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A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange).
.An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.^ T-cells are the sophisticated arm of our immune system.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides making the immune system generally lazy, the over abundance of histamine and prostaglandins suppresses the formation of natural killer cells, the elite troops of the innate immune system.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Could it be that the patient had a staph infection or something similar to it, which went after his B-cell population, killing them off with 100% efficiency, and in the process killing off all of his CLL cells as well?
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

.It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly.^ It detects pathogens ranging from viruses to parasitic worms and distinguishes them from the organism's normal cells and tissues .

^ This will saturate your cells with a wide variety of antioxidants and supercharge the cancer fighting ability of these nutrients.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because it is so much higher in antioxidants, Muscadine Grape Seed protects and restores immune function resulting in a wide variety of protection throughout the body.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations that avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.^ Detection is complicated as pathogens adapt and evolve new ways to successfully infect the host organism.

^ Therefore, pathogens have developed several methods that allow them to successfully infect a host, while evading immune-mediated destruction.

^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

.To survive this challenge,multiple mechanisms evolved that recognize and neutralize pathogens.^ To survive this challenge, several mechanisms have evolved that recognize and neutralize pathogens.

^ Phagocytosis evolved as a means of acquiring nutrients , but this role was extended in phagocytes to include engulfment of pathogens as a defense mechanism.

.Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess enzyme systems that protect against viral infections.^ Chemical barriers also protect against infection.

^ Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess enzyme systems that protect against viral infections.

^ Supplements of probiotics (friendly bacteria) such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, or the growth factors that encourage their development in the gastrointestinal tract may help protect the body from harmful organisms in the intestine that cause local or systemic infection according to published research, 73 74 including controlled 75 trials.
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects.^ Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants , fish , reptiles , and insects .

^ Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes , and are thought to play a role in the immune response to viruses and other foreign genetic material.

.These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system.^ These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins , pattern recognition receptors , and the complement system .

^ Phagocytosis evolved as a means of acquiring nutrients , but this role was extended in phagocytes to include engulfment of pathogens as a defense mechanism.

^ The skin and respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides such as the β-defensins.

Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms.[1] .The typical vertebrate immune system consists of many types of proteins, cells, organs, and tissues, which interact in an elaborate and dynamic network.^ The immune system is a complex network of tissues, organs, cells, and chemicals that protects the body from infection and illness.
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The immune system is an intricate network of specialized tissues, organs, cells, and chemicals.
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The immune systems of vertebrates such as humans consist of many types of proteins , cells, organs , and tissues, which interact in an elaborate and dynamic network.

.As part of this more complex immune response, the human immune system adapts over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently.^ Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen.

^ As part of this more complex immune response, the vertebrate system adapts over time to recognize particular pathogens more efficiently.

^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

.This adaptation process is referred to as "adaptive immunity" or "acquired immunity" and creates immunological memory.^ This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination .

^ This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory , and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered.

^ On one hand, γδ T cells are a component of adaptive immunity as they rearrange TCR genes to produce receptor diversity and can also develop a memory phenotype.

Immunological memory created from a primary response to a specific pathogen, provides an enhanced response to secondary encounters with that same, specific pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.
.Disorders in the immune system can result in disease.^ Disorders in the immune system can cause disease.

^ In fact, some of the work done in heavily pretreated NHL patients with Rituxan and IL-2 as an immune system booster have shown good results.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea in protecting against infection and other immune system-related diseases.
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.^ Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive.

^ Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.

^ The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity.

.Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the retrovirus HIV.^ It is acquired later in life, such as after an immunization or successfully fighting off an infection .
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The new treatment, which should be widely available within just two years, increased a patient's ability to fight cancer and other deadly diseases such as HIV/AIDS".
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The very large molecules are immune modulating, which has a powerful healing effect on AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, other chronic infections, multiple chemical exposure, cancer, heart disease, auto-immune diseases and many other immune system disorders.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast, autoimmune diseases result from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms.^ The immune system protects the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies, known as antigens.

^ Autoimmune Disorders In autoimmune disorders, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's healthy organs and tissues as though they were foreign invaders.
  • Immune System - MSN Health & Fitness - Kids' Health 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC health.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself.

.Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1 and lupus erythematosus.^ Common autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis , diabetes mellitus type 1 and lupus erythematosus .

^ Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their onset often coincides with puberty .

^ Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis ( poison ivy ).

.Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system which has significant relevance to human health and diseases.^ Disorders in the immune system can cause disease.

^ Immune system / Immunology .

^ Studies have suggested that such herbs can indeed stimulate the immune system, [91] although their mode of action is complex and difficult to characterize.

.Further investigation in this field is expected to play a serious role in promotion of health and treatment of diseases.^ These critical roles of immunology in health and disease are areas of intense scientific study.

^ All normal cells have a defined role to play, and a time comes in the life of every cell when there is no further role to play.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Layered defense

.The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity.^ Specific immune system.
  • Immune System - humans, examples, body, process, plants, type, chemical, form, reaction, animals, cells, parts, cause, primary, substance, change, surface 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune System defenses are multi-layered.
  • An Overview of the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The job of our immune system is to protect our bodies from these infections.
  • Library - A Strong Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.avenaoriginals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most simply, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism.^ Most simply, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the body.

^ Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.

^ Bacteria often overcome physical barriers by secreting enzymes that digest the barrier — for example, by using a type II secretion system.

.If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response.^ Specific immune system.
  • Immune System - humans, examples, body, process, plants, type, chemical, form, reaction, animals, cells, parts, cause, primary, substance, change, surface 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each vaccine initiates a response in the immune system.

^ It decreases your immune system 's response to...
  • Immune System - HealthCentral 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]
  • Immune System Deficiency - HealthCentral 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]

.Innate immune systems are found in all plants and animals.^ Innate immune systems are found in all plants and animals .

^ Innate immune system .

^ Antimicrobial peptides called defensins are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all animals and plants, and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity .

[2] .If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a third layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response.^ Besides making the immune system generally lazy, the over abundance of histamine and prostaglandins suppresses the formation of natural killer cells, the elite troops of the innate immune system.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A Strong Immune System Seeks Out And Destroys Cancer Cells For most of your life, the immune system has successfully dealt with cancer cells, killing them off as they developed.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two types of immunity protect the body: innate and adaptive.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen.^ Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen.

^ "Innate immune recognition of viral infection".

^ While technically a probiotic and working on digestion, they are included here as an immune supplement because soil based organisms do a great job of stimulating the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered.^ This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory , and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered.

^ Adaptive immune system .

^ Alternative adaptive immune system .

[3]
Components of the immune system
Innate immune system Adaptive immune system
Response is non-specific Pathogen and antigen specific response
Exposure leads to immediate maximal response Lag time between exposure and maximal response
Cell-mediated and humoral components Cell-mediated and humoral components
No immunological memory Exposure leads to immunological memory
Found in nearly all forms of life Found only in jawed vertebrates
.Both innate and adaptive immunity depend on the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules.^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ Distinguishing self from non-self .
  • Regenerative Medicine Partnership in Education: Introduction to the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.sites.duq.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The role of the complement system in innate immunity.".

.In immunology, self molecules are those components of an organism's body that can be distinguished from foreign substances by the immune system.^ The immune system protects the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies, known as antigens.

^ Your immune system is your body’s self-esteem .
  • The Immune System - CENIGENT Health Enhancement Medical Institute, Santa Monica 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cenigent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune System: The entire defense system of the body.
  • Cancer Research Institute - Cancer and the Immune System: Adaptive Defense System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.cancerresearch.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Conversely, non-self molecules are those recognized as foreign molecules.^ Conversely, non-self molecules are those recognized as foreign molecules.

^ Ability to recognize foreign molecules - - - Receptor molecules .
  • immune system (physiology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The immune system is designed to attack foreign invaders while ignoring 'normal' molecules, such as those found in food.
  • The Importance of a Healthy Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.preciouspets.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One class of non-self molecules are called antigens (short for antibody generators) and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response.^ One class of non-self molecules are called antigens (short for anti body gen erators) and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response.

^ The adaptive immune response is antigen-specific and requires the recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during a process called antigen presentation.

^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

[5]

Surface barriers

.Several barriers protect organisms from infection, including mechanical, chemical and biological barriers.^ Chemical barriers also protect against infection.

^ Mucous membranes - - Chemical barriers to infection .
  • immune system (physiology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune system is organism mechanism of protection.
  • Why Do You Need Immune System ? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC allergyimmune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The waxy cuticle of many leaves, the exoskeleton of insects, the shells and membranes of externally deposited eggs, and skin are examples of the mechanical barriers that are the first line of defense against infection.[5] .However, as organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments, other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs, intestines, and the genitourinary tract.^ However, as organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments, other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs , intestines , and the genitourinary tract .

^ Protects the body against radiation and x-rays.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.

.In the lungs, coughing and sneezing mechanically eject pathogens and other irritants from the respiratory tract.^ In the lungs, coughing and sneezing mechanically eject pathogens and other irritants from the respiratory tract .

^ The oil of pine has often been used for colds, coughing, flu, rheumatism, sinusitis, general respiratory problems in general, urinary tract disease and loss of memory.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments, other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs , intestines , and the genitourinary tract .

.The flushing action of tears and urine also mechanically expels pathogens, while mucus secreted by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract serves to trap and entangle microorganisms.^ The flushing action of tears and urine also mechanically expels pathogens, while mucus secreted by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract serves to trap and entangle microorganisms .

^ Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.

^ In the lungs, coughing and sneezing mechanically eject pathogens and other irritants from the respiratory tract .

[6]
.Chemical barriers also protect against infection.^ Chemical barriers also protect against infection.

^ Mucous membranes - - Chemical barriers to infection .
  • immune system (physiology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within humans that protects against infection by identifying and killing pathogens.
  • Immune Sysyem Boost - Natural ways to strengthen and boost you immune system 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.immunesystemboost.net [Source type: Academic]

.The skin and respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides such as the β-defensins.^ The skin and respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides such as the β-defensins.

^ These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins , pattern recognition receptors , and the complement system .

^ The flushing action of tears and urine also mechanically expels pathogens, while mucus secreted by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract serves to trap and entangle microorganisms .

[7] .Enzymes such as lysozyme and phospholipase A2 in saliva, tears, and breast milk are also antibacterials.^ Enzymes such as lysozyme and phospholipase A in saliva , tears, and breast milk are also antibacterials .

[8][9] .Vaginal secretions serve as a chemical barrier following menarche, when they become slightly acidic, while semen contains defensins and zinc to kill pathogens.^ Vaginal secretions are also slightly acidic (after the onset of menses).
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uhaweb.hartford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bloodindex - Human Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloodindex.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaginal secretions serve as a chemical barrier following menarche , when they become slightly acidic , while semen contains defensins and zinc to kill pathogens.

^ Macrophages are versatile cells; besides acting as scavengers, they secrete a wide variety of chemical signals that alert other white blood cells of invaders.
  • Immune Attack » Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] In the stomach, gastric acid and proteases serve as powerful chemical defenses against ingested pathogens.
.Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.^ Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.

