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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Imelda R. Marcos

The "Iron Butterfly" circa 1982

In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
Preceded by Eva Macapagal
Succeeded by Amelita Ramos

Member of Parliament for Region IV-A
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984

Governor of Manila
In office
1976 – February 25, 1986

In office
1978–1986

In office
1978–1986

Born July 2, 1929 (1929-07-02) (age 80)
Manila, Philippines
Birth name Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romuáldez
Nationality Filipino
Political party Nacionalista (2009–present)
Other political
affiliations
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–2009)
Spouse(s) Ferdinand Marcos (1954–1989)
Children Imee
Ferdinand
Irene
Aimee (adopted)
Alma mater St. Paul's College
Religion Roman Catholicism

Imelda R. Marcos (born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romuáldez on July 2, 1929) is the widow of former President Ferdinand Marcos, and is herself an influential political figure in the Philippines. She is sometimes referred to as the Steel Butterfly or the Iron Butterfly.[1][2] Outside the Philippines she is often remembered for symbols of the corrupt extravagance of her husband's political reign, such as having over 3000 pairs of shoes.

Contents

Ancestry

Her paternal ancestors, the relatively wealthy and prominent Lopezes of Leyte, claimed to have founded the town of Tolosa, Leyte. The Spanish mestizo Lopezes were borne out of the Spanish friar Diego de Lopez who was originally from Granada. He was a silversmith as well. He, together with Fray Salustiano Buz, arrived via Acapulco and was tasked to build Roman Catholic missions in the island provinces of Samar and Leyte. (Buz would establish his home base in Palapag, Samar, the exit-entry point of the Manila Galleons in the Visayas islands). [3] It was common those days for Spanish friars to take female companions. Out of his life long relationship to Maria Crisostomo y Talentin of Basey, Samar were borne seven boys and seven girls. For each of the seven boys he bequethed a silver fork and to the seven girls he bequethed silver spoons. The eldest of these daughters was Trinidad Lopez or Doña Tidad in later years.

Tidad and the rest of her sisters were forced to go to Manila to accompany their aging father. Diego de Lopez was assigned by the Spanish clergy to the church in Pandacan, Manila, which was known for a miraculous well that tuberculosis patients flocked to. Together with some connections, Fray Diego de Lopez's daughters were able to attend to schools of the home administered by the nuns nearby. One of the tuberculosis-stricken was Daniel Romualdez who set his eyes on Tidad. Due to Daniel's determination, the hesitant Tidad reluctantly agreed for marriage. Her husband's relatives did not like her, especially when she decided to leave Manila for Leyte, believing that Leyte's sea baths will be good for his lungs and constitution.

The diligent Daniel and the strong-willed Tidad had three sons: Norberto Romualdez, who was born in Burauen, Leyte while they were searching for a cure (Burauen sat on the confluence of two rivers and had numerous springs); Miguel Romualdez, who was born in Dagami, Leyte while they were searching for money (Tidad's brothers formed the Orquesta Lopez and Dagami was known for its agriculture); and Vicente Orestes Romualdez, who was born in Tolosa, Leyte when Tidad enjoyed working less as her husband recovered and became a Cabeza de Barangay.

Early life

Her own branch of the family was not political. Her father, Vicente Orestes Romualdez, was a scholarly man more interested in music and culture than in public life. He was administrator of the Romualdez Law Offices founded by his brother Chief Justice Norberto Romualdez, and was a law professor at Saint Paul's College. He was never able to adjust to the modernity of times, preferring to teach in Spanish while the rest of the students and teachers conversed in English.

Her mother was Remedios Trinidad y de Guzman, a former boarder at the Asilo de San Vicente de Paul (Looban Convent) in Paco, Manila, said to have been an illegitimate offspring of a friar,[4] was from the town of Baliuag, Bulacan. Remedios's mother was from Capiz.

Marcos spent her childhood in the shadow of the Malacañang Palace in San Miguel District in Manila, since her family then lived near San Miguel Pro-Cathedral. (The Malacanang Gardens across the Palace used to be owned by her grandfather Daniel Romualdez. He sold the land for the education of his sons Norberto, Vicente Orestes and Miguel at the Ateneo de Manila). After Marcos's mother Remedios died in 1938, and their home nearly foreclosed, her father, Vicente Orestes, moved his family back to Leyte to live on their abaca and coconut plantation given to him by his deceased mother Trinidad Romualdez y Lopez.[4] Marcos earned a bachelor's degree in education in Tacloban's St. Paul's College."[5]

She became a beauty queen and at the age of 18 was crowned the "Rose of Tacloban." She later became "Miss Leyte." Previously, during Philippine-American Friendship celebrations, a daughter of the prominent Price family of Tacloban was crowned "Miss America" while she was crowned "Miss Philippines."

