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Hallstatt culture Bronze belt plaque from Vače, Slovenia, 400 BC

The history of Illyrian warfare spans from ca. 10th century BC up to the 1st century AD in the region defined by Ancient Greek and Latin historians as Illyria. It concerns the armed conflicts of the Illyrian tribes and their kingdoms in the Balkans in Italy as well as pirate activity in Mediterranean and Adriatic sea. Apart from conflicts between Illyrians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Illyrian tribes too.

Contents

History

Mythological

Instances of Illyrian people engaged in armed conflict occurred in Greek mythology and specifically in the legend of Cadmus and Harmonia, where Cadmus led the Encheleans[1] in a victorious campaign against[2] the Illyrians after a divine advice from the Oracle.[3]

Tribal wars

Illyrian tribes were reluctant to help each other in times of war[4] fought amongst each other[5] and they sometimes allied with the neighboring Romans[6] and Greeks:[7] The tribe of Autariatae fought against the Ardiaei for control of valuable salt mines.[8] The Ardiaei were notorious before being defeated by the Romans.[9] The Daorsi had suffered attacks from the Delmatae to the extent that they requested Roman aid.[10]

Kingdoms

The Illyrian king Bardyllis[11] of the Dardani (385 BC -358 BC) turned part of Illyria into a formidable local power.[12] After Bardyllis, Grabos succeeded him as the most powerful Illyrian king.[13] After him came Bardyllis II and Cleitus the Illyrian[14] that was defeated by Alexander the Great when he rebelled against Macedon's rule.Glaukias[15] of the Taulanti (335- 302 BC) had come to Cleitu's aid but was defeated as well.Decades later Queen Teuta[16] of Issa regent to Pinnes (230 BC - 228 BC) fought against both the Greeks and the Romans and practiced piracy.[17].The tribes of Daesiates, Pannonians and Breuci led the revolt against the Romans led mainly by Pinnes of Pannnonia[18], Bato I[19] and Bato II[20].

Illyrian wars

In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC, 219 BC and 168 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements and suppressed piracy,[16] which had made Adriatic Sea an unsafe region for Italian commerce. There were three Roman campaigns: the first against Teuta the second against Demetrius of Pharos[21] and the third against Gentius. The first Roman campaign of 229 BC marked the first time that the Roman Navy crossed the Adriatic in order to launch the invasion.[22]

Great Illyrian revolt

The Great Illyrian Revolt, (Bellum Batonianum or Pannonian Revolt [23]) was a major conflict[24] between an alliance of Illyrian communities and the Roman forces that lasted for four years beginning in AD 6 and ending in AD 9.

Illyrian troop types and organization

The Illyrians appeared in war as free warriors under their local chiefs or kings. Similar to other societies the status of a leader was determined by the number of warriors who followed him. Obedience to a higher authority such as a king was channeled through the collective loyalty of a tribe to the chief. In historical sources they are described as a peasant infantry fighting under aristocratic proprietors (polydynastae) each one controlling a town within the kingdom.[25]

Infantry and cavalry

Sica, principal melee weapon of the Illyrians

The principal melee weapon of the Illyrians was the single edged curved sword similar to the Greek machaira[26]. According to historian John Wilkes:[27]

Although a short curved sword was used by several peoples around the Mediterranean the Romans regarded the sica as a distinct Illyrian weapon used by the stealthy 'assassin' (sicarius)

The Illyrian's[28] used a variety of weapons, like[29] javelins, various knives, spears called Sibyna[30] (Ancient Greek, "Σιβύνη") that resembled boar spears[31], short thrusting spears, battle axes, single-handed axes that could be hurled, bows and arrows, curved short swords, cutlasses (Sica, up to 60 cm long)[32] and straight swords. They used only open faced helmets and they resembled Celtic[33][34] equipment of the Hallstatt culture to a great degree[35].Overall, they functioned as light and heavy peltasts[36].

The helmets they used were of conical shape[37], Negau helmets, Pot helmets with a rim, wicker helmets with metal plates also called disc and stud helmets[38] imported[39] and adopted the Ancient Greek "Illyrian" type helmet[40].Its use in Illyria ended by the 4th century BC[41].

The shields employed by the Illyrians were made of wood and leather with a bronze boss and were mostly light peltes.[42] Their shapes with either round (peltes), rectangular or oval.[36] A type of wooden oblong shield with an iron boss was introduced to Illyria from the Celts.[43] The Illyrian cavalry units which were few in number were unarmored javelin skirmishers but later after the 3rd century BC may[citation needed] have adopted shields like those of their infantry.

The majority of the Illyrian warriors never used armor or greaves (and sometimes even a helmet) apart from their elite class.[44]

Illyrians tattooed themselved like the Thracians and the Dacians did.[45][46][47] Illyrians made drinking tankards out of the skulls of their enemies.[48] They killed their wounded in order to avoid getting caught.[48]

From an organizational standpoint, the Illyrians were not a united tribal force and thus fought with a distinct lack of real military coordination. Their fighting techniques seemed to rely heavily on individual accomplishments rather than on coordinated units like the Greek phalanx or the Roman legion.

Thucydides a Greek historian and Strategus of the 5th century BC writes,[49]

"Thus the present enemy might terrify an inexperienced imagination; they are formidable in outward bulk, their loud yelling is unbearable, and the brandishing of their weapons in the air has a threatening appearance. But when it comes to real fighting with an opponent who stands his ground, they are not what they seemed; they have no regular order that they should be ashamed of deserting their positions when hard pressed; flight and attack are with them equally honourable, and afford no test of courage; their independent mode of fighting never leaving any one who wants to run away without a fair excuse for so doing. In short, they think frightening you at a secure distance a surer game than meeting you hand to hand; otherwise they would have done the one and not the other"

However they exhibited the ability to fight as hoplite infantry as they did against the Molossians in 385 BC[50]. In 358 BC, however, Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, utterly crushed the Illyrians and assumed control of their territory as far as Lake Ohrid.

Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC) writes of the Illyrian tactic in the battle against Philip II of Macedon that was an attempt for a coordinated stance by forming a square[51].His exact words are "Ιλλυριοί συντάξαντες εαυτούς εις πλινθίον[52] ερρωμένος".