^ However, as organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments, other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs , intestines , and the genitourinary tract .

^ In some cases, the bacteria change their stripes subtly from one generation to the next.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .This reduces the probability that pathogens will be able to reach sufficient numbers to cause illness.^ This reduces the probability that pathogens will be able to reach sufficient numbers to cause illness.

^ In the intestines, the bacterial flora compete with one another and non- commensal pathogens for food and space, diminishing the probability of pathogenic bacteria multiplying in sufficient numbers to cause illness.
  • Immune system - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A pathogen is: a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.
  • Immune System Basics | America Nutra.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC americanutra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi, oral antibiotics can lead to an “overgrowth” of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis (a yeast infection).^ However, since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi, oral antibiotics can lead to an “overgrowth” of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis ( yeast infection ).

^ However, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in developing countries .

^ With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed.

[13] .There is good evidence that re-introduction of probiotic flora, such as pure cultures of the lactobacilli normally found in unpasteurized yoghurt, helps restore a healthy balance of microbial populations in intestinal infections in children and encouraging preliminary data in studies on bacterial gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, urinary tract infection and post-surgical infections.^ The oil of pine has often been used for colds, coughing, flu, rheumatism, sinusitis, general respiratory problems in general, urinary tract disease and loss of memory.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is clear evidence that NK cell populations are depleted after surgery, and this contributes to the risk of infections.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So he started using it with patients, and found that it was indeed, very effective against cancer, along with being excellent for fighting viral diseases, bacterial infections, fungal infections and parasites.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[14][15][16]

Innate

.Microorganisms or toxins that successfully enter an organism will encounter the cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system.^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.

^ Template:Details Microorganisms that successfully enter an organism will encounter the cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system.

.The innate response is usually triggered when microbes are identified by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms,[17] or when damaged, injured or stressed cells send out alarm signals, many of which (but not all) are recognized by the same receptors as those that recognize pathogens.^ When that time comes, all good cells die obediently on receiving the death signal from the body.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When we are kids, the immune system encounters a large number of unfamiliar antigens, and the thymus is responsible for churning out armies of so-called naïve T-cells, primed to recognize and target anything alien.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They either do not display any dangerous looking antigens on their cell surface, or they put out enough conflicting signals that the dendritic cells and T-cells are totally confused.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

[18] .Innate immune defenses are non-specific, meaning these systems respond to pathogens in a generic way.^ Innate immune defenses are non-specific, meaning these systems recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way.

^ If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response.

^ The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.

[5] .This system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen.^ And body immunity is the natural resistance system against these pathogens.
  • Strengthen Immune System - Boost Immune System - Immune System Supplements 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.goherbalremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen.

^ It provides immediate protection against an antigen, but does not provide long-lasting protection.
  • Immune response - Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Immune response 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.^ Your only defense is your immune system.
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC altered-states.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.

^ The immune system is the major component of this defense.

[2]

Humoral and chemical barriers

Inflammation

.Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection.^ Each vaccine initiates a response in the immune system.

^ It decreases your immune system 's response to...
  • Immune System - HealthCentral 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]
  • Immune System Deficiency - HealthCentral 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ The immune system is responsible for protecting the body against infection.

[19] .The symptoms of inflammation are redness and swelling, which are caused by increased blood flow into a tissue.^ These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling .
  • Immune response: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Immune response - Overview 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Immune response 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The increased blood flow leads to warmth and redness.
  • Colostrum, transfer factor and your immune system 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healingdaily.com [Source type: General]

^ The symptoms of inflammation are redness and swelling, which are caused by increased blood flow into a tissue.

.Inflammation is produced by eicosanoids and cytokines, which are released by injured or infected cells.^ Inflammation is produced by eicosanoids and cytokines , which are released by injured or infected cells.

^ Some tumor cells also release products that inhibit the immune response; for example by secreting the cytokine TGF-β , which suppresses the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes .

^ Eicosanoids include prostaglandins that produce fever and the dilation of blood vessels associated with inflammation, and leukotrienes that attract certain white blood cells (leukocytes).

.Eicosanoids include prostaglandins that produce fever and the dilation of blood vessels associated with inflammation, and leukotrienes that attract certain white blood cells (leukocytes).^ Eicosanoids include prostaglandins that produce fever and the dilation of blood vessels associated with inflammation, and leukotrienes that attract certain white blood cells (leukocytes).

^ Inflammation is produced by eicosanoids and cytokines , which are released by injured or infected cells.

^ It consists of lymph nodes, blood proteins known as immunoglobins, specialized white blood cells known as lymphocytes, the organs that produce these cells, and the blood vessels that transport them.
  • Herbs and Nutritional Supplements for the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.soulhealer.com [Source type: Reference]

[20][21] .Common cytokines include interleukins that are responsible for communication between white blood cells; chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in the host cell.^ The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus gland, and tonsils all play a role, as do lymphocytes (specialized white blood cells), antibodies, and interferon.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the B cells begin to respond, they are quickly shut down, as the SpA de-activates these B cell antigen receptors, and there is also loss of other surface molecules such as CD19 and CD21, which are important for amplifying immune responses.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NK cell production is stimulated by cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN gamma).
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Growth factors and cytotoxic factors may also be released.^ Growth factors and cytotoxic factors may also be released.

^ May help boost muscle growth due to increased secretion of growth factor (IGF-1).

.These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue following the removal of pathogens.^ Helps with elimination of toxins and promotes the healing of damaged tissues.
  • Herbal Immune System Defense 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalways.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other cytokines chemically attract specific cell types.

^ Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines, or protein that recruit other cells towards the site of release.

[23]

Complement system

.The complement system is a biochemical cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells.^ Activation of the complement system - - - Activation of killer cells .
  • immune system (physiology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Template:Details The complement system is a biochemical cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells.

^ The immune system then attacks that cell.
  • Introduction: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.It contains over 20 different proteins and is named for its ability to “complement” the killing of pathogens by antibodies.^ It contains over 20 different proteins and is named for its ability to “complement” the killing of pathogens by antibodies .

^ In humans, this response is activated by the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes or by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes.

^ Here, a pathogen spends a majority of its life-cycle inside host cells, where it is shielded from direct contact with immune cells, antibodies and complement.

.Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response.^ The immune system is the major component of this defense.

^ The major components of the immune system are: .
  • Immune System, How the immune system works . . . 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.drstandley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response.

[24][25] .Many species have complement systems, including non-mammals like plants, fish, and some invertebrates.^ Like many of the other of the medicinal mushrooms listed, it fights bacteria, inflammation, viruses, and benefits the immune system, the liver, and the respiratory system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A Ph.D. medical researcher specializing in cancer developed this tea by drawing on the best cancer fighting herbs from many cultures, including traditional Persian culture medicine.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.In humans, this response is activated by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes or the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes.^ In humans, this response is activated by the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes or by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes.

^ These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity.

^ Complement system is activated and the bacteria is quickly "opsonized", i.e., covered wit thousands of fragments of complement proteins.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

.This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response.^ This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response.

[27] .The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that occurs following sequential proteolytic activation of complement molecules, which are also proteases.^ They make IP-3 when consumed, a key molecule responsible for cellular signal transduction, controlling vital functions including cell proliferation and differentiation.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other complement proteases, and so on.^ The complement proteins are activated by and work with (complement) the antibodies.

^ After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other complement proteases, and so on.

^ The complement proteins play a role in initiating inflammation which causes redness, swelling, pain and warmth.

.This produces a catalytic cascade that amplifies the initial signal by controlled positive feedback.^ This produces a catalytic cascade that amplifies the initial signal by controlled positive feedback .

[28] .The cascade results in the production of peptides that attract immune cells, increase vascular permeability, and opsonize (coat) the surface of a pathogen, marking it for destruction.^ The cascade results in the production of peptides that attract immune cells, increase vascular permeability , and opsonize (coat) the surface of a pathogen, marking it for destruction.

^ Some tumor cells also release products that inhibit the immune response; for example by secreting the cytokine TGF-β , which suppresses the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes .

^ By increasing the ability of the cells to communicate with each other and with the immune system, the immune system may be better able to identify what is non-self, and get rid it.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane.^ This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane .

^ It is derived from many small plasma proteins working together to form the primary end result of cytolysis by disrupting the target cell's plasma membrane.
  • Immune system - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Warren R, Yonk J, Burger R, Odell J, Warren W: "DR positive T cells in autism: association with decreased plasma levels of the complement C4B protein."

[24]

Cellular barriers

.
A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood.
^ File:SEM blood cells.jpg A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood .

^ File:Neutrophil with anthrax copy.jpg A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange).

One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.
.Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system.^ T-cells are the sophisticated arm of our immune system.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.

[5] .The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells), mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and natural killer cells.^ Besides making the immune system generally lazy, the over abundance of histamine and prostaglandins suppresses the formation of natural killer cells, the elite troops of the innate immune system.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proven Effective at enhancing Natural Killer Cell activity by 40%!
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell activity, percentage of CD56+CD16+ (percentage of natural killer cells), and percentage of CD11b+CD8+ (percentage of suppressor T lymphocytes) were measured perioperatively.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

.These cells identify and eliminate pathogens, either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing and then killing microorganisms.^ Harmful microorganisms are filtered through the mesh, then identified and attacked by B cells and T cells.
  • Introduction: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells identify and eliminate pathogens, either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing and then killing microorganisms.

^ These B cells rapidly multiply and some become memory cells for later invasions of the same pathogen; however most B cells become plasma cells that make antibodies.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system.^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ This also can happen with the cells of the immune system.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, nutrients important for cell health boost the immune system.

[3]
.Phagocytosis is an important feature of cellular innate immunity performed by cells called 'phagocytes' that engulf, or eat, pathogens or particles.^ Phagocytosis is an important feature of cellular innate immunity performed by cells called ' phagocytes ' that engulf, or eat, pathogens or particles.

^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes ( macrophages , neutrophils , and dendritic cells ), mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells .

.Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but can be called to specific locations by cytokines.^ Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but can be called to specific locations by cytokines .

^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

^ For example, E. coli has a toxin, called lipopolysaccaride in its cell walls that the body very specifically recognizes with a wing of the immune system, called the Toll like receptor.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Boost Your Immune System? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Once a pathogen has been engulfed by a phagocyte, it becomes trapped in an intracellular vesicle called a phagosome, which subsequently fuses with another vesicle called a lysosome to form a phagolysosome.^ Once a pathogen has been engulfed by a phagocyte, it becomes trapped in an intracellular vesicle called a phagosome , which subsequently fuses with another vesicle called a lysosome to form a phagolysosome .

^ Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but can be called to specific locations by cytokines .

^ An evasion strategy used by several pathogens to circumvent the innate immune system is intracellular replication (also called intracellular pathogenesis ).

.The pathogen is killed by the activity of digestive enzymes or following a respiratory burst that releases free radicals into the phagolysosome.^ The pathogen is killed by the activity of digestive enzymes or following a respiratory burst that releases free radicals into the phagolysosome.

