonel and was assigned as Deputy Commander of the Army and Air Force (which was a collection of carrier pigeons and a boomerang at this time).
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.193 cm (6 ft 4 in) and powerfully built, he was the Ugandan light heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960, as well as a swimmer.^ In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles of the British colonial army, and being both big and a good sportsman - he held the title of Ugandan heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960 - he attracted attention among his superiors.

^ He was a 9-time heavyweight boxing champion and sargeant in the British military, who won the support and sponsorship of the British leadership.
  • User Comments for Last King of Scotland, The 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.metacritic.com [Source type: General]

^ Amin's celebrity began to fully bloom when he became Uganda's heavyweight boxing champion in 1951.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Idi Amin was also a formidable rugby forward.^ I have not viewed the film as yet....Forest Whitaker was an excellent cast pick for resemblance of Idi Amin and a dam good actor...I'm looking forward to seeing it...
  • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[13][14] .In the 1950s, he played for Nile RFC.[15] The British Lions nearly played Amin on their 1955 tour of South Africa, when he was selected as a reserve for the East Africa XV.^ I'm told this included Britishers in East Africa.
  • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Mwanga fled to German East Africa, but soon returned to join Kabarega in guerrilla opposition to British forces.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ugandans initially welcomed Amin's rise to power, and his frequent taunting of Britain, former colonial ruler of much of Africa, often played well on the continent.

[14][15] He was the only black player on the squad.[15] .Amin did not, however, get fielded during the game and, after the match, sat outside the clubhouse drinking a Coca Cola until one of the opposition suggested that he should be let in.^ In Kampala, one of his sons, Ali Amin Ramadhan, 40, said he did not know yet where his father would be buried.

^ So no one should blame Amin because we are not angels.

^ One reason the national resistance to Amin didn't emerge, had to do with the extent of the collaboration with the regime by the people who would normally lead such opposition.

[15] One officer said of him: "Idi Amin is a splendid type and a good (rugby) player, but virtually bone from the neck up, and needs things explained in words of one letter".[14][16]

Army commander

.In 1965 Prime Minister Milton Obote and Amin were implicated in a deal to smuggle ivory and gold into Uganda from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.^ Much of the gold Uganda claimed as its export in the 1990s was probably mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and smuggled into Uganda.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1965-66, Obote and Amin were implicated in a scandal involving the smuggling of gold, coffee, and ivory out of the Congo.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Look at some of Uganda's direct neighbours: the 1994 genocide in Rwanda; the millions who have died in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the past five years; and the atrocities in Sudan's Darfur region.
  • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The deal, as later alleged by General Nicholas Olenga, an associate of the former Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, was part of an arrangement to help troops opposed to the Congolese government trade ivory and gold for arms supplies secretly smuggled to them by Amin.^ When he became chief of staff of the new army Amin also ran a sideline operation for the Israelis, supplying arms and ammunition to the rebels in southern Sudan.
  • 9/11,WTC:Osama bin Laden on FBI Unwanted List;Barack Obama A Skinny Idi Amin ? | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: News]

^ In 1965-66, Obote and Amin were implicated in a scandal involving the smuggling of gold, coffee, and ivory out of the Congo.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1966, Parliament demanded an investigation. .Obote imposed a new constitution abolishing the ceremonial presidency held by Kabaka (King) Edward Mutesa II of Buganda, and declared himself executive president.^ Obote had himself used the army to overthrow the first president, Sir Edward Mutesa, and thereafter abolished the traditional kingdoms and banned political party activities.

^ He suspended the 1962 constitution and forced an interim constitution through parliament in which Obote replaced the kabaka as president.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yoweri Museveni, who declared himself president in 1986, was confirmed in office by an overwhelming majority in May 1996 presidential elections.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He promoted Amin to colonel and army commander.^ After the attempted assassination, Idi Amin who was army commander went missing.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin could not be found but turned up later at the meeting where Brigadier Okoya, the deputy army commander, indicated that the net was closing in.
  • Obituary: Idi Amin | News | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ This was embarrassing, as Obote was about to promote Amin to chief of staff, so the police commandant, Inspector-General Cryema, took no action.
  • Obituary: Idi Amin | News | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Amin led an attack on the Kabaka's palace and forced Mutesa into exile to the United Kingdom, where he remained until his death in 1969.[17][18]
.Amin began recruiting members of Kakwa, Lugbara, Nubian and other ethnic groups from the West Nile area bordering Sudan.^ He used his smuggling proceeds and creative use of military assets to recruit members of his own tribe as well as Muslims from the West Nile area near the all-Islamic northern Sudan border.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is some tension among ethnic groups, particularly between the Ganda and others.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant was the dam and hydroelectric station on the Nile at Jinja, built in 1954, and the Kilembe copper mine on the western border, which began in 1956.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nubians had been residents in Uganda since the early 20th century, having come from Sudan to serve the colonial army.^ Uganda's special place, however, came not only from distant memories of the Uganda Plan to settle Jews there in the early twentieth century, but also from its strategic importance since it bordered an Arab country, Sudan, and was close to Israel.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In centuries past ancestors of many of these groups came to Uganda from what is now Sudan and Ethiopia.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Uganda, Nubians were commonly perceived as Sudanese foreigners and erroneously referred to as Anyanya (Anyanya were southern Sudanese rebels of the First Sudanese Civil War and were not involved in Uganda).^ The Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) launched "Operation Iron Fist" against LRA rebels in northern Uganda and conducted operations against LRA sanctuaries in southern Sudan with the permission of the Sudanese Government.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, it was claimed that Israel was providing military equipment and advisers to the southern Sudanese underground, Anya Anya, via Uganda.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uganda, 70 percent of whose population were (and still are) Christians, sympathized with the southern Sudanese Christians' and animists' struggle for equal rights and self-determination.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because many ethnic groups in northern Uganda inhabit both Uganda and Sudan, allegations persist that Amin's army consisted substantially of Sudanese soldiers.^ When he became chief of staff of the new army Amin also ran a sideline operation for the Israelis, supplying arms and ammunition to the rebels in southern Sudan.
  • 9/11,WTC:Osama bin Laden on FBI Unwanted List;Barack Obama A Skinny Idi Amin ? | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: News]

^ When Radio Uganda announced at dawn on 25 January 1971 that Idi Amin was Uganda's new ruler, many people suspected that Britain had a hand in the coup.
  • 9/11,WTC:Osama bin Laden on FBI Unwanted List;Barack Obama A Skinny Idi Amin ? | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: News]

^ A one-time heavyweight boxing champ and soldier in the British colonial army, Amin seized power on Jan.

[19]

Seizure of power

.Eventually, a rift developed between Amin and Obote, worsened by the support Amin had built within the army by recruiting from the West Nile region, his involvement in operations to support the rebellion in southern Sudan, and an attempt on Obote's life in 1969. In October 1970, Obote himself took control of the armed forces, reducing Amin from his months-old post of commander of all the armed forces to that of commander of the army.^ A rift also began to form between Obote and Amin.
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Amin: The Rise and Fall 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he became chief of staff of the new army Amin also ran a sideline operation for the Israelis, supplying arms and ammunition to the rebels in southern Sudan.
  • 9/11,WTC:Osama bin Laden on FBI Unwanted List;Barack Obama A Skinny Idi Amin ? | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: News]

^ "I could not support Amin even if I had problems with Obote."

[20]
.Having learned that Obote was planning to arrest him for misappropriating army funds, Amin seized power in a military coup on 25 January 1971, while Obote was attending a Commonwealth summit meeting in Singapore.^ On 25 January 1971, President Obote was overthrown by a military coup led by General Idi Amin.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Amin took power on January 25 and I fled Uganda on the 27th.

^ On 25 January 1971, on the eve of Obote's return from Singapore, Amin staged a military coup.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Troops loyal to Amin sealed off Entebbe International Airport, the main artery into Uganda, and took Kampala.^ But what grants Amin the enduring affection of fans is the fact that in 1978, he took Uganda to the Promised Land of an actual continental final.

^ The PFLP had finally managed to get their pound of flesh for the Muslim humiliation suffered after the Israeli rescue raid on Uganda's Entebbe airport on July 3, 1976.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin was born into the small Kakwa tribe in Koboko, a village in northwestern Uganda.

.Soldiers surrounded Obote's residence and blocked major roads.^ At another road block, Sabine meets Butabika, the One-Eleven soldier, who killed the goat and roughed up her uncle at the beginning of the story.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the border a soldier tried to block our exit by closing the road.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

.A broadcast on Radio Uganda accused Obote's government of corruption and preferential treatment of the Lango region.^ Nevertheless, in the late 1990s Uganda had not solved the problem of corruption in government, and its aggressive foreign policy left its undeniable triumphs precarious and fragile.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Word spread about this good Muslim's sadistic treatment of tribesman suspected of being involved with cattle rustling in northern Uganda and the Turkana region in Kenya.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government radio station, which broadcasts in 22 languages, was founded in 1954.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cheering crowds were reported in the streets of Kampala after the radio broadcast.^ He observed that for a long time Kenya has not been a working nation as hard work was rendered irrelevant by merchants of corruption, the state-owned Kenya Broadcasting Corporation radio reported.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

[21] .Amin announced that he was a soldier, not a politician, and that the military government would remain only as a caretaker regime until new elections, which would be announced when the situation was normalised.^ The new government gave in and appeased the military.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Radio Uganda announced at dawn on 25 January 1971 that Idi Amin was Uganda's new ruler, many people suspected that Britain had a hand in the coup.
  • 9/11,WTC:Osama bin Laden on FBI Unwanted List;Barack Obama A Skinny Idi Amin ? | Philadelphia Independent Media Center 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.phillyimc.org [Source type: News]

^ Mukanya though entirely agrees with Lodge when he says: "Amin's rule would have been shorter were it not for the extent to which his behaviour was accepted by other African heads of government.

He promised to release all political prisoners.[22]
.Amin was welcomed both within Uganda[citation needed] and by the international community[citation needed].^ This was business as usual in the Islamic world, and "Big Daddy" was welcomed both within Uganda and by the international community.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He assured Mr Amin that he is welcome because Uganda is his country.

^ He said most of the people who celebrated Amin's ascension into power later suffered both individually and as a community over the atrocities that were committed by the dictator's regime.

