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Ilaiyaraaja
Born 3 June 1943 (1943-06-03) (age 66)
Origin Pannaipuram, Theni district, Tamil Nadu
Occupations Film score composer,

music director

Instruments Vocals (playback singing), guitar, keyboard/

harmonium/piano

Years active 1976 to present
Notable instruments
Harmonium,Guitar

Ilaiyaraaja (Tamil: இளையராஜா) (born Gnanadesikan[1] on 12 June 1933) is an Indian film composer, singer, lyricist and the first Asian composer to score a symphony for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. He is a gold medallist from Trinity College of Music, London, and has composed over 4500 songs and provided film scores for more than 900 Indian films[2] in various languages in a career spanning more than 30 years.[3][4] He is usually referred to by the title Isaignani (literally meaning 'a man with great knowledge in music'), or as "The Maestro". He is based in Chennai, the centre of the Tamil film industry (colloquially known as Kollywood). He is a recipient of prestigious Padmabhushan Award from the Government of India.

Ilaiyaraaja has been a prominent composer of film music in southern Indian cinema since the late 1970s.[5] His work integrated Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader Western musical sensibilities into the South Indian musical mainstream. He has thrice won the Indian National Film Award for best film scoring.[6]

In the 2000s, he composed a range of non-film music, including religious and devotional songs, an oratorio, and world music. He is married to Jeeva, and the couple's two sons (Karthik Raja and Yuvan Shankar Raja) and daughter (Bhavatharini) are film composers and singers.[7][8]

Contents

Early life

Ilaiyaraaja was born as Gnanadesikan in Pannaipuram, Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India, as the third son of Ramaswamy and Chinnathayammal. Growing up in a rural area, Ilaiyaraaja was exposed to a range of Tamil folk music.[9] At the age of 14, he joined a travelling musical troupe headed by his elder stepbrother, Pavalar Varadarajan, and spent the next decade performing throughout South India.[10][11] While working with the troupe, he penned his first composition, a musical setting of an elegy written by the Tamil poet laureate Kannadasan for Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister.[12]

In 1968, Ilaiyaraaja began a music course with Professor Dhanraj in Madras (now Chennai), which included an overview of Western classical music, compositional training in techniques such as counterpoint, and study in instrumental performance.[13] Ilaiyaraaja specialized in classical guitar and had done a course in it with the Trinity College of Music, London.[14]

Session musician and film orchestrator

In the 1970s in Chennai, Ilaiyaraaja played guitar in a band-for-hire, and worked as a session guitarist, keyboardist, organist for film music composers and directors such as Salil Chowdhury from West Bengal.[15][16][17] After his hiring as the musical assistant to Kannada film composer G. K. Venkatesh, he worked on 200 film projects, mostly in the Kannada language.[18] As G. K. Venkatesh's assistant, Ilaiyaraaja would orchestrate the melodic outlines developed by Venkatesh. During this period, Ilaiyaraaja also began writing his own scores. To hear his compositions, he would persuade Venkatesh's session musicians to play excerpts from his scores during their break times.[10] Ilaiyaraaja would hire instruments from composer R. K. Shekhar, father of composer A. R. Rahman who later joined Ilaiyaraaja's orchestra as a keyboardist.

Film composer

In 1976, film producer Panchu Arunachalam commissioned him to compose the songs and film score for a Tamil-language film called Annakkili ('The Parrot'). For the soundtrack, Ilaiyaraaja applied the techniques of modern popular film music orchestration to Tamil folk poetry and folk song melodies, which created a fusion of Western and Tamil idioms.[19][20] Ilaiyaraaja's use of Tamil music in his film scores injected new influence into the Indian film score milieu.[21] By the mid-1980s Ilaiyaraaja was gaining increasing stature as a film composer and music director in the South Indian film industry.[5] Besides Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada films, he has scored music for Hindi (or Bollywood) film productions such as Sadma (1983), Mahadev (1989), Lajja (2001), Cheeni Kum (2007) and recently Paa (2009). He has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Gulzar, Kannadasan, Vairamuthu and T.S. Rangarajan (Vaali),[22] and film directors such as K. Balachander, K. Vishwanath, Singeetham Srinivasa Rao, Balu Mahendra and Mani Ratnam.[23] As of 2009, he scored for Malayalam movie, Pazhassiraja and the Tamil movie Jagan Mohini.He is a genius.And was affectionately known as "MAESTRO"

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Impact and musical style

Ilaiyaraaja was one of the early Indian film composers to use Western classical music harmonies and string arrangements in Indian film music.[24] This allowed him to craft a rich tapestry of sounds for films, and his themes[25] and background score gained notice and appreciation amongst Indian film audiences.[26] The range of expressive possibilities in Indian film music was broadened by Ilaiyaraaja's methodical approach to arranging, recording technique, and his drawing of ideas from a diversity of musical styles.[24]