^ These cells have no cytotoxic activity and do not kill infected cells or clear pathogens directly.

^ They clean off the walls of the intestinal tract, improve digestion, kill pathogens and parasites, and more.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[29][30] .Phagocytosis evolved as a means of acquiring nutrients, but this role was extended in phagocytes to include engulfment of pathogens as a defense mechanism.^ Phagocytosis evolved as a means of acquiring nutrients , but this role was extended in phagocytes to include engulfment of pathogens as a defense mechanism.

^ Internal defense mechanisms for an animal include the Lymphatic system, Thymus gland, bone marrow, spleen, white blood cells and antibodies.
  • Natural Remedies to Help Boost the Immune System of Cats and Dogs 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To survive this challenge, multiple mechanisms evolved that recognize and neutralize pathogens.
  • Immune System - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Immune System - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Phagocytosis probably represents the oldest form of host defense, as phagocytes have been identified in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals.^ Phagocytosis probably represents the oldest form of host defense, as phagocytes have been identified in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

^ Some bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis , have defense mechanisms against digestion after phagocytosis, and survive within the phagocyte undetectable by lymphocytes.
  • Immune system - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This form of defense is important against bacterial infections, as viruses typically have their own means of entering host cells and the majority of parasites too large to be consumed.
  • Immune system - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes that travel throughout the body in pursuit of invading pathogens.^ Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes that travel throughout the body in pursuit of invading pathogens.

^ Neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages are all phagocytes.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uhaweb.hartford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bloodindex - Human Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloodindex.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Monocytes are short-lived phagocytes that become various macrophages found throughout the body whose task it is to clean up the waste produced by the immune system as well as destroy pathogens (disease causing substances).
  • Your Immune System Part I 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant type of phagocyte, normally representing 50% to 60% of the total circulating leukocytes.^ Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant type of phagocyte, normally representing 50% to 60% of the total circulating leukocytes.

[34] .During the acute phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, neutrophils migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis, and are usually the first cells to arrive at the scene of infection.^ Bacterial infections usually are more localized.
  • Boost Immune System - Nutrition-N-Healing 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC nutrition-healing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are not as aggressive as the neutrophil and are much slower to arrive at the sites of infection.
  • VM101/VM027: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the acute phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, neutrophils migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis, and are usually the first cells to arrive at the scene of infection.

.Macrophages are versatile cells that reside within tissues and produce a wide array of chemicals including enzymes, complement proteins, and regulatory factors such as interleukin 1.^ This process is known as apoptosis; the destruction of cells from within due to activation by the digestive enzymes contained in the cells themselves.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

^ It also acts as an antioxidant and immune system booster.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Dendritic cells (DC) are phagocytes in tissues that are in contact with the external environment; therefore, they are located mainly in the skin, nose, lungs, stomach, and intestines.^ Dendritic cells (DC) are phagocytes in tissues that are in contact with the external environment; therefore, they are located mainly in the skin , nose , lungs , stomach , and intestines .

^ However, as organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments, other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs , intestines , and the genitourinary tract .

^ The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes ( macrophages , neutrophils , and dendritic cells ), mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells .

[36] .They are named for their resemblance to neuronal dendrites, as both have many spine-like projections, but dendritic cells are in no way connected to the nervous system.^ They are named for their resemblance to neuronal dendrites , as both have many spine-like projections, but dendritic cells are in no way connected to the nervous system .

^ It is an extremely rich source of polysaccharides which stimulate the immune system in diverse ways including boosting T-cells and NK-cells.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Containing many more herbs than Essaic or even Medicine Man Tea, it is both anti-inflammatory and supportive of the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dendritic cells serve as a link between the bodily tissues and the innate and adaptive immune systems, as they present antigen to T cells, one of the key cell types of the adaptive immune system.^ Users have noticed its ability to strengthen the immune system and ward of illness far surpasses any other herb or supplements they have used before.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While technically a probiotic and working on digestion, they are included here as an immune supplement because soil based organisms do a great job of stimulating the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is an extremely rich source of polysaccharides which stimulate the immune system in diverse ways including boosting T-cells and NK-cells.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[36]
.Mast cells reside in connective tissues and mucous membranes, and regulate the inflammatory response.^ Mast cells reside in connective tissues and mucous membranes , and regulate the inflammatory response.

^ Helper T cells regulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses and help determine which types of immune responses the body will make to a particular pathogen.

^ Macrophages are versatile cells that reside within tissues and produce a wide array of chemicals including enzymes, complement proteins , and regulatory factors such as interleukin 1 .

[37] .They are most often associated with allergy and anaphylaxis.^ They are most often associated with allergy and anaphylaxis.

^ Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy .

[34] .Basophils and eosinophils are related to neutrophils.^ Basophils and eosinophils are related to neutrophils.

^ Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are examples of granulocytes.

^ Granulocytes are divided into neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, Lymphocytes into B cells so named because they are produced in the B one marrow and T cells so named because they are produced in the T hymus.
  • immune-system 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.well-women.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They secrete chemical mediators that are involved in defending against parasites and play a role in allergic reactions, such as asthma.^ Eosinophils: involved in the allergic reactions and parasitic infections.
  • Boost Immune System - Nutrition-N-Healing 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC nutrition-healing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They secrete chemical mediators that are involved in defending against parasites and play a role in allergic reactions, such as asthma .

^ Antibody-mediated reactions defend against invading viruses and bacteria.

[38] .Natural killer (NK cells) cells are leukocytes that attack and destroy tumor cells, or cells that have been infected by viruses.^ Proven Effective at enhancing Natural Killer Cell activity by 40%!
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural Cordyceps enhanced the NK cell activity of normal patients by 74% and increased the NK activity of leukemia patients by 400%.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Which the body uses to destroy viruses and cancer cells.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[39]

Adaptive

.The adaptive immune system evolved in early vertebrates and allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunological memory, where each pathogen is "remembered" by a signature antigen.^ The adaptive immune system retains a memory of all the invaders it has faced.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research indicates that colloidal silver is an effective immune system booster, deactivating the enzymes responsible for the metabolism and multiplication of unwanted invaders.
  • Herbs and Nutritional Supplements for the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.soulhealer.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And thus may be effective against immune diseases as it is most supportive of the immune system response.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] .The adaptive immune response is antigen-specific and requires the recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during a process called antigen presentation.^ The adaptive immune response is antigen-specific and requires the recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during a process called antigen presentation.

^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

^ One class of non-self molecules are called antigens (short for anti body gen erators) and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response.

.Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

^ Each B-cell is specific to one particular antigen.

^ Specificity ability to distinguish self from non-self and also to generate a response to a specific pathogen .

.The ability to mount these tailored responses is maintained in the body by "memory cells". Should a pathogen infect the body more than once, these specific memory cells are used to quickly eliminate it.^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

^ It destroys these cells and removes them from the body.
  • Immune System - Medpedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once activated, the infected cell can then kill the pathogen.

Lymphocytes

.The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes.^ Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .

^ Adaptive immune system .

^ Alternative adaptive immune system .

.B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.^ B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow .

^ T cell receptors ) exist only in jawed vertebrates, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish .

^ Removes toxic accumulations in fat cells, the lymph system, bone marrow, bladder and alimentary canals.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response.^ The cell-mediated immune responses.

^ Humoral response mediated by antibodies produced by plasma cells which develop from B cells.

^ T helper cells - Stimulate both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses .

Association of a T cell with MHC class I or MHC class II, and antigen (in red)
.Both B cells and T cells carry receptor molecules that recognize specific targets.^ Ability to recognize foreign molecules - - - Receptor molecules .
  • immune system (physiology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The T cell receptor recognizes both the bun and the hot dog!

^ T cell receptors ) exist only in jawed vertebrates, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish .

.T cells recognize a “non-self” target, such as a pathogen, only after antigens (small fragments of the pathogen) have been processed and presented in combination with a “self” receptor called a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule.^ T cells depend on unique cell surface molecules called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them recognize antigen fragments.
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC altered-states.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called the major histocompatibility complex.
  • Introduction: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a T cell recognizes a nonself-MHC molecule on another cell, it will destroy the cell.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

There are two major subtypes of T cells: the killer T cell and the helper T cell. .Killer T cells only recognize antigens coupled to Class I MHC molecules, while helper T cells only recognize antigens coupled to Class II MHC molecules.^ If a T cell recognizes a nonself-MHC molecule on another cell, it will destroy the cell.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ Macrophages have both class I and class II MHC molecules on their surfaces.
  • Immune System Lecture 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Academic]

.These two mechanisms of antigen presentation reflect the different roles of the two types of T cell.^ Plasma cells and memory B cells are two types of B cells.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC janis7hepc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These two mechanisms of antigen presentation reflect the different roles of the two types of T cell.

^ All of these of these mechanisms hinge on the attachment of antigen and cell receptors.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uhaweb.hartford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bloodindex - Human Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloodindex.org [Source type: Academic]

.A third, minor subtype are the γδ T cells that recognize intact antigens that are not bound to MHC receptors.^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ A third, minor subtype are the γδ T cells that recognize intact antigens that are not bound to MHC receptors.

^ As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen.

[41]
In contrast, the B cell antigen-specific receptor is an antibody molecule on the B cell surface, and recognizes whole pathogens without any need for antigen processing. .Each lineage of B cell expresses a different antibody, so the complete set of B cell antigen receptors represent all the antibodies that the body can manufacture.^ All of these of these mechanisms hinge on the attachment of antigen and cell receptors.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uhaweb.hartford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bloodindex - Human Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloodindex.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the B-cells that manufacture, display, and secrete antibodies.
  • The Immune System: A Primer - The Body 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all the T-cells have different Y-shaped receptors, but many of them do.
  • Evolution and the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.detectingdesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Killer T cells

Killer T cells directly attack other cells carrying foreign or abnormal antigens on their surfaces.[42]
.Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional.^ As are viruses and other pathogens in our body.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional.

^ Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

[43] .As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen.^ This sensitizes the T cells to recognize these antigens.
  • Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uhaweb.hartford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bloodindex - Human Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloodindex.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen.

^ T cells depend on unique cell surface molecules called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them recognize antigen fragments.
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC altered-states.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Killer T cells are activated when their T cell receptor (TCR) binds to this specific antigen in a complex with the MHC Class I receptor of another cell.^ Defense is another immune support herbal formulation that is primarily a cancer cell killer.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8.^ "T cell recognition of melanoma-associated antigens".

^ The MHC:antigen complex is also recognized by the helper cell's CD4 co-receptor, which recruits molecules inside the T cell (e.g.

^ Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8 .

.The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen.^ The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen.

^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

^ Helper T cells have a weaker association with the MHC:antigen complex than observed for killer T cells, meaning many receptors (around 200–300) on the helper T cell must be bound by an MHC:antigen in order to activate the helper cell, while killer T cells can be activated by engagement of a single MHC:antigen molecule.

.When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins, such as perforin, which form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane, allowing ions, water and toxins to enter.^ When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins that form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane , allowing ions , water and toxins to enter.