.He gave former king and president Mutesa (who had died in exile) a state burial in April 1971, freed many political prisoners, and reiterated his promise to hold free and fair elections to return the country to democratic rule in the shortest period possible.^ International observers declared these elections free and fair.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gave the typical lip service that his rule was only temporary and he would of course hand the country back over to the rule of the people when matters stabilized.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yoweri Museveni, who declared himself president in 1986, was confirmed in office by an overwhelming majority in May 1996 presidential elections.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Presidency

Establishment of military rule

.On February 2, 1971, one week after the coup, Amin declared himself President of Uganda, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Air Staff.^ Amin was then rewarded with a promotion to Major-General and top Commander of the Army and the "Air Force."
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Families can also talk about the story of Amin, a former heavyweight boxer and British colonial army sergeant who declared himself president of Uganda following a military coup and ruled for eight years.

^ By then, he had achieved celebrity status, being Uganda's heavyweight boxing champion and leading the Obote putsch that saw the Kabaka, Sir Edward Mutesa flee to the UK. He capitalised on this fame, overthrowing Obote in 1971 and declaring himself "president for life."
  • allAfrica.com: Kenya: Idi Amin the King of Scotland 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

.He announced that he was suspending certain provisions of the Ugandan constitution and soon instituted an Advisory Defence Council composed of military officers, with himself as the chairman.^ He instituted an Advisory Defense Council composed of military commanders, placed military tribunals above the system of civil law, appointed soldiers to top government posts and supporting agencies, and even informed the newly inducted civilian cabinet ministers that they would be subject to military discipline.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amin placed military tribunals above the system of civil law, appointed soldiers to top government posts and parastatal agencies, and informed the newly inducted civilian cabinet ministers that they would be subject to military discipline.^ He instituted an Advisory Defense Council composed of military commanders, placed military tribunals above the system of civil law, appointed soldiers to top government posts and supporting agencies, and even informed the newly inducted civilian cabinet ministers that they would be subject to military discipline.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They included titles usually bestowed by the British Queen on her soldiers such as VC (Victoria Cross), MC (Military Cross), VSO (Victoria Service Order), CBE (in Amin's terminology, Conqueror of the British Empire).

^ This military force then invaded Uganda and ousted the Amin government, forcing Amin to flee to Libya in 1979.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][24] .Amin renamed the presidential lodge in Kampala from Government House to "The Command Post". He disbanded the General Service Unit (GSU), an intelligence agency created by the previous government, and replaced it with the State Research Bureau (SRB).^ Yet he would go on to create an intelligence and counter-espionage system, the State Research Bureau in 1971, which was regarded as one of Africa's best national security agencies ever.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

^ According to a statement from the presidential press unit, the younger Amin returned from self- imposed exile in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan early this week.

^ Mukanya though entirely agrees with Lodge when he says: "Amin's rule would have been shorter were it not for the extent to which his behaviour was accepted by other African heads of government.

.SRB headquarters at the Kampala suburb of Nakasero became the scene of torture and executions over the next few years.^ Demonstrating a sense of style, the luxurious Nile Mansions Hotel in Kampala became Amin's terror and torture headquarters.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Other agencies used to root out political dissent included the military police and the Public Safety Unit (PSU).^ Opting-out of Certain Uses of your Personal Information and Other Information (Other than Wireless Marketing Services and Associated Promotional Opportunities).
  • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Then, following Muhammad's and Hitler's lead, the Butcher hired 15,000-18,000 thugs for the newly created "State Research Bureau" and the "Public Safety Unit."
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were the Military Police, the Presidential Guard, the Public Safety Unit and the Bureau of State Research.
  • Obituary: Idi Amin | News | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[25]
.Obote took refuge in Tanzania, having been offered sanctuary there by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere.^ Amin then accused Tanzania's President Nyerere of inciting the rebellion.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The one leader prepared to stand up to Amin was President Julius Nyere of neighboring Tanzania.

^ Britain was particularly uneasy about the constant attack by Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia and Milton Obote of Uganda, the trio that led the vitriolic attack on Britain's support of Northern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.

.He was soon joined by 20,000 Ugandan refugees fleeing Amin.^ One of the most disastrous actions by Amin was his decision to expel over 60,000 Asians, most of them Ugandan citizens, in 1972.

^ Several Ugandans living in London joined Sarah to mourn Amin.

^ Amin also drove out of the country about 80 000 Ugandans of Asian origin, saying God had commanded him to do so in a dream.

In 1972, the exiles attempted to regain the country through a poorly organized coup attempt, without success.[26]

Persecution of ethnic and other groups

.Amin retaliated against the attempted invasion by Ugandan exiles in 1972 by purging the army of Obote supporters, predominantly those from the Acholi and Lango ethnic groups.^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As faithfully documented in the movie, Idi Amin first served in the British Army, where he gained his affection for Scotland, before becoming commander of the Ugandan Army under Obote.
  • Getting Uganda Right (Part I) by Susan Braden - The Globalist 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Ugandan exiles confirmed that the allegations made by Amin against the Anglican Archbishop Janani Luwum linking him with a plot to smuggle arms into Uganda to overthrow his regime, were true.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

[27] .In July 1971, Lango and Acholi soldiers were massacred in the Jinja and Mbarara Barracks,[28] and by early 1972, some 5,000 Acholi and Lango soldiers, and at least twice as many civilians, had disappeared.^ Amin is believed to have married at least four times and had some 30 children, many of whom had joined him in exile in Saudi Arabia.

[29] .The victims soon came to include members of other ethnic groups, religious leaders, journalists, senior bureaucrats, judges, lawyers, students and intellectuals, criminal suspects, and foreign nationals.^ There is some tension among ethnic groups, particularly between the Ganda and others.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year he made two pilgrimages to Mecca and met with Saudi Arabia 's King Faisal and other leaders of Muslim countries who came to Mecca.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A foreign ethnic group can only rule economically and oppress the native ethnic group for so long.
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this atmosphere of violence, many other people were killed for criminal motives or simply at will.^ When this bloodletting was over, other people were tortured and then killed.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His body should be brought back to Uganda and put on display and people view it and see somebody who killed so many people," Mademaga said.

^ It simply showed the many sides of man that can be turned evil given the power and motivation.
  • The Last King of Scotland - The Myth of Idi Amin | FoxSearchlight.com 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC content.foxsearchlight.com [Source type: General]

[30]
.The killings, motivated by ethnic, political and financial factors, continued throughout Amin's eight-year reign.^ During Amin’s eight years in charge, Uganda qualified for the Africa Nations Cup three successive times in 1974, 1976 and 1978.

^ On October 18, the latest account of the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Dada's bizarre and brutal nine-year reign will headline the London Film Festival.
  • allAfrica.com: Kenya: Idi Amin the King of Scotland 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ The Islamic dictator was said to have killed more than 300,000 Ugandan civilians, and the total is more likely 500,000 of his own countrymen during his 9-year reign.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The exact number of people killed is unknown.^ The exact amount of deaths and injuries are unknown, but some press reports claimed that forty people were killed and another 300 were injured by the blast.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The International Commission of Jurists estimated the death toll at no less than 80,000 and more likely around 300,000. An estimate compiled by exile organizations with the help of Amnesty International puts the number killed at 500,000.[8] Among the most prominent people killed were Benedicto Kiwanuka, the former prime minister and later chief justice; Janani Luwum, the Anglican archbishop; Joseph Mubiru, the former governor of the Central Bank; Frank Kalimuzo, the vice chancellor of Makerere University; Byron Kawadwa, a prominent playwright; and two of Amin's own cabinet ministers, Erinayo Wilson Oryema and Charles Oboth Ofumbi.^ He killed an estimated 400,000 people - including several Cabinet ministers, a Ugandan Anglican archbishop and a chief justice.

^ Chief Justice Benedicto Kiwanuka for example "disappeared" - presumably killed on the orders of Idi Amin.

^ Eventually, he was also responsible for the murder of several of his cabinet ministers, the chief justice, and the Protestant archbishop.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.In August 1972, Amin declared what he called an "economic war", a set of policies that included the expropriation of properties owned by Asians and Europeans.^ He declared an "economic war" on the Asian population.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most disastrous actions by Amin was his decision to expel over 60,000 Asians, most of them Ugandan citizens, in 1972.

^ Until Black Africans realized that they were not getting a piece of the Asian-owned business pie unless they were cronies of Amin, until they realized that he was a crazy man intent on killing may of them, until he declared war on several of his neighbouring countries, dissolving any East-African unity, destroying what was called the pearl of Africa....
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

.Uganda's 80,000 Asians were mostly from the Indian subcontinent and born in the country, their ancestors having come to Uganda when the country was still a British colony.^ The beggar lady, Amina Goli, aptly describes the class hierarchy in Uganda where the Indians have inherited the wealth and class stature of the British Imperialists.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To what extent does the author suggest the British colonials responsible for the racial tension between the Indians and Africans?
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That would be much more likely than this having something to do with a country/religion that has used violence and terror against Indians for a few decades.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many owned businesses, including large-scale enterprises, that formed the backbone of the Ugandan economy.^ By the 1920s Indian entrepreneurs owned a large percentage of Ugandan cotton processing plants and many other businesses.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Asians, expelled in 1972, had formed the backbone of the Ugandan economy before Amin came to power.
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ V ECONOMY The Ugandan economy has been based on small, African-owned farms since precolonial days.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 4, 1972, Amin issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the 60,000 Asians who were not Ugandan citizens (most of them held British passports).^ One of the most disastrous actions by Amin was his decision to expel over 60,000 Asians, most of them Ugandan citizens, in 1972.

^ The expulsion of Asians by Idi Amin was wrong.
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin's terror regime persecuted Christians, murdered hundreds of thousands of Ugandans belonging to tribes that opposed him, executed political and religious leaders who were suspect in his eyes, and expelled the Asians.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was later amended to include all 80,000 Asians, except for professionals, such as doctors, lawyers and teachers.^ The 80,000 Asians mostly Indians and Pakistanis holding British passports were given 90 days to pack their bags and leave the country.

^ Amin also drove out of the country about 80 000 Ugandans of Asian origin, saying God had commanded him to do so in a dream.