According to musicologist P. Greene, Ilaiyaraaja's "deep understanding of so many different styles of music allowed him to create syncretic pieces of music combining very different musical idioms in unified, coherent musical statements".[5] Ilaiyaraaja has composed Indian film songs that amalgamated elements of genres such as pop,[27] acoustic guitar-propelled Western folk,[28] jazz,[29] rock and roll, dance music (e.g., disco),[30] psychedelia,[31] funk,[32] doo-wop,[33] march,[34] bossa nova,[35] flamenco,[36] pathos,[37] Indian folk/traditional,[38] Afro-tribal,[39] and Indian classical.[40]

By virtue of this variety and his interfusion of Western, Indian folk and Carnatic elements, Ilaiyaraaja's compositions appeal to the Indian rural dweller for its rhythmic folk qualities, the Indian classical music enthusiast for the employment of Carnatic ragams,[41] and the urbanite for its modern, Western-music sound.[42]

Although Ilaiyaraaja uses a range of complex compositional techniques, he often sketches out the basic melodic ideas for films in a very spontaneous fashion.[5][9] The Indian filmmaker Mani Ratnam illustrates:

"Ilayaraja (sic) would look at the [film] scene once, and immediately start giving notes to his assistants, as a bunch of musicians, hovering around him, would collect the notes [(musical parts)] for their instrument[s] and go to their places... A [film] director can be taken by surprise at the speed of events."[43]

Musical characteristics

Ilaiyaraaja's music is characterised by the use of an orchestration technique that is a synthesis of Western and Indian instruments and musical modes. He uses electronic music technology that integrated synthesisers, electric guitars and keyboards, drum machines, rhythm boxes and MIDI with large orchestras that feature traditional instruments such as the veena, venu, nadaswaram, dholak, mridangam and tabla as well as Western lead instruments such as saxophones and flutes.[5][44]

He uses catchy melodies fleshed out with a variety of chord progressions, beats and timbres.[45][46][47] Ilaiyaraaja's songs typically have a musical form where vocal stanzas and choruses are interspersed with orchestral preludes and interludes.[48] They often contain polyphonic melodies, where the lead vocals are interwoven with supporting melody lines sung by another voice or played by instruments.[49]

The basslines in his songs tend to be (melodically) dynamic, rising and falling in a dramatic fashion.[46] Polyrhythms are also apparent, particularly in songs with Indian folk or Carnatic influences. The melodic structure of his songs demand considerable vocal virtuosity, and have found expressive platform amongst some of India's respected vocalists and playback singers, such as K.J. Yesudas, S.P. Balasubramaniam, S. Janaki, Sujatha, Swarnalatha, P. Susheela, K.S. Chithra, Malaysia Vasudevan, Asha Bhosle,Lata Mangeshkar,Sadhana Sargam and the latest sensation Shreya Ghoshal.[50] Ilaiyaraaja has sung over 400 of his own compositions for films,[51][52] and is recognisable by his stark, nasal voice. He has penned the lyrics for some of his songs in Tamil and other languages.[53][54][55] Ilaiyaraaja's film scores are known both for the dramatic and evocative melodies, and for the more subtle background music that he uses to provide texture or mood for scenes in films such as Johnny (1980), Mouna Raagam (1986), Geethanjali and Guna (1991).[21]

Non-cinematic output

Ilaiyaraaja's first two non-film albums were explorations in the fusion of Indian and Western classical music. The first, How To Name It? (1986),[56] is dedicated to the Carnatic master Tyāgarāja and to J. S. Bach. It features a fusion of the Carnatic form and ragas with Bach partitas, fugues and Baroque musical textures.[57] The second, Nothing But Wind (1988), was performed by flautist Hariprasad Chaurasia and a 50-piece orchestra and takes the conceptual approach suggested in the title — that music is a natural phenomenon akin to various forms of air currents (e.g., the wind, breeze, tempest etc.).[58]

He has composed a set of Carnatic kritis that was recorded by electric mandolinist U. Srinivas for the album Ilayaraaja's Classicals on the Mandolin (1994).[59] Ilaiyaraaja has also composed albums of religious/devotional songs. His Guru Ramana Geetam (2004) is a cycle of prayer songs inspired by the Hindu mystic Ramana Maharishi,[60] and his Thiruvasakam: A crossover (2005) is an oratorio of ancient Tamil poems transcribed partially in English by American lyricist Stephen Schwartz and performed by the Budapest Symphony Orchestra.[61][62] Ilaiyaraaja's most recent release is a world music-oriented album called The Music Messiah (2006).[63] Its musical concept is based against a mythological narrative.[48][64] His recent release in November 2008, is Manikantan Geet Mala released by India Tales with 9 songs praising Lord Ayyappa in almost all south Indian languages.[citation needed]

