The Full Wiki

Inca religion: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Religion in the Inca Empire article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the Incas' Empire several polytheistic religions were practiced by its different people. Most religions had common traits such as the existence of a Pachamama and Viracocha divinity, however after Inca conquest, the conquered peoples had to add Inca deities to their pantheon.

Contents

Deities

Inca deities occupied the three realms:

  • Hanan Paca, the celestial realm in the sky
  • Ukhu Paca, the inner earth
  • Cay Paca, the outer earth where humans live

The most important deities of Hanan Paca are Apu Inti, Sun God, and Quilla,Moon Goddess. Inti Raymi was the festival of the Sun God, the largest and most important Inca festival. The Lightning deity also resided in Hanan Paca.

Ukase Paco was the domain of Panamanian, the Earth mother, who is universal to Andean mythologies. Kanopa was the God of Pregnancy.

Con Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic, The First God, creator of the three realms and their inhabitants, was also the father of Inti.

Origin

Many ancient Andean peoples traced their origins to ancestral deities. Multiple ayllus could share similar ancestral origins. The Inca claimed descent from the Sun and the Moon, their Father and Mother. Many ayllus claimed descent from early proto-humans that they emerged from local sites in nature called pacarinas.

The earliest ancestors of the Inca were known as Ayar, the first of which was Manco Capac or Ayar Manco. Inca mythology tells of his travels, in which he and the Ayar shaped and marked the land and introduced the cultivation of maize.

Religious expansion

Religious traditions in the Andes tended to vary among different ayllus. While the Inca generally allowed or even incorporated local deities and heroes of the ayllus they conquered, they did bring their gods to those peoples by incorporating them in law such as required sacrifice. The Inca attempted to combine their deities with conquered ones in ways that raised the status of their own. One example of this is Pachamama, the goddess of earth, who was worshipped long before the rise of the Inca. In the Inca mythology Pachamama having been integrated was placed below the Moon who the Inca held ruled over all female gods.[1]

Duality

A prominent theme in Inca mythology is the duality of the Cosmos. The realms were separated into the upper and lower realms, the Hanan Paca and the Ukhu and Hurin Pacas. Hanan Paca, the upper world, consisted of the deities of the sun, moon, stars, rainbow, and lightning while Ukhu and Hurin Pacas were the realms of Pachamama, the earth mother, and the ancestors and heroes of the Inca or other ayllus. Cay Paca, the realm of the outer earth, where humans resided was viewed as an intermediary realm between Hanan Paca and Ukhu Paca. The realms were represented by the condor (upper world), puma (outer earth) and snake (inner earth).

Sacred sites

Huacas (sacred sites or things), were widespread around the Inca Empire. Huacas were deific entities that resided in natural objects such as mountains, boulders, streams, battle fields, other meeting places, and any type of place that was connected with past Incan rulers. Huacas could also be inanimate objects such as pottery that were believed to be vessels carrying deities. Spiritual leaders in a community would use prayer and offerings to communicate with a huaca for advice or assistance. They usually sacrificed a child or a slave. The Incan people thought it was an honor to die for an offering.

There is archaeological discoveries supporting the presence of sacrifice within Inca society according to Reinhard and Ceruti: "Archaeological evidence found on distant mountain summits has established that the burial of offerings was a common practice among the Incas and that human sacrifice took place at several of the sites.The excellent preservation of the bodies and other material in the cold and dry environment of the high Andes provides revealing details about the rituals that were performed at these ceremonial complexes."[2]

Divination

The Incas also used divination. They used it to inform people in the city of social events, predict battle outcomes, and ask for metaphysical intervention.