.A plurality of the Asians with British passports, around 30,000, emigrated to Britain.^ The 80,000 Asians mostly Indians and Pakistanis holding British passports were given 90 days to pack their bags and leave the country.

^ However the British government enforces a quota to restrict the number of Indians entering Britain even if they have British passports.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the years since Amin's overthrow in 1979, Asians have slowly returned and now number around 30,000.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others went to Australia, Canada, India, Pakistan, Sweden, and the U.S.[32][33][34] Amin expropriated businesses and properties belonging to the Asians and handed them over to his supporters.^ Just like Muhammad, Amin claimed that Allah talked to him and told him to chase away the Asian exploiters and hand over the economy to the Ugandans.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abandoned businesses and houses were handed over to his supporters; the choicest of which went to those who had proven themselves the most adept at organizing the slaughter of his rivals.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin did not make the case for stealing Asian property.

.The businesses were mismanaged, and industries collapsed from lack of maintenance.^ The Asians' vast businesses were given to the president's cronies, who mismanaged them, precipitating the economy's collapse.

This proved disastrous for the already declining economy.[24]
.In 1977, Henry Kyemba, Amin's health minister and a former official of the first Obote regime, defected and resettled in Britain.^ The country is littered with bodies," said Henry Kyemba, Amin's longtime friend and a former health minister, when he defected to Britain in 1977.

^ In the 1970s and early 1980s the nation suffered two bloody dictatorial regimes, under Idi Amin and Milton Obote, and two wars.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ugandans initially welcomed Amin's rise to power, and his frequent taunting of Britain, former colonial ruler of much of Africa, often played well on the continent.

.Kyemba wrote and published A State of Blood, the first insider exposé of Amin's rule.^ The United States and Britain severed ties during Amin's rule.

^ And yet Amin was the first leader in Uganda's history to re-construct the state system from scratch, whatever the outcome.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

^ A State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Amin .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

International relations

See also: Foreign relations of Uganda
.Following the expulsion of Ugandan Asians in 1972, most of whom were of Indian descent, India severed diplomatic relations with Uganda.^ For this, Idi Amin turned to the Asians, most of whom were Indian.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The expulsion of the Asians in 1972 was the last nail in the coffin.

^ F Environmental Issues In addition to the destruction of its wildlife and severe deforestation, Uganda's most serious environmental problem is the unchecked growth of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Nile.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same year, as part of his "economic war", Amin broke diplomatic ties with Britain and nationalised 85 British-owned businesses.^ Just like the delusional Muslim terrorists today, after Britain broke diplomatic relations with his regime, Amin declared he had beaten the British and conferred on himself the decoration of "Conqueror of the British Empire."
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like his Muslim brothers throughout the Middle East, he nationalized 85 British-owned businesses.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin's eight-year reign of terror placed him in the same league as the likes of Emperor Bokassa of the Central African Republic and Adolf Hitler.

That year, relations with Israel soured. .Although Israel had previously supplied Uganda with arms, in 1972 Amin expelled Israeli military advisers and turned to Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya and the Soviet Union for support.^ After receiving aid from Libya in 1972, Amin expelled all Israelis from Uganda.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin then turned to Colonel Muammar Muhammad al-Qadhafi and the Soviet Union for support.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandela in 1999 defied United Nations sanctions to visit Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's Libya.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

[27] .Amin became an outspoken critic of Israel.^ As the years went on, Amin became increasingly erratic and outspoken.
  • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .In the documentary film General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait, he discussed his plans for war against Israel, using paratroops, bombers and suicide squadrons.^ Documentary is called "General Idi Amin Dada."

^ In the 1970s and early 1980s the nation suffered two bloody dictatorial regimes, under Idi Amin and Milton Obote, and two wars.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said he would never touch Idi Amin's body, even if it meant using a long stick.

[11] .Amin later stated that Hitler "was right to burn six million Jews"[36].^ He burnt over six-million Jews.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said Hitler "was right to burn six million Jews," and offered to be king of Scotland if asked.

^ Amin's anti-Semitism was exemplified in a bizarre telegram to Kurt Waldheim, the Secretary General of the United Nations, which stated that he had analyzed the Middle East situation and found that all of the problems were caused by the hated Jews, saying: "Germany was right when Hitler was the supreme commander.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1973, U.S. Ambassador Thomas Patrick Melady recommended that the United States reduce its presence in Uganda.^ The United States put crushing economic and political pressure on Idi Amin by going so far as to limit its purchase of coffee from Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the sharpest reactions was that of the United States, which denounced Amin and suspended a loan to Uganda of $10 million.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, both the United States and the British governments facilitated sales of military equipment by private businesses and arranged training for Ugandan "police agents" (even after the United States broke diplomatic relations and closed its embassy in Uganda in 1973).
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Melady described Amin's regime as "racist, erratic and unpredictable, brutal, inept, bellicose, irrational, ridiculous, and militaristic".[37] Accordingly, the United States closed its embassy in Kampala.^ Among the sharpest reactions was that of the United States, which denounced Amin and suspended a loan to Uganda of $10 million.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin called, as he had previously, to expel Israel from the United Nations and to send all the Israelis to Britain, which bore the guilt for creating the Jewish state.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and Britain severed ties during Amin's rule.

.In June 1976, Amin allowed an Air France airliner hijacked by two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations (PFLP-EO) and two members of the German Revolutionäre Zellen to land at Entebbe Airport.^ In 1976 a Palestinian group hijacked an Air France airliner to Entebbe Airport in Uganda and kept its Israeli passengers as hostages.

^ June 27, 1976 : An Air France flight from Paris to Athens, with 258 passengers, was hijacked by Haddad's Lebanon-based Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine ( PFLP ) and taken to Entebbe, Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was to the Entebbe airport in Uganda that PLO terrorists brought the Air France Airbus plane that they hijacked in June 1976.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There, the hijackers were joined by three more. .Soon after, 156 hostages who did not hold Israeli passports were released and flown to safety, while 83 Jews and Israeli citizens, as well as 20 others who refused to abandon them (among whom were the captain and crew of the hijacked Air France jet), continued to be held hostage.^ September 5, 1976 : Three Palestinians took 80 hostages when they hijacked a KLM Royal Dutch jetliner in Nice, France, commandeering it to Tunisia and on to Cyprus.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because Hitler and all German people knew that the Israelis are not people who are working in the interest of others in the world.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 4, 1976 Israeli commandos rescued almost all of the remaining Jewish, Israeli, and Air France crew hostages in Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the subsequent Israeli rescue operation, codenamed Operation Thunderbolt (popularly known as Operation Entebbe), nearly all the hostages were freed.^ The PFLP had finally managed to get their pound of flesh for the Muslim humiliation suffered after the Israeli rescue raid on Uganda's Entebbe airport on July 3, 1976.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hostages were rescued in a daring raid by an elite Israeli assault force, in which several Ugandan soldiers and all the hijackers were killed.

^ What followed was a reign of terror laced with buffoonery and a flirtation with Palestinian terrorism that led to the daring 1976 Israeli raid to rescue hijack hostages in his country.

.Three hostages died and 10 were wounded; six hijackers, 45 Ugandan soldiers, and one Israeli soldier, Yoni Netanyahu, were killed.^ Three of the terrorists were killed along with two hotel employees and two Jordanian soldiers during the gun batlle.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soldiers: The brutality of the soldiers is epitomized by Butabika or One Eleven, identified by the emblem of the gazelle on his sleeve and three vertical scars on his face like the numbers one hundred and eleven.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the hostages, unbeknownst to the Israelis, had been previously taken to a local hospital when a piece of meat had been caught in her throat.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This incident further soured Uganda's international relations, leading Britain to close its High Commission in Uganda.^ Memorandum to the Government of Uganda on an Amnesty International Mission to Uganda in January 1982 and Further Exchanges Between the Government and Amnesty International .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.Uganda under Amin embarked on a large military build-up, which raised concerns in Kenya.^ Amin was a well-regarded officer at the time of Uganda's independence from Britain in 1962, and Obote made him military chief of staff in 1966.

^ This military force then invaded Uganda and ousted the Amin government, forcing Amin to flee to Libya in 1979.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin backed down, as bullies do, when Kenya deployed troops and armored vehicles along the Uganda-Kenya border.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early in June 1975, Kenyan officials impounded a large convoy of Soviet-made arms en route to Uganda at the port of Mombasa.^ In June of 1975, they impounded multiple shiploads of Soviet-made arms en route to Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tension between Uganda and Kenya reached its climax in February 1976 when Amin announced that he would investigate the possibility that parts of southern Sudan and western and central Kenya, up to within 32 kilometres (20 mi) of Nairobi, were historically a part of colonial Uganda.^ Tensions steadily rose until like his mentor Muhammad with Mecca, Adolf with Austria and Czechoslovakia, and Saddam with Kuwait, Idi Amin announced that large parts of southern (non-Muslim) Sudan and western and central Kenya, within just a few miles of Nairobi, were historically part of Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An international airport is at Entebbe on the shore of Lake Victoria, some 32 kilometers (20 mi.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was in Israel's interest that an independent entity should be established in southern Sudan that would tie up Sudanese and even Egyptian forces, which might come to Sudan's assistance.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kenyan Government responded with a stern statement that Kenya would not part with "a single inch of territory". Amin backed down after the Kenyan army deployed troops and armored personnel carriers along the Kenya-Uganda border.^ Amin backed down, as bullies do, when Kenya deployed troops and armored vehicles along the Uganda-Kenya border.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Amin joined the King's African Rifles in the 1950s and was later deployed to Kenya's Lanet Army Barracks in Nakuru, his spectacular physique was said to have impressed the British colonial authorities, who quickly promoted him.