^ This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane .

^ This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell.

.The entry of another toxin called granulysin (a protease) induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis.^ "The ongoing research into fucoidan has conclusively demonstrated its ability to induce cancer cell apoptosis (programmed cell death) in leukemia, stomach and colon cancer cell lines....
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses.^ T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses.

^ When the infected T cell is needed in the immune response, the viral genes are activated and the virus replicates, killing the infected cell and producing a new round on T4 cell infection.

^ With HCV, infected liver cells are killed to stop additional HCV production and release of new viruses.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC janis7hepc.com [Source type: Academic]

.T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells (see below).^ T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells (see below).

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell.

[44]

Helper T cells

.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells (APCs) present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules (MHC2).
^ They make IP-3 when consumed, a key molecule responsible for cellular signal transduction, controlling vital functions including cell proliferation and differentiation.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor (CD4+).^ The MHC:antigen complex is also recognized by the helper cell's CD4 co-receptor, which recruits molecules inside the T cell (e.g.

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ In contrast, the B cell antigen-specific receptor is an antibody molecule on the B cell surface, and recognizes whole pathogens without any need for antigen processing .

.The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals (green arrows) that stimulate the activity of macrophages, killer T cells and B cells, the latter producing antibodies.^ Cytokine signals produced by helper T cells enhance the microbicidal function of macrophages and the activity of killer T cells.

^ Stimulate T-cell activity.
  • Herbs and Nutritional Supplements for the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.soulhealer.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Inflammation is produced by eicosanoids and cytokines , which are released by injured or infected cells.

The stimulation of B cells and macrophages succeeds a proliferation of T helper cells.
.Helper T cells regulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses and help determine which types of immune responses the body will make to a particular pathogen.^ Some direct and regulate the immune responses.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell-mediated immune responses.

^ T cells also orchestrate, regulate and coordinate the overall immune response.
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC altered-states.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][46] .These cells have no cytotoxic activity and do not kill infected cells or clear pathogens directly.^ Once activated, the infected cell can then kill the pathogen.

^ These cells have no cytotoxic activity and do not kill infected cells or clear pathogens directly.

^ Cytotoxic T-cells that kill virus-infected cells.
  • Immune System Lecture 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Academic]

.They instead control the immune response by directing other cells to perform these tasks.^ Some direct and regulate the immune responses.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell-mediated immune responses.

^ T or B cells to participate in immune responses.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

.Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.^ If a T cell recognizes a nonself-MHC molecule on another cell, it will destroy the cell.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ Macrophages have both class I and class II MHC molecules on their surfaces.
  • Immune System Lecture 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Academic]

.The MHC:antigen complex is also recognized by the helper cell's CD4 co-receptor, which recruits molecules inside the T cell (e.g.^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ The MHC:antigen complex is also recognized by the helper cell's CD4 co-receptor, which recruits molecules inside the T cell (e.g.

^ Killer T cells only recognize antigens coupled to Class I MHC molecules, while helper T cells only recognize antigens coupled to Class II MHC molecules.

.Lck) that are responsible for the T cell's activation.^ Lck ) that are responsible for T cell's activation.

^ Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells.

.Helper T cells have a weaker association with the MHC:antigen complex than observed for killer T cells, meaning many receptors (around 200–300) on the helper T cell must be bound by an MHC:antigen in order to activate the helper cell, while killer T cells can be activated by engagement of a single MHC:antigen molecule.^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ "T cell recognition of melanoma-associated antigens".

^ Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell.

.Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell.^ Antigen-presenting cells .
  • Immune System Strengthening - Immune Function, Glutathione, Free Radicals - Life Extension Health Concern 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell.

[47] .The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines that influence the activity of many cell types.^ The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines that influence the activity of many cell types.

^ Helper T cells have a weaker association with the MHC:antigen complex than observed for killer T cells, meaning many receptors (around 200–300) on the helper T cell must be bound by an MHC:antigen in order to activate the helper cell, while killer T cells can be activated by engagement of a single MHC:antigen molecule.

^ Some tumor cells also release products that inhibit the immune response; for example by secreting the cytokine TGF-β , which suppresses the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes .

.Cytokine signals produced by helper T cells enhance the microbicidal function of macrophages and the activity of killer T cells.^ Proven Effective at enhancing Natural Killer Cell activity by 40%!
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helper T cells activate B cells that produce antibodies.

^ Cytokine signals produced by helper T cells enhance the microbicidal function of macrophages and the activity of killer T cells.

[5] In addition, helper T cell activation causes an upregulation of molecules expressed on the T cell's surface, such as CD40 ligand (also called CD154), which provide extra stimulatory signals typically required to activate antibody-producing B cells.[48]

γδ T cells

.γδ T cells possess an alternative T cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ (αβ) T cells and share the characteristics of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.^ T cells possess an alternative T cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ (αβ) T cells and share the characteristics of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ File:TCR-MHC bindings.png Association of a T cell with MHC class I or MHC class II, and antigen (in red) Both B cells and T cells carry receptor molecules that recognize specific targets.

.The conditions that produce responses from γδ T cells are not fully understood.^ The conditions that produce responses from γδ T cells are not fully understood.

^ When the infected T cell is needed in the immune response, the viral genes are activated and the virus replicates, killing the infected cell and producing a new round on T4 cell infection.

^ It is responsible for producing T-cells (see the next section), and is especially important in newborn babies - without a thymus a baby's immune system collapses and the baby will die.
  • Howstuffworks "How Your Immune System Works" 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells straddle the border between innate and adaptive immunity.^ Proven Effective at enhancing Natural Killer Cell activity by 40%!
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It goes after cancer cells like no other drug before it…” .
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has also been proven to boost Natural Killer cell activity .
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[49] .On one hand, γδ T cells are a component of adaptive immunity as they rearrange TCR genes to produce receptor diversity and can also develop a memory phenotype.^ On one hand, γδ T cells are a component of adaptive immunity as they rearrange TCR genes to produce receptor diversity and can also develop a memory phenotype.

^ Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant TCRs, such as CD1d -restricted Natural Killer T cells , γδ T cells straddle the border between innate and adaptive immunity.

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

.On the other hand, the various subsets are also part of the innate immune system, as restricted TCR or NK receptors may be used as pattern recognition receptors.^ "Innate immune recognition and suppression of tumors".

^ "Innate immune recognition of viral infection".

^ On the other hand, the various subsets are also part of the innate immune system, as restricted TCR or NK receptors may be used as pattern recognition receptors .

.For example, large numbers of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells respond within hours to common molecules produced by microbes, and highly restricted Vδ1+ T cells in epithelia will respond to stressed epithelial cells.^ For example, large numbers of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells respond within hours to common molecules produced by microbes, and highly restricted Vδ1+ T cells in epithelia will respond to stressed epithelial cells.

^ In fact, it has been established that the number and viability of these particular cells is increased by as much as 4000% within 20 hours after taking Tsi-Ahga!
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NK cells also kill tumorous cells in a similar way, especially if the tumor cells have fewer MHC class I molecules on their surface than normal; this is a common phenomenon with tumors.

[41]
.
An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains.
^ File:Antibody.JPG An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains.

.The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its matching antigen.^ Antibodies also have a variable region, which differs from one antibody to the next, and allows an antibody to recognize its matching antigen.
  • Immune System - Medpedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable region, which differs from one antibody to the next, allows an antibody to recognize its matching antigen.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variable region is the antigen binding site.
  • Immune System - Medpedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[42]

B lymphocytes and antibodies

.A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen.^ Antibody (immunoglobulin): A protein that is produced by B cells and that interacts with a specific antigen.
  • Introduction: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ T cells are predisposed to respond to specific foreign substances (antigens) or infections.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antigen-antibody interactions are very specific.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC janis7hepc.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] .This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides.^ This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides.

^ Formation of an antigen-antibody complex.

^ Immune complex: Antibody attached to an antigen.
  • Introduction: Biology of the Immune System: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.The B cell then displays these antigenic peptides on its surface MHC class II molecules.^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

^ These are now presented on the surface of this sick cell in association with MHC class I molecules.
  • Evolution and the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.detectingdesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B cell then displays these antigenic peptides on its surface MHC class II molecules.

This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell.[51] .As the activated B cell then begins to divide, its offspring (plasma cells) secrete millions of copies of the antibody that recognizes this antigen.^ As the activated B cell then begins to divide , its offspring secrete millions of copies of the antibody that recognizes this antigen.

^ As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen.

^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

.These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph, bind to pathogens expressing the antigen and mark them for destruction by complement activation or for uptake and destruction by phagocytes.^ These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph , bind to pathogens expressing the antigen and mark them for destruction by complement activation or for uptake and destruction by phagocytes.

^ In humans, this response is activated by the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes or by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes.

^ Sometimes antibodies are generated against tumor cells allowing for their destruction by the complement system .

.Antibodies can also neutralize challenges directly, by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells.^ Complement assists in killing bacteria, viruses, or infected cells.

^ Antibodies can also neutralize challenges directly, by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells.

^ Their receptors are used for the detection of foreign antigens, and do not directly mediate an effector response (except in the case of specialized "cytotoxic" T-cells).
  • Evolution and the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.detectingdesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Alternative adaptive immune system

.Although the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system (e.g.^ Deriving a prescription: the adaptive immune system .
  • Blueprint for a Computer Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system (e.g.

^ Adaptive immune system .

antibodies and .T cell receptors) exist only in jawed vertebrates, a distinct lymphocyte-derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates, such as the lamprey and hagfish.^ T cell receptors ) exist only in jawed vertebrates, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish .

^ These animals possess a large array of molecules called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number (one or two) of genes .

^ Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules.

.These animals possess a large array of molecules called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number (one or two) of genes.^ These animals possess a large array of molecules called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number (one or two) of genes .

^ T cell receptors ) exist only in jawed vertebrates, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish .

^ For example, large numbers of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells respond within hours to common molecules produced by microbes, and highly restricted Vδ1+ T cells in epithelia will respond to stressed epithelial cells.

These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity.[53]

Immunological memory

.When B cells and T cells are activated and begin to replicate, some of their offspring will become long-lived memory cells.^ Only a few of the B cells will become memory cells.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The other B cells become long-lived memory cells .

^ Helper T cells are long-lived and many become memory cells.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells will remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again.^ Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells will remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again.

^ The ability to mount these tailored responses is maintained in the body by "memory cells".

^ The second layer is known as the innate immune system, a broad-acting, short-term, non-specific immune response to pathogens such as bacteria or viruses.
  • 10 Things You (Likely) Don’t Know About Your Immune System | Mark's Daily Apple 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

.This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges.^ Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen.

^ Deriving a prescription: the adaptive immune system .
  • Blueprint for a Computer Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges.

.Immunological memory can either be in the form of passive short-term memory or active long-term memory.^ Immunological memory can either be in the form of passive short-term memory or active long-term memory.