Finally, she flew to Manila in 1950 after her cousin, Speaker Daniel Romualdez y Zialcita (her uncle ex-Manila mayor Miguel Romualdez's son) saw her potential to attract crowds. She worked in the music stores of the Escolta. Because of her beautiful singing voice, many customers requested for her to sing. She sang continuously and made many profits for the store. However, her father Vicente Orestes found out. He found it below a Romualdez to do such a thing, considering the Romualdez name carried such a cache (a good name left as an undying legacy by eldest brother Norberto Romualdez, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court). He took the next flight from Tacloban to Manila. He stormed Danieling's offices and demanded an explanation. "Gin babaligya mo ba ang akon anak?" (Are you trying to sell my child!?!) was his charge against Danieling. Thus, Marcos was later hired at the Philippine Central Bank headed by her speaker-cousin's brother, Eduardo Romualdez y Zialcita, in the brand new offices in Quezon City.

She took voice lessons at the music conservatory of the University of Santo Tomas with the help of Norberto's daughter, Loreto Romualdez Ramos and her friend, Mrs. Adoracion Reyes. Her photogenic face soon graced many of Manila's magazine covers and she was named the "Muse of Manila" by then Manila Mayor, Arsenio Lacson, a special title given her after she protested her loss in the Miss Manila pageant.

During her early years in Manila, she lived with her cousin, Danieling and his wife Paz Gueco along Dapitan Street in Quezon City. There she was introduced to the machinations of political life since the house was a de facto headquarters for the Nacionalista party. Paz, or Pacing, took care of her ward Imelda. On certain family picnics along the Parua river straddling Magalang, Pampanga (where the Guecos owned large ricelands) and Concepcion, Tarlac, she brought along Imelda, whom the Guecos were excited to see since she was so beautiful--- the newest political asset of the great politician holding sway in Eastern Visayas. On that picnic also came Benigno Aquino Jr from nearby Concepcion, who was himself a nephew of Pacing. It was Benigno or Ninoy whom Pacing asked to escort Imelda on the way home from her job in the Escolta on some nights. Also, she was once invited to the parties of Pedro Cojuangco or Pete, (eldest brother of Cory Aquino) where she was told to wear a flapper dress. She came home ridiculed and slighted by most of the landed scions of Pampanga.

After some time, Marcos started receiving formal visits from Ariston Nakpil, a United States educated heir to the Juan Nakpils of Manila. He was a son of a former Miss Philippines, Anita Noble. However, Ariston had a quick marriage-and-divorce episode. Essentially, he was a divorced man. To the eyes of the Romualdezes, if Imelda married him, she would always be the second wife, a concubine. The Romualdezes, staunch Catholics, as the rest of the Philippines at that time, was against the concept of divorce. Her cousin Loreto Romualdez Ramos asked her to distance herself from Nakpil and his invitations to their Batangas farm family picnics. Shortly thereafter, Marcos's father Vicente Orestes Romualdez found out and talked some sense to his daughter.. All of them urged Imelda to call off the visits from Nakpil, whom they would not accept into their family as he already had a legal impediment. (During the Marcos years, Ariston's sister Edith Nakpil Rabat would be a Blue Lady of Marcos)

In 1953, Marcos met then-Ilocos Norte Congressman Ferdinand E. Marcos. After a whirlwind eleven day courtship in Baguio during Holy Week, and with much prodding from Danieling (He and Ferdinand Marcos were both sitting congressmen at that time), Eduardo and his wife, Conchita Romualdez (not to be confused with Imelda's youngest sister, Conchita Romualdez Yap), they were married in May of that year at the San Miguel Pro-Cathedral on General Solano street, San Miguel, Manila. This was the same church where her mother Remedios T. Romualdez was wed and interred in 1938, twelve years ago. President Ramon Magsaysay was principal sponsor (he would also be the wedding sponsor to Benigno Aquino Jr and his wife Corazon on that same year). President Magsaysay, a Nacionalista party member, allowed then Congressman Ferdinand Marcos to hold his wedding reception in the Malacanang Gardens primarily because of the Romualdezes, who have always identified with the Nacionalista party. [5] They have four children: Maria Imelda "Imee" Marcos, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., Irene Marcos, and Aimee Marcos, who was adopted from within the Romualdezes.

