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Immunological synapse: Wikis


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In immunology, an immunological synapse is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell and a lymphocyte. It was first discovered by Abraham Kupfer at the National Jewish Center in Denver and the term was coined by Michael Dustin at NYU who studied it in further detail. Key molecules in the synapse are the T cell receptor and its counterpart the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Also important are LFA-1, ICAM-1, CD28, and CD80/CD86. The structure is composed of concentric rings, the C-SMAC, the P-SMAC, and the D-SMAC each containing a peculiar mix of molecules.


  • Arash Grakoui, Shannon K. Bromley, Cenk Sumen, Mark M. Davis, Andrey S. Shaw, Paul M. Allen, Michael L. Dustin, The Immunological Synapse: A Molecular Machine Controlling T Cell Activation, Science 9 July 1999, Vol. 285. no. 5425, pp. 221 – 227.
  • Colin R. F. Monks, Benjamin A. Freiberg, Hannah Kupfer, Noah Sciaky and Abraham Kupfer, Three-dimensional segregation of supramolecular activation clusters in T cells, Nature 395, 82-86, 3 September 1998.

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