Incandescent light bulb: Wikis

  
  

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An incandescent light bulb
.The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric light that works by incandescence (a general term for heat-driven light emissions, which includes the simple case of black body radiation).^ Incandescence is the release of electromagnetic radiation, usually visible radiation, from a radiating heated body.
  • Light bulbs & lamps | Causes of Color 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LED light bulbs LED sources LEDs / general info LED technology LED home lighting .
  • LED Light Bulbs -- the Web's top resource for LED light bulbs and information 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC led-light-bulbs.com [Source type: News]

^ Incandescent light bulbs work by heating a tungsten filament, or wire, until it glows.
  • What's the difference between an incandescent light bulb and a CFL? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC energystar.custhelp.com [Source type: General]

.An electric current passes through a thin filament, heating it to a temperature that produces light.^ When the filament has an electrical current passed through it, a reaction occurs between traveling photons and electrons that causes heat and light.

^ A wire coil made of tungsten that produces light when heated by an electric current.

^ Definition: An incandescent light bulb is an electric light bulb in which an electric current passes through a filament, heating it up until it becomes incandescent, producing light.
  • Glossary: Incandescent light bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: News]

.The enclosing glass bulb contains either a vacuum or an inert gas to prevent oxidation of the hot filament.^ The enclosing glass bulb prevents the oxygen in air from reaching the hot filament, which would be otherwise rapidly destroyed by oxidation.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulbs and Lighting | Designs and Tips 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.light-bulbs-4u.com [Source type: General]
  • Jason Tsang's Blog: Time to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs? 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC blog.jasontsang.ca [Source type: General]

^ Why does the bulb contain a vacuum?
  • Wydea - Light Bulbs - How do they work? 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.wydea.com [Source type: General]

^ There is mercury enclosed in a glass vacuum.

.Incandescent bulbs are also sometimes called electric lamps, a term also applied to the original arc lamps.^ The everyday term for an incandescent lamp.

^ In the lighting industry, a light bulb is called a lamp.
  • Light bulbs from the Lamp Company 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.lampco.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent bulbs are also called electric lamps , extending the use of a term applied to the original arc lamp s, and in Australia and South Africa they are also called light globes .
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Incandescent bulbs are made in a wide range of sizes and voltages, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts.^ Ushio has a wide range of halogen bulbs.
  • Choosing The Right Light Bulbs For Your Business Establishment 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.mybonsaitree.com [Source type: General]

^ It the same size as an Incandescent Bulb!
  • The LED incandescent replacement bulb 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.brodwax.com [Source type: General]

^ A benefit of the incandescent bulb is that they can be produced for a wide range of voltage s, from a few volts to several hundred volts.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.They require no external regulating equipment and have a low manufacturing cost, and work well on either alternating current or direct current.^ They will also work well with most timers.
  • Energy Saving Light Bulbs: CFL verses LED | Energy Conservation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ezdiyelectricity.com [Source type: General]

^ They require no external regulating equipment and have a low manufacturing cost, and work well on either alternating current or direct current.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In AC, or alternating current, the current alternates in direction.
  • The Incandescent Light Bulb May Soon Be a Thing of the Past - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.^ Cardinal light bulb Decorate a used light bulb.

^ Traditionally this type of directional lighting has been used for task lighting, flashlights and headlamps.
  • Energy Saving Light Bulbs: CFL verses LED | Energy Conservation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ezdiyelectricity.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent light bulbs are also called incandescent lamps.

.Some applications of the incandescent bulb make use of the heat generated, such as incubators, brooding boxes for poultry, heat lights for reptile tanks [1][2], infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy.^ Incandescent light bulb, Fluorescent light bulb, Halogen light bulb .

^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Why What Watt? RIP Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC topics.treehugger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Light Bulbs at ServiceLighting.com .
  • Incandescent Light Bulbs at ServiceLighting.com 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.servicelighting.com [Source type: General]

.In cold weather the heat shed by incandescent lamps contributes to building heating, but in hot climates lamp losses increase the energy used by air conditioning systems.^ That's heat that has to be canceled out by air conditioning.
  • Light bulb moment: Texas could be the first state in country to phase out incandescent bulbs | Editorial | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.chron.com [Source type: News]

^ When using air conditioning, you have to pay for the energy twice.
  • How Many Lightbulbs Does it Take to Change the World? One. And You're Looking At It. | Fast Company 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the heat from lighting can contribute to building heating in cold weather.
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.Incandescent light bulbs are gradually being replaced in many applications by other types of electric light such as (compact) fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and other devices.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Why What Watt? RIP Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC topics.treehugger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Photos matching 'lighting OR incandescent OR fluorescent OR "light bulb" OR "natural lighting"' .
  • lighting OR incandescent OR fluorescent OR "light bulb" OR "natural lighting" - News, photos, topics, and quotes 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC topics.treehugger.com [Source type: General]

^ High power indoor LED lights .
  • LED Lights, LED Street Lights, CFL Light Bulbs, Energy Saving Lamps, CFL Lamps 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.dmxledlights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These newer technologies give more visible light and less heat for the same amount of electrical energy input.^ Incandescent lights give off heat as well as light energy.
  • Science Projects - Heat Produced From Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I.E convert less of the power to heat and more to light.
  • The $10 Million Light Bulb - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ WAAAY less energy used on lighting.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

.Some jurisdictions, such as the European Union, are in the process of phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs in favor of more energy-efficient lighting.^ Australia will phase out old-style bulbs in favor of energy-efficient CFLs.
  • Australia to ban old-style light bulbs, go fluorescent to reduce emissions - USATODAY.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Why What Watt? RIP Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC topics.treehugger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incandescent Light Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 1000Bulbs.com .
  • Incandescent Light Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.1000bulbs.com [Source type: General]

In the United States, the incandescent light bulb is scheduled by federal law to be banned by 2014.[3]

Contents

History of the light bulb

Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison
.In addressing the question "Who invented the incandescent lamp?"^ In addressing the question "Who invented the incandescent lamp?"
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addressing the question “Who invented the incandescent lamp?” historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Wilson Swan and Thomas Edison.
  • Thomas Edison’s Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC mikelopez.info [Source type: General]

^ Edison invented his incandescent lamp in 1879 and then turned his attention to building power plants that would supply electricity to cities.
  • Night, light: Bulb faces a dim future - Orlando Sentinel 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC articles.orlandosentinel.com [Source type: Original source]

historians .Robert Friedel and Paul Israel [4] list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Wilson Swan and Thomas Edison.^ Robert Friedel and Paul Israel [1] list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Swan and Edison.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Robert Friedel and Paul Israel (1987, 115-117) list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Swan and Edison.
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  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addressing the question “Who invented the incandescent lamp?” historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Wilson Swan and Thomas Edison.
  • Thomas Edison’s Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC mikelopez.info [Source type: General]

.They conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve (by use of the Sprengel pump) and a high resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.^ Incandescent lamps are purely resistive loads which means they have a power factor of 1.
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^ Because incandescent lamps are pure resistance, they have unity power factor.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve and a high resistance lamp that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.
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  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another historian, Thomas Hughes, has attributed Edison's success to the fact that he invented an entire, integrated system of electric lighting.^ Did Thomas Edison really invent the light bulb?
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Did Thomas Edison really invent the light bulb? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.coolquiz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Edison invented that.
  • Questions about First Light Bulb - Ask.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Another historian, Thomas Hughes, has attributed Edison's success to the fact that he invented an entire, integrated system of electric lighting.
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  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

The lamp was a small component in his system of electric lighting, and no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo generator, the .Edison main and feeder, and the parallel-distribution system.^ "The lamp was a small component in his system of electric lighting, and no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo generator, the Edison main and feeder, and the parallel-distribution system.
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Edison’s system included dynamos, switches, electric meters, fuses, distribution lines, and regulators.
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^ Edison also developed an entire system to produce electricity and distribute it to many places at the same time.
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.Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting.^ Alternatives to standard incandescent lamps for general lighting purposes include: .
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^ Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting."
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Incandescent light bulbs are also called incandescent lamps.