Notable works

Ilaiyaraaja's composition Rakkama Kaiya Thattu from the movie Thalapathi (1991) was amongst the songs listed in a BBC World Top Ten music poll.[65] He composed the music for Nayakan (1987), an Indian film ranked by TIME Magazine as one of the all-time 100 best movies,[66] a number of India's official entries to the Oscars, such as Anjali (1990)[67] and Hey Ram (2000),[68] and for Indian art films such as Adoor Gopalakrishnan's FIPRESCI Prize-winning Nizhalkkuthu ('The Dance of Shadows') (2002).[69] Ilaiyaraaja has composed music for events such as the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant that was held in Bangalore, India, and for a documentary called India 24 Hours (1996).[70][71] The pop/hip-hop band Black Eyed Peas sampled an Ilaiyaraaja composition called "Unakkum Ennakum", from the film Sri Raghavendra (1985), for their tune "The Elephunk Theme" from their breakout album, Elephunk (2003).[72] The alternative artist M.I.A. sampled his composition "Kaatukuyilu, " from the film Thalapathi (1991) for her song "Bamboo Banga" on the album Kala (2007).[73]

His music compositions for the Hindi movie "Paa" (Dec 3rd 2009) has won critical acclaim in several media reviews.

Live performances

Ilaiyaraaja rarely performs his music live, which may be due to the time he devotes to his composing activities.[74] His last major live performance, the first in 25 years, was a four-hour concert held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium in Chennai, India on 16 October 2005.[75] The show was widely televised both in India and abroad. In which he played a song with just 3 notes (sa re ga).[76] Less well-known was his live 2004 performance in Italy at the Teatro Comunale di Modena, an event-concert presented for the 14th edition of Angelica, Festival Internazionale Di Musica, co-produced with the L'Altro Suono Festival.[77][78] He had done a few small-scale shows early in his career in Sri Lanka and Malaysia and was involved in a charity concert to raise funds for the construction of a Hindu temple in India.[74] A television retrospective titled Ithu Ilaiyaraja ('This is Ilaiyaraja') was produced, chronicling his career.[79]

Awards and honours

Ilaiyaraaja has won the National Film Award for Best Music Direction for the all the Tamil film Sindhu Bhairavi (1986) and the Telugu films Rudraveena (1989), Saagara Sangamam (1984).[80] He won the Gold Remi Award for Best Music Score jointly with film composer M. S. Viswanathan at the WorldFest-Houston Film Festival for the film Vishwa Thulasi (2005).[81]

He was conferred the title Isaignani ('savant of music') in 1988 by Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi and received the Kalaimamani Award, an annual award for excellence in the field of arts from the Government of the State of Tamil Nadu, India.[82] He also received State Government Awards from the governments of Kerala (1995), Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (The Lata Mangeshkar Award) (1998) for excellence in music.[83] In 2010, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honour.[84]

He was awarded honorary doctorates by Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India (Degree of Doctor of Letter (Honoris causa)) (March 1994), the World University Round Table, Arizona, U.S.A. (Cultural Doctorate in Philosophy of Music) (April 1994), and Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu (Degree of Doctor of Letters) (1996).[83] He received an Award of Appreciation from the Foundation and Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America (1994), and later that year was presented with an honorary citizenship and key to the Teaneck township by Mr. John Abraham, Mayor of Teaneck, New Jersey, U.S.A.[83]

He has received NTR National Award for the year 2004. He has received Padma Bhushan award in the year 2010.

Partial discography

Limited lists of some key soundtrack albums (in terms of film-score and song-content values) are provided below, classified by language. For extended discographies, see external links.

Albums [Instrumental/Non-Film Outputs]

Year Album Year Album
1986 How to Name it 1988 Nothing but wind
2005 Thiruvasagam 2007 The Music Messiah
2008 Manikantan Geet Mala 2009 Namratha Ke Sagar