Divination was an important part of Inca religion, as reflected in the following quote:

"The native elements are more obvious in the case of the sunrise divination. Apachetas, coca and the sun were major elements in pre-Conquest religion, and divination, the worship of sacred mountains and the bringing retribution against enemies were important ritual practices."[3]

Festivals

The Inca calendar had 12 months of 30 days, with each month having its own festival. The Incan year began in December, and began with Capac Raymi, the magnificent festival.[4]

Gregorian month Inca month Translation
January Camay quilla Fastening and Penitence
February Hatun-pucuy Great Ripening
March Pacha-puchuy Earth Ripening
April Ayrihua or Camay Inca Raymi Festival of the Inca
May Aymoray quilla or Hatun Cuzqui Great Cultivation
June Inti Raymi Feast of the Sun
July Chahua-huarquiz, Chacra Ricuichi or Chacra Cona Ploughing Month
August Yapaquis, Chacra Ayaqui or Capac Siquis Sowing month
September Coya Raymi and Citua Festival of the Moon
October K'antaray or Uma Raymi Month of crop watching
November Ayamarca Festival of the dead
December Capac Raymi Magnificent festival

(Von Hagen, p. 93)

Inca religion and socialism

Inca religion is one of the main counter arguments in the debate regarding the notion that the Inca state was an early 'Socialist Empire' (Baudin, 1928). These facts, however, have little to do with the Inca economy, which, with its large-scale central planning, vast system of grain-houses, and mandatory work periods, does closely resemble many features of modern socialism, although there were markets, catus, where barter was practiced without any regulation.[5]

References

  • Inca Religion
  • Baudin (1948).
  • Rowe, John H. (1946).
  • Von Hagen, Victor (1961). "Realm of the Incas, Revised Edition". Mentor (New American Library). 

Notes

  1. ^ Steele, P.R. "Handbook of Inca mythology." Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO, 2004.
  2. ^ Ceruti and Reinhard; Sacred mountains, ceremonial sites, and human sacrifice among the Incas; Archaeoastronomy: the journal of astronomy in culture (University of Texas press); Volume XIX; 2005;pp. 2
  3. ^ (Rowe 1946: 292-314)
  4. ^ Kendall, Ann (1989). Everyday Life of the Incas. 
  5. ^ (Von Hagen, p. 91)

Template:Onesource

The religion of the Incas is the religion practiced by the Inca civilization.

Contents

Deities

Inca deities occupied the three realms:

  • Hanan Paca, the celestial realm in the sky
  • Ukhu Paca, the inner earth
  • Cay Paca, the outer earth where humans live

The most important deities of Hanan Pacha are Apu Inti and Quilla, Sun and Moon (respectively) their ancestors. Inti Raymi was the festival of the Sun God, the largest and most important Inca festival. The Lightning deity also resided in Hanan Paca.

Ukase Paco was the domain of Panamanian, the Earth mother, who is universal to Andean mythologies.

Con Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic, The First God, creator of the three realms and their inhabitants, was also the father of Inti.

Origin

Many ancient Andean peoples traced their origins to ancestral deities. Multiple ayllus (See: Inca) could share similar ancestral origins. The Inca claimed descent from the Sun and the Moon, their Father and Mother, respectively. Many ayllus claimed descent from early proto-humans that emerged from local sites in nature called pacarinas.[1]

The earliest ancestors of the Inca were known as Ayar, the first of which was Manco Capac or Ayar Manco. Inca mythology tells of his travels, in which he and the Ayar shaped and marked the land and introduced the cultivation of maize.

Religious expansion

Religious traditions in the Andes tended to vary among different ayllus. While the Inca generally allowed or even incorporated local deities and heroes of the ayllus they conquered, they did bring their gods to those peoples by incorporating them in law such as required sacrifice. The Inca attempted to combine their deities with conquered ones in ways that raised the status of their own. One example of this is Pachamama, the goddess of earth, who was worshipped long before the rise of the Inca. In the Inca mythology Pachamama having been integrated was placed below the Moon who the Inca held ruled over all female gods[2].