"But the Illyrians, forming themselves into a square, courageously entered the fray. And at first for a long while the battle was evenly poised because of the exceeding gallantry displayed on both sides, and as many were slain and still more wounded, the fortune of battle vacillated first one way then the other"

The Illyrians fought against many ancient peoples, but they ultimately fell to the Romans after the Illyrian Wars[53] and failed to breakaway from the Roman Empire during the Great Illyrian Revolt.[54] Aside from being conquered by the Romans, the Illyrians were also Romanized.

Illyrian mercenaries

Illyrians acted as mercenaries on several occasions[55] whether on the side of the Greeks or the Romans. Perdiccas II of Macedon had hired Illyrian mercenaries in 5th century BC but they betrayed him, allying with his enemy, Arrhabaeus of Lyncus. In another incident, Lysimachus killed all of his 5,000 Illyrian mercenaries (of the Autariatae tribe) to the last man, because he was convinced that they will join the enemy.[56] Previously in 302 BC 2,000 of his Illyrian mercenaries had defected[57] to Antigonus. Illyrians were not considered as reliable mercenaries, in the ancient world[58] but were at the same time acknowledged as skilled fighting force.

Nobility

Illyrian king or noble,500 BC - 100 BC

The nobility had access to breastplates and greaves whilst the bulk of the army did not.The kings did not resemble the rest of the army and were the only ones with full body protection which was a rarity.[59] Illyrian chiefs and kings wore bronze torques around their necks[60] much like the Celts did and were heavily armored in antithesis to the bulk of their armies.A number of weapons and armaments were imported from Greece[61] including helmets[62].Armaments were mostly made of bronze[32].Another form of body armor was a bronze pectoral[63] (that may have protected part of the back as well) that was extensively used in Italy well.It was more like a disc "breastplate" of 10 cm in diameter.Local greaves made of bronze were strapped on the legs.[64] Metal riveted belts were used as well.[64][65]

Pirate activity

Illyrian's indulgence in piracy was one that brought them infamy and invited their downfall. Illyrians were notorious as pirates for centuries[66].The Illyrians piratical career reached its zenith under Queen Teuta, a Greek called Demetrius of Pharos[67] and Scerdilaidas[68].The Illyrians practised boarding tactics against enemy vessels.[69]

There were three types of Illyrian pirate ships the Lembus, the Pristis,war ship and the Liburna that had the names of the respective tribes that developed them.[70]

A lembus was an ancient Illyrian galley, with a single bank of oars and no sails. It was small and light, with a low freeboard. It was a fast and maneuverable warship capable of carrying 50 men in addition to the rowers.[71] It was the galley used by Illyrian pirates,[72] and by Philip V of Macedon during the First Macedonian War.[73] They had also killed ambassadors of the Romans and the Issaeans.[74] The Illyrians were limited by the Romans to venture past Lissus with more than two unarmed lembi.[75] It was the practice of piracy that led the Romans to invade and conquer Illyria.

A Liburnian warship, known as a libyrnis to the Greeks and a liburna to the Romans, was propelled by oars; it was a smaller version of a trireme, but with two banks of oars (a bireme), faster, lighter, and more agile. The liburnian design was adopted by the Romans and became a key part of Ancient Rome's navy. It was 109 ft (33 m) long and 16 ft (5 m) wide with a 3 ft (0.91 m) draft. Two rows of oarsmen pulled 18 oars per side. The ship could make up to 14 knots under sail and more than 7 under oars.[76] Such a vessel, used as a merchantman, might take on a passenger, as Lycinus relates in the second-century dialogue, "Erotes", traditionally attributed to Lucian of Samosata: "I had a speedy vessel readied, the kind of bireme used above all by the Liburnians of the Ionian Gulf."

Once the Romans had adopted the liburnian, they proceeded to make a few adaptations to improve the ships’ use within the navy. The benefits gained from the addition of rams and protection from missiles more than made-up for the slight loss of speed.[77] Besides the construction, the ships required that the regular Roman military unit be simplified in order to function more smoothly. Each ship operated as an individual entity, so the more complicated organization normally used was not necessary.[78] Within the navy, there were probably liburnian of several varying sizes, all put to specific tasks such as scouting and patrolling Roman waters against piracy.[79] The Romans made use of the liburnian particularly within the provinces of the empire, where the ships formed the bulk of the fleets.[80][81][82]

Pristis,war ship (Ancient Greek,Πρίστις) was a beaked[83][84] long and narrow war ship(it was also the name of a specific ship in the Aeneid.[85])

Acruvium in the bay of Kotor was an Illyrian pirate[86] stronghold before it became a Roman city.

Fortifications

Illyrians built hill-forts as places of refuge (and perhaps as dwellings[87]) such as Tilurium[88] and Setovia[88] of the Delmatae. Most enclosures were round or oval with very few exceptions for other shapes and the largest two were 200 meters across[87] while most are not anything more than fortified blockhouses.

External influences

Celtic influence

Celts had effected the Illyrians in many cultural and material aspects and some of them were Celticized, especially the tribes in Dalmatia[33][89] and the Pannonians[90]. A type of wooden oblong shield with an iron boss was introduced to Illyria from the Celts.[43]Hallstatt culture influences were abound as Illyrians were its descendants.[91]

Thracian

The sica was called Thracian sword[92] (Ancient Greek,"Θρακικον ξίφος") though it did not originate from there despite its popular usage[93] in Thrace[94](it was considered their national weapon[95]), Dacia[96] and by Celts. The sword's utmost origin was the Hallstatt culture[97] and the Illyrians may have inherited or adopted it.

Hellenic & Hellenistic influence

The graves of Illyrian nobles (early Iron age ,7th century BC - 5th century BC) contained a great number of Greek imports including weaponry[98]. This includes finds at Glasinac[98] Plataeu (Bosnia and Herzegovina),Lake Ohrid[98] in the Republic of Macedonia, Dolensko[59] (Slovenia) and various sites in[98] Albania. The Glasinac-Mati cultural[98] complex encompasses eastern Bosnia,south-western Serbia Montenegro and northern Albania. Ancient Greek Illyrian type helmets either as imports or later copies had spread throughout Illyria and one was found as far as Slovenia[59](though again in the grave of a king) not only in the Glasinac-Mati cultural complex like the helmet found in the grave at Klicevo, Montenegro. The Greek helmets found in some of these sites were of type I[99] and very few of type II[100].