In 1960, her father reluctantly left his beautiful Leyte to be with Imelda. He stayed with his eldest child from his second marriage in the Marcos house in San Juan. Imelda, who by then was now head of their branch of the Romualdezes, took great effort to end any hard feelings between her and her half siblingsl. Half sister Lourdes Romualdez Caguiat left the United States and her husband Emilio to care for Vicente Orestes. The latter died there in San Juan. Distraught, Imelda refused for her father's body to be prepared elsewhere. Vicente Orestes Romualdez was embalmed in the San Juan home. Pregnant with daughter Maria Victoria Irene Marcos, she cried so hard during the burial that Marcos almost fell into the grave.

Between then and 1965, Marcos was constantly featured in many magazine covers. She travelled around the entire country to get to know each and every politician that could help her husband Ferdinand win the presidency one day. She learned how to sleep while sitting upright with her elaborate coiffure intact; she sang to the audiences; she was baptismal and wedding sponsor to all; she was the eyes and ears of her husband. Her determination was unbelievably bottomless, even when most among the wives of the Senators looked down upon her, such as Lourdes "Lily" Padilla (nee De las Alas), the young wife of Senator Ambrosio Padilla and was a sister of Carmen or "Menchu", first wife of Spanish mestizo billionaire Andres Soriano; and also a sister of the deceased Natividad or "Toyang", the first wife of Ramon Cojuangco (Ramon would later marry Imelda Ongsiako Cojuangco who would be a constant friend and Blue Lady of Marcos). Her very few friends during this phase were her neighbors in San Juan and Elvira Manahan, also a senator's wife.

In 1966, Ferdinand Marcos became the 10th President of the Philippines. Together with Imelda, he would rule the Philippines from September 21, 1972 up to his removal in February 1986 in the famous People Power Revolution when he fled the Philippines.

First Lady

In December 1965, Ferdinand E. Marcos became the 10th Philippine President of the Philippines. Imelda Marcos was considered one of the most beautiful first ladies the Philippines had ever seen.

The Marcoses with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1982.

In 1969, Ferdinand Marcos became the first President of the Philippine Republic to be re-elected a second and last 4-year term amidst charges of vote buying and election fraud. On September 23, 1972, he declared martial law to preserve his hold on power. It was during the martial law period that President Marcos abolished the Philippines' 1935 constitution and established a parliamentary system (Batasang Pambansa or National Assembly) composed mainly of his own political appointees. It was during this period that Imelda Marcos assumed a more public and powerful role in the government. She was appointed by her husband to various positions in the government, such as: Governor of Metropolitan Manila, Minister of Human Settlement, and Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary. On December 7, 1972, an assailant, Carlito Dimahilig, tried to stab her to death with a bolo knife during an award ceremony broadcast live on television. Although the assassination attempt appears to have been staged, the government claimed that the assailant was shot to death by security police and that the wounds on Marcos' hands and arms required 75 stitches.[6] In 1978, she was 'elected' as member of the 165-member Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) representing the National Capital Region.

As a Special Envoy, Marcos toured China, the Soviet Union, and the Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe (Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, etc.), the Middle East, Libya, the non-Soviet dominated communist state of Yugoslavia, and Cuba. To justify the multi-million expenditure of traveling with a large diplomatic entourage using private jets, she would later claim diplomatic successes that included securing of a cheap supply of oil from China and Libya, and in the signing of the Tripoli Agreement.

Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos in 1979

Marcos's extravagant lifestyle reportedly included five-million-dollar shopping tours in New York, Rome and Copenhagen in 1983, and sending a plane to pick up Australian white sand for a new beach resort. She purchased a number of properties in Manhattan in the 1980s, including the $51-million Crown Building and the $60-million Herald Centre; she declined to purchase the Empire State Building for $750m as she considered it "too ostentatious." Her New York real estate was later seized and sold, along with much of her jewels and most of her 175 piece art collection, which included works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Canaletto. She responded to criticisms of her extravagance by claiming that it was her "duty" to be "some kind of light, a star to give [the poor] guidelines."[7]

Marcos orchestrated lavish public events using millions of dollars in public funds to extol her husband's regime and bolster her public image. Marcos secured the Miss Universe 1974 pageant for Manila which necessitated the construction and completion of the 10,000-seat Folk Arts Theater in less than three months. Marcos organized the Kasaysayan ng Lahi, an extravagant festival parade showcasing the history of the Philippines.[8][9] She initiated social programs such as the Green Revolution, a program that, although did not address hunger and the core problem of agricultural land reform (most Filipino farmers were tenant farmers and did not own their land), encouraged Filipinos to plant vegetables and fruits in their gardens. Other short-lived social programs included a national family-planning program to reduce the country's population growth.[10]

Marcos was criticized for spending hundreds of millions of dollars on high-profile infrastructure projects that did little to alleviate poverty and were beyond the reach of ordinary Filipinos. These included the Cultural Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center of the Philippines, Kidney Institute of the Philippines, Nayong Pilipino; Philippine International Convention Center, Folk Arts Theater, Coconut Palace, and the infamous Manila Film Center, a costly and imposing edifice built in 1982 to host Marcos's short-lived international film festival. By 1985, it was estimated that the Philippine government had acquired more than $28 billion in foreign loans, much of it during President Marcos' 20-year rule.

Exile

Marcos in 2006

On February 25, 1986, Ferdinand Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii (via Guam) after his regime was toppled by the four-day People Power Revolution in EDSA. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon C. Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr., Marcos' foremost political opponent, who was assassinated at the Manila International Airport during his return to the Philippines in 1983 after years of political exile. It was widely assumed that Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos were involved in the assassination, which ignited the People Power Revolution of 1986. Upon assuming office, President Aquino issued Executive Order No. 1, creating the Presidential Commission on Good Government to investigate and sequester the ill-gotten wealth of the Marcoses. President Aquino abolished the Batasang Pambansa (Philippine Parliament) and the Ministry of Human Settlements, both creations of Marcos, and established in 1987 a modified version of the Philippines' original 1935 constitution, which had been abolished in 1972 by Marcos.

After the Marcos family fled Malacañang Palace, Marcos was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 1000 handbags[11] and 3000 pairs of shoes.[12] In February 2006, Marcos insisted that her husband hadacquired his wealth legitimately as a gold trader. By the late 1950s, she claimed, he had amassed a personal fortune of 7,500 tons of gold, and after gold prices climbed in the 1970s, the Marcos family was worth about $35 billion.[7] However, the Bureau of Internal Revenue has no record of the Marcos family declaring or paying taxes on these assets[citation needed], and the source of their wealth remains open to investigation.[7]

Ousted President Marcos died in exile on September 28, 1989. President Aquino refused to permit the repatriation of his remains for national-security reasons.[13] The Supreme Court upheld the decision of the government in Marcos vs. Manglapus.[14] In 1991, Marcos was allowed to return home. Marcos was the first wife of a foreign head of state to stand trial in an American court. In 1990, she was acquitted of racketeering and fraud charges, alongside co-defendant Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian former billionaire and arms dealer. The "theatrical" trial involved many celebrities: Marcos and Khashoggi were represented by trial lawyer Gerry Spence; Marcos' $5-million-dollar bail was posted by tobacco heiress Doris Duke; and actor George Hamilton was a star witness for the defense.[15]

Return

In 1992, Mrs. Marcos ran and finished fifth in the seven-way presidential race. Her votes were split between her, with 2,338,294 votes, and Ambassador Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., a Marcos crony, with 4,116,376 votes. Fidel Ramos, the candidate endorsed by Corazon Aquino, received 5.3 million and won the election.[16] In 1995, she was elected Congresswoman of Leyte, representing the first district of her home province.

In 1998, she made another bid for the presidency but later backed out of the race to support the candidacy of then Vice President Joseph Ejercito Estrada. Marcos finished 9th among 11 candidates vying for the Philippine government's top post. During the administration of her friend and ally, President Joseph Estrada, many of the cases filed by the Aquino government were dismissed by Ombudsman Aniano Desierto, owing to technicalities (lapse of the prescriptive period for filing cases). On June 29, 1998, the Sandiganbayan (Philippine anti-corruption court) convicted the Former First Lady of the charge that she had entered into an agreement disadvantageous to the government. On appeal, the Supreme Court reversed the decision and cited Sandiganbayan Justice Francis Gatchitorena for his alleged bias against Mrs. Marcos.[17]

Marcos is currently running for Representative in Ilocos Norte in the 2010 elections, to replace her son, incumbent Rep. Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., who is running for Senator under the Nacionalista Party.