^ If the Uganda Plan for Jewish settlement had been carried out, Uganda would, like the Middle East, have become a war zone because of Jewish expansionism.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.Libyan military dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi backed Amin[2] and the Soviet Union became Amin's largest arms supplier.^ Amin then turned to Colonel Muammar Muhammad al-Qadhafi and the Soviet Union for support.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as the military dictator of Uganda, Idi Amin, targeted Indians and incited race hatred, Hitler and his army incited anti-Semitism.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.East Germany was involved in the General Service Unit and the State Research Bureau, the two agencies which were most notorious for terror.^ Amin earned massive cheers from Ugandans when he disbanded Obote's feared General Service Unit - Uganda's secret police.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin's anti-Semitism was exemplified in a bizarre telegram to Kurt Waldheim, the Secretary General of the United Nations, which stated that he had analyzed the Middle East situation and found that all of the problems were caused by the hated Jews, saying: "Germany was right when Hitler was the supreme commander.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They dragged her husband away and told her that he would be taken to the State Research Bureau.
  • My Life With Idi Amin « Five Chapters 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.fivechapters.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the Tanzanian invasion in 1979 East Germany attempted to remove evidence about its involvement.^ His reign was ended after an invasion by Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles in 1979.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April 1979, about forty thousand Tanzanian troops invaded Uganda and captured Kampala.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About April 10, 1979, as he was fleeing the country from the advancing Tanzanian army, Amin drove along the Bombo road that leads north of Kampala City.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

[4]

Erratic behaviour and media portrayal

Caricature of Amin in military and presidential attire by Edmund S. Valtman
.Over time, Amin became more erratic and outspoken.^ As the years went on, Amin became increasingly erratic and outspoken.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin's ruling base became increasingly narrow as he relied more and more on the Libyans, the PLO, and Muslim troops who were loyal to him.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1977, after Britain had broken diplomatic relations with his regime, Amin declared he had beaten the British and conferred on himself the decoration of CBE (Conqueror of the British Empire).^ Just like the delusional Muslim terrorists today, after Britain broke diplomatic relations with his regime, Amin declared he had beaten the British and conferred on himself the decoration of "Conqueror of the British Empire."
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is littered with bodies," said Henry Kyemba, Amin's longtime friend and a former health minister, when he defected to Britain in 1977.

^ Among the many titles he conferred on himself was that of CBE - "Conqueror" rather than "Commander of the British Empire," as well as conferring on himself a doctorate of law, declaring himself a field marshal and, in 1975, life president of Uganda.

.Radio Uganda then read out the whole of his new title: "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[B] Idi Amin Dada, VC,[C] DSO, MC, CBE."[8] In 1971, Amin and Zaire's president Mobutu Sese Seko changed the names of Lake Albert and Lake Edward to Lake Mobutu Sese Seko and Lake Idi Amin Dada, respectively.^ Britain, Israel, and the U.S. were quick to recognize Idi Amin as the rightful leader of Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Address by His Excellency the President of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The situation changed abruptly in March 1972 when President Idi Amin expelled all Israelis from Uganda and adopted a hostile stance.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
Amin became the subject of rumours and myths, including a widespread belief that he was a cannibal.[41][42] Some of the unsubstantiated rumours, such as the mutilation of one of his wives, were spread and popularised by the 1980 film Rise and Fall of Idi Amin and alluded to in the film The Last King of Scotland in 2006.[43]
.During Amin's time in power, popular media outside of Uganda often portrayed him as an essentially comic figure.^ A one-time heavyweight boxing champ and soldier in the British colonial army, Amin seized power on Jan.

^ Amin was a well-regarded officer at the time of Uganda's independence from Britain in 1962, and Obote made him military chief of staff in 1966.

^ Ugandans initially welcomed Amin's rise to power, and his frequent taunting of Britain, former colonial ruler of much of Africa, often played well on the continent.

.In a 1977 assessment typical of the time, a Time magazine article described him as a "killer and clown, big-hearted buffoon and strutting martinet".[44] For focusing on Amin's excessive tastes and self-aggrandizing eccentricities, the foreign media was often criticized for downplaying or excusing his murderous behavior.^ Time Magazine article on the Time Magazine website: .

^ Amin was a well-regarded officer at the time of Uganda's independence from Britain in 1962, and Obote made him military chief of staff in 1966.

^ Idi Amin, who liked his friends to call him "Big Daddy," came to be known as "The Butcher of Uganda."
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Other commentators even suggested that Amin had deliberately cultivated his reputation in the foreign media as an easily parodied buffoon in order to defuse international concern over his administration of Uganda.^ "Even Amin does not know how many people he has ordered to be executed ...

^ In the civilian area, Mashav, the Israeli Foreign Ministry's Department of International Cooperation, sent experts in the fields of agriculture, irrigation, medicine, and cooperative enterprises to Uganda.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historians and other commentators, however, deny such allegations and emphasize other factors involving developments within Uganda and the strained relationship between Obote and Amin.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]

Depose and exile

See also: Uganda-Tanzania War
.By 1978, the number of Amin's close associates had shrunk significantly, and he faced increasing dissent from within Uganda.^ Despite the increased Israeli involvement in all spheres in Uganda, Amin wanted much more.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historians and other commentators, however, deny such allegations and emphasize other factors involving developments within Uganda and the strained relationship between Obote and Amin.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Up to this day, Uganda is still associated with Amin," remarks Kiyimba Balidawa, an IT specialist educated in America.

.After the killings of Luwum and ministers Oryema and Oboth Ofumbi in 1977, several of Amin's ministers defected or fled to exile.^ The country is littered with bodies," said Henry Kyemba, Amin's longtime friend and a former health minister, when he defected to Britain in 1977.

^ He killed an estimated 400,000 people - including several Cabinet ministers, a Ugandan Anglican archbishop and a chief justice.

[47] .Later that year, after Amin's vice president, General Mustafa Adrisi, was injured in a car accident, troops loyal to him mutinied.^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin who was later declared life president and awarded a doctorate by Makerere University, is responsible for Uganda's economic crisis.

^ Later Sabine protects Lalita from the soldiers when they wrongly accuse her of tearing the photograph of President Idi Amin.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amin sent troops against the mutineers, some of whom had fled across the Tanzanian border.^ Some of the mutineers fled across the Tanzanian border.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin himself fled with some family members to Libya and from there to Saudi Arabia, where he found refuge until his death in August 2003.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Amin accused Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere of waging war against Uganda, ordered the invasion of Tanzanian territory, and formally annexed a section of the Kagera Region across the boundary.^ Amin invaded Tanzanian territory and formally annexed a section across the Kagera River boundary on November 1, 1978.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin then accused Tanzania's President Nyerere of inciting the rebellion.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tanzanian force, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation against Amin's troops and Libyan soldiers sent to help him.
  • Tire Tracks 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC tiretracks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][26]
.Nyerere mobilized the Tanzania People's Defence Force and counterattacked, joined by several groups of Ugandan exiles who had united as the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA).^ Nyerere mobilized his citizen army reserves and counterattacked, joined by Ugandan exiles united as the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA).
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I was in exile in Kenya when Ephraim Kamuntu, Akena Pajok and Ateker Ejalu requested us to join other people who were going to liberate Uganda with the help of Tanzania," Lwoka, who spoke a mixture of Luganda and Acholi said.

^ On October 9, 1962, the Uganda People's Congress party and the Kabaka Yekka party united to beat out the larger Democratic Party.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amin's army retreated steadily, and despite military help from Libya's Muammar al-Gaddafi, he was forced to flee on 11 April 1979 when Kampala was captured.^ This military force then invaded Uganda and ousted the Amin government, forcing Amin to flee to Libya in 1979.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States' disinformation campaign against Libya's Muammar Gaddafi .

^ Just as the military dictator of Uganda, Idi Amin, targeted Indians and incited race hatred, Hitler and his army incited anti-Semitism.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He escaped first to Libya and ultimately settled in Saudi Arabia where the Saudi royal family paid him a generous wage in return for his staying out of politics.^ Amin, a convert to Islam, fled to Libya, then Iraq and finally Saudi Arabia, where he was allowed to settle provided he stayed out of politics.

^ Amin himself fled with some family members to Libya and from there to Saudi Arabia, where he found refuge until his death in August 2003.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He first fled to Libya and Iraq, but moved to Saudi Arabia in December 1980.

[10] .Amin stayed for a number of years on the top two floors of the Novotel Hotel on Palestine Road in Jeddah.^ Sources said that some members of the two UMSC top organs - General Assembly and Executive Committee - had proposed that Amin be honoured and buried at Old Kampala.

.Having covered the war for the BBC as chief Africa correspondent, in 1980 Brian Barron, in partnership with cameraman Mohammed Amin of Visnews in Nairobi, located Amin and secured the first interview with him since his deposition.^ In this role, Amin first helped Obote secure power through the use of force and then in 1971 overthrew him in a military coup.
  • Getting Uganda Right (Part I) by Susan Braden - The Globalist 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amin was thus a member of the ruling elite that moved into positions of power when independence was declared, first as a crony of Obote, who made him chief of the army and air force, and then as his sworn rival.

[48]
.Amin held that Uganda needed him and never expressed remorse for the nature of his regime.^ Amin was a well-regarded officer at the time of Uganda's independence from Britain in 1962, and Obote made him military chief of staff in 1966.

^ He said that Amin is the most patriotic leader Uganda ever had, adding that the country might never produce his equal again.

^ Ugandas economy collapsed during the Idi Amin regime in the 1970s.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .In 1989, he attempted to return to Uganda, apparently to lead an armed group organised by Colonel Juma Oris.^ Though there were 12 unsuccessful attempts to assassinate Amin, and a few brave attempts to oppose him by organising armed resistance, they all failed.

.He reached Kinshasa, Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), before Zairian President Mobutu forced him to return to Saudi Arabia.^ Saudi Arabia took him in because they regarded him as a fellow Islamic ruler (Amin was raised as a Muslim, and as a child was known for his excellence in reciting the Quran) .
  • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ According to a statement from the presidential press unit, the younger Amin returned from self- imposed exile in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan early this week.

^ When Channel 4 journalist Elizabeth Jones told him that Amin was brutal, even before becoming president, Nasur said: "But it was the British who made him an officer.

Amin's death

.On 20 July 2003, one of Amin's wives, Madina, reported that he was in a coma and near death at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.^ On August 16th, 2003 Idi Amin died in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia took him in because they regarded him as a fellow Islamic ruler (Amin was raised as a Muslim, and as a child was known for his excellence in reciting the Quran) .
  • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Amin's Foot Soldiers: The Untold Story The East African (Nairobi) ANALYSIS August 18, 2003 Charles Onyango-Obbo UGANDA'S FORMER dictator Field Marshal Idi Amin, one of the most infamous tyrants of the 20th century died in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on Saturday, and was buried at a small funeral within hours after his death.