Illyrians on the coast of the Adriatic were under the effects and influence of Hellenisation[101][102][103] due to their proximity to the Greek colonies in Illyria. Apart from other cultural influences and imported weapons and armor from the Ancient Greeks the Illyrians had adopted the ornamentation of Ancient Macedon on their shields[104] and their war belts[105] (a single one has been found ,dated 3rd century BC at modern Selce e Poshtme part of Macedon at the time under Philip V of Macedon[106] and before that border[107] between Chaonia and Illyria). The Illyrians used four concentric half circles whilst the Macedonians five. This ancient Greek symbol[108] was prominent in Thessaly and Macedon appearing in the 10th century BC and had spread throughout southern Greece. A typical adoption of the symbol in the Hellenistic period from Illyrians is seen on an iron round pelte with similar decorations and a diameter of 35 cm. This is evident during the Greek rule of south Illyria the Antipatrid dynasty & the Antigonid dynasty retained until the Roman conquest. Tactics[109] had been influenced as well, evident in an incident involving Dardanians. The hellenised[103] city of Daorson located in Dalmatia included "cyclopean walls".[110]

Roman

Illyria became a Roman province at 168 BC. The Illyrians, that were eventually Romanized rebelled in AD 6. Nearly two hundred years of Roman rule changed the weapons of the Illyrians by the time of the rebellion and they resembled those of Roman legionaries[citation needed]. The tribes that rebelled had been Celticized by the time Romans conquered Illyria in 168 BC and their equipment reflected this. Inhabitants of Roman Dalmatia applied a poison on their arrows called ninum[111]. This was not a Roman influence but was mentioned during that time.

Notable events

Apollodorus mentions a war between the Enchelaeae led by Cadmus and Harmonia and the Illyrians.[112] Pausanias mentions a number of Illyrian raids against the Epirotes[113].In 359 BC, King Perdiccas III of Macedon was killed by attacking Illyrians in his failed attempt to reconquer Upper Macedonia.[114].Illyrians were also attacked by the Gauls[115] of Brennus led by Belgius or Bolgious.[116][117] The Illyrians also attacked the Aetolians when they were about to change strategus and raided the city of Medion taking booty and slaves.[118]

Dionysius of Syracuse's military attempts to place Alcetas in the throne of the Molossians

In 385 BC, the Molossians were attacked by Illyrians instigated and aided by Dionysius[119] of Syracuse to place Alcetas that was a refugee in his court to the throne. Dionysius planned to control all the Ionian Sea. Sparta had intervened[120] as soon as the events became known and expelled[121] the Illyrians who were led by Bardyllis.[122] Despite being aided by 2000 Greek hoplites and five hundred suits of Greek armour, the Illyrians were defeated by the Spartans led by Agesilaus but not before ravaging the region and killing 15,000 Molossians.

In 360 BC, another Illyrian attack forced the Molossian king Arymbas to evacuate his non-combatant population to Aetolia and let the Illyrians loot freely. The stratagem worked and the Molossians fell upon the Illyrians who were encumbered with booty and defeated them.[123]

At 358 BC Phillip of Macedon defeated Bardyllis.Diodorus Siculus[51] (1st century BC) writes this of the event;

And at first for a long while the battle was evenly poised because of the exceeding gallantry displayed on both sides, and as many were slain and still more wounded, the fortune of battle vacillated first one way then the other, being constantly swayed by the valorous deeds of the combatants; but later as the horsemen pressed on from the flank and rear and Philip with the flower of his troops fought with true heroism, the mass of the Illyrians was compelled to take hastily to flight.When the pursuit had been kept up for a considerable distance and many had been slain in their flight, Philip recalled the Macedonians with the trumpet and erecting a trophy of victory buried his own dead, while the Illyrians, having sent ambassadors and withdrawn from all the Macedonian cities, obtained peace. But more than seven thousand Illyrians were slain in this battle.

Barbarians

Illyrians were regarded as an bloodthirsty, unpredictable[124] turbulent[125] and warlike[126][127] peoples by Greeks and Romans.They were seen as savages on the edge of their world[128]. The Romans had perhaps such an perhaps fearfull impression of the Illyrians and their tenacity after fighting them that Polybius (3rd century BC) writes[129] that "the Romans had freed the Greeks from the enemies of all mankind".

Livy[130](59 BC – AD 17) writes;

"the coasts of Italy destitute of harbours, and, on the right, the Illyrians, Liburnians, and Istrians, nations of savages, and noted in general for piracy, he passed on to the coasts of the Venetians"