Historian Thomas P. Hughes[5][6]
Early evolution of the light bulb

Early pre-commercial research

.In 1802, Humphry Davy had what was then the most powerful electrical battery in the world at the Royal Institution of Great Britain.^ In 1802 Humphry Davy had what was then the most powerful battery in the world at the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
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^ The very first electric light was invented as early as 1800 by English inventor, Humphry Davy.
  • Invention of The Light Bulb | Invention Reaction.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.inventionreaction.com [Source type: General]

^ It should be noted that Sir Humphry Davy , an English chemist , produced light using electrically heated strips of platinum in 1802.
  • light bulb@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.In that year, he created the first incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point.^ An electric current passes through a thin filament, heating it and causing it to emit light.
  • Jason Tsang's Blog: Time to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs? 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC blog.jasontsang.ca [Source type: General]

^ An electric current passes through a thin filament , heating it and causing it to emit light.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The light is extremely sterile, where incandescents are warm.
  • GE Ends Development of Incandescent Bulbs, Focuses on LEDs : CleanTechnica 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC cleantechnica.com [Source type: News]

.It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years.^ It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years until Thomas Edison 's creation of the first practical incandescent lamp in 1879.
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1860, Sir Joseph Wilson Swan set about attempting to develop a practical, long-lasting form of electric light.
  • Invention of The Light Bulb | Invention Reaction.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.inventionreaction.com [Source type: General]

^ Much later, in 1860, the English physicist Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914) was determined to devise a practical, long-lasting electric light.
  • Invention of the Light Bulb: Davy, Swan and Edison - EnchantedLearning.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] In 1809, Davy also created the first arc lamp with two carbon charcoal rods connected to a 2000-cell battery; it was demonstrated to the Royal Institution in 1810.
.Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century many experimenters worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon rods, and evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures.^ In the 1890s, the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wiring, and then osmium , and produced an operative version in 1898.
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^ The charged carbon glowed making the first arc lamp.  1820 - Warren De la Rue enclosed a platinum coil in an evacuated tube and passed an electric current through it.

^ Working at the Morrison's Brass Foundry on Adelaide St. West in Toronto, they built the first lamp with a shaped rod of carbon held between electrodes in an glass bulb filled with nitrogen.  .

.Many of these devices were demonstrated and some were patented.^ While some of these unique type fixtures were around for many years, many of them did not survive long at all which makes for some rare one of a kind type lighting.
  • Antique Light Sockets - Research - Sales - Restoration 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC antiquesockets.com [Source type: General]

^ OK, these aren't the height of humor, but they are humor of some kind, and I stole many of them.
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^ Hint: these ribbons and twist ties are found on many premade ornaments, some with angels others with flowers.
  • Crafts | Winter | Light Bulb Penguin 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.familycorner.com [Source type: General]

[9]
.In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.^ In 1835 James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.
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  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated constant electric lighting system using a prototype light bulb.

.He stated that he could "read a book at a distance of one and a half feet". However, having perfected the device to his own satisfaction, he turned to the problem of wireless telegraphy and did not develop the electric light any further.^ Thorn Lighting is owned by General Electric.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turn on the electricity and you have light.
  • CFL bulbs vs. incandescent light bulbs | Green living articles | eco-wisdom.com 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.eco-wisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ However, having perfected the device to his own satisfaction, he turned to the problem of wireless telegraphy and did not develop the electric light any further.
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  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.His claims are not well documented.^ His claims are not well documented.
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.In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it.^ Then in 1820 Warren De La Rue placed a coil made of platinum into an empty tube and allowed an electric current to pass through to form the first known proto-light bulb.
  • The History of the Light Bulb by Matt Jacks for the Natural Handyman home repair and do it yourself website 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.naturalhandyman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The History of the Light Bulb – An Electric Dawn | TheHistoryOf.net 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.thehistoryof.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric current flows through the filament when the lamp is turned on.
  • Temperature of an Incandescent Light Bulb 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hypertextbook.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inside of the bulb is a filament of tungsten wire, through which an electrical current is passed.
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.The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity.^ The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity.
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^ The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain less gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The enclosing glass bulb keeps the hot filament in a vacuum or an inert gas, as oxygen would allow the filament to burn and be destroyed rapidly by oxidation.
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.Although an efficient design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.^ Although it was an efficient design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although an efficient design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.
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^ His lamp design was worked but the cost of the precious metal platinum made this an impossible invention for wide-spread use.
  • Invention of the Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC inventionofthelightbulb.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Questions about First Light Bulb - Ask.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

[10] [11]
.In 1841, Frederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained within a vacuum bulb.^ I can use a brighter bulb than with an incandescent 5.
  • Is This the Light Bulb of the Future? - Gadgetwise Blog - NYTimes.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ An incandescent lamp bulb and its glowing filament.
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^ Uses 3x60W incandescent bulbs .
  • Incandescent Ceiling Lights, Incandescent Ceiling Light Fixture 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.pegasusassociates.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.In 1845, American John W. Starr [13] acquired a patent for his incandescent light bulb involving the use of carbon filaments.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The future of incandescent light bulbs .
  • Light bulbs & lamps | Causes of Color 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Light Bulbs , October 13, 2008 .
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: 60 Watt Orange Light Bulb / Incandescent A19 Orange 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[14] .He died shortly after obtaining the patent, and his invention was never produced commercially.^ He died shortly after obtaining the patent.
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^ In 1874 he obtained a patent for his invention.
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^ He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.
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.Little else is known about him.^ Very little is known about Lane-Fox although he may be more significant than is realised.
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^ Aside from the information contained in the patent itself, little else is known about him.
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[15]
.In 1851, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin publicly demonstrated incandescent light bulbs on his estate in Blois, France.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The future of incandescent light bulbs .
  • Light bulbs & lamps | Causes of Color 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ban the incandescent light bulb.
  • Ban the incandescent light bulb. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

.His light bulbs are on permanent display in the museum of the Chateau of Blois.^ MR16 light bulbs are used in display lighting.

^ His lightbulbs are on permanent display in the museum of the Chateau of Blois.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His light bulbs are on permanent display in the museum of the Chateau of Blois.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1872 A. N. Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb.^ Congress bans incandescent light bulbs .
  • Constitutionality of light bulb ban questioned 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: News]

^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Light Bulbs at ServiceLighting.com .
  • Incandescent Light Bulbs at ServiceLighting.com 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.servicelighting.com [Source type: General]

.In 1874 he obtained a patent for his invention.^ In 1874 he got a patent for his invention.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1874 he obtained a patent for his invention.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans filed a patent in Canada for their light bulb invention on July 24, 1874.
  • light bulb@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.In a suit filed by rivals seeking to get around Edison's lightbulb patent, German-American inventor Heinrich Göbel claimed he developed the first light bulb in 1854: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation, and that in the following five years he developed what many call the first practical light bulb.^ Edison’s work on inventing the light bulb was his search for the perfect filament.
  • Light Bulbs - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: General]

^ In a suit filed by rivals seeking to get around Edison's lightbulb patent, the German-American inventor Heinrich Göbel claimed he had developed the first light bulb in 1854: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation, and that in the following five years he developed what many call the first practical light bulb.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1854, the German inventor Heinrich Göbel developed the first 'modern' light bulb: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Despite a successful recreation of his lamp in 1882[17], Lewis Latimer demonstrated that the bulbs which Göbel had purportedly built in the 1850s, had actually been built much later, and found the glassblower who had constructed the fraudulent exhibits.^ Lewis Latimer demonstrated that the bulbs Göbel had purportedly built in the 1850s had actually been built much later, and actually found the glassblower who had constructed the fraudulent exhibits for Göbel.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis Latimer demonstrated that the bulbs Göbel had purportedly built in the 1850s had actually been built much later, and found the glassblower who had constructed the fraudulent exhibits for Göbel.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It featured reliable central generation, efficient distribution, a successful end use (in 1882, the light bulb), and a competitive price.