.She pleaded with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni to allow him to return to die in Uganda.^ Yoweri Museveni, who declared himself president in 1986, was confirmed in office by an overwhelming majority in May 1996 presidential elections.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Museveni said, It is, indeed, sad that Ugandan leaders have had to die in exile.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ties were renewed in July 1994 by President Yoweri Museveni, who seized power in a military coup in January 1986.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Museveni replied that Amin would have to "answer for his sins the moment he was brought back."[50] Amin died in Saudi Arabia on 16 August 2003. He was buried in Ruwais Cemetery in Jeddah.[51]

Family and associates

.A polygamist, Idi Amin married at least six women, three of whom he divorced.^ For this, Idi Amin turned to the Asians, most of whom were Indian.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the next three years, Idi Amin was tutored by Islamic scholar Muhammad Al Rajab.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with the Idi Amin film, the project seems to be a biographical sketch of Gadhafi that aims to includes the “good” (or at least the “complex”) along with the bad.
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

.He married his first and second wives, Malyamu and Kay, in 1966. The next year, he married Nora and then Nalongo Madina in 1972. On 26 March 1974, he announced on Radio Uganda that he had divorced Malyamu, Nora and Kay.^ During Amin’s eight years in charge, Uganda qualified for the Africa Nations Cup three successive times in 1974, 1976 and 1978.

^ At first, readers wonder why Radio Uganda stated rumours.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The situation changed abruptly in March 1972 when President Idi Amin expelled all Israelis from Uganda and adopted a hostile stance.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][53] .Malyamu was arrested in Tororo on the Kenyan border in April 1974 and accused of attempting to smuggle a bolt of fabric into Kenya.^ Summary: After the raid, Sabine’s father is stuck and stranded at the Ugandan-Kenyan border and cannot enter Kenya.
  • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

She later moved to London.[52][54] Kay died on 13 August 1974, reportedly from an attempted surgical abortion performed by her lover Dr. Mbalu Mukasa (who himself committed suicide). Her body was found dismembered. .In August 1975, during the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) summit meeting in Kampala, Amin married Sarah Kyolaba.^ I was a founder member of the Organisation of African Unity.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He became head of the Organisation of African Unity in 1975.

^ It was Amin who donated the Old Kampala land to Muslims during his reign (1971-1979).

Sarah's boyfriend, whom she had been living with before she met Amin, vanished and was never heard from again. According to The Monitor, Amin married again a few months before his death in 2003.[54]
.Sources differ widely on the number of children Amin fathered; most say that he had 30 to 45.[D] Until 2003, Taban Amin, Idi Amin's eldest son, was the leader of West Nile Bank Front (WNBF), a rebel group opposed to the government of Yoweri Museveni.^ After the overthrow of Idi Amin, the next government (under Museveni?
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Idi Amin had children.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain, Israel, and the U.S. were quick to recognize Idi Amin as the rightful leader of Uganda.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2005, he was offered amnesty by Museveni, and in 2006, he was appointed Deputy Director General of the Internal Security Organisation.[55] Another of Amin’s sons, Haji Ali Amin, ran for election as Chairman (i.e. mayor) of Njeru Town Council in 2002 but was not elected.[56] .In early 2007, the award-winning film The Last King of Scotland prompted one of his sons, Jaffar Amin, to speak out in his father's defense.^ PS. Personally speaking, I'm looking forward to seeing both The Last King of Scotland *and* Talladega Nights.
  • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even his favourite child Moses Amin, who was showered with his father's affection as a child growing up in Entebbe in the 1970s (and thoroughly spoilt as a result) was not what he could have been, as a son of Amin.
  • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

^ And, his catalogue of genocidal crimes prompted Hollywood to immortalise him in Forest Whitaker’s Oscar-winning The Last King Of Scotland.

Jaffar Amin said he was writing a book to rehabilitate his father's reputation.[57]
.On 3 August 2007, Faisal Wangita, one of Amin's sons, was convicted for playing a role in a murder in London.^ One hostage, Mrs. Dora Bloch, had been taken to a local hospital where she was murdered on Idi Amin's orders.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He told me the story of the murder of the Turkana by one Lt. Idi Amin.
  • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Byron Kawadwa, probably Uganda's leading playwright since independence, was murdered during the Idi Amin regime for using his plays as a vehicle for political criticism.
  • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]
.Among Amin's closest associates was the British-born Bob Astles, who is considered by many to have been a malign influence, and by others as a moderating presence.^ When Channel 4 journalist Elizabeth Jones told him that Amin was brutal, even before becoming president, Nasur said: "But it was the British who made him an officer.

^ Amin was considered by many to be a charismatic leader, and was often portrayed by the international press as a popular African independence figure.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .Isaac Malyamungu was an instrumental affiliate and one of the more feared officers in Amin's army.^ Obote eventually found an opportunity to squash the threat from Amin more thoroughly, and relayed orders to his loyal Langi officers, that Amin and his Army supporters were to be arrested.
  • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Amin becomes visibly (or more consistently) psychotic and paranoid, Nicholas begins to fear for his own safety.

^ In 1961, when the British hastily established a local army officer corps, Amin received a commissioned rank.
  • Jewish Political Studies Review - Israeli-Ugandan Relations in the Time of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Portrayal in media and literature

Film dramatisations

  • Victory at Entebbe (1976), a TV film about Operation Entebbe. .Julius Harris plays Amin in a comic, almost vaudeville-type, manner.^ Of all the world's dramatists perhaps only William Shakespeare would have been able to create, in the manner of Richard III or Julius Caesar, an epic play revolving around a lead character with the enigmatic personality of Idi Amin.
    • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

    .Godfrey Cambridge had originally been cast as Amin in the production, but died of a heart attack on the set.
  • Raid on Entebbe (1977), a film depicting the events of Operation Entebbe.^ I have not viewed the film as yet....Forest Whitaker was an excellent cast pick for resemblance of Idi Amin and a dam good actor...I'm looking forward to seeing it...
    • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    .Yaphet Kotto plays Amin as a charismatic, but short-tempered, political and military leader.
  • Mivtsa Yonatan (1977) (also known as Operation Thunderbolt), an Israeli film about Operation Entebbe.^ Byron Kawadwa, probably Uganda's leading playwright since independence, was murdered during the Idi Amin regime for using his plays as a vehicle for political criticism.
    • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amin was considered by many to be a charismatic leader, and was often portrayed by the international press as a popular African independence figure.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It seems like there is a skeptical and even condemning tone about how the Idi Amin film is portraying his policies.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Jamaican-born British actor Mark Heath plays Amin who first appears angered at the German terrorists for the airplane hijacking and setting up their base at Entebbe Airport, but he later changes his mood to supporting them over news of Israel's agreement to the hijackers' demands.
  • Rise and Fall of Idi Amin (1981), a film recreating Idi Amin's atrocities.^ The hijackers next had the airliner fly toward Israel and demanded the release of eight Palestinians, a member of the PFLP partner Japanese Red Army terrorist group, who took part in a 1972 terrorist attack on Tel Aviv airport; and the Greek Catholic Archbishop Hilarion Capucci, caught smuggling arms to Muslim Palestinian terrorists.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Britain, Israel, and the U.S. were quick to recognize Idi Amin as the rightful leader of Uganda.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At first these bold strokes made Amin popular among Ugandans, especially among those who were given control of the Indianbusinesses.
    • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Amin is played by Kenyan actor Joseph Olita.
  • The Naked Gun (1988), a comedy film which begins portraying Idi Amin (played by Prince Hughes) along with characters depicting other world leaders such as Yasser Arafat, Fidel Castro, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ruhollah Khomeini, and Muammar al-Gaddafi who are meeting in Beirut, Lebanon to conspire a plan to attack the United States.
  • Mississippi Masala (1991), a film depicting the resettlement of an Indian family after the expulsion of Asians from Uganda by Idi Amin.^ For this, Idi Amin turned to the Asians, most of whom were Indian.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This applies to Indians in Uganda before and after Idi Amin and independence.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The expulsion of Asians by Idi Amin was wrong.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Joseph Olita again plays Amin in a cameo.
  • The Last King of Scotland (2006), a film adaptation of Giles Foden's 1998 fictional novel of the same name.^ PS. Personally speaking, I'm looking forward to seeing both The Last King of Scotland *and* Talladega Nights.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Digg it Joel Kibazo The Guardian , Saturday 13 January 2007 I am not an anxious sort, but walking into a screening of The Last King of Scotland, I feared the worst.
    • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Abhi on September 14, 2006 1:33 PM · Direct link I had tried to write a post on this film last week but it didn't happen.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For his portrayal of Idi Amin in this film, actor Forest Whitaker won the Academy Award for Best Actor, a BAFTA, the Screen Actors' Guild award for Best Actor (Drama), and a Golden Globe.
  • In the 1989 Indian TV film, In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones, the character Kasozi sometimes makes an unusual noise while sleeping.^ Idi Amin (Forest Whitaker)gets grilled by the press.
    • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To get part of the answer, you need to go see Forest Whitaker’s Oscar-nominated performance as the mercurial and blood-thirsty Idi Amin in The Last King of Scotland, explains Susan Braden.
    • Getting Uganda Right (Part I) by Susan Braden - The Globalist 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Star: James McAvoy Star: Kerry Washington Star: Gillian Anderson Star: Forest Whitaker Director: Kevin MacDonald Screenwriter: Peter Morgan Screenwriter: Jeremy Brock ( less ) Tags: africa • amin • cannibal • carnage • dictator • documentary • forest whitaker • golden globes • idi amin • international Extras .
    • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    There is a legend in the hostel that he did that when he was dreaming about Idi Amin, who 'had killed his pop or something...'

Documentaries

  • General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait (1974), directed by French filmmaker Barbet Schroeder.
  • Idi Amin: Monster in Disguise (1997), a television documentary directed by Greg Baker.
  • The Man Who Ate His Archbishop's Liver? (2004), a television documentary written, produced and directed by Elizabeth C. Jones for Associated-Rediffusion and Channel 4.
  • The Man Who Stole Uganda (1971), World In Action first broadcast 5 April 1971.
  • Inside Idi Amin's Terror Machine (1979), World In Action first broadcast 13 June 1979.