Trial

Marcos in 2008.

On September 21, 2007, the Sandiganbayan's 5th Division chair Associate Justice Ma. Cristina Cortez-Estrada granted Marcos' motion for daily trial on her 10 pending graft cases (beginning January 21, 2008, as requested by defense lawyers on September 17 alleging the illnesses, inter alia).[18]

On March 10, 2008, Judge Silvino Pampilo (Manila Regional Trial Court Branch 26) acquitted Marcos of 32 counts of dollar salting (involving £430m in Swiss bank accounts) due to reasonable doubt. Marcos stated: "First of all, I am so happy and I thank the Lord that the 32 cases have been dismissed by the regional court here in Manila. This will subtract from the 9001 cases that were filed against the Marcoses." Her lawyer Robert Sison said that she has 10 pending criminal cases remaining before the Sandiganbayan Courts.[19][20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Reid, Robert H. (1991-11-03). "A "Roller-Coaster" Life For One Of The World's Most Famous Women". Associated Press. 
  2. ^ Soloski, Alex (2009-10-06). "Imelda Marcus Gets the Ol' Song and Dance at Julia Miles Theater". The Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/2009-10-06/theater/imelda-marcus-gets-the-ol-song-and-dance-at-julia-miles-theater/. Retrieved 2009-06-08.  }}
  3. ^ Kerima Polotan, "Imelda Romualdez Marcos, A Biography of the First Lady of the Philippines", The World Publishing Company, Ohio
  4. ^ a b Katherine Ellison, Imelda, Steel Butterfly of the Philippines, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988. ISBN 0-07-019335-5
  5. ^ a b Carmen Navarro Pedrosa. The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos, Manila: Bookmark, 1969, p. 3–4.
  6. ^ "Mrs. Marcos / Assassination Attempt". Television News Archive/Vanderbilt University. http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/program.pl?ID=462241. 
  7. ^ a b c McNeill, David (25 February 2006). "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article347541.ece. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  8. ^ Kasaysayan ng Lahi [documentary video], Manila: National Media Production Board, 1974
  9. ^ Serin, J.R., A.L. Elamil. D.C. Serion, et al. Ugnayan ng Pamhalaan at Mamamayan. Manila: Bede's Publishing House, Inc., 1979.
  10. ^ Ramona Diaz. Imelda [film]. Ramona Diaz-Independent Television Service, 2003.
  11. ^ "Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". Time/CNN. February 23, 1987. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963620,00.html. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  12. ^ The exact number of shoes varies between accounts; estimates of up to 3000 pairs of shoes have been published, but Time later reported that the final tally was http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963620,00.html 1,060].
  13. ^ Department of Transportation and Communications Memorandum Circular No. 89-291, dated June 9, 1989. Excerpts: "Resolved, as it its is hereby resolved that, in the interest of national security and tranquility and pursuant to the declared national policy, any aircraft carrying deposed president Ferdinand E. Marcos is prohibited from entering Philippine airspace or, landing or disembarking in Philippine territory. This prohibition shall apply to the remains in the event of his death."
  14. ^ 177 SCRA 668, The Philippine Supreme Court, voting 8–7, prohibited the return of President Marcos and members of his family to the Philippines
  15. ^ "Judge Wapner, Where Are You?". Time/CNN. July 2, 1990. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,970515,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  16. ^ Commission on Elections. Report of the Commission on Elections to the President and Congress of the Republic of the Philippines. Manila: Commission on Elections, Manila
  17. ^ Imelda Marcos vs. Sandiganbayan, GR. No. 126995 [Supreme Court Resolution], dated October 6, 1998
  18. ^ GMA NEWS.TV@em`tixe`, Sandigan OKs Imelda bid for daily hearings on graft cases
  19. ^ abs-cbnnews.com, Imelda not guilty of dollar salting
  20. ^ ukpress.google.com, Marcos cleared of illegal money move