[18] In a patent interference suit in 1893, the judge ruled Göbel's claim "extremely improbable".
.In North America, parallel developments were taking place.^ Across the Atlantic , parallel developments were also taking place.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In North America, parallel developments were also taking place.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When Matt and Steph toured around North America the eleventh action was ‘Teach your parents weller!’ So lets take a look at light bulbs.
  • Run For One Planet Blog » Light bulb Inventory 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC blog.runforoneplanet.com [Source type: General]

.On July 24, 1874 a Canadian patent was filed by a Toronto medical electrician named Henry Woodward and a colleague Mathew Evans.^ On July 24, 1874 a Canadian patent was filed for the Woodward and Evans Light by a Toronto medical electrician named Henry Woodward and a colleague Mathew Evans.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glory should belong to Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans , pals in Toronto in the 1870s.
  • Edison did not invent the Incandescent light bulb 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.freeenergy.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans filed a patent in Canada for their light bulb invention on July 24, 1874.
  • light bulb@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.They built their lamps with different sizes and shapes of carbon rods held between electrodes in glass cylinders filled with nitrogen.^ They built their lamps with different sizes and shapes of carbon filaments held between electrodes in glass globes filled with nitrogen .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Their crude lamp was a glass tube filled with nitrogen, housing electrodes and a carbon rod.
  • Edison did not invent the Incandescent light bulb 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.freeenergy.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They built their lamps with different sizes and shapes of carbon rods held between electrodes in glass cylinders filled with nitrogen .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Woodward and Evans attempted to commercialize their lamp, but were unsuccessful.^ Woodward and Evans attempted to commercialize their lamp, but were unsuccessful.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Woodward and Evans attempted to commercialize their bulb, but were unsuccessful.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.They ended up selling their patent (U.S. Patent 0,181,613) to Thomas Edison in 1879 [19] [20].^ General Electric, whose founder Thomas Edison patented the incandescent bulb in 1880, is biggest in the United States.
  • Business & Technology | Light-bulb industry at a "tipping point" | Seattle Times Newspaper 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ Thomas Edison's long lasting filament bulb -- patented in 1879 and updated with a tungsten filament by William Coolidge in 1910 -- which has been the blueprint for decades will be completely phased out in Australia and the UK by 2010 and 2011 respectively.
  • A light bulb moment - CNN.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Traditional incandescent bulbs have changed little since they were first commercially produced by Thomas Edison in 1879.
  • UPDATE 1-Russia to ban incandescent light bulbs from 2014 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC uk.biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

Commercialization

.
Carbon filament lamp (E27 socket, 220 volts, approx.
^ Carbon filament lamp (E27 socket, 220 volts, approx.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most notable include several early carbon filament lamps made by Siemens & Halske , DeKhotinsky , Lane-Fox , Maxim , and one presumed to be by Swan .
  • kilokat's ANTIQUE LIGHT BULB site 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.bulbcollector.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broken filaments don't greatly impact prices of the earliest and rarest lamps but does make a big difference for later carbon and tungsten lamps.
  • Electric Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.thezephyr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

30 watts, left side: running with 100 volts)
.Joseph Wilson Swan (1828–1914) was a British physicist and chemist.^ Joseph Wilson Swan (1828–1914) was a physicist and chemist born in Sunderland, England.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1860, English chemist and physicist Joseph Wilson Swan (1828–1914) invented a primitive electric lamp using a filament of carbonized paper in a vacuum glass bulb.
  • Incandescent Light - examples, body, used, process, life, type, form, energy, gas, air, basic, surface, part, principle, History of incandescent lamps, Design, Applications 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much later, in 1860, the English physicist Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914) was determined to devise a practical, long-lasting electric light.
  • Invention of the INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB - EnchantedLearning.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1850, he began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb.^ In 1850 he began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He began carbonizing materials to be used for the filament.
  • Edison's Lightbulb at The Franklin Institute 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A light bulb is an electric lamp consisting of a glass housing containing a wire filament that produces light when heated by electricity .
  • Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.By 1860 he was able to demonstrate a working device but the lack of a good vacuum and an adequate supply of electricity resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and an inefficient source of light.^ The incandescent light bulb is a source of artificial light that works through the process of incandescence .
  • Jason Tsang's Blog: Time to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs? 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC blog.jasontsang.ca [Source type: General]

^ GE light bulbs General Electric GE bulbs .
  • GE light bulbs General Electric GE bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.kwhlighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the world’s first electric light bulb.
  • The History of the Light Bulb by Matt Jacks for the Natural Handyman home repair and do it yourself website 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.naturalhandyman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid-1870s better pumps became available, and Swan returned to his experiments.^ By the mid-1870s better pumps became available, and Swan returned to his experiments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An important key to Edison's success was that much better vacuums were available by the late 1870s.
  • Incandescent Light - examples, body, used, process, life, type, form, energy, gas, air, basic, surface, part, principle, History of incandescent lamps, Design, Applications 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He made more successful inccandescent lamps after better vacuum pumps became available in the mid 1870's.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the help of Charles Stearn, an expert on vacuum pumps, in 1878 Swan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening.^ With the help of Charles Stearn, an expert on vacuum pumps, Swan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening in 1878.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And though the technology is still in the early stages of development, Mr. Guo believes it would not be difficult for bulb companies to add a tungsten blackening step to the manufacturing process.

^ But gas bubbles in the platinum had led Edison to develop an efficient vacuum pump to remove the air from the inside of his bulbs.
  • Light Bulb | This Day In Tech | Wired.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.This received a British Patent No 8 in 1880.[21] On 18 December 1878 a lamp using a slender carbon rod was shown at a meeting of the Newcastle Chemical Society, and Swan gave a working demonstration at their meeting on 17 January 1879. It was also shown to 700 who attended a meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle on 3 February 1879. These lamps used a carbon rod from an arc lamp rather than a slender filament.^ On 18th December 1878 a lamp using a slender carbon rod was shown at a meeting of the Newcastle Chemical Society, and Swan gave a working demonstration at their meeting on 17th January 1879.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Swan reported success to the Newcastle Chemical Society, and at a lecture in Newcastle in February 1873 he demonstrated a working lamp that utilized a carbon fiber filament, but by 1877 he had turned to slender rods of carbon .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was also shown to 700 who attended a meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle on 3rd February 1879.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Thus they had low resistance and required very large conductors to supply the necessary current, so they were not commercially practical, although they did furnish a demonstration of the possibilities of incandescent lighting with relatively high vacuum, a carbon conductor, and platinum lead-in wires.^ The platinum wire was then evaporated by passing a high current through it.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light is identical with the incandescents they replaced.
  • A Defense of the Incandescent Light Bulb - Green Inc. Blog - NYTimes.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current incandescent lights do not do this.
  • Let’s Ban the Light Bulb Confusion — The Green Grok 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.nicholas.duke.edu [Source type: General]

.Besides requiring too much current for a central station electric system to be practical, they had a very short lifetime.^ They last about 10 times longer than traditional bulbs and use only a quarter to a third as much electricity.
  • Our view on energy conservation: How to change light bulbs? Market forces, not mandates - Opinion - USATODAY.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC blogs.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ By passing an electric current through a glass tube containing tiny amounts of a gas, Plücker and Geissler found they could make light.
  • Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs - The New York Times 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The amperage draw is so low you could install hundreds of these lights with almost no draw on your current electrical system.

[22] .Swan turned his attention to producing a better carbon filament and the means of attaching its ends.^ Swan turned his attention to producing a better carbon filament and the means of attaching its ends.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In turn, using less energy like electricity means that our homes produce less carbon dioxide: one of the main causes of climate change.