Tamil

Year Album Year Album
1978 Sigappu Rojakkal, 16 Vayathinile, Achaani, Aval Appadithaan, Aval Oru Pachai Kuzhanthai, Bairavi, Chitukuruvi, Illamai Oonjal Aadukirathu, Ithu Eppadi Irukku, Kaatrile Varum Geetham, Kannan Oru Kai Kuzhanthai, Kilake Pogum Rail, Maariyamman Thiruvizha, Mullum Malarum, Priya, Sattam En Kayil, Sonnathu Nee Thaanaa, Thiru Kalyanam, Thirupura Sundari, Thiyaagam, Vaazha Ninaiththaal Vaazhalaam, Vatathukkul Sathuram 1979 Aarulirunthu Arupathuvarai, Agal Vilaku, Anbe Sangeetha, Annai Oru Aalayam, Azhage Unnai Aaradhikeeran, Chakalathi, Dharma Yutham, Kadavul Amaitha Medai, Kalyana Raaman, Kavarimaan, Lakshmi, Mugaththil Mugam Paarkkalaam, Muthal Iravu, Naan Vazhavaipen, Nallothor Kudumbam, Niramaraatha Pookal, Odi Vilaiyaadu, Thaaththaa, Pagalil Oru Iravu, Pattakathi Bairavan, Ponu Ooruku Puthusu, Poonthalir, Puthiya Vaarpugal, Rosappo Ravikaikaari, Sonathe Neethana, Uthiri Pookal, Vetrikku Oruvan
1980 "Ullasa Paravaigal","Thai Pongal","Sridevi","Soolam","Savithri","Samanthi Poo","Rusi Kanda Poonai","Rishi Moolam","Ore Muththam","Nizhalgal","Nadhiya Thedi Vandha Kadal","Naan Potta Saval","Murattu Kaalai","Moodupani","Kannil Theriyum Kadhaigal","Guru","Enga Ooru Rasathi","Ellaam Un Kairaasi","Anbukku Naan Adimai" 1981 "Vidiyum Varai Kaathiru","Tik Tik Tik","Sollaathey Yaarum Keyttaal","Ranuva Veeran","Raaja Paarvai","Panneer Pushpangal","Nettri Kann","Nenjathai Killaathe","Meendum Kokila","Koyil Pura","Kazhugu","Alaigal Ooivathillai"
1982 Moondram Pirai, Sakalakala Vallavan 1983 Aanandha Kummi, Aayiram Nilave Vaa, Andha Sila Naatkal, Annae Annae
1984 Enakkul Oruvan, Nallavanukku Nallavan 1985 Muthal Mariyathai, Sindhu Bhairavi, Udhaya Geetham, Kakki Sattai, Pillai Nila, Sri Raghavendra
1986 Mouna Raagam, Punnagai Mannan, Vikram 1987 Nayagan, Aalap Pirandhavan, Kadhal Parisu, Kadamai Kanniyam, Kattupadu
1988 Sathya, Agni nakchatiram, Manadhil Urudhi Vendum, Idhayathai Thirudathe, 1989 Rajadhi Raja, Siva, Maappillai, Varusham 16, Apoorva Sagodharargal, Vetri Vizha, Karagatakkaran, Aaraaro Aariraro, Annanukku Jae, Kadhal Oyvadhillai
1990 Pandian, Adhisaya piravi,Anjali 1991 Thalapathi, Guna, Chinna Thambi, Captain Prabhakaran, Brahma,
1992 Mannan, Chembaruthi, Chinna thaayi, Chinna Gounder, Bharathan, Aavaarampoo, Thevar Magan 1993 Aathmaa, Aranmanaik Kili,"Ejamaan","Kili Pechu Ketkava","Kalaingan","Marupadiyum","Ponnumani","Poovilangu","Valli","Uzhaipaali","Valtar Vetrivel"
1994 "Adharmam","Adhiradi Padai","Amaithi Padai", "Mahanadhi", "Sethupathi IPS","Veera" 1995 "Makkal Aatchi","Chinna Vaathiyaar","Nandhavan Theru","Sathi Leelavathi"
1996 "Poo Mani","Poovarasan" 1997 Kadhalukku Mariyadhai,"Raaman Abdhullah"
1998 "Andhapuram" 1999 Sethu, Kadhal Kavithai,"House Full"
2000 "Hey Ram","Bharathi","Kaadhal Rojave","Kaakai Chiraginile' 2001 "Friends","Kutty"
2002 Azhagi,"Enn Mana Vaanil","Ramanna","Solla Marantha Kadhai" 2003 Pithamagan,"Julie Ganapathy"
2004 Virumaandi 2005 Adhu Oru Kana Kaalam,Mumbai Express,Oru Nall Oru Kanavu,Karakattakari
2006 "Pachakudhira" 2007 Ajantha,Maayakkannadi
2008 Dhanam, Inimale Nngathane, Uliyin Osai, kangalum kavipadudhe 2009 Naan Kadavul, Nandhalala, Azhagar Malai, Valmiki, Kadhal Kadhai, Jagan Mohini, Kannukulle, Mathiya Chennai, Pazhassi Raja, Dhaandavakone, Kulasekranum kulipadayum