^ Passive immunity is usually short-term, lasting between a few days and several months.

^ Active natural (contact with infection): develops slowly, is long term, and antigen specific.

Passive memory

.Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection.^ Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection.

^ Breast milk also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.

.Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother.^ Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother.

.During pregnancy, a particular type of antibody, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly across the placenta, so human babies have high levels of antibodies even at birth, with the same range of antigen specificities as their mother.^ During pregnancy , a particular type of antibody, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly across the placenta , so human babies have high levels of antibodies even at birth, with the same range of antigen specificities as their mother.

^ These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity.

^ In contrast, the B cell antigen-specific receptor is an antibody molecule on the B cell surface, and recognizes whole pathogens without any need for antigen processing .

[54] .Breast milk or colostrum also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.^ Chemical barriers also protect against infection.

^ Breast milk also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.

^ Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection.

[55] .This is passive immunity because the fetus does not actually make any memory cells or antibodies—it only borrows them.^ Not only does it inhibit the growth of cancer cells, but it causes cancerous cells to revert back to normal, and helps prevent them from turning cancerous in the first place.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While this may does not cause a problem in normal cells, it wrecks havoc on the cancer cells with pumps because of their high energy requirements.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It does contain long chain polysaccarides that enhance cell communication, making it a powerful immune system supplement.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.This passive immunity is usually short-term, lasting from a few days up to several months.^ Passive immunity is usually short-term, lasting between a few days and several months.

^ For a maintenance program once the cancer has been gone for several months, which is important to do, take 1 ounce twice a day.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For serious health concerns, usually 2 measuring teaspoons or scoops a day are used, with the large size container lasting a month.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.In medicine, protective passive immunity can also be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum.^ In medicine, protective passive immunity can also be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum .

^ Breast milk also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.

^ This is passive immunity because the fetus does not actually make any memory cells or antibodies, it only borrows them.

[56]
The time-course of an immune response begins with the initial pathogen encounter, (or initial vaccination) and leads to the formation and maintenance of active immunological memory.

Active memory and immunization

.Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells.^ Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells.

^ When the infected T cell is needed in the immune response, the viral genes are activated and the virus replicates, killing the infected cell and producing a new round on T4 cell infection.

^ The pattern will be stored in "memory" cells, thus preparing for a rapid immune response to that infection in the future.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Active immunity can also be generated artificially, through vaccination.^ Active immunity can also be generated artificially, through vaccination .

.The principle behind vaccination (also called immunization) is to introduce an antigen from a pathogen in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that particular pathogen without causing disease associated with that organism.^ It also stimulates the building up of the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While technically a probiotic and working on digestion, they are included here as an immune supplement because soil based organisms do a great job of stimulating the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus it is vital in your battle against cancer to strengthen the immune system.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .This deliberate induction of an immune response is successful because it exploits the natural specificity of the immune system, as well as its inducibility.^ This deliberate induction of an immune response is successful because it exploits the natural specificity of the immune system, as well as its inducibility.

^ The immune system also generates specific responses to specific invaders.

^ The second layer is known as the innate immune system, a broad-acting, short-term, non-specific immune response to pathogens such as bacteria or viruses.
  • 10 Things You (Likely) Don’t Know About Your Immune System | Mark's Daily Apple 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

.With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed.^ Parts of the immune system can become diseased.

^ Human immune system is indeed amazing!
  • Immune System // Current 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Components of the human immune system.
  • Immune System - Medpedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[26][57]
.Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components.^ Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components.

^ Since many antigens derived from acellular vaccines do not strongly induce the adaptive response, most bacterial vaccines are provided with additional adjuvants that activate the antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system and maximize immunogenicity .

^ Antibodies can also neutralize challenges directly, by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells.

[5] Since many antigens derived from acellular vaccines do not strongly induce the adaptive response, most bacterial vaccines are provided with additional adjuvants that activate the antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system and maximize immunogenicity.[58]

Disorders of human immunity

.The immune system is a remarkably effective structure that incorporates specificity, inducibility and adaptation.^ The immune system is a remarkably effective structure that incorporates specificity, inducibility and adaptation.

^ The second layer is known as the innate immune system, a broad-acting, short-term, non-specific immune response to pathogens such as bacteria or viruses.
  • 10 Things You (Likely) Don’t Know About Your Immune System | Mark's Daily Apple 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: General]

^ Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations that avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.
  • Immune System - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Immune System - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Failures of host defense do occur, however, and fall into three broad categories: immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, and hypersensitivities.^ Failures of host defense do occur, however, and fall into three broad categories: immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, and hypersensitivities.

^ Sometimes, it reacts to the wrong thing (autoimmunity), other times, it reacts too much (hypersensitivity), and sometimes, it simply does not react at all (immunosuppression and immunodeficiency).
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes, the immune system can malfunction and either attack its own body (autoimmunity), over react (hypersensitivity), or react insufficiently (immunodeficiency or suppression).
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

Immunodeficiencies

Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. .The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly, with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age due to immunosenescence.^ The success of any pathogen is dependent on its ability to elude host immune responses.

^ The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly , with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age.

^ Innate immune defenses are non-specific, meaning these systems recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way.

[59][60] .In developed countries, obesity, alcoholism, and drug use are common causes of poor immune function.^ However, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in developing countries .

^ In developed countries , obesity , alcoholism , and illegal drug abuse are common causes of poor immune function.

^ With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed.

[60] .However, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in developing countries.^ However, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in developing countries .

^ In developed countries , obesity , alcoholism , and illegal drug abuse are common causes of poor immune function.

^ With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed.

[60] .Diets lacking sufficient protein are associated with impaired cell-mediated immunity, complement activity, phagocyte function, IgA antibody concentrations, and cytokine production.^ Diets lacking sufficient protein are associated with impaired cell-mediated immunity, complement activity, phagocyte function, IgA antibody concentrations, and cytokine production.

^ Some tumor cells also release products that inhibit the immune response; for example by secreting the cytokine TGF-β , which suppresses the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes .

^ Sometimes antibodies are generated against tumor cells allowing for their destruction by the complement system .

.Deficiency of single nutrients such as iron; copper; zinc; selenium; vitamins A, C, E, and B6; and folic acid (vitamin B9) also reduces immune responses.^ Deficiency of single nutrients such as zinc ; selenium ; iron ; copper ; vitamins A , C , E , and B 6 ; and folic acid (vitamin B 9 ) also reduces immune responses.

^ Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells.

[60] .Additionally, the loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.^ Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease , such as severe combined immunodeficiency , or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the retrovirus HIV .

^ Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.

[61]
.Immunodeficiencies can also be inherited or 'acquired'.^ Immunodeficiencies can also be inherited or ' acquired' .

[5] .Chronic granulomatous disease, where phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens, is an example of an inherited, or congenital, immunodeficiency.^ Chronic granulomatous disease , where phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens, is an example of an inherited, or congenital, immunodeficiency .

.AIDS and some types of cancer cause acquired immunodeficiency.^ AIDS and some types of cancer cause acquired immunodeficiency.

^ Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease , such as severe combined immunodeficiency , or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the retrovirus HIV .

[62][63]

Autoimmunity

.Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders.^ However, the autoimmune response can go further, creating other autoimmune disorders.
  • The Immune System | B-Naturals.Com Newsletter 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.b-naturals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders .

^ We're an international community of lay people and veterinary professionals with an interest in Canine Cushing's Disease and endocrine-immune imbalance due to cortisol abnormalities, and the relationship to other metabolic disorders and autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases (e.g.
  • Animal Health Issues: Immune System - Problems and Support 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.katberard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here, the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body.^ Parts of the immune system can become diseased.

^ The immune system usually distinguishes "self" from "nonself".

^ Cancer cells are viewed by the immune system as non-self .
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Under normal circumstances, many T cells and antibodies react with “self” peptides.^ Under normal circumstances, many T cells and antibodies react with “self” peptides.

^ This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides.

^ In uninfected healthy cells the MHC molecule presents peptides from its own cell (self peptides), to which T cells do not normally react.
  • Howstuffworks "How Your Immune System Works" 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .One of the functions of specialized cells (located in the thymus and bone marrow) is to present young lymphocytes with self antigens produced throughout the body and to eliminate those cells that recognize self-antigens, preventing autoimmunity.^ Antigen-presenting cells .
  • Immune System Strengthening - Immune Function, Glutathione, Free Radicals - Life Extension Health Concern 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both T cells and B cells originate in the bone marrow.
  • NaturalRearing.com ~ The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.naturalrearing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone marrow contains tissue that produces lymphocytes .

[50]

Hypersensitivity

.Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the body's own tissues.^ Immune Tolerance Immune tolerance is the tendency of T or B lymphocytes to ignore the body’s own tissues.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the body's own tissues.

^ What kind of damage is noticed first, would depend upon your immune history -- which antibodies your body has produced more of.
  • The Immune System in Allergy Formation 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mall-net.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are divided into four classes (Type I – IV) based on the mechanisms involved and the time course of the hypersensitive reaction.^ They are divided into four classes (Type I – IV) based on the mechanisms involved and the time course of the hypersensitive reaction.

^ There are four major types of hypersensitivity .
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Type IV hypersensitivity (also known as cell-mediated or delayed type hypersensitivity ) usually takes between two and three days to develop.

.Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy.^ Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy .

^ They are divided into four classes (Type I – IV) based on the mechanisms involved and the time course of the hypersensitive reaction.

^ They are most often associated with allergy and anaphylaxis.

.Symptoms can range from mild discomfort to death.^ Symptoms can range from mild discomfort to death.

Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE, which triggers degranulation of mast cells and basophils when cross-linked by antigen.[65] .Type II hypersensitivity occurs when antibodies bind to antigens on the patient's own cells, marking them for destruction.^ Type II hypersensitivity occurs when antibodies bind to antigens on the patient's own cells, marking them for destruction.

^ In the body, the binding of the antigen by the antibody can result in: .
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each type of cell has its own functions.

.This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies.^ This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies.

^ Immune complexes (aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, and IgG and IgM antibodies) deposited in various tissues trigger Type III hypersensitivity reactions.

[65] .Immune complexes (aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, and IgG and IgM antibodies) deposited in various tissues trigger Type III hypersensitivity reactions.^ This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies.

^ Immune complexes (aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, and IgG and IgM antibodies) deposited in various tissues trigger Type III hypersensitivity reactions.

^ This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides.

[65] .Type IV hypersensitivity (also known as cell-mediated or delayed type hypersensitivity) usually takes between two and three days to develop.^ Type IV hypersensitivity (also known as cell-mediated or delayed type hypersensitivity ) usually takes between two and three days to develop.

^ There are two types of T-cells : .

^ Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE released from mast cells and basophils .

.Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis (poison ivy).^ Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis ( poison ivy ).

^ They are divided into four classes (Type I – IV) based on the mechanisms involved and the time course of the hypersensitive reaction.

^ Common autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis , diabetes mellitus type 1 and lupus erythematosus .

.These reactions are mediated by T cells, monocytes, and macrophages.^ These reactions are mediated by T cells , monocytes , and macrophages .