^ Most notable include several early carbon filament lamps made by Siemens & Halske , DeKhotinsky , Lane-Fox , Maxim , and one presumed to be by Swan .
  • kilokat's ANTIQUE LIGHT BULB site 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.bulbcollector.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.[21] From this year he began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England.^ He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bulbs light in Home Lighting .
  • Bulbs light Home Lighting at bizrate - Shop online this holiday season for Home & Garden 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Home > Sell Offers > light bulbs .
  • light bulbs - offers from light bulbs manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, wholesalers & distributors 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.tradekey.com [Source type: General]

.His house was the first in the world to be lit by a lightbulb and so the first house in the world to be lit by Hydro Electric power.^ Eternaleds announced their new Hydrolux-4 LED lightbulb, the very first liquid-cooled bulb in the world.
  • lightbulbs - Gizmodo 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 1880s, Edison planned and supervised the construction of the first commercial, central electric power station in New York City.
  • Edison's Lightbulb at The Franklin Institute 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One if it's an eco-kosher bulb that isn't going to be lit by electricity from nuclear power.
  • Light Bulb jokes, humor, by JavaCasa 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.javacasa.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Light Bulb Jokes -> Lightbulb Jokes 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ceisiwrserith.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 1880s he had started his company.^ From this year he began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England, and by the early 1880s he had started his own company.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ From this year he began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England, and in the early 1880s he had started his company.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[23]
.Thomas Edison began serious research into developing a practical incandescent lamp in 1878. Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement In Electric Lights" on October 14, 1878 (U.S. Patent 0,214,636).^ Patent number 223,898 was given to Edison's electric lamp.
  • Edison's Lightbulb at The Franklin Institute 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The improvement of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas Edison is used as an example.
  • Science NetLinks: Inventions 1: Edison and the Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.sciencenetlinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison's electric light: biography of an invention .
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament.^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament (the first successful test was on October 21 1879 ; it lasted 13.5 hours).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The first successful test was on October 22, 1879,[24] and lasted 13.5 hours.^ The first successful test was on October 22, 1879; [8] and lasted 13.5 hours.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison's first successful test occurred in 1879.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first successful test was on October 22 , 1879 ; [13] and lasted 13.5 hours.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Edison continued to improve this design and by Nov 4, 1879, filed for a U.S. patent for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ...^ Patent number 223,898 was given to Edison's electric lamp.
  • Edison's Lightbulb at The Franklin Institute 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison continued to improve this design and by Nov 4, 1879, filed for a U.S. patent (granted as U.S. Patent 0,223,898 on Jan 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ...
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He began carbonizing materials to be used for the filament.
  • Edison's Lightbulb at The Franklin Institute 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.fi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to platina contact wires."[25] .Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including using "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways,"[25] it was not until several months after the patent was granted that Edison and his team discovered that a carbonized bamboo filament could last over 1200 hours.^ This incandescent lamp had a carbonized bamboo filament and was mentioned as lasting up to 400 hours.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He finally selected carbonized cotton thread as his filament material.
  • How light bulb is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of light bulb, Quality Control 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison continued to improve this design and by 1880 had the patent for a lamp that could last over 1200 hours using a carbonized bamboo filament.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Hiram S. Maxim started a lightbulb company in 1878 to exploit his patents and those of William Sawyer.^ Hiram S. Maxim started a lightbulb company in 1878 to exploit his patents and those of William Sawyer.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ William Sawyer and Albon Man of the USA produced a carbonised paper arched filament lamp in 1878, they obtained a patent in the USA in January 1880.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His United States Electric Lighting Company was the second company, after Edison, to sell practical incandescent electric lamps.^ Meadville Lamp is the largest independent lighting manufacturer in the United States.
  • Rough Service/Vibration Service Incandescent light bulbs by Hytron Lighting | blocklighting.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.blocklighting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Edison's electric light: biography of an invention .
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His United States Electric Lighting Company was the second company to sell practical incandescent electric lamps, after Edison.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.They made their first commercial installation of incandescent lamps at the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company in New York City in the fall of 1880, about six months after the Edison incandescent lamps had been installed on the steamer Columbia.^ They are worse than incandescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ First of all, what about the summer months?
  • Let’s Ban the Light Bulb Confusion — The Green Grok 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.nicholas.duke.edu [Source type: General]

^ They made their first commercial installation of incandescent lamps at the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company in New York City in the fall of 1880, about six months after the Edison incandescent lamps had been installed on the steamer Columbia.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In October 1880, Maxim patented a method of coating carbon filaments with hydrocarbons to extend their life.^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Maxim in October 1880 patented a method of coating carbon filaments with hydrocarbons to extend their life.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Lewis Latimer, his employee at the time, developed an improved method of heat-treating them which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments.^ Lewis Latimer , his employee at the time, developed an improved method of heat treating them which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lewis Latimer, his employee at the time, developed an improved method of heat treating them which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tungsten filaments were costly, but by 1910 William David Coolidge (1873–1975) had invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On January 17, 1882, Latimer received a patent for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons," an improved method for the production of light bulb filaments which was purchased by the United States Electric Light Company.^ In January 1882, Lewis Latimer received a patent for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of light bulb filaments which was purchased by the United States Electric Light Company.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1906, the General Electric Company was the first to patent a method of making tungsten filaments for use in incandescent light bulbs.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After heating in Virtually the entire light bulb manufacturing process is automated.
  • How light bulb is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of light bulb, Quality Control 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Latimer patented other improvements such as a better way of attaching filaments to their wire supports.^ The coiled filament is attached to the lead-in wires.
  • How light bulb is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of light bulb, Quality Control 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latimer patented other improvements such as a better way of attaching filaments to their wire supports.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Davy connected two wires to a battery and attached a charcoal strip betwween the other ends of the wires.
  • Incandescent - Blog Toplist 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

[18]
.In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, which was ultimately incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd).^ In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, which was then incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd ).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thorn Lighting is owned by General Electric.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison's electric light: biography of an invention .
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Edison was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made.^ Edison was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Edison was initially against this combination, but was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Swan later wrote that Edison had a greater claim to the light than he did, in order to protect Edison's patents from claims against them in the US. .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Eventually, Edison acquired all of Swan's interest in the company.^ Eventually, Edison acquired all of Swan's interest in the company.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, which was then incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd ).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Edison was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Swan sold his United States patent rights to the Brush Electric Company in June 1882. Swan later wrote that Edison had a greater claim to the light than he did, in order to protect Edison's patents from claims against them in the United States[citation needed].^ He sold the rights to his patents to the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation and the American parent company.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, which was then incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, which was then incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd ).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1881, the Savoy Theatre became the first public building in the world to be lit entirely by electric lights.^ In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1835 James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A global switch to efficient lighting systems would trim the world’s electricity bill by nearly one-tenth.
  • Incandescent Bulbs are Evil 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC gadgetopia.com [Source type: General]

[26]
U.S. Patent 0,223,898 by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, January 27, 1880
.In 1882, the first recorded set of miniature incandescent lamps for lighting a Christmas tree was installed.^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They made their first commercial installation of incandescent lamps at the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company in New York City in the fall of 1880, about six months after the Edison incandescent lamps had been installed on the steamer Columbia.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This was better than the average incandescent light bulb, but therefore also had less than half the efficiency of a fluorescent lamp.
  • Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs | Drop the Hammer 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.drop-the-hammer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These did not become common in homes for many years.^ This is especially true if you do any significant amount of air-conditioning during the year — which certainly most commercial office buildings do in Canada — and I’m guessing many people run air-conditioning in your homes in Toronto during the summer (certainly that will become more common thanks to global warming).
  • Please don’t use incandescent bulbs for heating « Climate Progress 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Manufactured in a wide range of voltages, sizes, and finishes, these low-cost bulbs are the most common source of artificial light in the home.
  • Revised American National Standard Ensures Safety of Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ansi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ L4089 These highly unique Perma-Glow Antique Style bulbs are engineered to operate for many years at standard line voltage.
  • Antique Light Bulbs Edison, Restoration Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.1000bulbs.com [Source type: Reference]

