Ifriqiya: Wikis

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In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa, whose name it inherited.

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia. Its capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O'Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: "Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts. During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis. The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie."

From their base in Kairouan the Aghlabids conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

Contents

Rulers of Ifriqiya

Umayyad Governors of Ifriqiya

Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya

Kharijite rulers

Abbasid governors in Kairouan (Muhallabids)

  • Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath (from Cairo), 761-765
  • Aysa ibn Mussa, 765
  • al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamimi, 765-67
  • Omar ibn Hafs, 767-771
  • Yazid ibn Hatim, 772-787
  • Dawoud ibn Yazid (temporary), 787-788
  • Rouh ibn Hatim, 788-791
  • Nasr ibn Habib el-Mohellebi, 791-793
  • al-Fadl ibn Rouh, 793-795
  • Abd Allah ibn al-Djarud, 795
  • Herthema ibn Ayan, 795-797
  • Muhammad ibn Mocatel, 797-800

Aghlabid Emirs of Ifriqiya

Fatimid Caliphs in Ifriqiya

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Zirid rulers of Ifriqiya

invasion of the Banu Hillal (1057) - Kairouan destroyed, Zirids reduced to tiny coastal strip, remainder fragments into petty Bedouin emirates,

Ifriqiyan coast annexed by Norman Sicily (1143-1156)
All of Ifriqiya conquered and annexed by the Almohads (1160)

Hafsid governors of Ifriqiya

  • Abd al-Wahid (1207-1216)
  • Abd-Allah (1224-1229)
  • Abu Zakariya (1229-1249)

Hafsid caliphs of Ifriqiya

  • Muhammad I al-Mustansir (1249-1277)
  • Yahya II al-Watiq (1277-1279)
  • Ibrahim I (1279-1283)
  • Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284)
  • Abu Hafs Umar I (1284-1295)
  • Muhammad I (1295-1309)
  • Abu Bakr I (1309)
  • Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir (1309-1311)
  • Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani (1311-1317)
  • Muhammad II (1317-1318)
  • Abu Bakr II (1318-1346)
  • Abu Hafs Umar II (1346-1349)
  • Ahmad I (1349)
  • Ishaq II (1350-1369)
  • Abu al-Baqa Khalid (1369-1371)
  • Ahmad II (1371-1394)
  • Abd al-Aziz II (1394-1434)
  • Muhammad III (1434-1436)
  • Uthman (1436-1488)
  • Abu Zakariya Yahya (1488-1489)
  • Abd al-Mu'min (Hafsid) (1489-1490)
  • Abu Yahya Zakariya (1490-1494)
  • Muhammad IV (1494–1526)
  • Muhammad V (1526-1543)
  • Ahmad III (1543–1570)
  • Muhammad VI (1574-1574)
  • Jafari "Jafari the Clean" Yahya (1574-1581)
  • Alem Nafirr (1581-1609)

Sources

  • Ibn Khaldun, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961

See also


Simple English

In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area of the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa.

In modern Arabic, the term simply means "Africa". It comes from the Latin term Africa.

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