^ This cascade of effects leads to cell-mediated immune responses, which are responsible for macrophage activation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and defense against intracellular organisms.
  • The Immune System - Bearded Collie Club of America 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC beardie.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Interleukin -6 - is released by macrophages, monocytes and some T-cells, and induces B-cells to produce antibodies.

[65]

Other mechanisms

It is likely that a multicomponent, adaptive immune system arose with the first vertebrates, as invertebrates do not generate lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral response.[1] .Many species, however, utilize mechanisms that appear to be precursors of these aspects of vertebrate immunity.^ Many species, however, utilize mechanisms that appear to be precursors of these aspects of vertebrate immunity.

^ More sophisticated mechanisms, however, developed relatively recently, with the evolution of vertebrates .

^ The corticosteroids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many toxic side effects and their use must be tightly controlled.

Immune systems appear even in the structurally most simple forms of life, with bacteria using a unique defense mechanism, called the restriction modification system to protect themselves from viral pathogens, called bacteriophages.[66] Prokaryotes also possess acquired immunity, through a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of phage that they have come into contact with in the past, which allows them to block virus replication through a form of RNA interference.[67][68]
Pattern recognition receptors are proteins used by nearly all organisms to identify molecules associated with pathogens. .Antimicrobial peptides called defensins are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all animals and plants, and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.^ "The role of the complement system in innate immunity.".

^ Innate Immunity - Lecture 4: Plant immune responses .

^ Components of the immune system .

[1] The complement system and phagocytic cells are also used by most forms of invertebrate life. .Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes, and are thought to play a role in the immune response to viruses.^ The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus gland, and tonsils all play a role, as do lymphocytes (specialized white blood cells), antibodies, and interferon.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
Unlike animals, plants lack phagocytic cells, but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant.[70] Individual plant cells respond to molecules associated with pathogens known as Pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs.[71] When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of infection undergo rapid apoptosis to prevent the spread of the disease to other parts of the plant. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a particular infectious agent.[70] RNA silencing mechanisms are particularly important in this systemic response as they can block virus replication.[72]

Tumor immunology

Macrophages have identified a cancer cell (the large, spiky mass). .Upon fusing with the cancer cell, the macrophages (smaller white cells) will inject toxins that kill the tumor cell.^ Upon fusing with the cancer cell, the macrophages (smaller white cells) will inject toxins that kill the tumor cell.

^ And it has also been shown to enhance apoptosis or cancer cell death, reduce blood vessel growth to tumors, and inhibits metastasis of cancer.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It contains: Resveratrol protects healthy cells while killing cancerous cells.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

.Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer is an active area of medical research.^ Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer is an active area of medical research.

^ Pacific Yew taxanes are incredibly powerful plant chemicals that exert the strongest natural anti-cancer properties ever seen in cancer research and treatment.
  • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specifically, one highly active area of research is where psychologists have been studying the effects that stress and psychopathology have on the immune system.

[73]
Another important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumors. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. .To the immune system, these antigens appear foreign, and their presence causes immune cells to attack the transformed tumor cells.^ If these factors are defective, immune cells are not able to recognize and destroy tumor cells.

^ Lymphokines Substances produced by the cells of the immune system when exposed to antigens.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Weakened Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Disorders in the immune system can cause disease.

.The antigens expressed by tumors have several sources;[74] some are derived from oncogenic viruses like human papillomavirus, which causes cervical cancer,[75] while others are the organism's own proteins that occur at low levels in normal cells but reach high levels in tumor cells.^ Unfortunately some bugs, such as the viruses that cause the common cold "disguise" themselves and must be fought off time and again by the immune system.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One example is an enzyme called tyrosinase that, when expressed at high levels, transforms certain skin cells (e.g. melanocytes) into tumors called melanomas.[76][77] A third possible source of tumor antigens are proteins normally important for regulating cell growth and survival, that commonly mutate into cancer inducing molecules called oncogenes.[74][78][79]
.The main response of the immune system to tumors is to destroy the abnormal cells using killer T cells, sometimes with the assistance of helper T cells.^ T or B cells to participate in immune responses.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If these factors are defective, immune cells are not able to recognize and destroy tumor cells.

^ Helper T cells, or Th cells, coordinate immune responses by communicating with other cells.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

[77][80] .Tumor antigens are presented on MHC class I molecules in a similar way to viral antigens.^ Tumor antigens are presented on MHC class I molecules in a similar way to viral antigens.

^ "Molecular mechanisms of HLA class I antigen abnormalities following viral infection and transformation".

^ In uninfected healthy cells the MHC molecule presents peptides from its own cell (self peptides), to which T cells do not normally react.
  • Howstuffworks "How Your Immune System Works" 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal.^ This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal.

^ The immune system's inability to recognize cancerous cells is believed to be due to our natural killer cell function being depressed.

^ Sometimes antibodies are generated against tumor cells allowing for their destruction by the complement system .

[81] .NK cells also kill tumorous cells in a similar way, especially if the tumor cells have fewer MHC class I molecules on their surface than normal; this is a common phenomenon with tumors.^ Could it be that the patient had a staph infection or something similar to it, which went after his B-cell population, killing them off with 100% efficiency, and in the process killing off all of his CLL cells as well?
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Over time, since the cell's descendents multiplied faster than they were killed, their absolute numbers grew.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If a T cell recognizes a nonself-MHC molecule on another cell, it will destroy the cell.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

[82] Sometimes antibodies are generated against tumor cells allowing for their destruction by the complement system.[78]
.Clearly, some tumors evade the immune system and go on to become cancers.^ Parts of the immune system can become diseased.

^ Clearly, some tumors evade the immune system and go on to become cancers.

^ Unfortunately some bugs, such as the viruses that cause the common cold "disguise" themselves and must be fought off time and again by the immune system.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] Tumor cells often have a reduced number of MHC class I molecules on their surface, thus avoiding detection by killer T cells.[81] Some tumor cells also release products that inhibit the immune response; for example by secreting the cytokine TGF-β, which suppresses the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes.[84] .In addition, immunological tolerance may develop against tumor antigens, so the immune system no longer attacks the tumor cells.^ You may have a weak immune system .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Weakened Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintaining tolerance is important because it prevents the immune system from attacking its fellow cells.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymphokines Substances produced by the cells of the immune system when exposed to antigens.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Weakened Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

[83]
Paradoxically, macrophages can promote tumor growth [85] when tumor cells send out cytokines that attract macrophages which then generate cytokines and growth factors that nurture tumor development. In addition, a combination of hypoxia in the tumor and a cytokine produced by macrophages induces tumor cells to decrease production of a protein that blocks metastasis and thereby assists spread of cancer cells.

Physiological regulation

Hormones can act as immunomodulators, altering the sensitivity of the immune system. For example, female sex hormones are known immunostimulators of both adaptive[86] and innate immune responses.[87] Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their onset often coincides with puberty. By contrast, male sex hormones such as testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive.[88] Other hormones appear to regulate the immune system as well, most notably prolactin, growth hormone and vitamin D.[89][90] .It is conjectured that a progressive decline in hormone levels with age is partially responsible for weakened immune responses in aging individuals.^ Anti-aging: Increases Vitamin D and Steroid hormone levels in the blood.

^ Adrenal insufficiency can lead to a host of problems, including a weakened immune response , anxiety and panic attacks .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Weakened Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Supplemental DHEA has been clinically valuable when used to restore youthful hormonal blood levels in aging, stressed, and immune-compromised individuals (Valenti G 2004).
  • Immune System Strengthening - 2 - Immune System, CoQ10, Antioxidants - Life Extension Health Concern 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[91] Conversely, some hormones are regulated by the immune system, notably thyroid hormone activity.[92]
The immune system is affected by sleep and rest,[93] and sleep deprivation is detrimental to immune function.[94] Complex feedback loops involving cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α produced in response to infection, appear to also play a role in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.[95] Thus the immune response to infection may result in changes to the sleep cycle, including an increase in slow-wave sleep relative to REM sleep.[96]

Nutrition and diet

The functioning of the immune system, like most systems in the body, is dependent on proper nutrition. It has been long known that severe malnutrition leads to immunodeficiency. Overnutrition is also associated with diseases such as diabetes and obesity which are known to affect immune function. More moderate malnutrition, as well as certain specific trace mineral and nutrient deficiencies, can also compromise the immune response.[97]
Specific foods may also affect the immune system; for example, fresh fruits, vegetables, and foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system.[98] .Likewise, fetal undernourishment can cause a lifelong impairment of the immune system.^ Likewise, fetal undernourishment can cause a lifelong impairment of the immune system.

^ Disorders in the immune system can cause disease.

^ Vitamin A deficiency causes the thymus to shrink, resulting in an impaired immune system.

[99] In traditional medicine, some herbs are believed to stimulate the immune system, [100] such as echinacea, licorice, ginseng, astragalus, sage, garlic, elderberry, and hyssop, as well as honey although further research is needed to understand their mode of action.
Medicinal mushrooms like Shiitake,[101] Lingzhi mushrooms,[102][103] the Turkey tail mushroom,[104] Agaricus blazei,[105] and Maitake[106] have shown some evidence of immune system up-regulation in in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in a limited number of clinical studies. Research suggests that the compounds in medicinal mushrooms most responsible for up-regulating the immune system are a diverse collection of polysaccharides, particularly beta-glucans, and to a lesser extent, alpha-glucans (such as Active Hexose Correlated Compound isolated from Shiitake[107][108][109]). The mechanisms by which beta-glucans stimulate the immune system is only partially understood. One mechanism by which beta-glucans are thought affect immune function is through interaction with the complement receptor 3 (CD18), which is expressed on several types of immune cells.[110] Other receptors–such as Toll-like receptor 2,[111] Dectin-1, lactosylceramide, and scavenger receptors–have also been identified as being able to receive signals from beta-glucans.[112]

Manipulation in medicine

The immune response can be manipulated to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection, and to stimulate protective responses against pathogens that largely elude the immune system (see immunization). Immunosuppressive drugs are used to control autoimmune disorders or inflammation when excessive tissue damage occurs, and to prevent transplant rejection after an organ transplant.[26][113]
Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation. The glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects (e.g., central obesity, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis) and their use must be tightly controlled.[114] Therefore, lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as methotrexate or azathioprine. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells. However, the killing is indiscriminate and other constantly dividing cells and their organs are affected, which causes toxic side effects.[113] Immunosuppressive drugs such as ciclosporin prevent T cells from responding to signals correctly by inhibiting signal transduction pathways.[115]
.Larger drugs (>500 Da) can provoke a neutralizing immune response, particularly if the drugs are administered repeatedly, or in larger doses.^ Larger drugs (> 500 Da ) can provoke a neutralizing immune response, particularly if the drugs are administered repeatedly, or in larger doses.

^ Excessive intake of total dietary fat impairs immune response, but some types of fat may be neutral or even beneficial.
  • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da).

.This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da).^ This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da).

^ Computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins, which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies, assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles, and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments.