List of Illyrian battles

This is a list of battles or conflicts that Illyrians had a leading or crucial role in- usually as mercenaries.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Apollodorus. Library and Epitome, 3.5.4. As the Encheleans were being attacked by the Illyrians, the god declared by an oracle that they would get the better of the Illyrians if they had Cadmus and Harmonia as their leaders. They believed him, and made them their leaders against the Illyrians, and got the better of them. And Cadmus reigned over the Illyrians, and a son Illyrius was born to him.
  2. ^ The Dictionary of Classical Mythology by Pierre Grimal and A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop, ISBN 0631201025, 1996, page 230, "Illyrius (Ιλλυριός) The youngest son of Cadmus and Harmonia.He was born during their expedition against the Illyrians"
  3. ^ The Dictionary of Classical Mythology by Pierre Grimal and A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop, ISBN 0631201025, 1996, page 83, "They went to Illyria to live amongst the Encheleans who had been attacked by the Illyrians.The Encheleans had been promised victory by an Oracle if Cadmus and Harmonia would lead them and as this condition was fullfilled they were indeed victorious."
  4. ^ Burns, Thomas S. Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.--A.D. 400, ISBN 0801873061 ,2003, page 200, Appian's account depicts a situation in which the inhabitants of Siscia (Segestiké, therefore "the Segestani") appealed in vain for aid from fellow Pannonians in their vicinity, but these people were reluctant to get involved, preferring...
  5. ^ Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230-170 BC by Arthur Eckstein, 2008, page 33, "frequent intertribal wars"
  6. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 98, ...North of Dassaretis in the middle and upper valley of the Genusus was the territory of the Illyrian Parthini, likely to have been part of the Taulantii until they first appear as Roman allies late in the third century ..."
  7. ^ Arthur Edward Romilly Boak and William Gurnee Sinnigen. A History of Rome to A.D. 565, page 111, The island of Pharos and some adjacent territory in Illyria were given to a Greek adventurer, Demetrius of Pharos
  8. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 223, The salt source that was a cause of conflict between the Illyrian Ardiaei and Autariatae may be that at Orahovica in the upper Neretva valley near Konjic.
  9. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 216, The Ardiaei, or Vardaei as they were known to the Romans, once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere...
  10. ^ I greci in Adriatico, Volume 2 by Lorenzo Braccesi, Mario Luni, page 152, "The Daorsi suffered directly from the attacks of the Delmatae and were understandably one of the first peoples who had left Genthius half brother Caravantius and sought protection from the Roman state placing their armed forces at the disposal of the Romans. After the war they were rewarded by having been given immunity...
  11. ^ Harding, Philip. From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsus, 1985, page 93, ISBN 0521299497. Grabos became the most powerful Illyrian king after the death of Bardylis in 358.
  12. ^ Borza, Eugene N. In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon, 1990, page 180, ISBN 0691008809. Amyntas had barely seized the throne in 394/3 when he found his kingdom under attack by a powerful Illyrian force, probably led by Bardylis, king of the Dardanii.
  13. ^ Harding, page 93, Grabos became the most powerful Illyrian king after the death of Bardylis in 358.
  14. ^ The Journal of Hellenic Studies by Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (London, England)", 1973, page 79, Cleitus was evidently the son of Bardylis II the grandson of the very old Bardylis who had fallen in battle against Phillip II in 385 BC.
  15. ^ The Campaigns of Alexander (Penguin Classics) by Arrian, J. R. Hamilton, and Aubrey De Selincourt, 1976, page 49, "...and had been joined by Glaucias, the prince of the Taulantians,
  16. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 158, "...' Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a licence to universal plunder. In 231 ac the fleet and army attacked Ells and Messenia ..."
  17. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 158, ...Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a licence to universal plunder. In 231 ac the fleet and army attacked Ells and Messenia ..."
  18. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 176: "... Daesitiates was soon matched by rebellion of the Breuci in Pannonia, headed by Pinnes and another Bato. ..."
  19. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0631198075, page 216, "Further east the formidable Daesitiates of central Bosnia retained their name. The great rebellion of All 6 had been led by their chief Bato, and their relatively low total of 103 decuriae likely reflects"
  20. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 81, "Breuci with Scilus Bato"
  21. ^ A History of Rome to A.D. 565 – page 111 by Arthur Edward Romilly Boak, William Gurnee Sinnigen, "The island of Pharos and some adjacent territory in Illyria were given to a Greek adventurer, Demetrius of Pharos"
  22. ^ Gruen, 359.
  23. ^ Miller, Norma. Tacitus: Annals I, 2002, ISBN 1853993581. It had originally been joined to Illyricum, but after the great Illyrian/Pannonian revolt of A.D. 6 it was made a separate province with its own governor.
  24. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 183, ...Pannonian Illyrians between Italy and the East. That could only be done at a great cost and not before a rebellion of Illyricum brought the regime of Augustus to the brink of disaster.
  25. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 126-128.
  26. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 238, "Their principal offensive weapon was the single edged curved-sword, similar to the Greek machaira, a form of weapon that can be traced back to Bronze age times"
  27. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 238-239, "Although a short curved sword was used by several peoples around the Mediterranean the Romans regarded the sica as a distinct Illyrian weapon used by the stealthy 'assassin' (sicarius)"
  28. ^ Papazoglu, Fanula. The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians', 1978, Figure 20, page 663, ISBN 9025607934, "Silver belt-plate, beginning or first half of second century BC, possibly depicting Scordiscian warriors, from Gostilje."
  29. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 239, "Illyrian graves contain a variety of knives, battle axes, swords bows and arrows"
  30. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 239
  31. ^ Illustrated Dictionary of Words Used in Art and Archeology by J. W. Mollett, ISBN 0766135772, 2003, page 296, "Sibina, Sibyna, Gr. and R. σιβύνη. A kind of boar spear deployed in hunting"
  32. ^ a b The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521850738, 2000, page 261.
  33. ^ a b c The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 2003, page 426