Books

.
  • State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Amin (1977) by Henry Kyemba
  • The General Is Up by Peter Nazareth
  • Ghosts of Kampala: The Rise and Fall of Idi Amin (1980) by George Ivan Smith
  • The Last King of Scotland (1998) by Giles Foden (fictional)
  • Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa (1977) by Thomas Patrick Melady
  • General Amin (1975) by David Martin
  • The Collected Bulletins of Idi Amin (1974) and Further Bulletins of President Idi Amin (1975) by Alan Coren, portraying Amin as an amiable, if murderous, buffoon in charge of a tin-pot dictatorship.^ He told me the story of the murder of the Turkana by one Lt. Idi Amin.
    • UPC ..::|::.. Uganda Peoples Congress 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.upcparty.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During Amin’s eight years in charge, Uganda qualified for the Africa Nations Cup three successive times in 1974, 1976 and 1978.

    ^ Radio Uganda then read out the whole of his new title: "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular."
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alan was also responsible in part for a music release - "The Collected Broadcasts of Idi Amin". It was a British comedy album parodying Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, released in 1975 on Transatlantic Records.^ And that the Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, ordered the murder of a hospitalized woman.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Personality notes on Idi Amin Dada authoured by the British Embassy in Kampala in 1971, now available at the Public Records office in London, paint a positive picture of Amin.

    ^ Just as the military dictator of Uganda, Idi Amin, targeted Indians and incited race hatred, Hitler and his army incited anti-Semitism.
    • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It was performed by John Bird and written by Alan Coren, based on columns he wrote for Punch magazine.
  • I Love Idi Amin: The Story of Triumph under Fire in the Midst of Suffering and Persecution in Uganda (1977) by Festo Kivengere
  • Impassioned for Freedom: Uganda, Struggle Against Idi Amin (2006) by Eriya Kategaya
  • The Feast of the Nine Virgins (2001) by Jameela Siddiqi
  • Bombay Gardens (2006) by Jameela Siddiqi
  • A Distant Grief (1979) by F. Kefa Sempangi
  • Kahawa (1981) by Donald E. Westlake
  • Confessions of Idi Amin: The chilling, explosive expose of Africa's most evil man - in his own words (1977) compiled by Trevor Donald
  • Child of Dandelions, Governor General Award Finalist (2008) Shenaaz Nanji

Notes

.
  • ^ Many sources, like Encyclopædia Britannica, Encarta and the Columbia Encyclopedia, hold that Amin was born in Koboko or Kampala circa 1925, and that the exact date of his birth is unknown.^ Sources said that some members of the two UMSC top organs - General Assembly and Executive Committee - had proposed that Amin be honoured and buried at Old Kampala.

    ^ Amin was born in either 1924 or 1925 into the Muslim Kakwa tribe in Koboko in northwest Uganda, close to the borders of Zaire - now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sudan.

    .Researcher Fred Guweddeko claimed that Amin was born on 17 May 1928,[9] but that is disputed.^ The bodyfinders inform her that her uncle has offended President Idi Amin’s special police, the State Research Bureau (SRB), and this may be the reason why he has disappeared.
    • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [60] .The only certainty is that Amin was born some time during the mid-1920s.
  • ^ He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Makerere University.^ His sculpture War Victim (1986) , exhibited at Makerere University, commemorates the suffering borne by Ugandans in the 1970s and 1980s.
    • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amin who was later declared life president and awarded a doctorate by Makerere University, is responsible for Uganda's economic crisis.

    ^ During his stay, Carlos spent some time training other terrorist groups, which may have included Abu Nidal , giving them the benefit of his vast experience.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [6]
  • .
  • ^ The Victorious Cross (VC) was a medal made to emulate the British Victoria Cross.^ He had his tunics specially lengthened so that he could wear more World War II medals, including the Military Cross and the Victoria Cross.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [61]
  • .
  • ^ According to Henry Kyema and the African Studies Review[62], Idi Amin had 34 children.^ Idi Amin had children.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Africans - about 300,000 to 500,000 of them lost their lives in Idi Amin's brutal rule - did not have that choice.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many of the victims of Idi Amin were "Africans" if it comes to that.
    • A Movie About Idi Amin and an 'Opera' About Gadhafi - Sepia Mutiny 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Some sources say Amin claimed to have fathered 32 children.^ Some reports claim that the machine guns, grenades, pistols and SAM-7s were provided by Idi Amin of neighboring Uganda.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sources said that some members of the two UMSC top organs - General Assembly and Executive Committee - had proposed that Amin be honoured and buried at Old Kampala.

    A report in The Monitor says he was survived by 45 left children,[54] while another in the BBC gives the figure of 54.[63]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/29141/richard-h-ullman/human-rights-and-economic-power-the-united-states-versus-idi-ami. Retrieved 2009-03-26. "The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power.". 
  2. ^ a b Roland Anthony Oliver, Anthony Atmore. Africa since 1800. p. 272. 
  3. ^ a b Dale C. Tatum. Who influenced whom?. p. 177. 
  4. ^ a b Gareth M. Winrow: The foreign policy of the GDR in Africa, p. 141
  5. ^ Jørgensen, Jan Jelmert (1981). Uganda: a modern history. St. Martin's Press. p. 272. ISBN 0312827865. 
  6. ^ a b "Idi Amin: a byword for brutality". News24. 2003-07-21. http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1390595,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  7. ^ Gershowitz, Suzanne (20 February 2007). "The Last King of Scotland, Idi Amin, and the United Nations". http://www.ypfp.org/the_last_king_of_scotland_idi_amin_and_the_united_nations. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  8. ^ a b c d Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/aug/18/guardianobituaries. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  9. ^ a b c d Guweddeko, Fred (12 June 2007). "Rejected then taken in by dad; a timeline". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20070612053237/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/index.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  10. ^ a b "Idi Amin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070314142415rn_1/www.britannica.com/eb/article-9007180/Idi-Amin. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  11. ^ a b General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait. Le Figaro Films. 1974. 
  12. ^ Bay, Austin (20 August 2003). "Why Didn't Amin Rot and Die in Jail?". Strategy Page. http://www.strategypage.com/on_point/20030820.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  13. ^ Bridgland, Fred (16 August 2003). "Idi Amin". Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/idiamin/Idi-Amin.2453742.jp. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  14. ^ a b c Cain, Nick & Growden, Greg "Chapter 21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby" in Rugby Union for Dummies (2nd Edition), p294 (pub: John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England) ISBN 978-0-470-03537-5
  15. ^ a b c d Cotton, p111
  16. ^ Johnston, Ian (17 August 2003). "Death of a despot, buffoon and killer". Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/idiamin/Death-of-a-despot-buffoon.2453405.jp. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  17. ^ "Country Studies: Uganda: Independence: The Early Years". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  18. ^ "Idi Amin Dada Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Gale. 2005. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/idi-amin-dada. 
  19. ^ Nantulya, Paul (2001). "Exclusion, Identity and Armed Conflict: A Historical Survey of the Politics of Confrontation in Uganda with Specific Reference to the Independence Era". Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20061004231023/http://www.kas.org.za/Publications/SeminarReports/PoliticsofIdentityandExclusion/nantulya.pdf. 
  20. ^ a b "General Idi Amin overthrows Ugandan government". British Council. 2 February 1971. http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-history-amin.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  21. ^ "On this day: 25 January 1971: Idi Amin ousts Ugandan president". BBC. 1971-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/25/newsid_2506000/2506423.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  22. ^ Fairhall, John (26 January 1971). "Curfew in Uganda after military coup topples Obote". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/1971/jan/26/fromthearchive. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  23. ^ Mbabaali, Jude (August 2005). "The Role of Opposition Parties in a Democracy: The Experience of the Democratic Party of Uganda" (PDF). Regional Conference on Political Parties and Democratisation in East Africa. http://www.fes-tz.de/arusha-2005/docs/the-role-of-opposition-parties-in-a-democracy.uganda.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Country Studies: Uganda: Military Rule Under Amin". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  25. ^ a b "Country Studies: Uganda: Post-Independence Security Services". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  26. ^ a b "An Idi-otic Invasion". Time. 13 November 1978. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,946151-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  27. ^ a b Tall, Mamadou (Spring–Summer 1982). "Notes on the Civil and Political Strife in Uganda". A Journal of Opinion 12 (1/2): 41–44. doi:10.2307/1166537. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1166537. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  28. ^ Lautze, Sue. Research on Violent Institutions in Unstable Environments: The livelihoods systems of Ugandan army soldiers and their families in a war zone. Hertford College, Oxford University. http://www.livesandlivelihoods.com/files/25826548.pdf. 
  29. ^ a b "Obituary: Idi Amin". Daily Telegraph. 17 September 2003. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012134036rn_1/www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/08/18/db1801.xml&page=1. 
  30. ^ "Disappearances and Political Killings: Human Rights Crisis of the 1990s: A Manual for Action". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309153107/http://web.amnesty.org/aidoc/aidoc_pdf.nsf/d45725da5fa95f1f80256a2b00642199/cde8ef35a67e99e3802569a70019299e/$FILE/a3307593.pdf. 
  31. ^ "Special report: Who were Amin's victims?". The Daily Monitor. 13 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20070613161724/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin6.php. 
  32. ^ Luganda, Patrick (29 July 2003). "Amin's Economic War Left Uganda on Crutches". New Vision (Kampala). 
  33. ^ "On this day: August 7th 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". BBC. 1972-08-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/7/newsid_2492000/2492333.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  34. ^ "Flight of the Asians". Time. 11 September 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906327,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  35. ^ Jamison, M. Idi Amin and Uganda: An Annotated Bibliography, Greenwood Press, 1992, p.155-6
  36. ^ End for Amin the executioner The Sun-Herald August 17, 2003
  37. ^ "240. Telegram 1 From the Embassy in Uganda to the Department of State, January 2nd, 1973, 0700Z". Foreign relations (Office of the Historian) E-6. 2 January 1973. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/e6/66834.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  38. ^ "On this day: July 7th 1976: British grandmother missing in Uganda". BBC. 1976-07-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/7/newsid_2496000/2496095.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  39. ^ "'Dada' always rubbed Kenya the wrong way". Sunday Nation. 17 August 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206065709/http://www.nationaudio.com/News/DailyNation/17082003/News/Amin_News170820039.html. 
  40. ^ "Purges and Peace Talks". Time. 16 October 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906577,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  41. ^ Orizio, Riccardo (21 August 2003). "Idi Amin's Exile Dream". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/21/opinion/idi-amin-s-exile-dream.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  42. ^ "Museveni, munificent with monarch". The Economist. 29 November 2007. http://www.economist.com/world/mideast-africa/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=10216508. Retrieved 2008-06-27. 
  43. ^ Serugo, Moses (28 May 2007). "Special Report: The myths surrounding Idi Amin". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-05-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070528211152/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin9.php. 
  44. ^ "Amin:The Wild Man of Africa". Time. 28 February 1977. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,918762-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  45. ^ Kibazo, Joel (13 January 2007). "A Brute, Not a Buffoon". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/jan/13/comment.uganda. Retrieved 2009-08-08. "... Amin was widely portrayed as a comic figure. Yes, he had expelled the Asians and murdered a few people, but isn't that what was expected of Africa, I used to hear." 
  46. ^ "Obituary: Idi Amin". Daily Telegraph. 17 September 2003. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012134036rn_1/www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/08/18/db1801.xml&page=1. "Throughout his disastrous reign, he encouraged the West to cultivate a dangerous ambivalence towards him. His genial grin, penchant for grandiose self-publicity and ludicrous public statements on international affairs led to his adoption as a comic figure. He was easily parodied ... however, this fascination, verging on affection, for the grotesqueness of the individual occluded the singular plight of his nation." 
  47. ^ a b "Not even an archbishop was spared". The Weekly Observer. 16 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012152659/http://ugandaobserver.com/new/archives/2006arch/features/spec/feb/spec200602161.php. 
  48. ^ Barron, Brian (2003-08-16). "The Idi Amin I knew". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3156011.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  49. ^ Wasswa, Henry (17 August 2003). "Amin's death brings muted reaction". Associated Press. 
  50. ^ "Idi Amin back in media spotlight". BBC. 25 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3093613.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  51. ^ "Idi Amin, ex-dictator of Uganda, dies". USA Today. 16 August 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-08-16-amin-obit_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. "Amin was buried in Jiddah's Ruwais cemetery after sunset prayers Saturday, said a person close to the family in the Red Sea port city. The source, who spoke on condition of anonymity, was told that few people attended the funeral." 
  52. ^ a b "Reign of Terror: The life and loves of a tyrant". Daily Nation. 20 August 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206070718/http://www.nationaudio.com/News/DailyNation/20082003/News/News122.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  53. ^ Kavuma, Richard (18 June 2007). "Special Report: Big Daddy and his women". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20070618171054/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin8.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  54. ^ a b c Kibirige, David (17 August 2003). "Idi Amin is dead". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070610010707/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/news1.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  55. ^ Mcconnell, Tristan (12 February 2006). "Return of Idi Amin's son casts a shadow over Ugandan election". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/uganda/1510313/Return-of-Idi-Amins-son-casts-a-shadow-over-Ugandan-election.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  56. ^ "Amin's son runs for mayor". BBC. 3 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1740272.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  57. ^ "Idi Amin's son lashes out over 'Last King'". Associated Press (USA Today). 22 February 2007. http://www.usatoday.com/life/people/2007-02-22-amin-protest_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  58. ^ "Idi Amin's son jailed over death". BBC News. 3 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/6929285.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  59. ^ Kelly, Jane (19 August 2003). "Uganda's white rat". Daily News. http://www.dailynews.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=502&fArticleId=210731. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  60. ^ Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Idi Amin: Obituary". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/aug/18/guardianobituaries. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  61. ^ Lloyd, Lorna (2007) p.239
  62. ^ African Studies Review (1982) p.63
  63. ^ "Amins row over inheritance". BBC News. 2003-08-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3179085.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 