Hindi

Year Album Year Album
1983 Sadma 1985 Kamagni
1989 Mahadev 1990 Appu Raja
1991 Anjali, Aadmi Aur Apsara 1996 Aur Ek Prem Kahani, Saza-E-Kala Pani, Chhaila
1999 Hey Ram, Velu Nayakan 2001 Lajja
2005 Mumbai Xpress, Divorce: Not Between Husband and Wife 2006 Shiva 2006
2007 Cheeni Kum 2009 Paa, Chal Chalein,
2010 Mausam, SRK,Happi 2011

Malayalam

Year Album Year Album
1978 Aaru Manikkoor, Vyamoham 1980 Dooram Arike
1981 Garjanam 1982 Olangal, Aa Rathri, Aalolam
1983 Sandhyakku Virinja Poovu, Oomakkuyil, Pinnilavu 1984 My Dear Kuttichathan, Mangalam Nerunnu, Onnanu Nammal, Unaroo
1985 Yatra 1986 Poomukhapadiyil Ninneyum Kathu, Kaveri
1988 Moonnam Pakkam 1989 Adharvam, Chaithram, Season
1991 Anaswaram, Ente sooryaputhrikku 1992 Pappayude Swantham Appoos, Aparatha
1993 Jackpot 1996 Kaalapani, Man of the Match
1997 Guru, Kaliyuunjalu, My dear Kuttichathan, Oru Yathramozhi 1998 Anuragakottaram, Manjeera dhwani
2000 Kochu Kochu Santhoshangal, Kallu Kondorupennu 2001 Friends
2003 Manasinakkare, Nizhalkoothu 2005 Achuvinte Amma, Ponmudipuzhayorathu, Twinkle twinkle Little star
2006 Rasathanthram, Pachakkuthira 2007 Vinodayathra, Sooryan
2008 Innathe Chinthaavishayam, S M S 2009 Bhagyadevatha, Pazhassi Raja

Telugu

Year Album Year Album
1976 Bhadrakali 1978 Ajeyudu, Vayasu Pilichindi
1979 Amma Evarikaina Amma, Erra Gulabeelu, Kalyana Ramudu, Nuvve Naa Srimathi, O Inti Katha, Oorvasi Neeve Naa Priyasi, Pancha Bhoothalu, Yugandhar 1980 Guru, Kala Rathri, Kali, Mayadari Krishnudu, Pasidi Moggalu
1981 Amavasya Chandrudu, Chinnari Chitti Babu, Kotha Jeevithalu, Madhura Geetham, Mouna Geetham, Seethakoka Chiluka, Tik Tik Tik 1982 Nireekshana, Poola Pallaki, Prema Sangamam, Radha Madhavi, Ragamalika, Vasantha Kokila
1983 Abhilasha, Mantrigari Viyyankudu, Pallavi Anupallavi, Rajkumar, Saagara Sangamam, Seethakoka Chiluka, Sitaara 1984 Amma Nannu Deevinchu, Challenge, Jalsa Rayudu, Khaidi Veta, Love Story, Merupu Dadi, Noorava Roju, Raaga Bandham
1985 Aalaya Deepam, Aatma Bandhuvu, Anveshana, Chilipi Yavvanam, Darja Donga, Dongala Vetagadu, Jalsa Bullodu, Jwala, Oka Radha Iddaru Krishnulu, Prema Sasthram, Preminchu Pelladu, Swathi Muthyam, Udaya Geetham 1986 Aalapana, Kiratakudu, Ladies Tailor, Manchi Manasulu, Mouna Ragam, Mr. Bharath, Rakshasudu, Sri Shirdi Saibaba Mahathyam
1987 Aaradhana, Kedi, Maa Inti Krishnudu, Maharshi, Nayakudu, Rendu Tokala Pitta, Sankeertana, Sister Nandini 1988 Aasthulu Antasthulu, Aakhari Poratam, Abhinandana, Chinna Babu, Gharshana, Marana Mrudangam, Rakthabhishekam, Rudraveena, Sathya, Sri Kanaka Mahalakshmi Recording Dance Troupe, Swarna Kamalam, Varasudochadu, Vaddante Pelli
1989 Apoorva Sahodarulu, Ashoka Chakravarthy, Bharyalu Jagratha, Chettu Kinda Pleader, Dance Master, Geethanjali, Gopala Rao Gari Abbayi, Kokila, Prema, Prema Geetham, Rudranetra, Shiva (film), Swathi Chinukulu, Tiger Siva 1990 Anjali, Bobbili Raja, Guru Sishyulu, Idem Pellam Baboi, Jagadeka Veerudu Athiloka Sundari, Kondaveeti Donga, Kshatriyudu, O Paapa Laali, Patnam Vachina Monagadu, Police Adhikari, Police Diary, Thoorpu Sindhooram
1991 Aditya 369, April 1 Vidudala, Chaitanya, Coolie No. 1, Keechurallu, Michael Madana Kama Raju, Nirnayam, Stuartpuram Police Station, Surya IPS 1992 Aa Okkati Adakku, Aswamedham, Chamanthi, Chanti, Chinarayudu, Dalapati, Detective Narada, Dharma Kshetram, Guna, Hrudayam, Killer, Kshatriya Putrudu, Priyathama, Meera, Moratodu Naa Mogudu
1993 Amma Koduku, Kunti Putrudu, Mahanadi, Repati Rowdy, Rowdy Zamindar, Toli Muddu 1994 Aadavallaku Maatrame, Samaram, Veera
1995 Sati Leelavati 1996 Kurradu Baboi
1997 Chinnabbayi 1998 Prema Kavyam
1999 Antahpuram, Gayatri, Preminchedi Endukamma, Time 2000
2001 2002 Ninu Choodaka Nenundalenu
2003 Avuna, Sambhu 2004 Pothuraju, Siva Putrudu
2005 Mumbai Express, SivaShankar 2006 Hope, Shiva 2006
2007 Anumanaspadam, Sunny 2008 Malleppuvvu
2009 Jaganmohini, Nenu Devudni, Om Shanthi