  34. ^ a b c d e f The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 2003, page 1106, "Pannonia, a Roman province established AD 9 and named after the Pannonii, a group of Illyrian peoples (see ILLYRII) who had absorbed Celtic influences to various degrees (see CELTS) , lay south and west of the Danube (*Danuvius) in the valleys of the Drava and Sava and the latter’s Bosnian tributaries. In 119 BC the Romans campaigned against them , not for the first time, seizing *Siscia. In 35 BC Octavian (see AUGUSTUS) advanced against them and recaptured Siscia , where he established a garrison. Fighting broke out in 16 BC with a Pannonian invasion of Istria and continued in 14. In 13 M. *Vipsantius Agrippa and M. * Vinicius advanced eastward down the Sava and Drava valleys. After Agrippa’s death (12 BC) the conquest of the Pannonians, notably the Breuci in the Sava valley was completed ruthlessly by *Tiberius and Roman control was extended to the Danube (Res Gestae Rivi Augusti 100 30). Pannonia north of the Drava appears to have accepted Roman rule without a struggle probably owing to fear of the Dacians to the east. Some fighting is attested in 8 BC by Sex. Apulleius but Pannonia remained more or less at peace until 6 AD when the Breuci joined the Daesitiates in revolt under two chiefs called *Bato (1-2). After AD 9 Pannonia was governed by Legati Augusti pro praetore of consular rank; see LEGATI . When Dacia was annexed in 106, Pannonia was subdivided into two provinces the larger superior in the west under a consular legate and facing the * Germans and inferior in the east facing the Sarmatians under a praetorian .The latter was upgraded to consular under *Caracalla…"
  35. ^ Kuhn, Herbert. Geschichte der Vorgeschichtsforschung, 1976, page 455, ISBN 3110059185, ... of the Middle Danube Urnfield group persisted in the eastern Alpine and the north and east Adriatic area where the Illyrian Hallstatt culture arose in the following centuries best known through its celebrated Hallstatt cemetery and the situla art.
  36. ^ a b Early Roman Armies (Men-at-Arms) by Nicholas Sekunda and Richard Hook, 1995, ISBN 1855325136, Colour plates, The Venetic fighting system, Fifth century BC
  37. ^ Early Roman Armies (Men-at-Arms) by Nicholas Sekunda and Richard Hook, 1995, ISBN 1855325136, page 33, "Conical helmets of similar type are also shown on other pieces of bronze-work produced by the Veneto-Illyrian culture."
  38. ^ Sekunda, Nick and Northwood, Simon. Early Roman Armies, 1995, page 35, ISBN 1855325136.
  39. ^ Arms and Armor of the Greeks by Anthony M. Snodgrass, ISBN 0801860733, 1998, page 76, "There are 'Illyrian' helmets, whose workmanship in some cases stamps them as direct Greek imports, not only from the area which gave the"
  40. ^ Arms and Armor of the Greeks by Anthony M. Snodgrass, ISBN 0801860733, 1998, page 42. Another common form, superficially similar to the 'Insular', is the so-called 'Illyrian' helmet, in fact a purely Greek type...only centuries later found its way to Illyria and other barbarian lands
  41. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 241, "the majority view is that that type had gone out of use by the fourth century"
  42. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 240
  43. ^ a b The Illyrians: history and culture,History and Culture Series,The Illyrians: History and Culture,Aleksandar Stipčević,ISBN 0815550529,1977,page 174,"Resembling the northen Illyrian oval shield was one introduced into Illyria by the Celts.Apart from the iron boss,nothing was preserved from these Celtic shields.It is known though that they were oblong shaped and made of wood with an umbo in the center"
  44. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 240,"Body armour,breastplates (see figure 31) greaves and helmets were the privilege of a minority with a few examples of full body protection being known only in the Dolensko region of Slovenia."
  45. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,ISBN 9780631198079,page 220
  46. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 198,"their armor is Celtic but they are tattooed like the rest of the Illyrians and Thracians"
  47. ^ The World of Tattoo: An Illustrated History by Maarten Hesselt van Dinter ,2007,page 25: "... in ancient times. The the Danube area Dacians, Thracians and Illyrians all decorated themselves with status-enhancing tattoos, ..."
  48. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 243,"the skull of an enemy as a drinking tankard. The practice of mutilating prisoners may be the reason why the Autariatae killed their own weak and wounded, so that they did not fall into the hands of the enemy live and..
  49. ^ History of the Peloponnesian War,CHAPTER XIV ,"Thus the present enemy might terrify an inexperienced imagination; they are formidable in outward bulk, their loud yelling is unbearable, and the brandishing of their weapons in the air has a threatening appearance. But when it comes to real fighting with an opponent who stands his ground, they are not what they seemed; they have no regular order that they should be ashamed of deserting their positions when hard pressed; flight and attack are with them equally honourable, and afford no test of courage; their independent mode of fighting never leaving any one who wants to run away without a fair excuse for so doing. In short, they think frightening you at a secure distance a surer game than meeting you hand to hand; otherwise they would have done the one and not the other."
  50. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 126,"the ability of Illyrians to fight as hoplite infantry as against Molossians in 385/4 BC..
  51. ^ a b Diodorus Siculus, Library,16.4
  52. ^ Plintheion translation,Square of troops or rectangular
  53. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 160,The Roman invasion of Illyria in 229 ac appears to have caught Teuta and the Illyrians completely off guard. As soon as the weather permitted, the queen had ordered south a naval expedition...
  54. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 216,Further east the formidable Daesitiates of central Bosnia retained their name. The great rebellion of AD 6 had been led by their chief Bato, and their relatively low total of 103 decuriae likely reflects...
  55. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,ISBN 9780631198079,page 168,"Like Thracians to the east the Illyrians were an important source of military manpower, and often served as separate contigents under their own leaders"
  56. ^ The legacy of Alexander: politics, warfare, and propaganda under the successors,ISBN 0198153066,2002,page 248-249,"It concernes 5,000 Illyrian troops whose baggage Demetrius had captured 'in the battle around Lampsacus'.They had lost everything and Lysimachus was seriously worried they would mutiny.He therefore took preventive action, withdrew them from the from on the pretext of issuing their rations and killed them to the last man."
  57. ^ The legacy of Alexander: politics, warfare, and propaganda under the successors,ISBN 0198153066,2002,page 249
  58. ^ The legacy of Alexander: politics, warfare, and propaganda under the successors,ISBN 0198153066,2002,page 248,"The Illyrians moreover had not been reliable auxiliaries in the recent past"