Further reading

  • Imelda, steel butterfly of the Philippines. Katherine Ellison, author. McGrawHill, New York, 1988. ISBN 0-07-019335-5
  • Imelda Romualdez Marcos. Kerima Polotan.
  • Cronies and Enemies: the Current Philippine Scene. Belinda Aquino, editor. University of Hawaii. 1982.
  • Waltzing with a Dictator: the Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Raymond Bonner, author. Times Books, New York, 1987. ISBN 0-8129-1326-4
  • Imelda: a Story of the Philippines. Beatriz Francia, author.
  • Presidential Plunder: the Quest for Marcos Ill-Gotten Wealth. Jovito Salonga, author. Regina Pub. Co., Manila, 2001.
  • Inside the Palace: The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Beth Day Romulo, author. Putnam Pub. Group, New York, 1987. ISBN 0-399-13253-8
  • The Marcos Dynasty. Sterling Seagrave, author. Harper & Row, New York, 1988. ISBN 0-06-015815-8
  • The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos. Primitivo Mijares, author. Union Square Publishing. ISBN 1-141-12147-6
  • Imelda Marcos Quotes[1]

External links

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Evangelina Macapagal
First Lady of the Philippines
1965–1986
Succeeded by
(vacant); Corazon Aquino was a widow while President.
Amelita Ramos
Political offices
Preceded by
Cirilo Roy C. Montejo
Representative of the First District of Leyte
1995–1998
Succeeded by
Alfred S. Romuáldez

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Imelda Marcos in February 2006.

Imelda Romuáldez Marcos (born July 2, 1929, in Manila) is a former First Lady and erstwhile powerful political figure in the Philippines. She is known as the "Steel Butterfly" and remains a controversial figure not only in her home country, but around the world. Her extensive shoe collection is world-renowned.

Sourced

  • They went into my closets looking for skeletons, but thank God, all they found were shoes, beautiful shoes.

Quotes about Imelda Marcos

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Imelda Marcos

Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
Incumbent
Assumed office 
June 30, 2010
Preceded by Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.

Member of the House of Representatives from Leyte's 1st district
In office
June 30, 1995 – June 30, 1998
Preceded by Cirilo Roy G. Montejo
Succeeded by Alfred S. Romuáldez

10th First Lady of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
Preceded by Eva Macapagal
Succeeded by Amelita Ramos

Member of Parliament for Region IV-A
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984

Governor of Manila
In office
1976 – February 25, 1986

Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary
In office
1978–1986

Minister of Human Settlements
In office
1978–1986

Born July 2, 1929 (1929-07-02) (age 81)
Manila, Philippines
Birth name Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romuáldez
Nationality Filipino
Political party Nacionalista Party (2009–present)
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–present)
Spouse(s) Ferdinand Marcos (1954–1989)
Children Imee Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
Irene Marcos-Araneta
Aimee Marcos
Alma mater St. Paul's College
Religion Catholic

Imelda Marcos (born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Romualdez on July 2, 1929) is a Filipino government person and wife of 10th Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos. Her nicknames are Steel Butterfly or Iron Butterfly.[1][2]

She is remembered both for her husband's presidential time, and because of her collection of 2,700 pairs of shoes.[3] In 2001, she opened the Marikina City Footwear Museum in the shoe-making district of Manila. The museum includes hundreds of her own shoes.[4]

First lady

More than five years after her husband became president, he stopped elections and gained more control. He stopped all that challenged him by scaring them. She also gained power and became a government person up to 1986 when her husband's president time ended after the people removed him from power using peaceful actions.

Later life

They went to Hawaii and her husband died there. She came back five years later to try to become president but lost. Later, she tried other government jobs and won in two areas as a member representing them in the Philippines law-making building. She has represented three areas (Manila, Leyte, Ilocos Norte) in the Philippines law-making building.

Sources

  1. Reid, Robert H. (November 3, 1991). "A "Roller-Coaster" Life For One Of The World's Most Famous Women". Associated Press. 
  2. Soloski, Alex (October 6, 2009). "Imelda Marcus Gets the Ol' Song and Dance at Julia Miles Theater". The Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/2009-10-06/theater/imelda-marcus-gets-the-ol-song-and-dance-at-julia-miles-theater/. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
  3. Morrow, Lance (31 March 1986). "Essay: The Shoes of Imelda Marcos". New York Times. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,961002,00.html. 
  4. BBC News: Homage to Imelda's shoes. [1]








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