References

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  • African studies review.^ Nayenga, Peter F.B. "Myths and Realities of Idi Amin Dada's Uganda," African Studies Review , 22, No.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ravenhill, F.J. "Military Rule in Uganda: The Politics of Survival," African Studies Review , 17, No.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Catalysts of Urbanism in the Countryside-- Mukono, Uganda," African Studies Review , 31, No.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    25–26. University of California. .1982. 
  • Avirgan, Tony; Martha Honey (1982).^ Avirgan, Tony, and Martha Honey.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .War in Uganda: The Legacy of Idi Amin.^ In the 1970s and early 1980s the nation suffered two bloody dictatorial regimes, under Idi Amin and Milton Obote, and two wars.
    • Profile - Uganda 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Britain, Israel, and the U.S. were quick to recognize Idi Amin as the rightful leader of Uganda.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some reports claim that the machine guns, grenades, pistols and SAM-7s were provided by Idi Amin of neighboring Uganda.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Westport: Lawrence Hill & Co. Publishers. ISBN 0882081365. 
  • Cotton, Fran (Ed.) (1984) The Book of Rugby Disasters & Bizarre Records. Compiled by Chris Rhys. London. Century Publishing. ISBN 0-7126-0911-3
  • Decalo, Samuel (1989). .Psychoses of Power: African Personal Dictatorships.^ "African Personal Dictatorships," Journal of Modern African Studies [Cambridge], 23, No.
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    ^ Psychoses of Power: African Personal Dictatorships .
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0813376173.
     
  • Gwyn, David (1977). .Idi Amin: Death-Light of Africa.^ Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa .
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316332305.
     
  • Kyemba, Henry (1977). .A State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Amin.^ The bodyfinders inform her that her uncle has offended President Idi Amin’s special police, the State Research Bureau (SRB), and this may be the reason why he has disappeared.
    • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ullman, Richard H. "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin," Foreign Affairs , 56, No.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The United States put crushing economic and political pressure on Idi Amin by going so far as to limit its purchase of coffee from Uganda.
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Ace Books. ISBN 0441785244.
     
  • Lloyd, Lorna (2007). Diplomacy with a difference: the Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880-2006. University of Michigan: Martinus Nijhoff. .ISBN 9004154973. 
  • Melady, Thomas P.; Margaret B. Melady (1977).^ Melady, Thomas, and Margaret Melady.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa.^ Up Next Idi Amin Dada .
    • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nayenga, Peter F.B. "Myths and Realities of Idi Amin Dada's Uganda," African Studies Review , 22, No.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa .
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    .Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel.^ Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1978.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0836207831. 
  • Orizio, Riccardo (2004). Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators. Walker & Company. ISBN 0436209993. 
  • Palmowski, Jan (2003). Dictionary of Contemporary World History: From 1900 to the present day (Second ed.). .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1963.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1976.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Uganda / Bibliography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Oxford University Press for International African Institute, 1965.
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    ISBN 0-19-860539-0.
     

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Milton Obote
President of Uganda
1971–1979
Succeeded by
Yusufu Lule

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Idi Amin Dada (May 17, 1925August 16, 2003) was a Ugandan military officer and the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979.
Sometimes people mistake the way I talk for what I am thinking.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • I am not a politician but a professional soldier.^ Claiming himself to be a professional soldier, not a politician, Amin promoted many of his staunchest supporters, both enlisted personnel and officers, to command positions.
    • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I am therefore a man of few words. .
    • Radio broadcast (25 January 1971)
  • Sometimes people mistake the way I talk for what I am thinking.^ Listening to the one community radio station on the way home from work today I heard them PRAISE Idi in his earlier years, and how he had returned the economy to the people.
    • A Small Victory: he's not dead yet 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC asmallvictory.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Idi Amin pulls a coup on January 25,1971, and becomes Uganda's new ruler thanks to Israel.

    ^ As armed forces chief, Amin staged a coup on January 25, 1971 when President Milton Obote was out of the country and proclaimed himself head of state.
    • Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.ugandamission.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Idi Amin: a byword for brutality: News24: Africa: News 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

    .I never had any formal education—not even a nursery school certificate.^ Idi Amin received little formal education: sources are unclear whether or not he attended the local missionary school.
    • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Born in 1936 in Asembo, Siaya District (now in Bondo), Otonde never received any formal education.
    • Tales of Idi Amin's chief cook( Nigeria, Africa & World News) 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africamasterweb.com [Source type: General]

    .But sometimes I know more than Ph.D.s because as a military man I know how to act.^ A semi-literate school dropout, Amin boasted that he knew "more than doctors of philosophy because as a military man, I know how to act."
    • Amin Buried In Saudi Arabia | Home | Sky News 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC news.sky.com [Source type: News]

    ^ A semiliterate school dropout, Amin boasted that he knew ``more than doctors of philosophy because as a military man I know how to act.''

    ^ But Whitaker dominates the movie — and the young man — even more powerfully than Denzel Washington did Ethan Hawke in that 2001 crime drama.
    • Forest Whitaker channels a crazed dictator in Scotland | Entertainment | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.chron.com [Source type: General]

    I am a man of action. .
    • Appears in Barbet Schroeder (1974), General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait
  • Politics is like boxing — you try to knock out your opponents.^ Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, the star and focus of General Idi Amin Dada (A Self-Portrait) (1974), was unhappy with the film when it was released.
    • 2 x Barbet Schroeder | Film International 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.filmint.nu [Source type: General]

    ^ General Idi Amin Dada   (1974) .
    • risselada's film blog - Archive - Spout 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A day in the life of Idi Amin Dada .

    • Interview, African summit talks, Angola, January 1976. Reported p.A8, Palm Beach Post, January 12, 1976.