Kannada

Year Album Year Album
1978 Maathu Tappada Maga 1981 Geeta, Janma Janmada Anubandha, Nee Nanna Gellalare
1983 Accident, Pallavi Anu Pallavi 1984 Bharjari Bete
1996 Nammoora Mandara Hoove, Shivasainya 1998 Hoomale
2004 Namma Preetiya Ramu 2007 Aa dinagalu
2009 Nannavanu, Bhagyadha Balegara, Prem Kahani 2010 Suryakaanti

References and notes

  1. ^ http://www.myspace.com/theroyalphilharmonicorchestra Thursday, 10 June. Accessed 9 June 2009.
  2. ^ Imdb, Ilaiyaraaja
  3. ^ Allirajan, M. 2004. Musical journeys. The Hindu, Thursday, 10 June. Accessed 12 October 2006.
  4. ^ Behal, S. 2006. Melodious music. The Hindu, 23 July. Accessed 12 October 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d e Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542-546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (p. 544).
  6. ^ Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. 2006. Directorate of Film Festivals. Accessed 22 November 2006.
  7. ^ Sangeetha Devi, K. 2007. Music from the past. The Hindu, Saturday, January 13. Accessed 3 March 2007.
  8. ^ Staff reporter. 2005. Ilaiyaraja's daughter gets engaged. The Hindu, Friday, Aug 05. Accessed 3 March 2007.
  9. ^ a b Mohan, A. 1994. Ilaiyaraja: composer as phenomenon in Tamil film culture. M.A. thesis, Wesleyan University (pp. 106-107).
  10. ^ a b Ramnarayanan, G. 1989. Matchless in quality and speed! The Hindu, May 26. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  11. ^ Ilaiyaraja. 1999. Sangeetha Kanavugal (2nd edition). Chennai, India: Kalaignaan Pathipagam.
  12. ^ Rangarajan, M. 2004. Memorable evening in many ways. The Hindu, Friday, July 9. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  13. ^ Panneerselvan, A.S. 1989. Ilaiyaraaja — Musical mission (Part 1). Frontline, (date of publication indeterminate). Accessed 5 March 2008.
  14. ^ Author unknown. 2005. No point in classifying music, says Ilayaraja. The Hindu, Sunday, June 19. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  15. ^ Gautam, S. 2004. 'Suhana safar' with Salilda. The Hindu, Tuesday, November 13. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  16. ^ Chennai, S. 2005. Looking back: flawless harmony in his music. The Hindu, Sunday, November 20. Accessed 15 November 2006.
  17. ^ Choudhury, R. 2005. The films of Salil Chowdhury: Introduction. Accessed 16 November 2006.
  18. ^ Vijayakar, R. 2006. The prince in Mumbai. Screen, July 21. Accessed 6 February 2007.
  19. ^ Greene, P.D. 2001. Authoring the Folk: the crafting of a rural popular music in south India. The interesting thing is when he started to compose very first song composition of this film power has gone. Most of the people will take this as as a bad sign in India.Journal of Intercultural Studies 22 (2): 161–172.
  20. ^ Sivanarayanan, A. 2004. Translating Tamil Dalit poetry. World Literature Today 78(2): 56-58.
  21. ^ a b Baskaran, S.T. 2002. Music for the people. The Hindu, Sunday, January 6. Accessed 15 November 2006.
  22. ^ RaajaNGAHM Online. 2000. Discography: Film database — Lyricist list. Accessed 7 February 2007.
  23. ^ Ilaiyaraja.com. Undated. Directors. Accessed 14 February 2007.
  24. ^ a b Venkatraman, S. 1995. Film music: the new intercultural idiom of 20th century Indian music. Pp. 107-112 in A. Euba and C.T. Kimberlin (eds.). Intercultural Music Vol. I. Bayreuth: Breitinger (p. 110).
  25. ^ e.g., the title themes for the films Sigappu Rojakkal (1978), Netrikkan (1981) and Mouna Raagam (1986), and the instrumental themes in Raja Paarvai (1981) and Punnagai Mannan (1986).
  26. ^ Venkatraman, S. 1995. Film music: the new intercultural idiom of 20th century Indian music. Pp. 107-112 in A. Euba and C.T. Kimberlin (eds.). Intercultural Music Vol. I. Bayreuth: Breitinger (p. 111).