^ Larger drugs (> 500 Da ) can provoke a neutralizing immune response, particularly if the drugs are administered repeatedly, or in larger doses.

.In some cases, the drug itself is not immunogenic, but may be co-administered with an immunogenic compound, as is sometimes the case for Taxol.^ In some cases, the drug itself is not immunogenic, but may be co-administered with an immunogenic compound, as is sometimes the case for Taxol .

^ As with certain drugs mentioned above, in some cases, antigen-antibody complexes may adhere to cells and cause the same type of phenomenon - the body attacks the cells, since they appear foreign.
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been cases where a sensitive company document became infected, and later mailed copies of itself out, to addresses including some that should not have had a copy of the document.
  • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins, which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies, assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles, and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments.^ Computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins, which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies, assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles, and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments.

^ The B cell response, antibodies and humoral immunity: When the receptor on a B cell recognizes and attaches to the antigen it was 'designed for' (again, we will use the hypothetical A1), it is a signal to the B cell to start mounting a defense.
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like the "innate" immune system, the computer immune system can combine self-knowledge (embodied for example in change detection and change analysis) with generic knowledge of broad classes of potential pathogens (embodied for example in static analysis based on viral machine-code features).
  • Blueprint for a Computer Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

Early techniques relied mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids;[116] however, more recent developments rely on machine learning techniques using databases of existing known epitopes, usually on well-studied virus proteins, as a training set.[117] A publicly accessible database has been established for the cataloguing of epitopes from pathogens known to be recognizable by B cells.[118] .The emerging field of bioinformatics-based studies of immunogenicity is referred to as immunoinformatics.^ The emerging field of bioinformatics -based studies of immunogenicity is referred to as immunoinformatics .

[119]

Manipulation by pathogens

.The success of any pathogen is dependent on its ability to elude host immune responses.^ The success of any pathogen is dependent on its ability to elude host immune responses.

^ In either case, the level of reduced immunocompetence - the body's ability to respond to pathogenic organisms, tumors or tissue damage - is dependent on the nature of the condition, which components of the immune system are affected and to what extent.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Weakened Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response.

Therefore, pathogens have developed several methods that allow them to successfully infect a host, while evading detection or destruction by the immune system.[120] Bacteria often overcome physical barriers by secreting enzymes that digest the barrier — for example, by using a type II secretion system.[121] Alternatively, using a type III secretion system, they may insert a hollow tube into the host cell, providing a direct route for proteins to move from the pathogen to the host. These proteins are often used to shut down host defenses.[122]
An evasion strategy used by several pathogens to avoid the innate immune system is to hide within the cells of their host (also called intracellular pathogenesis). Here, a pathogen spends most of its life-cycle inside host cells, where it is shielded from direct contact with immune cells, antibodies and complement. Some examples of intracellular pathogens include viruses, the food poisoning bacterium Salmonella and the eukaryotic parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) and leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp.). Other bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, live inside a protective capsule that prevents lysis by complement.[123] .Many pathogens secrete compounds that diminish or misdirect the host's immune response.^ Many pathogens secrete compounds that diminish or misdirect the host's immune response.

^ The success of any pathogen is dependent on its ability to elude host immune responses.

^ Overactive immune systems are responsible for a whole spetrum of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, asthma, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, and many more.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Boost Your Immune System? 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120] Some bacteria form biofilms to protect themselves from the cells and proteins of the immune system. Such biofilms are present in many successful infections, e.g., the chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia infections characteristic of cystic fibrosis.[124] Other bacteria generate surface proteins that bind to antibodies, rendering them ineffective; examples include Streptococcus (protein G), Staphylococcus aureus (protein A), and Peptostreptococcus magnus (protein L).[125]
The mechanisms used to evade the adaptive immune system are more complicated. The simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes (amino acids and/or sugars) on the surface of the pathogen, while keeping essential epitopes concealed. This is called antigenic variation. An example is HIV, which mutates rapidly, so the proteins on its viral envelope that are essential for entry into its host target cell are constantly changing. These frequent changes in antigens may explain the failures of vaccines directed at this virus.[126] The parasite Trypanosoma brucei uses a similar strategy, constantly switching one type of surface protein for another, allowing it to stay one step ahead of the antibody response.[127] .Masking antigens with host molecules is another common strategy for avoiding detection by the immune system.^ Unfortunately some bugs, such as the viruses that cause the common cold "disguise" themselves and must be fought off time and again by the immune system.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But after that first time, the immune system retains a memory of that particular bacteria, its specific antigens, in terms of **memory B-cells**.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Active immunity: When people or animals are exposed to a disease-causing organism by natural means or vaccination, the antigens on the organism interact with the cells of the animal's immune system.
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

In HIV, the envelope that covers the viron is formed from the outermost membrane of the host cell; such "self-cloaked" viruses make it difficult for the immune system to identify them as "non-self" structures.[128]

History of immunology

.Immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system.^ File:Paul Ehrlich.png Paul Ehrlich Immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system.

^ Immune system / Immunology .

^ Immunoregulation Research into the delicate checks and balances that control the immune response is increasing knowledge of normal and abnormal immune system functions.
  • The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

.It originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease.^ It originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease.

^ Active immunity: When people or animals are exposed to a disease-causing organism by natural means or vaccination, the antigens on the organism interact with the cells of the animal's immune system.
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

The earliest known mention of immunity was during the plague of Athens in 430 BC. Thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time.[129] In the 18th century, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom.[130] This and other observations of acquired immunity was later exploited by Louis Pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease.[131] Pasteur's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease, such as the miasma theory. It was not until Robert Koch's 1891 proofs, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905, that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease.[132] Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed.[133]
Immunology made a great advance towards the end of the 19th century, through rapid developments, in the study of humoral immunity and cellular immunity.[134] Particularly important was the work of Paul Ehrlich, who proposed the side-chain theory to explain the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction; his contributions to the understanding of humoral immunity were recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1908, which was jointly awarded to the founder of cellular immunology, Elie Metchnikoff.[135]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b Litman GW, Cannon JP, Dishaw LJ (November 2005). "Reconstructing immune phylogeny: new perspectives". Nature Reviews. Immunology 5 (11): 866–79. doi:10.1038/nri1712. PMID 16261174. 
  3. ^ a b c Mayer, Gene (2006). "Immunology - Chapter One: Innate (non-specific) Immunity". Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/ghaffar/innate.htm. Retrieved 1 January 2007. 
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  7. ^ Agerberth B, Gudmundsson GH (2006). "Host antimicrobial defence peptides in human disease". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 306: 67–90. doi:10.1007/3-540-29916-5_3. PMID 16909918. 
  8. ^ Moreau JM, Girgis DO, Hume EB, Dajcs JJ, Austin MS, O'Callaghan RJ (September 2001). "Phospholipase A(2) in rabbit tears: a host defense against Staphylococcus aureus". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 42 (10): 2347–54. PMID 11527949. http://www.iovs.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11527949. 
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  116. ^ Welling GW, Weijer WJ, van der Zee R, Welling-Wester S (September 1985). "Prediction of sequential antigenic regions in proteins". FEBS Letters 188 (2): 215–8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(85)80374-4. PMID 2411595. 
  117. ^ Söllner J, Mayer B (2006). "Machine learning approaches for prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins". Journal of Molecular Recognition 19 (3): 200–8. doi:10.1002/jmr.771. PMID 16598694. 
  118. ^ Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics 6 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-79. PMID 15921533. 
  119. ^ Flower DR, Doytchinova IA (2002). "Immunoinformatics and the prediction of immunogenicity". Applied Bioinformatics 1 (4): 167–76. PMID 15130835. 
  120. ^ a b Finlay BB, McFadden G (February 2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell 124 (4): 767–82. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.01.034. PMID 16497587. 
  121. ^ Cianciotto NP (December 2005). "Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons". Trends in Microbiology 13 (12): 581–8. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.09.005. PMID 16216510. 
  122. ^ Winstanley C, Hart CA (February 2001). "Type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands". Journal of Medical Microbiology 50 (2): 116–26. PMID 11211218. http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11211218. 
  123. ^ Finlay BB, Falkow S (June 1997). "Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 61 (2): 136–69. PMID 9184008. PMC 232605. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9184008. 
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  125. ^ Housden NG, Harrison S, Roberts SE, et al. (June 2003). "Immunoglobulin-binding domains: Protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus". Biochemical Society Transactions 31 (Pt 3): 716–8. doi:10.1042/BST0310716. PMID 12773190. 
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  129. ^ Retief FP, Cilliers L (January 1998). "The epidemic of Athens, 430-426 BC". South African Medical Journal 88 (1): 50–3. PMID 9539938. 
  130. ^ Ostoya P (1954). "Maupertuis et la biologie". Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications 7 (1): 60–78. doi:10.3406/rhs.1954.3379. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rhs_0048-7996_1954_num_7_1_3379. 
  131. ^ Plotkin SA (April 2005). "Vaccines: past, present and future". Nature Medicine 11 (4 Suppl): S5–11. doi:10.1038/nm1209. PMID 15812490. 
  132. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905 Nobelprize.org Accessed 8 January 2007.
  133. ^ Major Walter Reed, Medical Corps, U.S. Army Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Accessed 8 January 2007.
  134. ^ Metchnikoff, Elie; Translated by F.G. Binnie. (1905) (Full Text Version: Google Books). Immunity in Infective Diseases. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 68025143. http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC03666307&id=ywKp9YhK5t0C&printsec=titlepage&vq=Ehrlich&dq=history+of+humoral+immunity. 
  135. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908 Nobelprize.org Accessed 8 January 2007

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ As we learn more about how the immune system works, it will help to have a better understanding of the players.
  • Anatomy and Function of the Immune System In Cats 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Let's see, you still need bifocals, your skin is still wrinkled and your hair is long gone, and you have no sex drive - and this is the fountain of youth?
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Or, if you need helping ordering any of these products please click here .
  • ImmunityPlus (50ml) - Herbal Formula for Optimum Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthymyway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from copies of the content.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Immune system" as an educational resource.^ "Diet and the developing immune system".

^ Unfortunately some bugs, such as the viruses that cause the common cold "disguise" themselves and must be fought off time and again by the immune system.
  • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have suggested that such herbs can indeed stimulate the immune system, [91] although their mode of action is complex and difficult to characterize.

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Then, after you have finished your therapy, a sample of your blood or bone marrow aspirate is used to study the level of residual disease.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Immune system at Wikipedia.^ The immune system software that they run cannot connect to any machines other than immune system gateways.
  • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people who are depressed also find themselves constantly ill and run down due to malfunctioning immune systems.
  • ImmunityPlus (50ml) - Herbal Formula for Optimum Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthymyway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Contents

T-CELL:

  • Divide when comes in contact with antigens.
  • Signals B cells about the kind of antigens.
  • Killer T-cells (CD8+ T cells) destroy infected cells and viruses.
  • Helper T-cells (CD4+ T cells) alert B cells to start making antibodies; they can also activate other T-cells and immune system scavenger cells called macrophages (described @ bottom) and influence which type of antibody is produced.