Duality

A prominent theme in Inca mythology is the duality of the Cosmos. The realms were separated into the upper and lower realms, the Hanan Paca and the Ukhu and Hurin Pacas. Hanan Paca, the upper world, consisted of the deities of the sun, moon, stars, rainbow, and lightning while Ukhu and Hurin Pacas were the realms of Pachamama, the earth mother, and the ancestors and heroes of the Inca or other ayllus. Cay Paca, the realm of the outer earth, where humans resided was viewed as an intermediary realm between Hanan Paca and Ukhu Paca. The realms were represented by the condor (upper world), puma (outer earth) and snake (inner earth).

Sacred sites

Huacas (sacred sites or things), were widespread around the Inca Empire. Huacas were deific entities that resided in natural objects such as mountains, boulders, streams, battle fields, other meeting places, and any type of place that was connected with past Incan rulers. Huacas could also be inanimate objects such as pottery that were believed to be vessels carrying deities. Spiritual leaders in a community would use prayer and offerings to communicate with a huaca for advice or assistance. They usually sacrificed a child or a slave. The Incan people thought it was an honor to die for an offering.

There is archaeological discoveries supporting the presence of sacrifice within Inca society according to Reinhard and Ceruti: "Archaeological evidence found on distant mountain summits has established that the burial of offerings was a common practice among the Incas and that human sacrifice took place at several of the sites.The excellent preservation of the bodies and other material in the cold and dry environment of the of the high Andes provides revealing details about the rituals that were performed at these ceremonial complexes."[3]

Divination

The Incas also used divination. They used it to inform people in the city of social events, predict battle outcomes, and ask for metaphysical intervention.

Divination was an important part of Inca religion, as reflected in the following quote:

"The native elements are more obvious in the case of the sunrise divination. Apachetas, coca and the sun were major elements in pre-Conquest religion, and divination, the worship of sacred mountains and the bringing retribution against enemies were important ritual practices."[4]

Festivals

The Inca calendar had 12 months of 30 days, with each month having its own festival. The Incan year began in December, and began with Capac Raymi, the magnificent festival.[5]

Gregorian month Inca month Translation
January Camay quilla Fastening and Penitence
February Hatun-pucuy Great Ripening
March Pacha-puchuy Earth Ripening
April Ayrihua or Camay Inca Raymi Festival of the Inca
May Aymoray quilla or Hatun Cuzqui Great Cultivation
June Inti Raymi Feast of the Sun
July Chahua-huarquiz, Chacra Ricuichi or Chacra Cona Ploughing Month
August Yapaquis, Chacra Ayaqui or Capac Siquis Sowing month
September Coya Raymi and Citua Festival of the Moon
October K'antaray or Uma Raymi Month of crop watching
November Ayamarca Festival of the dead
December Capac Raymi Magnificent festival
(Von Hagen, p. 93)

Inca religion and socialism

Inca religion is one of the main counter arguments in the debate regarding the notion that the Inca state was an early 'Socialist Empire' (Baudin, 1928). These facts, however, have little to do with the Inca economy, which, with its large-scale central planning, vast system of grain-houses, and mandatory work periods, does closely resemble many features of modern socialism, although there were markets, catus, where barter was practiced without any regulation.[6]

References

  • Inca Religion
  • Baudin (1948).
  • Rowe, John H. (1946).
  • Von Hagen, Victor (1961). "Realm of the Incas, Revised Edition". Mentor (New American Library). 

Notes

  1. Steele, P.R. "Handbook of Inca mythology." Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO, 2004
  2. Steele, P.R. "Handbook of Inca mythology." Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO, 2004.
  3. Ceruti and Reinhard; Sacred mountains, ceremonial sites, and human sacrifice among the Incas; Archaeoastronomy: the journal of astronomy in culture (University of Texas press); Volume XIX; 2005;pp. 2
  4. (Rowe 1946: 292-314)
  5. Kendall, Ann (1989). Everyday Life of the Incas. 
  6. (Von Hagen, p. 91)








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message