  59. ^ a b c Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 240,"Body armour,breastplates (see figure 31) greaves and helmets were the privilege of a minority with a few examples of full body protection being known only in the Dolensko region of Slovenia."
  60. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0631198075, page 223,"Illyrian chiefs wore heavy bronze torques"
  61. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 54,"A double edged Greek sword and two pairs of greaves also imports were recovered "
  62. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 54,"there were imported helmets Corinthian type and an early version of the 'GraecoIllyrian helmet'"
  63. ^ Greece and Rome at War by Peter Connolly,ISBN 185367303X,2006,
  64. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,ISBN 9780631198079,page 42,"Chieftain burial"
  65. ^ Greece and Rome at War by Peter Connolly,ISBN 185367303X,2006
  66. ^ Scullard, H. H. History of the Roman World: 753 to 146 BC, 2002, p. 192, ISBN 0415305047. ...territorial expansion of Illyria that drew Rome's first glance across the Adriatic. The immemorial pursuit and chief industry of the Illyrians was piracy. Their rugged broken coast with its screen of islands formed a perfect base from which their light and speedy little...
  67. ^ Arthur Edward Romilly Boak and William Gurnee Sinnigen. A History of Rome to A.D. 565, p. 111. The island of Pharos and some adjacent territory in Illyria were given to a Greek adventurer, Demetrius of Pharos.
  68. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 163, ISBN 0631198075. ...Demetrius and Scerdilaidas (presumably the same who commanded a land army ten years earlier) sailed south of Lissus with 90 Illyrian warships (lembi).
  69. ^ Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu,ISBN 1853673897,2000,page 119: "... 10 Achaean ships, which sailed for Corcyra and met the Illyrians off the Paxoi islands. The Illyrian tactics consisted of lashing their galleys together in groups of four and inviting a broadside attack from a ram.The Illyrians would then board the enemy craft in overwhelming numbers ..."
  70. ^ The Greek State at War, William Kendrick Pritchett,ISBN 0520073746,1991,page 76,"Similarly the pirates on the Illyrian coast are said to have developed vessels that were named after their tribes, the lembus, pristis and liburna"
  71. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 157,Polybius, 2.3.
  72. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 163
  73. ^ F. W. Walbank, p. 69; Polybius, 5.109.
  74. ^ Astin, A. E. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 8: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC, 1990, p. 87, ISBN 0521234484 ...and the Roman ambassadors were intercepted on the high seas by Illyrian pirates and the leader of the Issaean delegation, Cleemporus, and a Roman, Coruncanius, were killed.
  75. ^ Astin, A. E. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 8: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC, 1990, p. 90, ISBN 0521234484 "...the Illyrians were not allowed to sail south of Lissus with more than two unarmed lembi..."
  76. ^ Gabriel, Richard A.. "Masters of the Mediterranean". Military History (December 2007). 
  77. ^ Morrison, J. S., and J. F. Coates. 1996. Greek and Roman Warships 399-30 B.C. Oxford.pgs 170, 317.
  78. ^ cite Starr, C. G. 1993. The Roman Imperial Navy 31 BC-AD 324, 3rd ed. Chicago.pg 59.
  79. ^ Morrison, J. S., and J. F. Coates. 1996. Greek and Roman Warships 399-30 B.C. Oxford.pg 317.
  80. ^ L. Casson, "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Princeton, 1971, pages 141
  81. ^ Starr, C. G. 1993. The Roman Imperial Navy 31 BC-AD 324, 3rd ed. Chicago.pg 54.
  82. ^ Morrison, J. S., and J. F. Coates. 1996. Greek and Roman Warships 399-30 B.C. Oxford.pgs 171.
  83. ^ Polybius, Histories,18.1,"WHEN the time appointed arrived, Philip put to sea from Congress at Nicaea in Locris, winter of B. C. 198-197. Coss. Titus Quinctius Flamininus, Sext. Aelius Paetus Catus.Demetrias and came into the Melian Gulf, with five galleys and one beaked war-ship (pristis)"
  84. ^ πρίστις, a sea-monster (another form of pistrix), V.—A long, narrow ship of war, L.—As the name of a vessel, V.Lewis, Charlton, T. An Elementary Latin Dictionary. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. American Book Company. 1890.
  85. ^ Verg. A. 5.114
  86. ^ Kotor,ACRUVIUM (Kotor) Yugoslavia. ,According to the ancient sources (Plin. HN 3.144; Ptol. Geog. 2.16) on the S Dalmatian coast between Risan and Budva. Archaeological soundings around the Bay of Kotor have not yet definitely located the site, but evidence available (mediaeval literary tradition, inscriptions now at Kotor, and ceramic finds from the soundings) indicates that Kotor is the most likely site for the Roman city. Before the Roman conquest, Acruvium was probably a stronghold for the Illyrian pirates who raided the coast. The inhabitants, the Agravonitae, may have been made tax-exempt under the settlement of the praetor L. Anicius Gallus in 167 B.C. for not siding with Illyrian Gentius, and they certainly made up one of the three divisions into which Anicius divided the Illyrian kingdom (Livy 45.26). Pliny mentions the city later as an oppidum civium Romanorum (HN 3.144); it probably derived its livelihood from agriculture and trade. It was enrolled in the tribus Sergia and its magistrates were IIviri.
  87. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 205
  88. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 190
  89. ^ A dictionary of the Roman Empire Oxford paperback reference,ISBN 0195102339,1995,page 202,"contact with the peoples of the Illyrian kingdom and at the Celticized tribes of the Delmatae"
  90. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1106,"Pannonia, a Roman province established AD 9 and named after the Pannonii, a group of Illyrian peoples (see ILLYRII) who had absorbed Celtic influences to various degrees (see CELTS) , lay south and west of the Danube (*Danuvius) in the valleys of the Drava and Sava and the latter’s Bosnian tributaries. In 119 BC the Romans campaigned against them , not for the first time, seizing *Siscia. In 35 BC Octavian (see AUGUSTUS) advanced against them and recaptured Siscia , where he established a garrison. Fighting broke out in 16 BC with a Pannonian invasion of Istria and continued in 14. In 13 M. *Vipsantius Agrippa and M. * Vinicius advanced eastward down the Sava and Drava valleys. After Agrippa’s death (12 BC) the conquest of the Pannonians, notably the Breuci in the Sava valley was completed ruthlessly by *Tiberius and Roman control was extended to the Danube (Res Gestae Rivi Augusti 100 30). Pannonia north of the Drava appears to have accepted Roman rule without a struggle probably owing to fear of the Dacians to the east. Some fighting is attested in 8 BC by Sex. Apulleius but Pannonia remained more or less at peace until 6 AD when the Breuci joined the Daesitiates in revolt under two chiefs called *Bato (1-2). After AD 9 Pannonia was governed by Legati Augusti pro praetore of consular rank; see LEGATI . When Dacia was annexed in 106, Pannonia was subdivided into two provinces the larger superior in the west under a consular legate and facing the * Germans and inferior in the east facing the Sarmatians under a praetorian .The latter was upgraded to consular under *Caracalla.."
