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An illusion is a distortion of the senses, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. While illusions distort reality, they are generally shared by most people.[1] Illusions may occur with more of the human senses than vision, but visual illusions, optical illusions, are the most well known and understood. The emphasis on visual illusions occurs because vision often dominates the other senses. For example, individuals watching a ventriloquist will perceive the voice is coming from the dummy since they are able to see the dummy mouth the words.[2] Some illusions are based on general assumptions the brain makes during perception. These assumptions are made using organizational principles, like Gestalt, an individual's ability of depth perception and motion perception, and perceptual constancy. Other illusions occur because of biological sensory structures within the human body or conditions outside of the body within one’s physical environment.

The term illusion refers to a specific form of sensory distortion. Unlike a hallucination, which is a distortion in the absence of a stimulus, an illusion describes a misinterpretation of a true sensation. For example, hearing voices regardless of the environment would be a hallucination, whereas hearing voices in the sound of running water (or other auditory source) would be an illusion.

Mimes are known for a repertoire of illusions that are created by physical means. The mime artist creates an illusion of acting upon or being acted upon by an unseen object. These illusions exploit the audience's assumptions about the physical world. Well known examples include "walls", "climbing stairs", "leaning", "descending ladders", "pulling and pushing" etc.

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Optical illusions

An optical illusion. Square A is exactly the same shade of grey as Square B. See Same color illusion

An optical illusion is always characterized by visually perceived images that, at least in common sense terms, are deceptive or misleading. Therefore, the information gathered by the eye is processed by the brain to give, on the face of it, a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. A conventional assumption is that there are physiological illusions that occur naturally and cognitive illusions that can be demonstrated by specific visual tricks that say something more basic about how human perceptual systems work. The human brain constructs a world inside our head based on what it samples from the surrounding environment. However sometimes it tries to organise this information it thinks best while other times it fills in the gaps.[3] This way in which our brain works is the basis of an illusion.

Auditory illusions

An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the sound equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or "impossible" sounds. In short, audio illusions highlight areas where the human ear and brain, as organic, makeshift tools, differ from perfect audio receptors (for better or for worse). One of example of an auditory illusions is a Shepard tone.

Tactile illusions

Examples of tactile illusions include phantom limb, the thermal grill illusion, the cutaneous rabbit illusion and a curious illusion that occurs when the crossed index and middle fingers are run along the bridge of the nose with one finger on each side, resulting in the perception of two separate noses. Interestingly, the brain areas activated during illusory tactile perception are similar to those activated during actual tactile stimulation.[4] Tactile illusions can also be elicited through haptic technology.[5] These "illusory" tactile objects can be used to create "virtual objects".[6]

Other senses

Illusions can occur with the other senses including that of taste and smell. It was discovered that even if some portion of the taste receptor on the tongue became damaged that illusory taste could be produced by tactile stimulation.[7] Evidence of olfactory (smell) illusions occurred when positive or negative verbal labels were given prior to olfactory stimulation.[8]

Disorders

Some illusions occur as result of an illness or a disorder. While these types of illusions are not shared with everyone they are typical of each condition. For example migraine suffers often report Fortification illusions.

Philosophy and Illusion

Just like many other words often used in a different sense in spirituality the word "illusion" is used to denote different aspects in Hindu Philosphy (Maya). Many Monist philosophies clearly demarcate illusion from truth and falsehood. As per Hindu advaita philosophy, Illusion is something which is not true and not false. Whereas in general usage it is common to assume that illusion is false Hindu philosophy makes a distinction between Maya (illusion) and falsehood. In terms of this philosophy maya is true in itself but it is not true in comparison with the truth. As per this philosophy, illusion is not the opposite of truth or reality. Based on these assumptions Vedas declare that the world as humans normally see is illusion (Maya). It does not mean the world is not real. The world is only so much real as the image of a person in a mirror. The world is not real/true when compared to the reality. But the world is also not false. Falsehood is something which does not exist. if we apply this philosophy to the above example, the illusion is not actually illusion but is false. This is because in general usage people tend to consider lllusion to be the same as falsehood. As per adishankar's a guru of monist teachings the world we think is true is not true but is an illusion (not true not false). The truth of the world is something which can only be experienced by removing the identity (ego).