  27. ^ e.g., "Antha Naal Nyaabagam" from Adhu Oru Kana Kaalam (2005); "Videya Videya" from Sethu (1999); "Vaan Engum" from Moondram Pirai (1983).
  28. ^ "Roja Ondru" and "Ponmane Theduthey" from the soundtrack of the film Oh Maane Maane (1984).
  29. ^ e.g., the fusion-jazz/pop sound of "Vikram", from Vikram (1986).
  30. ^ e.g., "Solla Solla Enna Perumai" from Ellam Inba Mayam (1981); "Ilamai Itho" from Sakalakalavallavan (1982); "Paatu Enggey" from Poovizhi Vasalile (1987).
  31. ^ e.g., "Vaanam Keezhe Vandhal Enna" from Thoongadhey Thambi Thoongadhey (1983).
  32. ^ e.g., the comedic funks "Oru Nayagan Uthayamagiraan" from Dhavani Kanavugal (1984), and "Ada Machamulla" from Chinna Veedu (1985).
  33. ^ "Pudhu Mappilaiku", Apoorva Sagodharargal (1989).
  34. ^ "Raja Kaiya Vecha", Apoorva Sagodharargal (1989).
  35. ^ "Kadhal Oviyam" from Alaigal Oivathillai (1981).
  36. ^ refer, for instance, to the musical vignettes/interludes that accompany the rock-lifting scenes in the film Muthal Mariyathai (1985).
  37. ^ e.g., "Chittukku Chella Chittukku" from Nallavanukku Nallavan (1984); "Aarariro" from Thaaikku Oru Thaalaattu (1986).
  38. ^ e.g., "Poongatru Thirumbuma" from Muthal Mariyathai (1985).
  39. ^ "Aasayil Kaatrula" from Johnny (1980).
  40. ^ "Kalaivaniye" and "Paadariyen Padipariyen" from Sindhu Bhairavi (1985).
  41. ^ Panneerselvan, A.S. 1993. Master of melody, Ilaiyaraaja: Challenging musical frontiers. Frontline, September 10. Accessed 5 March 2008.
  42. ^ Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542-546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (p. 545).
  43. ^ Rangaraj, R. 2005. Mani Ratnam on Ilayaraja, Rehman. ChennaiOnline, March 9. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  44. ^ Balaji, R.S. 2002. Lessons from Maestro Ilayaraja: Lesson 10, expressing moods through music — 2. Accessed 15 November 2006.
  45. ^ Subramanian, V. Undated. 9th chords in Rajaa's music. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  46. ^ a b Subramanian, V. Undated. The boss of bass. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  47. ^ Balaji, R.S. 2002. Lessons from Maestro Ilayaraja: A case study on Maestro Ilayaraja's style of music. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  48. ^ a b CD Baby. 2006. Ilaiyaraaja - The Music Messiah (with notes in CD sleeve). Accessed 27 February 2007.
  49. ^ e.g., "Poo Maalayeh Thol Sera Vaa" from Pagal Nilavu (1985).
  50. ^ RaajaNGAHM Online. 2000. Discography: Film database — List of singers. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  51. ^ e.g., "Nila Athu Vaanathu Mele" from Nayakan (1987); "Appanendrum Ammayenrum" from Guna (1991).
  52. ^ RaajaNGAHM Online. 2000. Discography: Film database — List of singers: Ilaiyaraaja. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  53. ^ RaajaNGAHM Online. 2000. Discography: Film database — Lyrics by Ilaiyaraaja. Accessed 7 February 2007.
  54. ^ Rangarajan, M. 2004. From Texas to tinsel town. The Hindu, Friday, October 15. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  55. ^ Ashok Kumar, S.R. 2004. Variety fare for Pongal. The Hindu, Friday, January 9. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  56. ^ This album was also incidentally used as the score for the Balu Mahendra film, Veedu (1988).
  57. ^ Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542-546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (pp. 544-545).
  58. ^ Oriental Records. Undated. Nothing But Wind. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  59. ^ Chennai Interactive Business Services (P) Ltd. Undated. Mandolin U. Srinivas plays Ilaiyaraaja's classics. Accessed 6 February 2007.