.The United States Patent Office gave a ruling October 8, 1883, that Edison's patents were based on the prior art of William Sawyer and were invalid.^ U.S. Patent 0,223,898 by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, January 27, 1880 The United States Patent Office gave a ruling October 8, 1883 that Edison's patents were based on the prior art of William Sawyer and were invalid.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Patent 0,223,898 by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, January 27 , 1880 The United States Patent Office gave a ruling October 8 , 1883 that Edison's patents were based on the prior art of William Sawyer and were invalid.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Swan later wrote that Edison had a greater claim to the light than he, in order to protect Edison's patents from claims against them in the US. 0223898}} by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, January 27, 1880 The United States Patent Office gave a ruling October 8 , 1883 that Edison's patents were based on the prior art of William Sawyer and were invalid.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Litigation continued for a number of years.^ Litigation continued for a number of years.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Eventually on October 6, 1889, a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.^ Eventually on October 6, 1889, a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison's electric light: biography of an invention .
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Eventually on October 6 , 1889 , a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the 1890s, the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wire, and then osmium, and produced an operating version in 1898. In 1898 he patented the osmium lamp and started marketing it in 1902, the first commercial metal filament incandescent lamp.^ In 1878 he applied for patents for Platinum-Iridium wire filament lamps.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austrian, Carl Auer von Welsbach who had been working independently perfected an Osmium filament in 1899 so Bolton diverted to Tantalum.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1890s, the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wiring, and then osmium , and produced an operative version in 1898.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1897, German physicist and chemist Walther Nernst developed the Nernst lamp, a form of incandescent lamp that used a ceramic globar and did not require enclosure in a vacuum or inert gas.^ In 1897, German physicist and chemist Walther Nernst developed the Nernst lamp , a form of incandescent lamp that used a ceramic globar and did not require enclosure in a vacuum or inert gas.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1897, German physicist and chemist Walther Nernst developed the Nernst lamp, a form of incandescent lamp that used a ceramic globar and did not require enclosure in a vacuum or inert gas.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Twice as efficient as carbon filament lamps, Nernst lamps were briefly popular until overtaken by lamps using metal filaments.^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Twice as efficient as carbon filament lamps, Nernst lamps were briefly popular until overtaken by lamps using metal filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1854, Henricg Globel invented the first true lightbulb using a carbonized bamboo filament placed inside a glass bulb.
  • Revised American National Standard Ensures Safety of Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ansi.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1903, Willis Whitnew invented a metal-coated carbon filament that would not blacken the inside of a light bulb.^ Metal Halide light bulbs .
  • Light Bulbs: LBCLighting.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.lbclighting.com [Source type: General]

^ Reflector (R) Reflective coating inside the bulb directs light forward.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

On December 13, 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No. .34541) for a tungsten filament lamp, which lasted longer and gave a brighter light than the carbon filament.^ LED lights last even longer than CFL s.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]

^ Light bulbs last longer than studio executives.
  • ShootFirst / Nic Small - BROADCAST TV CREW 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.shootfirst.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In the same year Franjo Hannaman , a Croatian from Zagreb, invented a tungsten (wolfram) filament lamp, which lasted longer and gave a brighter light than the carbon filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tungsten filament lamps were first marketed by the Hungarian company Tungsram in 1905, so this type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries.^ An incandescent lamp bulb and its glowing filament.
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As an incandescent light bulb ages, the tungsten that the filament is made of burns off and attaches itself to the inside glass of the light bulb, which causes the light bulb to darken, or blacken.

^ In a suit filed by rivals seeking to get around Edison's lightbulb patent, the German-American inventor Heinrich Göbel claimed he had developed the first light bulb in 1854: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation, and that in the following five years he developed what many call the first practical light bulb.
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  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[27]
.In 1906, the General Electric Company patented a method of making filaments from sintered tungsten and in 1911 used ductile tungsten wire for incandescent light bulbs.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Light Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 1000Bulbs.com .
  • Incandescent Light Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.1000bulbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Your using an incandescent bulb right?
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

.The tungsten filament outlasted all other types.^ The tungsten filament outlasted all other types of filaments and Coolidge made the costs practical.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All other bulbs rely on some type of electrical discharge in a gas.
  • Aqua Botanic-light bulb comparison 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.aquabotanic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A) Dimming increases incandescent lamp life and halogen lamps are a type of incandescent lamp with a tungsten filament just like a traditional incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Light Bulbs, Halogen Lamps, Xenon Bulbs, Black Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.pegasusassociates.com [Source type: General]

.In 1913 Irving Langmuir found that filling a lamp with inert gas instead of a vacuum resulted in twice the luminous efficacy and reduction of bulb blackening.^ In 1913 Irving Langmuir found that filling a lamp with inert gas instead of a vacuum resulted in twice the luminous efficacy and reduction of bulb blackening.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Irving Langmuir found that filling the bulb with an inert gas reduces evaporation of the filament and reduces the required strength of the glass.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1924, Marvin Pipkin, an American chemist, patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them, and in 1947 he patented a process for coating the inside of lamps with silica.^ Marvin Pipkin, an American chemist, in 1924 patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them, and in 1947 patented a process for coating the inside of lamps with silica.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marvin Pipkin , an American chemist, in 1924 patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them, and in 1947 patented a process for coating the inside of lamps with silica .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ed worked on creating lamp with reduced wattage by adding krypton and a conductive tin coating inside.
  • Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs | Drop the Hammer 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.drop-the-hammer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1930, Hungarian Imre Bródy filled lamps with krypton gas in lieu of argon.^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These bulbs work by passing a current through a tube filled with argon gas and mercury.
  • Types of Light Bulbs and Their Uses 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.megavolt.co.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the loss of metal, these early lamps had a short service life, and most standard lamps are now filled with a low pressure inert gas (argon, nitrogen, etc.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.He used krypton and/or xenon filling of bulbs.^ Sometimes, premium fill gases such as krypton or xenon are used.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oyule Light Bulbs are filled with paraffin and use a wick instead of a filament, so basically they become what the light bulb replaced: A paraffin lamp.
  • light bulb - Gizmodo 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]
  • lightbulbs - Gizmodo 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q) What kind of dimmer should be used with xenon light bulbs?
  • Fluorescent Light Bulbs, Halogen Lamps, Xenon Bulbs, Black Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.pegasusassociates.com [Source type: General]

.Since the new gas was expensive, he developed a process with his colleagues to obtain krypton from air.^ Therefore a denser, more expensive fill gas (krypton), and a higher pressure, are used to slow down the evaporation.
  • Types of Light Bulbs and Their Uses 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.megavolt.co.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Production of krypton filled lamps based on his invention started at Ajka in 1937, in a factory co-designed by Polányi and Hungarian-born physicist Egon Orowan.^ This is the lamp expectancy based on laboratory and field tests or representative lamps, operating on approved ballasts, with an operating cycle of 10 hours per start.

^ They’ve got 5 support wires for the filament, are filled with Krypton gas, have a brass medium edison base, and are just damn solid looking.
  • Toolmonger » Blog Archive » Rough Service Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC toolmonger.com [Source type: General]

^ In each designation, the E stands for Edison, who created the screw-base lamp, and the number is the diameter in millimeters.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
By 1964, improvements in efficiency and production of incandescent lamps had reduced the cost of providing a given quantity of light by a factor of thirty, compared with the cost at introduction of Edison's lighting system [29]
.Consumption of incandescent light bulbs grew rapidly in the United States.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Is halogen an incandescent light bulb?

^ Incandescent including halogen light bulbs .
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1885 an estimated 300,000 general lighting service lamps were sold, all with carbon filaments.^ General Service (A) Yellowish-white light emitted in all directions.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting."
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Longer Life – L.E.D. lamps for tail light applications are capable of operating in the range of about 80,000 hours.
  • Incandescent Light Bulb 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC blog.rv.net [Source type: General]

.When tungsten filament were introduced, there were about 50 million lamp sockets in the United States.^ I'm not nervous about it because of this piece of information "Halogen lamps get hotter than regular incandescent lamps because the heat is concentrated on a smaller envelope surface, and because the surface is closer to the filament.
  • The banning of Incandescent Light Bulbs...worried? - Oozing Goo Lava Line 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC oozinggoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lighting represents, if I understand the DOE's numbers (pdf) correctly, about 12% of total residential power use in the United States.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ There were earlier incandescent lamps, such as one by Heinrich Goebel made with a carbon filament in 1854.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1914 88.5 million lamps were used, (only 15% with carbon filaments), and by 1945 annual sales of lamps were 795 million (more than 5 lamps per person per year).^ For personal non-commercial use only.
  • Lightbulb Home Lighting at bizrate - Shop online this holiday season for Home & Garden 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ That would be way more useful than this will ever be.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ USA – and there sure are more than 1 lightbulb per person.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Dim: Congress drafts rules to phase out incandescent bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

[30]

Cartels

.Between 1924 and 1939 the international market for incandescent light bulbs was controlled by the Phoebus cartel, which dictated wholesale prices and whose members controlled most of the world market for lamps.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ We offer a selection of fluorescent light bulbs at wholesale discount prices.
  • Wholesale Light Bulbs - Fluorescent Light Bulbs Wholesale - DollarDays 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC dollardays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wholesale 4pk Decorative Light Bulbs .
  • Wholesale Light Bulbs - Fluorescent Light Bulbs Wholesale - DollarDays 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC dollardays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Efficiency comparisons