  91. ^ Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology by Barbara Ann Kipfer,2000,page 251,"... Sea and from there eastward to the Sar Mountains. The Illyrians, descendants of the hallstatt culture, were divided into tribes, each a self-governing community with ...
  92. ^ The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,ISBN 0198150474,1998,page 203,""
  93. ^ Complete Encyclopedia Of Arms & Weapons (Hardcover)by Rh Value Publishing,ISBN 0517487764,1986
  94. ^ Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians (Men at Arms Series, 129) by Peter Wilcox and Gerry Embleton,1982,page 43
  95. ^ Completely parsed Cicero: the first oration of Cicero against Catiline by Marcus Tullius Cicero, LeaAnn A. Osburn, Archibald A. Maclardy,ISBN 0865165904,2004,page 122,"and was the national weapon of Thracians"
  96. ^ Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians (Men at Arms Series, 129) by Peter Wilcox and Gerry Embleton,1982,page 35
  97. ^ HaA(1200-1000),HaB(1000-800)
  98. ^ a b c d e European Journal of Archeology volume 5(1);70-88,Sage publications and European association of Archeologists(1461-9571-2002045:1;70-88;0221771)
  99. ^ Trebenishte: the fortunes of an unusual excavation Studia archaeologica ("Erma" di Bretschneider) ; 121,ISBN 8882652122,2003
  100. ^ Trebenishte: the fortunes of an unusual excavation Studia archaeologica ("Erma" di Bretschneider) ; 121,ISBN 8882652122,2003,page 117-118,National museum Belgrade
  101. ^ Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Oxford University Press,page 255,
  102. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor),ISBN 0521233488,1994,page 423,"Through contact with their Greek neighbors some Illyrian tribe became bilingual (Strabo Vii.7.8.Diglottoi) in particular the Bylliones and the Taulantian tribes close to Epidamnus"
  103. ^ a b Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin,2006,page 21,"completely Hellenised town"
  104. ^ The Illyrians: history and culture,History and Culture Series,The Illyrians: History and Culture,Aleksandar Stipčević,ISBN 0815550529,1977,page 174
  105. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 233&236,"The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). Some of gold and silver with openwork designs of stylised birds have a similar distribution to the Mramorac bracelets and may also have been producted under Greek influence."
  106. ^ Carte de la Macédoine et du monde égéen vers 200 av. J.-C.
  107. ^ The Cambridge ancient history,Tome 6 by John Boardman,ISBN-0521850738,1994,page 440
  108. ^ Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity by Jonathan M. Hall ,2000,ISBN 0521789990,page 116,"early appearance of this motiff in Thessaly and Makedonia, from where it was diffused southwards "
  109. ^ The Illyrians by John Wilkes ,ISBN 0631198075,1996,page 150,"This episode shows how much the Dardanians had been influenced by the military traditions of the Hellenistic world"
  110. ^ Urbano biće Bosne i Hercegovine‎ - page 27 by Seka Brkljača - 1996, "Its name was Daorson. It belonged to the Hellenistic civilization and sphere of the Greek culture. Its 46 meters of the old fortress are preserved"
  111. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,ISBN 9780631198079,page 222
  112. ^ Apollodorus. Library and Epitome, 3.5.4. As the Encheleans were being attacked by the Illyrians, the god declared by an oracle that they would get the better of the Illyrians if they had Cadmus and Harmonia as their leaders. They believed him, and made them their leaders against the Illyrians, and got the better of them. And Cadmus reigned over the Illyrians, and a son Illyrius was born to him.
  113. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, Messenia, 4.35.1. When the Epirots were rid of their kings, the people threw off all control and disdained to listen to their magistrates, and the Illyrians who live on the Ionian sea above Epirus reduced them by a raid.
  114. ^ Orrieux, Claude. A History Of Ancient Greece,1999,page 256,ISBN 0631203095. Perdiccas III (368-359) tried to reconquer upper Macedonia from the Illyrians under Bardylis, but the expedition ended in disaster, with the king killed.
  115. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, Attica. It was late before the name "Gauls" came into vogue; for anciently they were called Celts both amongst themselves and by others. An army of them mustered and turned towards the Ionian Sea, dispossessed the Illyrian people...
  116. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, Phocis and Ozolian Locri 10.19.1. The invaders of Paeonia were under the command of Brennus and Acichorius. Bolgius attacked the Macedonians and Illyrians, and engaged in a struggle with Ptolemy, king of the Macedonians at that time.
  117. ^ Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 1, p. 479. BELGIUS or BO'LGIUS, the leader of that division of the Gaulish army which invaded Macedonia and Illyria in b.c. 280. He defeated the Macedonians in a great battle, in which Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had then the supreme power in Macedonia, was killed; but the Gauls did not follow up their victory, and the rest of Greece was spared for a time. (Pans. x. 19. § 4 ; Justin. xxiv. 5.)
  118. ^ Polybius. Histories, 2.3
  119. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C., 1996, p. 479, ISBN 01987309509. ...Molossi, Alcetas, who was a refugee at his court, Dionysius sent a supply of arms and 2,000 troops to the Illyrians, who burst into Epirus and slaughtered 15,000 Molossians. Sparta intervened as soon as they had learned of the events and expelled the Illyrians, but Alcetas had regained his...
  120. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C., 1986, p. 470, ISBN 0198730950. Sparta had the alliance of Thessaly, Macedonia, and Molossia in Epirus, which she had helped to stave off an Illyrian invasion.
  121. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Library, Book 15.13.1.
  122. ^ Boardman, John. The Cambridge Ancient History, 1923, p. 428, ISBN 0521233488. Bardyllis who seize power and set himself up as king of the Dardani...Forming and alliance with Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse he killed 15,000 Molossians.
  123. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Library, Books 14.92, 15.2, 16.2.
  124. ^ Cleopatras by John Whitehorne,1994,page 27,"...the bloodthirsty and unpredictable Illyrians, was quite another matter. ..."
  125. ^ Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230-170 BC by Arthur Eckstein,2008,page 33,"Greek writers describe the Illyrians as turbulent and warlike"
  126. ^ The Spartacus War by Barry Strauss,2009,page 21: "... and were Celts who had mingled with Thracians and Illyrians (another warlike people of the ancient Balkans). If Vatia or his agents ..."
  127. ^ Augustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor by Anthony Everitt,2006,page 152,"The Illyrians were a warlike people divided into dozens of tribes and ..."
  128. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 4,"they have fared little better in the historical record. As `savages' or `barbarians' on the northern periphery of the classical world, ..."
