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American Winterberry
Fruit in winter
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: I. verticillata
Binomial name
Ilex verticillata
(L.) A.Gray

Ilex verticillata (American Winterberry) is a species of holly native to eastern North America in the United States and southeast Canada, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Alabama.[1]

It is a shrub growing to 1–5 m tall. It is one of a number of hollies which are deciduous, losing their leaves in the fall. In wet sites, it will spread to form a dense thicket, while in dry soil it remains a tight shrub. The leaves are glossy green, 3.5–9 cm long, 1.5–3.5 cm broad, with a serrated margin and an acute apex. The flowers are small, 5 mm diameter, with five to eight white petals. The fruit is a globose red drupe 6–8 mm diameter, which often persists on the branches long into the winter, giving the plant its English name. Like most hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants; the proximity of at least one male plant is required to pollenize the females in order to bear fruit.[2][3][4]

The species occurs particularly in wetland habitats, but also on dry sand dunes and grassland. The berries are an important food resource for numerous species of birds.[2]

Cultivation and uses

Foliage and fruit

The berries were used by Native Americans for medicinal purposes, the origin of the name "fever bush".[citation needed]

The winterberry is prized for the midwinter splash of bright color from densely packed berries, whose visibility is heightened by the loss of foliage; therefore it is popular even where other, evergreen, hollies are also grown. The bare branches covered in berries are also popular for cutting and use in floral arrangements. It is a tough plant which is easy to grow, with very few diseases or pests. Although wet acidic soils are optimal, the winterberry will grow well in the average garden. Numerous cultivars are available, differing in size and shape of the plant and color of the berry. At least one male plant must be planted in proximity to one or more females for them to bear fruit.

Other names that have been used include Black Alder Winterberry, Brook Alder, Canada holly [5], Coralberry, Deciduous Holly, Deciduous Winterberry, False alder, Fever bush, Inkberry, Michigan Holly, Possumhaw, Swamp Holly, Virginian Winterberry, or Winterberry Holly.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ilex verticillata
  2. ^ a b New York Metropolitan Flora: Ilex verticillata
  3. ^ Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador: Aquifoliaceae: Holly Family
  4. ^ Bioimages: Ilex verticillata
  5. ^ Nova Scotia Wild Flora
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Aquifoliales
Familia: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: Ilex verticillata

Name

Ilex verticillata (L.) A.Gray

Reference

Manual ed. 2:264. 1856

Vernacular names

English: American Winterberry

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