Xenon Halogen Lamp (105 W) with an E27 base, intended for direct replacement of a non-halogen bulb
.Approximately 90% of the power consumed by an incandescent light bulb is emitted as heat, rather than as visible light.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Approximately 90% of the power consumed by an incandescent light bulb is emitted as heat, rather than as visible light.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ Ban the incandescent light bulb.
  • Ban the incandescent light bulb. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

[29]
.The effectiveness of an electric lighting source is determined by two factors - the relative visibility of electromagnetic radiation, and the rate at which the source converts electric power into electromagnetic radiation.^ A phosphor coating on the bulb then converts the ultraviolet light into visible light.
  • How light bulb is made - material, manufacture, history, used, parts, components, structure, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of light bulb, Quality Control 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Ratio of visible light out to electrical power in.
  • Laser boosts light bulb efficiency - physicsworld.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC physicsworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6300 Celsius (6600 Kelvin or 11,500 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Luminous efficacy of a light source is a ratio of the visible light energy emitted ( the luminous flux) to the total power input to the lamp.^ Light emitting diode retrofit lamp .
  • Smart light bulb - Google Patent Search 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flux refers to the light energy that leaves the source.
  • Aqua Botanic-light bulb comparison 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.aquabotanic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luminous efficacy is a ratio of the useful power emitted to the total radiant flux (power).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[31] .Visible light is measured in lumens, a unit which is defined in part by the differing sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light.^ But light output is measured in lumens.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]

^ The key measure of light brightness is lumens.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.myschoollights.com [Source type: General]

^ The revisions made to both parts concern some international terms and requirements that differ from those commonly used in the United States.
  • Revised American National Standard Ensures Safety of Incandescent Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ansi.org [Source type: Reference]

.Not all wavelengths of visible electromagnetic energy are equally effective at stimulating the human eye; the luminous efficacy of radiant energy is a measure of how well the distribution of energy matches the perception of the eye.^ The standard measure that quantifies the energy available for photosynthesis is "Photosynthetic Active Radiation" (aka "Photosynthetic Available Radiation") or PAR. Contrary to the lumen measure that takes into account the human eye response, PAR is an unweighted measure.
  • Aqua Botanic-light bulb comparison 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.aquabotanic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's because the hot gas molecules that are produced by propane combustion aren't very good at radiating their thermal energy as visible light.
  • How Everything Works - Incandescent Lightbulbs Home Page 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This takes into account more ways that energy might be wasted and so they are never greater than the standard luminous efficacy and efficiency.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The maximum efficacy possible is 683 lm/W for monochromatic green light at 555 nanometres wavelength, the peak sensitivity of the human eye.^ The maximum efficacy possible is 683 lm/W. Luminous efficiency is the ratio of the luminous efficacy to this maximum possible value.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This compares poorly to an "ideal" of 242.5 lumens per watt for one idealized type of white light, or 683 lumens per watt ideally for the yellowish-green wavelength of light that the human eye is most sensitive to.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revolutionary white light emitting diode (LED) technology produces UV-free white light that peaks in the appropriate blue and green wavelengths to efficiently help alleviate symptoms caused by light deficiency.
  • Indoor Sunshine® Spiral Light Bulbs - The home of healthy indoor light bulbs in Canada - Gentle light therapy with full spectrum Indoor Sunshine® light bulbs for the home and office. 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.full-spectrum-light-center.com [Source type: General]

For white light, the maximum luminous efficacy is around 240 lumens per watt, but the exact value is not unique because the human eye can perceive many different mixtures of visible light as "white".
.The chart below lists values of overall luminous efficacy and efficiency for several types of general service, 120 volt, 1000-hour lifespan incandescent bulb, and several idealized light sources.^ I come not to praise the incandescent light bulb.
  • Greentech Media: The Light Bulb Turns 130--And Heads to the Grave 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a light source and technically not a light bulb.
  • Incandescent Bulbs and Fixtures are Beginning to Take a Back Seat to CFLs and LEDs - Lighting, Interior Design - EcoHome Magazine 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ecohomemagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Efficient incandescent light bulbs: available now .
  • Efficient incandescent light bulbs: available now - | TerraPass: Fight global warming, reduce your carbon footprint 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.terrapass.com [Source type: General]

.A similar chart in the article on luminous efficacy compares a broader array of light sources to one another.^ Different lights have different luminous efficacies.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ A similar chart in the article on luminous efficacy compares a broader array of light sources to one another.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It has one steady-state heat source (the light bulb) and one feedback-controlled heat source (the electric furnace, which is just a big incandescent lightbulb that only emits in infrared).
  • Stupid Evil Bastard: The days of the incandescent light bulb in the U.S. are numbered. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC stupidevilbastard.com [Source type: General]

Type Overall luminous efficiency Overall luminous efficacy (lm/W)
40 W tungsten incandescent 1.9% 12.6[32]
60 W tungsten incandescent 2.1% 14.5[32]
100 W tungsten incandescent 2.6% 17.5[32]
glass halogen 2.3% 16
quartz halogen 3.5% 24
high-temperature incandescent 5.1% 35[33]
ideal black-body radiator at 4000 K 7.0% 47.5[34]
ideal black-body radiator at 7000 K 14% 95[34]
ideal monochromatic 555 nm (green) source 100% 683[35]
.Unfortunately, the spectrum emitted by a blackbody radiator does not match the sensitivity characteristics of the human eye.^ If the person is hotter than his surroundings, as is almost always the case, he will emit a different spectrum of thermal radiation than his surrounds.
  • How Everything Works - Incandescent Lightbulbs Home Page 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Verilux bulbs contain neodymium, a rare earth element, that filters out the excessive yellow part of the spectrum to which our eyes are most sensitive.

^ Metal Halide discharge lamps emit ultraviolet radiation which is harmful to eyes and skin!
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvins / 3410°C / 6,170°F).^ Unfortunately, tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvins).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The reason for this poor efficiency is the fact that tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at any temperature that they can withstand.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6300 Celsius (6600 Kelvin or 11,500 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Donald L. Klipstein explains it this way: "An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6300 °C (6600 K or 11,500 °F).^ An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6300 Celsius (6600 Kelvin or 11,500 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This results in more efficient radiation of visible light.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Donald L. Klipstein explains it this way: "An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6300 °C (6600 K or 11,500 °F).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Even at this high temperature, a lot of the radiation is either infrared or ultraviolet, and the theoretical luminous efficiency is 95 lumens per watt."^ But is lumens-per-watt an accurate measure of efficiency?
  • A Defense of the Incandescent Light Bulb - Green Inc. Blog - NYTimes.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is measured in lumens per watt (lm/W).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even at this high temperature, a lot of the radiation is either infrared or ultraviolet, and the theoretical luminous efficiency [sic] is 95 lumens per watt."
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[33] .No known material can be used as a filament at this ideal temperature, which is hotter than the sun's surface.^ No known material can be used as a filament at this ideal temperature, which is hotter than the sun's surface.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Krypton gas is denser than the standard gas used (Argon gas) and helps to keep the filament from deteriorating as fast.
  • C. Crane Company - GeoBulb® LED Light Bulbs - Toll Free (800) 522-8863 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ccrane.com [Source type: General]

^ I use them throughout our house and the quality of their light is no more harsh than the incandescents they replaced.
  • Ban the incandescent light bulb. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

.An upper limit for incandescent lamp luminous efficacy is around 52 lumens per watt, the theoretical value emitted by tungsten at its melting point.^ A 100W incandescent lamp gives a total of around 1,800 lumens.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is measured in lumen s per watt (lm/W).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An upper limit for incandescent lamp luminous efficacy is around 52 lumens per watt, the theoretical value emitted by tungsten at its melting point.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[29]
.For a given quantity of light, an incandescent light bulb produces more heat (and consumes more power) than a fluorescent lamp.^ CFLs are more sensitive to heat than ordinary bulbs.
  • Seattle City Light Residential Conservation | Compact Fluorescent Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.seattle.gov [Source type: General]