B-CELL:

  • Produces antibodies.
  • Can produce ≈ 2,000 antibody molecules/second.
  • Are matured in bone marrow.
  • Gets info about antigens from T-cells.

ANTIGEN (In original: antibody generator):

  • Molecular structure (and, by extension, cell organelle, cell, organ or individual body) able to be recognized within the Immune System through interaction with an Idiotype Receptor (or Receptor for Antigen, that is either a TCR - T Cell Receptor for Antigen, a BCR - B Cell Receptor for Antigen, or the soluble, effector form of the last idiotype receptor: a soluble Antibody).
  • For a given immunological host, a given antigen may qualify as Self Antigen (typically either not target of an counteracting type immune response, or target of a tolerizing type immune response), or as a Foreign Antigen (inducing either a counteracting immune response and thus called Immunogen, or a tolerogenic reaction and thus called Tolerogen, or not inducing immune responses and thus called Ignored antigen).

ANTIBODY:

.Generic term for a group of molecules, members of the Idiotype Receptor family, that identify either the membrane-bound, recognition subunit within the BCR (B Cell Receptor for Antigen), or the soluble, effector, released form of the B lymphocyte idiotype receptor.^ But after that first time, the immune system retains a memory of that particular bacteria, its specific antigens, in terms of **memory B-cells**.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They either do not display any dangerous looking antigens on their cell surface, or they put out enough conflicting signals that the dendritic cells and T-cells are totally confused.
  • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

  • As other receptors, Antibodies are polar molecules: one end functioning as target ligand binding (that is serving for epitope surface / antigen recognition), while the other end is serving for deploying counteracting functions (as submembranar signaling, binding to various Fc Receptors, binding to some Complement System components).

(
  • Are proteins made by the body's immune system.
  • Reacts with specific antigens to remove them from body.
  • All have different shape and sizes.
)

MACROPHAGE:

.
  • Slower to respond to invaders than Granulocytes (white blood cell with secretory granules in its cytoplasm), but are larger, live longer, and have far greater capacities.
  • Play a key part in alerting the rest of the immune system of invaders.^ The active network is a key part of a commercial-grade immune system.
    • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus gland, and tonsils all play a role, as do lymphocytes (specialized white blood cells), antibodies, and interferon.
    • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Immune System Support - LuckyVitamin.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.luckyvitamin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

    .
    Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen:

    a. Ingestion through phagocytosis, a phagosome is formed
    b. The fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome creates a phagolysosome; the pathogen is broken down by enzymes
    c. Waste material is expelled or assimilated (the latter not pictured)

    Parts:

    1. Pathogens
    2. Phagosome
    3. Lysosomes
    4. Waste material
    5. Cytoplasm
    6. Cell membrane
  • Start out as a white blood cell.^ The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus gland, and tonsils all play a role, as do lymphocytes (specialized white blood cells), antibodies, and interferon.
    • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Macrophages also act as scavengers, ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system.

    ^ It consists of lymph nodes, blood proteins known as immunoglobins, specialized white blood cells known as lymphocytes, the organs that produce these cells, and the blood vessels that transport them.
    • Herbs and Nutritional Supplements for the Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.soulhealer.com [Source type: Reference]

    They leave the blood stream; they turn into macrophages.
  • Destroy the virus.

PATHOGEN:

  • A type of bacteria, virus, or fungi which causes disease.
  • Can only be killed or blocked by the human immune system.
  • Anything that can cause any type of disease is a pathogen.

LYMPH:

  • A clear liquid that bathes the cells with water and nutrients.
  • Carries away any bacteria it finds.

LYMPH NODES:

  • Filter lymph which later returns back to the blood stream.

LYMPH VESSELS:

  • Carry lymph.

LYMPHOCYTES:

  • Cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them.
  • Make antibodies to destroy foreign pathogens.

VACCINE AND VACCINATION:

  • Used to establish immunity to a disease.
  • The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and “remembers” them.
  • Prepares the body for certain viruses.
  • Injects some form of a pathogen into your body.
  • Adaptive and Passive Immunity.
  • Adaptive Immunity is achieved by stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies.
  • Passive Immunity is when antibodies that are injected into the body are made by another organism.

APPENDIX

  • A 2” by 4” pouch in the intestines. .It has unknown reason in the immune system.^ For example, monounsaturated fats , as found in olive oil, appear to have no detrimental effect on the immune system in humans at reasonable dietary levels.
    • Immune Function 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To solve this problem, we have built the first commercial-grade immune system that can find, analyze and cure previously unknown viruses faster than the viruses themselves can spread [1].
    • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chronic inflammation, perhaps as a result allergic reactions, gets the immune system used to the constant state of alertness, without any real reason to be all agitated.
    • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

    It helps digest food.

SPLEEN

  • A organ located in the abdomen of the human body. .It is regarded as one of the centers of activity of the immune system.^ BioVent Drops (50ml) , ImmunityPlus (50ml) : To promote strong immune systems, respiratory health and prevent asthmatic conditions (one of each) .
    • ImmunityPlus (50ml) - Herbal Formula for Optimum Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.healthymyway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Virus Analysis Automated virus analysis is one of the keys to building an immune system.
    • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A supervisor system is in charge of coordinating all activity inside the analysis center.
    • Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.research.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Spleen
    Laparoscopic view of a horse's spleen (the purple and gray mottled organ)

THYMUS

  • Produces T-cells.

TONSILS

  • Two filters in the back of the mouth that trap germs. .Although when kids are young they get their tonsils taking out to keep from getting sick all the time.^ They are called "natural" killers because they are born armed and ready at all times, able to swing into action with a lot less fuss and bother.
    • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When a healthy person gets a bacterial infection for the first time, the body takes a little time to respond since the bacteria is a new antigen and the B-cells do not have any memory of it.
    • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

    .When they get this done they are usually taken out at the earliest age of about 2 or maybe even younger but you will not see to many adults getting their tonsils taken out.^ These natural killers are not fussy about getting the right antigen signal and so on and they are more inclined to kill first and ask questions later.
    • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ While you may recognize Tagamet and perhaps even cimetidine as heartburn medicine, many of you may not realize that it is also a histamine blocker.
    • CLL Topics: The Immune System 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ You have already read about the anti-cancer benefits of Cordyceps mushrooms which can boost NK cell activity many-fold.
    • Natural Cures for Cancer Fighting Cancer Kill your Cancer 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC com--www.com [Source type: Academic]

    They do that when they are at their earliest ages.

REFERENCES:


  • my classmates
  • [1] --km 20:00, 24 December 2007 (UTC)

by 7th grader --km 01:05, 4 January 2008 (UTC)

Simple English

photo of a single neutrophil (in yellow), engulfing some anthrax bacteria (in orange).]]

An immune system is the set of ways (called mechanisms) in which organisms become immune to, or resist, some kinds of germs or defective cells. These mechanisms help an organism identify a pathogen, and neutralize the threat. An immune system can detect and identify many different kinds of disease agents. Examples are viruses, bacteria and parasites. The immune system also needs to make a difference between the body's own healthy cells or tissues, against other unhealthy cells, to work properly. An immune system creates antibodies or antigens to fight the unhealthy cells. Detecting an unhealthy intruder is complicated, because intruders can evolve and adapt so that the immune system will no longer detect them.

To fight the adapted unhealthy cells, multiple mechanisms can spot and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess enzyme systems that protect against viral infections. Other basic immune mechanisms appeared in ancient life forms and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms.[1] The typical vertebrate immune system consists of many types of proteins, cells, organs, and tissues that interact in a complex and ever-changing network. As part of this more complex immune response, the human immune system adapts, over time, to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. This adaptation process is referred to as "adaptive immunity" or "acquired immunity" and creates immunological memory. Immunological memory created from a primary response to a specific pathogen, provides an enhanced response to secondary encounters with that same, specific pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Primary response can take 2 days to even 2 weeks to develop. After the body gains immunity towards a certain pathogen, when infection by that pathogen occurs again, the immune response is called the secondary response.

In some organisms, the immune system has its own problems within itself, called disorders. These result in other diseases, including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.[2][3] Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal. Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, or be produced by medicines or an infection, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), that is caused by the retrovirus HIV. In contrast, autoimmune diseases result from an immune system that is too active and attacks normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and lupus erythematosus.

Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system. It is very important to health and diseases.

History of immunology

(1854-1915) studied immune systems of people.]]

Immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system. It originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease. The earliest known mention of immunity was during the plague of Athens in 430 BC. Thucydides (460-395 BC) noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of some diseases could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time.[4] In the 18th century, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom.[5] This and other observations of acquired immunity was later exploited by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) in his development of vaccination and his proposed Germ theory of disease.[6] Pasteur's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease, such as the miasma theory. It was not until the proofs of Robert Koch (1843-1910) published in 1891, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905, that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease.[7] Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed (1851-1902).[8]

Immunology made a great advance towards the end of the 19th century, through rapid developments, in the study of humoral immunity and cellular immunity.[9] Particularly important was the work of Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), who proposed the side-chain theory to explain the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction; his contributions to the understanding of humoral immunity were recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1908, which was jointly awarded to the founder of cellular immunology, Ilya Mechnikov (1845-1916).[10]

References

  1. Beck, Gregory; Gail S. Habicht (November 1996). "Immunity and the Invertebrates" (PDF). Scientific American: 60–66. http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~soma/biosec/readings/sharkimmu-sciam-Nov1996.pdf. Retrieved 1 January 2007. 
  2. "Inflammatory Cells and Cancer", Lisa M. Coussens and Zena Werb, Journal of Experimental Medicine, March 19, 2001, vol. 193, no. 6, pp. F23-26, Retrieved 2010-08-13.
  3. "Chronic Immune Activation and Inflammation as the Cause of Malignancy", K.J. O'Byrne and A.G. Dalgleish, British Journal of Cancer, August 2001, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 473-483, Retrieved 2010-08-13.
  4. Retief FP, Cilliers L (January 1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The epidemic of Athens, 430-426 BC"]. South African Medical Journal 88 (1): 50–3. PMID 9539938. 
  5. Ostoya P (1954). "Maupertuis et la biologie". Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications 7 (1): 60–78. doi:10.3406/rhs.1954.3379. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rhs_0048-7996_1954_num_7_1_3379. 
  6. Plotkin SA (April 2005). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Vaccines: past, present and future"]. Nature Medicine 11 (4 Suppl): S5–11. doi:10.1038/nm1209. PMID 15812490. 
  7. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905, Nobelprize.org, accessed 8 January 2007.
  8. Major Walter Reed, U.S. Army, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, accessed 8 January 2007.
  9. Mechnikov, Ilya; Translated by F.G. Binnie (1905) (Full Text Version: Google Books). Immunity in Infective Diseases. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 68025143. http://books.google.com/?id=ywKp9YhK5t0C&printsec=titlepage&vq=Ehrlich&dq=history+of+humoral+immunity. 
  10. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908, Nobelprize.org, accessed 8 January 2007.


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