Attributed

.
  • My mission is to lead the country out of a bad situation of corruption, depression and slavery.^ In the Judeo-Christian scriptures, the Bible, in the Book of Exodus, God calls Moses to lead the Children of Israel out of a crippling 400-year slavery in Egypt.
    • Weekly Top 20 News Events from Africa Almanac 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africaalmanac.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Bare feet on the polished floor, I stared out over the rippling green leaves of the banana plantations, my eyes following the road that leads to the Rwandan border.
    • My brutal muse - theage.com.au 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: Original source]

    .After I rid the country of these vices, I will then organize and supervise a general election of a genuinely democratic civilian government.^ Amin made the usual statements about his government's intent to play a mere "caretaker role" until the country could recover sufficiently for civilian rule.
    • Uganda MILITARY RULE UNDER AMIN - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC workmall.com [Source type: Original source]
    • AllRefer.com - Uganda - Military Rule Under Amin | Ugandan Information Resource 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC reference.allrefer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Quoted in Uganda, the Human Rights Situation (1978), by United States Congress.^ On October 9, 1962, the Uganda People's Congress party and the Kabaka Yekka party united to beat out the larger Democratic Party.
      • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
      • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ (But only in 1978 did the United States shift its purchase of coffee from Uganda to neighbouring states.
      • Capturing Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mazalien.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Controversy raged in the United States in the use of equipment sold to Uganda.
      • Pat Hutton and Jonathan Bloch, The Making of Idi Amin 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Senate, p. .13 - Civil rights - 1978
  • His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Seas and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular.^ Forrest Whitaker has been waiting for this role all his life and gives a career performance as the unpredictable Idi Amin Dada.
    • review of the last king of scotland and dreamgirls | identity theory film 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.identitytheory.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On October 18, the latest account of the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Dada's bizarre and brutal nine-year reign will headline the London Film Festival.
    • allAfrica.com: Kenya: Idi Amin the King of Scotland 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Related Link:- Museveni appoints Taban Amin deputy ISO chief Don't compare obote to Amin, says cabinet 1971: Idi Amin ousts Uganda president About the book - Recollections of Uganda under Obote & Amin Idi Amin was not a monster Whitaker About Idi Amin Idi Amin, Still in the News Today Biography: Idi Amin Dada Dictator Idi Amin dies In pictures: Life of Idi Amin Entebbe Rescue Operation .
    • Tales of Idi Amin's chief cook( Nigeria, Africa & World News) 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.africamasterweb.com [Source type: General]

    • About himself. .Quoted inAfricana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (1999) by Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates
  • You cannot run faster than a bullet.^ General Amin (UK) General Idi Amin Dada (USA) General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait (USA) No One Can Run Faster Than a Rifle Bullet more Parents Guide: .
    • Général Idi Amin Dada: Autoportrait (1974) 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Quoted in The Mammoth Book of Zingers, Quips, and One-Liners (2004) by Geoff Tibballs, p. .51
  • Although some people felt Adolf Hitler was bad, he was a great man and a real conqueror whose name would never be forgotten.^ Like some other real baddies in history, such as Hitler and Stalin, he knew how to charm people when it suited him on his way up.
    • Joel Kibazo on Idi Amin and The Last King of Scotland | Comment is free | The Guardian 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Sabine also realizes that she has never interacted with her driver Mzee; she knows nothing about him or his family; doesn’t even know his name.
    • Guidebook 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.snanji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think it’s really easy to sit in the theater and go, “Oh my God, that’s horrible, but I would never do that.
    • blackfilm | features | THE LAST KING OF SCOTLAND: An Interview with Kerry Washington
      By Wilson Morales
      16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.blackfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Quoted in The Evil 100 (2004) by Martin Gilman Wolcott, p. .78
  • In any country there must be people who have to die.^ However, throughout the history of our world there have been many callous people who cared little for the loss and sufferings of others.
    • Worst Killers The 100 most evil murderers in the world 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC worst-killers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "There will be between 5000 and 10,000 people who will begin to arrive on Friday about p.m.
    • Log Cabin Chronicles Bob Gervais' Me and Idi Amin's victims column 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.tomifobia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here you see -" "And listen, there are lots of people who know I came here."
    • THE EXQUISITELY BLEEDING HEADS OF DOKTUR PALMER VREEDEEZ by John Shirley 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.subgenius.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They are the sacrifices any nation has to make to achieve law and order.^ Inflation of over 1,000 percent destroyed the nation's currency, making Uganda's bills only useful as leaflets to distribute the pictures of Idi Amin that they bore.
    • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Site is designed and targeted to U.S. audiences and is governed by and operated in accordance with the laws of the U.S. We make no representation that this Site is operated in accordance with the laws or regulations of, or governed by, other nations.
    • The Last King of Scotland - The Real Idi Amin | SPIKE 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As his collection of wives grew, Big Daddy divorced three wives over national radio under the grounds that they violated Islamic law by running businesses.
    • Prophet of Doom - Good Muslims - Idi Amin Dada - Big Daddy, Butcher of Uganda, "Last King of Scotland", "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea, and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular" 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Prophet of Doom - Islamic Terrorism Timeline - 1976 - Islamic Terrorism Timeline 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.prophetofdoom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Quoted in Morrow's International Dictionary of Contemporary Quotations, 1982, Jonathon Green.
  • I am the hero of Africa.
    • Quoted in Simpson's Contemporary Quotations, by James Beasley Simpson, p. 1

About Idi Amin

.
  • Amin is a splendid man by any standards and is held in great respect and affection by his British colleagues.^ As faithfully documented in the movie, Idi Amin first served in the British Army, where he gained his affection for Scotland, before becoming commander of the Ugandan Army under Obote.
    • Getting Uganda Right (Part I) by Susan Braden - The Globalist 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amin went round the country preaching traditional values and respect for the elders - and for British teachers.
    • His Excellency Field Marshal Idi Amin Dada, ex-President of Uganda, Conqueror of the British Empire, Victorious Cross, Member of the Excellent Order of the Source of the Nile, (not to mention Wife-Eater, Beer-Swiller, Pub Singer, Bloody Dictator and Damne - Africa, World - The Independent 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ "Dr Amin was a good man, a good husband, a loving father and a great grand-father."

    … He is tough and fearless and in the judgment of everybody … completely reliable. Against this he is not very bright and will probably find difficulty in dealing with the administrative side of command. .
    • OG Griffith, 1969 despatch on Amin's promotion to major, released by Public Record Office.^ Obote appointed a face-saving commission of inquiry and promoted Amin to chief of staff in 1966 and to brigadier and major-general in 1967.
      • Idi Amin Dada – FREE Idi Amin Dada information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Idi Amin Dada research 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Amin is subsequently promoted to major-general and appointed chief of the army and air force.
      • Idi Amin killer file 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In 1967, Mr. Amin was promoted to brigadier general and the next year to major general.
      • Idi Amin, Brutal Ruler of Uganda in the 70s, dies 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.wehaitians.com [Source type: News]

      .Amin hailed as splendid, but not very bright, June 23, 2000, Richard Norton Taylor, The Guardian.
  • Idi Amin is a splendid type and a good [rugby] player … but virtually bone from the neck up, and needs things explained in words of one letter.^ He serves in the British action against the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya (1952-56) and is described by officials as "a splendid type and a good (rugby) player, but virtually bone from the neck up, and needs things explained in words of one letter."
    • Idi Amin killer file 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Idi Amin Obituary: Like Every African Dictator, He Was Confusion'sMasterpiece ANTHONY DANIELS / The Telegraph (UK) 17aug2003 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is there one thing you have done that is good?
    • The Last King of Scotland (2006) < Reviews | PopMatters 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.popmatters.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The British foreign office describes Amin as "A splendid type and a good football player."
    • Timeline 1971 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Document from Public Record Office quoting "a British official"; cited variously in obituaries including Prayers but no forgiveness for Idi Amin, August 18, 2003, Anton La Guardia, Daily Telegraph.
  • Racist, erratic and unpredictable, brutal, inept, bellicose, irrational, ridiculous, and militaristic.^ Melady described Amin's regime as "racist, erratic and unpredictable, brutal, inept, bellicose, irrational, ridiculous, and militaristic".
    • Idi Amin Biography 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Idi Amin - Telegraph Accessibility links .

    ^ Uganda dictator Idi Amin dead August 17, 2003 .
    • The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - World 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.tribuneindia.com [Source type: News]

    .
    • About Amin's regime.^ Capturing looks at the view of Amin in present-day Uganda, thoughts about the man and his regime, and elements of shooting the film there.
      • The Last King Of Scotland (2006) 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.dvdmg.com [Source type: General]

      .Telegram 1 From the Embassy in Uganda to the Department of State, January 2, 1973, 0700Z, U.S. Ambassador Thomas Patrick Melady.^ Amazon.com: Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa (9780836207835): Thomas Patrick Melady, Margaret Melady: Books .
      • Amazon.com: Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa (9780836207835): Thomas Patrick Melady, Margaret Melady: Books 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      ^ WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA FILES 126 pages of White House, Department of State, NSC, and CIA files covering Idi Amin and Uganda.
      • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The telegrams convey official information about policy proposals and implementation, program activities, or personnel and post operations between the Department of State and posts abroad.
      • IDI AMIN - WHITE HOUSE - STATE DEPARTMENT - NSC - CIA - BRITISH GOVERNMENT FILES 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .US Department of State.
  • He is killer and clown, big-hearted buffoon and strutting martinet.^ Killer squads and a range of security departments with names of a chilling ambiguity sprang up: "The Public Safety Unit"; "The State Research Bureau".

    ^ This is a wonderful, horrifying performance: Whitaker doesn't take the easy way out by playing Amin as a killer clown, a treacherous buffoon.
    • Last King of Scotland, The reviews at Metacritic.com 16 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.metacritic.com [Source type: General]

    • Uganda. Amin:The Wild Man of Africa, March 07, 1977, Time magazine

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Idi Amin Dada (17 August 1925[1] – 16 August 2003) was a repressive dictator of the African country of Uganda. The President of Tanzania at the time, Julius Nyerere, invaded Uganda to save the country from Idi Amin.

Amin is famous for sending all Asians, mainly from India and Pakistan, out of Uganda. He threw them out because he believed they were taking the jobs of Ugandans. Many of the Asians that left Uganda came back after Amin was thrown out.

Amin also supported the cause of Palestine freedom. This caused the famous hijacking of an Air France flight that landed in Uganda.

He died in 2003 in Saudi Arabia, where he lived after being thrown out of Uganda, he was barred from ever returning since he left. He was put on life support on July 18 but when his organs began to fail life support was disconnected by family.[3].

A 2006 movie, "The Last King of Scotland" is about Amin's government. Forest Whitaker won an Academy Award for best actor.

References

  1. Many sources, like Encyclopædia Britannica, Encarta and the Columbia Encyclopedia, hold that Amin was born in Koboko or Kampala circa 1925, and that the exact date of his birth is unknown. Researcher Fred Guweddeko claimed that Amin was born on 17 May 1928,[1], but that is disputed.[2] The only certainty is that Amin was born some time during the mid-1920s.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Idi Amin, which are similar to those in the above article.








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