  60. ^ Ayyar, I. and Govindan, H. Undated. Ilaiyaraja: Guru Ramana Geetam — notes. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  61. ^ Viswanathan, S. 2005. A cultural crossover. Frontline 22 (15), July 16-29. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  62. ^ Parthasarathy, D. 2004. Thiruvasagam in 'classical crossover'. The Hindu, Friday, November 26. Accessed 1 March 2007.
  63. ^ Soman, S. 2006. 'The Music Messiah'. The Hindu, Saturday, December 30. Accessed 27 February 2007.
  64. ^ [www.raaga.com/channels/malayalam/movie/MD000140.html 'manikantan geet mala']
  65. ^ BBC World Service. 2002. BBC World Service 70th Anniversary Global Music Poll: The World's Top Ten. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  66. ^ TIME Magazine. 2005. 23220, nayakan, 00.html All-TIME 100 Movies. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  67. ^ IMDb (Internet Movie Database). Undated. Biography for Mani Ratnam. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  68. ^ Loewenstein, L. 2001. Hey Ram (review). Variety, January 29. 381 (10): 60.
  69. ^ Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. 2003. Feature film: Nizhalkkuthu. Accessed 17 November 2006.
  70. ^ Dongre, A. and Malik, R. 1997. A day in the life of India. Hinduism Today, February. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  71. ^ Rakkamma.com. Undated. Albums. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  72. ^ Mehar, R. 2007. Hip-hopping around the world. The Hindu, October 17. Accessed 14 March 2008.
  73. ^ Track listing and credits as per liner notes on Kala album, (2007), MIA, Switch, notes from: Booklet. XL Records, (2007).
  74. ^ a b Rangaraj, R. 2005. This one for Ilayaraja fans. ChennaiOnline, October 16. Accessed 7 March 2007.
  75. ^ Rangarajan, M. 2005. The Raja still reigns supreme. The Hindu. Friday, October 21. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  76. ^ youtube link for 3 note song
  77. ^ Rangaraj, R. 2005. Events: Ilayaraja live in Italy. Chennai Online, August 3. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  78. ^ Van Ryssen, S. 2005. Ilaiyaraaja's Musical Journey. Leonardo Digital Review, December. Accessed 7 March 2007.
  79. ^ The Hindu Online. 2005. Ithu Ilaiyaraja. The Hindu, Friday, July 1. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  80. ^ CD Baby. 2006. Ilaiyaraaja - Ilaiyaraaja's Music Journey: Live in Italy (notes in CD sleeve). Accessed 8 March 2007.
  81. ^ IMDb.com. Undated. WorldFest Houston: 2005. Accessed 8 March 2007.
  82. ^ Rangarajan, M. 2004. Music magic on a rewind. The Hindu, Monday, April 5. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  83. ^ a b c RaajaNGAHM Online. 2000. Awards. Accessed 8 March 2007.
  84. ^ Behindwoods. 2010. Ilayaraja and Rahman get Padma Bhushan. Accessed 25 January 2010.

Further reading

  • Prem-Ramesh. 1998. Ilaiyaraja: Isaiyin Thathuvamum Alagiyalum (trans.: Ilaiyaraja: The Philosophy and Aesthetics of Music). Chennai: Sembulam.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1998. Vettaveli Thanil Kotti Kidakkuthu (trans.: My Spiritual Experiences) (3rd ed.). Chennai: Kalaignan Pathipagam. → A collection of poems by Ilaiyaraaja.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1998. Vazhithunai. Chennai: Saral Veliyeedu.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1999. Sangeetha Kanavugal (trans.: Musical Dreams) (2nd ed.). Chennai: Kalaignan Pathipagam. → An autobiography about Ilaiyaraaja's European tour and other musings.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 2000. Ilaiyaraajavin Sinthanaigal (trans.: Ilaiyaraaja's Thoughts). Chennai: Thiruvasu Puthaka Nilayam.

External links

General references

Discographies


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