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Ignacio Andrade

In office
28 February 1898 ‚Äď 20 October 1899
Preceded by Joaqu√≠n Crespo
Succeeded by Cipriano Castro

145th Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela
In office
2 October 1914 ‚Äď 7 September 1917
President Victorino M√°rquez Bustillos
Preceded by Manuel D√≠az Rodr√≠guez
Succeeded by Bernardino Mosquera

Born 31 July 1839(1839-07-31)
Mérida, Venezuela
Died 17 February 1925 (aged 85)
Macuto, Venezuela
Political party Liberal Party
Spouse(s) Maria Isabel Sosa Saa

Ignacio Andrade Troconis (31 July 1839 ‚Äď 17 February 1925), was a military and politician, member of the Liberal yellow party, President of Venezuela 1898‚Äď1899, his election was declaredly clouded by fraud.


Early life and career

Ignacio Andrade Troconis, presumably born in Merida State, Venezuela, on 31 July 1839, was the son of General José Escolástico Andrade Pirela and Juana Troconis; he died in Macuto, Vargas Department, Venezuela, on 17 February 1925. In spite of his education and long political career, Andrade was not able to reach the leadership and political prominence of many of his contemporaries, like Joaquín Crespo, or José Manuel "Mocho" Hernández. This is, perhaps, best demonstrated by the many conspiracies and other attacks against him as President of Venezuela (1898-1899). His presidential term was short-lived; Cipriano Castro and Juan Vicente Gomez (both from Tachira State), having amassed a great army, launched the Revolucion Liberal Restauradora (Liberal and Restoration Revolution) against Andrade. They marched into Caracas on 19 October, 1899, where Cipriano Castro took over as President, with Gomez as Vice-President.

Andrade's exact date and place of birth have not been determined with any certainty; his birth or baptismal certificates have not been found. It was commonly assumed during the 1897 electoral campaign that Andrade was born in Zulia State, and the Venezuelan Chancellery went as far as publishing a biography of the candidate in a Spanish magazine, confirming that Andrade “… was born in Maracaibo in 31 July 1839…." At the same time, Andrade's opposition claimed that the candidate could not aspire to the Venezuelan presidency because his birthplace had been Colombia. However, a notation on Andrade's death certificate in Caracas' Main Registry indicates that , "…according to the information provided by his son, Jose Andrade of 35 years of age, General Andrade was originally from Merida [State…] and died at the age of 85…" Either locale is possible; Andrade's father, who fought in the War of Independence, was from Maracaibo, Zulia State, and his mother was from Merida State.

Andrade was Governor of Falcon State (1883-1885), which at the time included present day Falcon and Zulia States, and he was Senator for Falcon State (1886). In 1892, Andrade became Governor of the Federal District; he was Minister of Education (1893) in Joaquin Crespo's second administration; a Delegate for Miranda State (1893), Minister of Public Works (1893), and Governor of Miranda State (1894-1897), a position Andrade held until 1 September, 1897, when he launched his presidential campaign. Winning the election, on 1 October, 1898, Andrade took the office of President of Venezuela on 20 February, 1898.

Andrade married Maria Isabel Sosa Saa, on 14 February, 1885.


Andrade's presidency

In agreement with the Constitution of 1893 the voting process was direct and secret. Andrade obtained 406,610 votes against the favorite of the opposition, general José Manuel Hernández, known as El Mocho, that only obtained 2,203; the elections were labeled as fraudulent. Consequently, the electoral triumph of Andrade took place within a political climate of crispation, which ended with the insurrectionary movement led by "El Mocho" Hernández, known as La Revolución de Queipa. During the warlike development of combat operations that began in 23 February 1898, and extended until 12 June of the same year, an unexpected event took place that negatively affected the government of Andrade, which was the death of Joaquín Crespo. In effect, as a result of Crespo's disappearance from the political scene after his death in Mata Carmelera, in 16 April 1898, a great amount of caudillos wanted to take power, including general Ramón Guerra, who in his position of Military Minister captured Mocho Hernández, and soon he was in arms against the government of Ignacio Andrade.


Aside from the insurrectionary movements that Andrade had to confront, during his administrative management economic difficulties were experienced, accompanied by the distrust of certain political circles and an epidemic of smallpox. Finally, Andrade was overthrown, 19 October, 1899 by Cipriano Castro and his Revoluci√≥n Liberal Restauradora, which prevailed without the governmental forces delivering a greater attack to stop them. Once outside of the presidency, Ignacio Andrade went to Puerto Rico, where he wrotes lines about the movement that overthrew him, titled ¬ŅPorqu√© triunf√≥ la Revoluci√≥n Restauradora?, published 30 years after his death (1955). After being amnestied (19 November 1903), he served on the government of Juan Vicente G√≥mez, who paradoxically was part of the revolutionary movement that expelled him from power, promoting him las minister of Foreign Affairs (1914‚Äď1917) and Home Affairs (1917‚Äď1922), in the executive cabinet of Victorino M√°rquez.

See also



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