^ They are worse than incandescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ What compact fluorescent light bulb do I buy to replace an incandescent (regular) bulb?
  • GE Consumer & Industrial Lighting: Ask Us: FAQs - Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.gelighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Incandescent lamps' heat output increases load on air conditioning in the summer, but the heat from lighting can contribute to building heating in cold weather.^ Some of the heat from lighting can contribute to building heating in cold weather.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incandescent lamps' heat output increases load on air conditioning in the summer.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cold weather the heat shed by incandescent lamps contributes to building heating, but in hot climates lamp losses increase the energy used by air conditioning systems.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[36]
.High-quality halogen incandescent lamps have higher efficacy, which will allow a 60 W bulb to provide nearly as much light as a non-halogen 100 W. Also, a lower-wattage halogen lamp can be designed to produce the same amount of light as a 60 W non-halogen lamp, but with much longer life.^ W halogen bulb gives about the same amount of light as a 30-35W incandescent flood.
  • LED Guide - How to Buy LED Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.eternaleds.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that you can buy a 15-watt compact fluorescent bulb that produces the same amount of light as a 60-watt regular incandescent bulb.
  • GE Consumer & Industrial Lighting: Ask Us: FAQs - Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.gelighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lets a 100 W incandescent lamp be replaced by a 23-watt fluorescent bulb, while still producing the same amount of light.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Many light sources, such as the fluorescent lamp, high-intensity discharge lamps and LED lamps offer higher efficiency, and some have been designed to be retrofitted in existing fixtures.^ Light emitting diode retrofit lamp .
  • Smart light bulb - Google Patent Search 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What are high intensity discharge (HID) light bulbs?
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps , and Compact fluorescent lamps High-intensity discharge lamps LED lamps None of these devices rely on incandescence to produce light.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.These devices produce light by luminescence, instead of heating a filament to incandescence.^ Meanwhile, a research team at Deposition Sciences has also been able to double the output of incandescents by coating them with a material that converts waste heat into visible light.
  • Incandescent lights may mount a comeback - Efficiency standard, Incandescent light bulbs, Lighting | TerraPass: Fight global warming, reduce your carbon footprint 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.terrapass.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LEDs convert the majority of energy passed through them to light, as opposed to incandescent bulbs that produce light as a by-product of being heated thus they can be up to 90% more efficient than traditional household filament bulbs.
  • LED Guide - How to Buy LED Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.eternaleds.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent light bulbs operate by a filament inside the bulb being heated and generating light.
  • Light Bulbs Information | Business.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.These mechanisms produce discrete spectral lines and so don't have the broad "tail" of wasted invisible infrared emissions produced by incandescent emitters.^ These mechanisms produce discrete spectral lines and so are not associated with the broad "tail" of invisible infrared emissions produced by incandescent emitters, which is energy not useable for illumination.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then, people who don't want to pay will try to stop using incandescents on their own, as well as a lot of other energy-wasting electronics.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Cool - these bulbs do not cause heat build-up; LEDs produce 3.4 btu's/hour, compared to 85 for incandescent bulbs.
  • Energy-Efficient Lighting 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.eartheasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By careful selection of which electron energy level transitions are used, the spectrum emitted can be tuned to either mimic the appearance of incandescent sources or else produce different color temperatures of white for visible light.^ Incandescent lights emit a warmer color temperature than can be achieved by CFLs.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Different fluorescent bulbs produce different colors of light.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

^ CCT - Correlated Color Temperature is the measure used to describe the relative color appearance of a white light source.
  • Energy-Efficient Lighting 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.eartheasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cost of lighting

.The desired product of any electric lighting system is light (lumens), not power (watts).^ The amperage draw is so low you could install hundreds of these lights with almost no draw on your current electrical system.

^ But the technology improves daily, and a reasonably priced, high lumen-per-watt LED is the Holy Grail of lighting.
  • The Observer » Blog Archive » To Build a Better Light Bulb 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.wvobserver.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the installed working operation of the system, not the lumens-per-watt of the lamp.
  • A Defense of the Incandescent Light Bulb - Green Inc. Blog - NYTimes.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To compare incandescent lamp operating cost with other light sources, the calculation must also consider the lumens produced by each lamp.^ Consider the cost savings and other benefits - .
  • LED Guide - How to Buy LED Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.eternaleds.com [Source type: General]

^ The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compare with other Light Bulbs .
  • Light bulbs compact fluorescent Light Bulbs - PriceGrabber.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC indoors.pricegrabber.com [Source type: General]

.For commercial and industrial lighting systems the comparison must also include the required illumination level, the capital cost of the lamp, the labor cost to replace lamps, the various depreciation factors for light output as the lamp ages, effect of lamp operation on heating and air conditioning systems, as well as the energy consumption.^ Q: How many operating systems are required to screw in a light bulb?
  • Light Bulb Jokes 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC pages.city2000.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent lamps' heat output increases load on air conditioning in the summer.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our CC Vivid Series of LED Light Bulbs are perfect for low illumination applications found in task lights, reading lamps, or as accent lights to set the mood.
  • C. Crane Company - CC Vivid LED Light Bulbs - Toll Free (800) 522-8863 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.ccrane.com [Source type: General]

.The initial cost of an incandescent bulb is small compared to the cost of the energy it will use.^ Compared to incandescent bulbs .
  • Seattle City Light Residential Conservation | Compact Fluorescent Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.seattle.gov [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent bulbs can be purchased for a fraction of that cost.
  • Industry Preparing for Light Bulb Changes | Energy & Utilities > Energy & Environment from AllBusiness.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ This causes an additional total cost of using incandescent bulbs.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Overall cost of lighting must also take into account light lost within the lamp holder fixture; internal reflectors and updated design of lighting fixtures can improve the amount of usable light delivered.^ Overall cost of lighting must also take into account light lost within the lamp holder fixture; internal reflectors and updated design of lighting fixtures can improve the amount of usable light delivered.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designed for chandelier style light fixtures.
  • Wholesale Light Bulbs - Fluorescent Light Bulbs Wholesale - DollarDays 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC dollardays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they fit into most light fixtures and lamps.

.Since human vision adapts to a wide range of light levels, a 10% or 20% decrease in lumens still may provide acceptable illumination, especially if the changeover is accompanied by cleaning of lighting equipment or improvements in fixtures.^ Since human vision adapts to a wide range of light levels, a 10% or 20% decrease in lumens may still provide acceptable illumination, especially if the changeover is accompanied by cleaning of lighting equipment or improvements in fixtures.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This may be a very acceptable tradeoff for a light bulb that is a difficult-to-access location (for example, traffic lights or fixtures hung from high ceilings).
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Compact fluorescent light bulbs may generally be used in enclosed fixtures as long as the enclosed fixture is not recessed.
  • GE Consumer & Industrial Lighting: Ask Us: FAQs - Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.gelighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Measures to phase out use

.Due to the higher energy usage of incandescent light bulbs in comparison to more energy efficient alternatives, such as compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps, many governments have introduced measures to phase out their use, by setting minimum efficacy standards higher than can be achieved by general service lamps.^ Now the government wants to tell me what type of light bulb I can use.
  • Incandescent Light Bulb Ban in 2012 | Zillow Blog - Real Estate Market Stats, Celebrity Real Estate, and Zillow News 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

^ These more efficient lights, such as the compact fluorescent light bulb, use around 20 per cent of the electricity to produce the same amount of light.” .
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Government to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Order: 1 Piece Global Energy saving lamp/ bulb /lighting .
  • Wholesale incandescent bulb - Buy Low Price incandescent bulb Lots on Alibaba.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

Efforts to improve efficiency

.Due to the measures noted above, there have been recent efforts to improve the efficiency of incandescents.^ Hell, we've had incandescents for 125-130 years and how much did they improve recently???
  • Trouble Shooting the Simple Light Bulb - InterNACHI Message Board 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.nachi.org [Source type: General]

^ Maybe there will come a time when the bulbs improve, but until then, incandescent is the only way to go.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You CAN make an incandescent bulb that's 90% efficient, there's just no motivation to now that CCFLs and LEDs are the only legal lighting standard.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.For example the consumer lighting division of General Electric announced that they are working on a "high efficiency incandescent" (HEI) lamp, which they claim could ultimately be as much as four times more efficient than current incandescents, although their initial production goal is to be approximately two times more efficient.^ As known in the art, fluorescent light bulbs generally are more energy-efficient than conventional incandescent light bulbs.
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatives to standard incandescent lamps for general lighting purposes include: .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Halogen works better for this than incandescent.
  • Please don’t use incandescent bulbs for heating « Climate Progress 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: General]