See also

References

  1. ^ Solso, R. L. (2001). Cognitive psychology (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0-205-30937-2
  2. ^ McGurk,Hj. & MacDonald, J.(1976). "Hearing lips and seeing voices", Nature 264, 746-748.
  3. ^ Yoon Mo Jung and Jackie (Jianhong) Shen (2008), J. Visual Comm. Image Representation, 19(1):42-55, First-order modeling and stability analysis of illusory contours.
  4. ^ Gross, L 2006 THIS REFERENCE IS INCOMPLETE
  5. ^ Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward 2001
  6. ^ The Cutting Edge of Haptics (MIT Technology Review article)
  7. ^ Todrank, J & Bartoshuk, L.M., 1991
  8. ^ Herz R. S. & Von Clef J., 2001

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Illusion
by Robert Ervin Howard in the year 1926
First published in Daniel Baker Collegian (March 1926). Daniel Baker Collegian was the newspaper of Daniel Baker College (Brownwood, Texas)

(In Illusion, seeking to express myself in the clearest manner possible, I have, for this effect, violated the rules common ot rhythm and poetry.)

I stood upon surf-booming cliffs
And heard the tide-race roaring, roaring strong and deep and free;
On tall wind wings the white clouds sudded by.
Far to the eat the ocean met the sky
And the booming cliffs re-echoed to the thunder of the sea.
Green are the waves and fringed with white the crest:
Strong colour contrasts, turquoise, sapphire, now.
Tumbling the jade green billows from the west
Roars the wild sea-wind. Keep your sea. I go.
Stranger to me the fierce red-blooded zest,
The wild beast urge, the primitive behest.
Fierce primal impulses are thoughts I do not know.
I've ever dwelt 'mid worlds of vaguer tone,
All tints and colors merging soft and dim,
No garish flare of reds at the desert's rim—
The sea-winds murmur there a pleasing drone;
The sea-fogs grace the ocean, friendly, grey.
'Mid soft-hued woodlands shy nymphs have their play.
Ad so I'll none of all this garish joy,
These blazing dawns that leap like maids o'er-bold;
The flaming greens and reds and yellows cloy,
Barbaric tints of crimson, blazing gold.
The worlds I seek are like soft, golden chimes;
Soft merging tints that match the breeze's croon
And no false note plays in the world-scheme rhymes—
I seek soft, vague plateaus of the moon.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also illusion

German

Noun

Illusion f. (genitive Illusion, plural Illusionen)

  1. illusion

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Illusion
Image:Illusionsoft logo.gif
Type Private
Founded April 25
Headquarters Yokohama, Japan
Products Battle Raper Series, Biko Series, Sexy Beach Series
Parent Company N/A
Website [1][2]

Illusion is a company from Yokohama, Japan famous for developing 3D eroge such as the Biko series, Battle Raper, Des Blood series, Artificial Girl and Sexy Beach. Due to Illusion's policy, its games are not intended to be sold or used outside of Japan, and official support is only given in Japanese and for use in Japan.

To develop their games, Illusion has reported to use Photoshop, Autodesk Maya, and Dreamweaver. For programming they used CGI, Perl,PHP, C, C++, and Javascript. Illusion soft also reuse their music tracks from previous games.

Illusion's games often use non-unicode Japanese characters. Players using English operating systems must change their language settings to run the software or use Microsoft AppLocale.

Contents

Games Developed/ Published by Illusion

Artificial girl Series

Battle Raper Series

Biko Series

Des Blood Series

Oppai Slider Series

Sexy Beach Series

SchoolMate

External Links


This article uses material from the "Illusion" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

An illusion is a distortion of how things seem to be. It shows how the brain normally arranges, sorts, and explains stimulation of the senses. Illusions can change the way reality seems to be. In general, they are shared by most people. Illusions can happen with all five senses (taste, touch, sight, smell, and hearing). Some illusions happen because of disorders.

An illusion is different from a hallucination; a halucination is sensing something which is not real, but an illusion is interpreting what we sense wrongly.

Optical illusions

They are the most known and understood. The brain doesn’t understand information the eye takes in. The brain makes wrong guesses about what the eye sees.

Auditory illusions

They are illusions that are heard. The person listening hears sounds that aren’t really there, or sounds that can’t really happen. A Shepard tone is an auditory illusion.

Touch illusion

They are when a person feels something that isn’t there, or something that shouldn’t be there but feels like it is. This happens sometimes when a person loses his arm. The person still feels like the arm is there. They might want to scratch the arm, or the arm might hurt them. This can happen with any limb of the body, and it is called the phantom limb.








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