  129. ^ Cultural Politics in Polybius's Histories (Hellenistic Culture and Society) by Craige B. Champion,2004,page 113,"... The Romans had freed the Greeks, Polybius concludes, from a terrible menace, the Illyrians, enemies of all humankind (12.6 πάσι... κοινούς εχθρούς)
  130. ^ Titus Livius,The History of Rome,"the coasts of Italy destitute of harbours, and, on the right, the Illyrians, Liburnians, and Istrians, nations of savages, and noted in general for piracy, he passed on to the coasts of the Venetians"
  131. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,2001,ISBN 1841763292,page 6
  132. ^ A History of Greece to 322 B.C. by N. G. L. Hammond,1986,page 372,"... involved in a war against Perdiccas' neighbour to the west, Arrhabaeus of Lyncus, and he and the Chalcidians entered the territory of Acanthus, ..."
  133. ^ Archaic and Classical Greece: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation by Michael H. Crawford and David Whitehead,1983,page 592,"... When Perdikkas was defeated in a great battle"
  134. ^ Historical dictionary of ancient Greek warfare by Iain Spence,ISBN 0-8108-4099-5,page 62
  135. ^ Greek Historical Inscriptions, 404-323 BC by P. J. Rhodes and Robin Osborne,2007,page 56: "... until 370/69 (xv. 6o. iii). Under 393/2 he reports that Amyntas was expelled by the Illyrians, made a gift of land to the Olynthians, but was restored by the Thessalians..."
  136. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C., 1996, p. 479, ISBN 01987309509. ...Molossi, Alcetas, who was a refugee at his court, Dionysius sent a supply of arms and 2,000 troops to the Illyrians, who burst into Epirus and slaughtered 15,000 Molossians. Sparta intervened as soon as they had learned of the events and expelled the Illyrians, but Alcetas had regained his...
  137. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C., 1986, p. 470, ISBN 0198730950. Sparta had the alliance of Thessaly, Macedonia, and Molossia in Epirus, which she had helped to stave off an Illyrian invasion.
  138. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 146,"... have been hastened by attacks from once obedient northern neighbours. Alexander II is known to have fought an Illyrian war against Mytilus ..."
  139. ^ A Companion to the Classical Greek World (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World) by Konrad H. Kinzl,2007,page 555,"... of 358 Philip and his new army inflicted a stunning defeat on the Illyrian king who had defeated and killed Perdikkas. The new army ..."
  140. ^ Alexander the Great in his World (Blackwell Ancient Lives) by Carol G. Thomas,ISBN 063123246X,2006,page 74,"a Macedonian campaign in Illyria in 358 brought the defeat of the Illyrian king and 7,000 of his troops"
  141. ^ Greek Lives (Oxford World's Classics) by Plutarch, Philip A. Stadter, and Robin Waterfield,2009,page 314: "... or less simultaneously. The first reported the defeat of the Illyrians by Parmenio in a great battle, ..."
  142. ^ The Generalship Of Alexander The Great by J.F.C. Fuller,2004,page 221,"... and on his way he received the news that Cleitus, an Illyrian chieftain and son of Bardylis,2 was in revolt; that Glaucias...hid victory was so decisive"
  143. ^ Polyaenus,Cynane, the daughter of Philippus, was famous for her military knowledge; she commanded armies, and in the field charged at the head of them. In an engagement with the Illyrians, she herself slew their queen with a fatal blow to the throat; and she defeated the Illyrian army with great slaughter. She married Amyntas, son of Perdiccas; and, losing him soon after, never would take a second husband. By Amyntas she had an only daughter named Eurydice: to whom she gave a military education, and instructed her in the science of war. Upon Alexander's death, his generals parcelled out his dominions among themselves, in exclusion of the royal family. But Cynane crossed the Strymon, forcing her way in the face of Antipater, who disputed her passage over it. She then passed the Hellespont, to meet the Macedonian army, and Alcetas with a powerful force advanced to give her battle. The Macedonians at first paused at the sight of Philippus' daughter, and the sister of Alexander; but after reproaching Alcetas with ingratitude, undaunted at the number of his forces, and his formidable preparations for battle, she bravely advanced to fight against him. She resolved upon a glorious death, rather than, stripped of her dominions, accept a private life, unworthy of the daughter of Philippus.
  144. ^ Polyaenus,When Cassander returned from Illyria, he planted in ambush a body of cavalry and infantry, at the distance of a day's march from Epidamnus. After that, he set on fire the villages which were in the most exposed situations on the edge of the territories of Illyria and Atintanis. Supposing that Cassander had entirely evacuated the country, the Illyrians ventured out of the city, and went out to various places, as their different business required their attention. Then the soldiers sallied out of their ambush, and captured no less than a thousand men. Cassander came up to the city while the gates were still open, and made himself master of Epidamnus.
  145. ^ Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 1, p. 479. BELGIUS or BO'LGIUS, the leader of that division of the Gaulish army which invaded Macedonia and Illyria in b.c. 280. He defeated the Macedonians in a great battle, in which Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had then the supreme power in Macedonia, was killed; but the Gauls did not follow up their victory, and the rest of Greece was spared for a time. (Pans. x. 19. § 4 ; Justin. xxiv. 5.)
  146. ^ a b Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu,ISBN 1853673897,2000,page 46
  147. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 160
  148. ^ A History of Macedonia: 336-167 B.C Volume 3 of A History of Macedonia, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond Authors Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, Frank William Walbank Editor Frank William Walbank Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Oxford University Press, 1988 ISBN 0198148151, 9780198148159 page 334
  149. ^ a b Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu,ISBN 1853673897,2000,page 47
  150. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 426,"... the Romans in 156 / 5 Bc and their capital Delminium (mod. ..."
  151. ^ a b c The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 426,"more campaigns are recorded against them in 118/7 78/7 in 51 they defeated troops sent against them"
  152. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 426,"during the Civil wars they sided with the Pompeians and defeated Caesars Legates Q.Cornificius and A.Gabinus"
  153. ^ Horace : Epodes and Odes (Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture , Vol 10, Latin language edition) by Daniel H. Garrison,1998,page 259,"... triumpho: he was awarded a triumph for his defeat of the Illyrian Parthini in 39 B.C. peperit: has procured; from pario. 17-24. ..."
  154. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1370,"they co-operated with Tiberius in attacks on Pannonian Breuci"

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