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Francisco Ignacio Elizondo Villarreal, (Salinas Valley, New Kingdom of León, New Spain, March 9, 1766 - San Marcos, Texas, New Spain, September 2, 1813), was a New Leonese royalist general, mostly known for his victorious plot to seek to caught important insurgency precursors of the Mexican War of Independence such as Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende, Juan Aldama in Baján, Coahuila in 1811. Elizondo was born in the village of Salinas (now Salinas Victoria). He was son of José Marcos de Elizondo and María Josefa de Villarreal. He was of Spanish and Basque ancestry.


Personal Life

During his childhood, Elizondo lived in the village of Pesquería Grande (present-day Garcia, Nuevo León). His father owned many agricultural ranch stock properties then known as haciendas. In 1787, at the age of twenty-one he married María Gertrudis. She died in March 6, 1797, when she was giving birth his son, José Rafael Eusebio.

Ignacio Elizondo started his militar career in 1798, after being designated [[Lieutenant] of Pesquería's provincial militia company. Two years later, he was honoured Captain of Punta de Lampazos provincial Dragons, one of the largest militar 'presidio' of the New Kingdom of León. However, one year later Elizondo occupied again his former position at the Pesquería's provincial militia. In 1806, governor Pedro de Herrera y Levya, commend him the control of the Eighth Dragon's company who would help Texas against the concurrent apache attacks, already present in northern towns of the New Kingdom of León. Elizondo demanded viceroy through a letter to exempt himself from his position at the military command because this was making serious financial problems in some of his ranchs and stock properties, among them some he previously bought to the church, in the same letter, he expressed the reprisals from governor Pedro de Herrera, that would cause the action of Elizondo's desertion. After, falling out with Herrera, indebted with the purchase of several haciendas from the church, he married María Romana Carrasco the same year, then he decided to change his residency to the Hacienda of San Juan de Canoas, in the province of Coahuila, where he also administrated the Hacienda of Alamo, jurisdiction of Monclova.

Counter-insurrection movement

He left his militar service briefly before the insurgent movement of the Mexican War of Independence. After some doubts about the political, ideological and social consequences that this movement was going to spread all over New Spain, he joined the insurgent army, though in deep down, he considered himself loyal to the Spanish king Fernando VI. In the Provincias Internas de Oriente, the independence movement toward Spain was firstly not well received, but several towns soon adopted insurgency. When the notice about the insurgency came to the New Kingdom of León, governor Manuel de Santa María was insecure about which side of the war he was, after being on the royalist side for about two months he then adopted insurgency while governors of Coahuila, New Santander and Texas declared to be on the royalist side, lieutenant Menchaca seek to add Texas towards insurgency. Briefly after this notice, and being disappointed from the ideals of insurgents, Ignacio Elizondo marched through the New Kingdom of León, New Santander and Texas, in order to keep them on the royalist side. The counter-insurgent movement already had began on Texas, and then the New Kingdom of León, Manuel de Santa María was soon expelled from his position of governor, remplaced by Simon de Herrera, brother of Pedro de Herrera, the former governor of the New Kingdom of León. Elizondo's impulse towards those actions were stronger when general Ramon Díaz de Bustamante, organized a plot to seek to caught Miguel Hidalgo, Juan Aldama, and Ignacio Allende. Though, this version is disputed as some historians, argue that was the Spanish bishop of the New Kingdom of León Primo Feliciano Marín de Porras, who convinced him to change to the royalist forces, with whom Ignacio Elizondo already had a long friendship after he allowed him to live and administrate one of numerous Elizondo's hacienda properties. Elizondo's plot came on fruit on February 1811, when paradoxically he met his previous "enemy" Pedro de Herrera y Leyva to command an army of approximately 200 soldiers, closely between Monclova and Acatita de Baján, after receiving notices of the defeat of Hidalgo's army in several battles such as the Battle of Calderon bridge, whose results were a disaster for the insurgents, and the insurgents were moving north in order to seek supplies in the city of Monclova, Elizondo's trap resulted in one of the most highlighted victories for the royalists, as he captured many important insurgent generals and the starter of the insurgency, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, while the insurgent army was much higher at the moment of the ambush, Elizondo's forces were scattered in strategic poistions around the zone.


Elizondo's victory was praised by royalists, and even king Fernando VII, appointed him with a higher rank in the royalist army. However, his well-being didn't last too long, while trying to convert many towns in New Spain to realism he gained many enemies, hence hated by many insurgents, Ignacio Elizondo was killed by Lieutenant Miguel Serrano, while sleeping on his encampament at the edge of San Marcos River, in Texas. [1]


  1. ^ En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810-1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales


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