[37][38]
.U.S. Department of Energy research at Sandia National Laboratories initially indicated the potential for dramatically improved efficiency from a photonic lattice filament.^ In 2001, for the bulb's 100th birthday, Sandia National Laboratories -- a nearby nuclear bomb lab -- donated equipment and server space to create "BulbCam."
  • Longest Burning Light Bulbs. Roadside America 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.roadsideamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ Just spend more money on research to make them more energy efficient.
  • Kissing Edison’s Light Bulb Goodbye - Green Inc. Blog - NYTimes.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1936 the coiled-coil filament was introduced which further improved the efficiency of lamps.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[39][40] However, later work indicated that initially promising results were in error.[41]
.Prompted by U.S. legislation mandating increased bulb efficiency by 2012, new "hybrid" incandescent bulbs have been introduced by Philips.^ Incandescent bulb efficiency .
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Light Bulb Ban in 2012 .
  • Incandescent Light Bulb Ban in 2012 | Zillow Blog - Real Estate Market Stats, Celebrity Real Estate, and Zillow News 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

^ Re: Incandescent bulb efficiency .
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.The "Halogena Energy Saver" incandescent is 30 percent more efficient than traditional designs, using a special chamber to reflect formerly-wasted heat back to the filament to provide additional lighting power.^ That would be way more useful than this will ever be.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ But as LED's are still more useful, use less power, and outputs more light.
  • DailyTech - New Laser Treatment Could Make Incandescent Bulbs as Efficient as Fluorescent 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ As known in the art, fluorescent light bulbs generally are more energy-efficient than conventional incandescent light bulbs.
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[42]

Construction

.Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric current is passed.^ But none of the ultraviolet can get through the glass bulb.
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) which the bulb with an inert gas reduces evaporation of the filament and reduces the required strength of the glass.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ban the incandescent light bulb.
  • Ban the incandescent light bulb. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

.Contact wires and a base with two (or more) conductors provide electrical connections to the filament.^ In the alternative, an electrical lighting base may provide mechanical support for removable lighting members and electricity is provided via separate conductors, e.g., a wire with a connector being connected to a mating connector on the removable lighting member.
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Glass bulb Low pressure inert gas Tungsten filament Contact wire (goes out of stem) Contact wire (goes into stem) Support wires Stem (Glass mount) Contact wire (goes out of stem) Cap (Sleeve) Insulation (Vitrit) Electrical contact .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He used a complicated method of connection, the filament was connected to spiralled platinum wires which were fused into glass tubes.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Incandescent light bulbs usually contain a stem or glass mount anchored to the bulb's base which allows the electrical contacts to run through the envelope without gas/air leaks.^ But none of the ultraviolet can get through the glass bulb.
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ban the incandescent light bulb.
  • Ban the incandescent light bulb. 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent lights may mount a comeback - Efficiency standard, Incandescent light bulbs, Lighting .
  • Incandescent lights may mount a comeback - Efficiency standard, Incandescent light bulbs, Lighting | TerraPass: Fight global warming, reduce your carbon footprint 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.terrapass.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small wires embedded in the stem in turn support the filament and/or its lead wires.^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another tradeoff between efficiency and long life.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the ends of the filament are somewhat cool where the filament is attached to the lead wires, the halogen attacks the filament at these points.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another trade-off between efficiency and long life.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The bulb is filled with an inert gas such as argon to reduce evaporation of the filament.^ Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) which is filled with an inert gas to reduce evaporation of the filament and reduce the required strength of the glass.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Later, it was discovered that filling the bulb with an inert gas such as argon or an argon-nitrogen mixture slows down evaporation of the filament.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irving Langmuir found that filling the bulb with an inert gas reduces evaporation of the filament and reduces the required strength of the glass.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.An electrical current heats the filament to typically 2000 K to 3300 K (about 3100–5400°F), well below tungsten's melting point of 3695 K (6192°F).^ Tungsten is the metal with the highest melting point.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unfortunately, tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvins).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unfortunately, tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvin).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Filament temperatures depend on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current drawn.^ The actual resistance of the filament is temperature dependent.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The current heats the filament to an extremely high temperature (typically 2000 K to 3300 K depending on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current passed through).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The current heats the filament to an extremely high temperature (typically 2000K to 3300K depending on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current passed through).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heated filament emits light that approximates a continuous spectrum.^ The heated filament emits light with a continuous spectrum .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Incandescent light bulbs operate by a filament inside the bulb being heated and generating light.
  • Light Bulbs Information | Business.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Reducing the voltage shifts the output spectrum to the red giving a higher ratio of heat to light.
  • A Defense of the Incandescent Light Bulb - Green Inc. Blog - NYTimes.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The useful part of the emitted energy is visible light, but most energy is given off as heat in the near-infrared wavelengths.^ All the energy "wasted" by a conventional light bulb is given off as heat.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The useful part of the emitted energy is visible light , but also significant energy is given off in the in the near- infrared wavelengths.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The energy that does not get converted to light is wasted by being given off as heat.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three-way light bulbs have two filaments and three conducting contacts in their bases.^ A LED-based light bulb .
  • U.S. To Phase Out Incandescent Light Bulbs »» MetaEfficient Reviews 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.metaefficient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some lamps are better set for two and three-way bulbs.
  • Light Bulb Ideas ~ Chris Pirillo 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Carbon filaments, which were used on some of the earliest light bulbs ever produced, create a unique glow unparalleled by common incandescent bulbs.
  • Antique Light Bulbs Edison, Restoration Bulbs 1000Bulbs.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.1000bulbs.com [Source type: Reference]

The filaments share a common ground, and can be lit separately or together. .Common wattages include 30–70–100, 50–100–150, and 100–200–300, with the first two numbers referring to the individual filaments, and the third giving the combined wattage.^ For example, in the configuration shown in FIG. 4, the first end 30 of the incandescent bulb socket 18 has two extensions (pins or pillars 34 a and 34 b ) extending from the first end 30 of the incandescent bulb socket 18 .
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Agree with you on the first two, partially disagree on the third.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ One saving grace in this respect is that the efficiency increases proportionally to the wattage, for example a single 100 watt bulb is much brighter than two 50 watt bulbs.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While most light bulbs have clear or frosted glass, other kinds are also produced, including the various colors used for Christmas tree lights and other decorative lighting.^ Light bulbs Break During Use: .
  • Troubleshooting Light Bulbs, Lighting Fixtures, and Lamps 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.arcadianlighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking for other neat light bulbs ?
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ The issue is the Federal Government MANDATING what kind of light bulbs we use.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

.Neodymium-containing glass is sometimes used to provide a more natural-appearing light.^ These more efficient lights, such as the compact fluorescent light bulb, use around 20 per cent of the electricity to produce the same amount of light.” .
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Government to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ The special effect of the neodymium glass filtering is to achieve more red and green output than usual for a light source of a given brightness and overall color.
  • Odd Light Bulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any claims that more than 50% of existing light fittings are unsuitable for use with CFLs is completely justified on the basis of this test.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

Incandescent light bulb.svg
  1. Outline of Glass bulb
  2. Low pressure inert gas (argon, neon, nitrogen)
  3. Tungsten filament
  4. Contact wire (goes out of stem)
  5. Contact wire (goes into stem)
  6. Support wires
  7. Stem (glass mount)
  8. Contact wire (goes out of stem)
  9. Cap (sleeve)
  10. Insulation (vitrite)
  11. Electrical contact
.Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used.^ Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are many other better ways of heating a living space than using electrical resistance heating.
  • Please don’t use incandescent bulbs for heating « Climate Progress 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Any corresponding tool used to hold electrical contacts 134 a , 134 b in the configuration of FIG. 11A could then be withdrawn.
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Large lamps may have a screw base (one or more contacts at the tip, one at the shell) or a bayonet base (one or more contacts on the base, shell used as a contact or used only as a mechanical support).^ Use only with portable table lamps in which ...
  • China Incandescent Light, Incandescent Light Catalog, China Incandescent Light Manufacturers 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.made-in-china.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used, such as a screw base (one or more contacts at the tip, one at the shell), a bayonet base (one or more contacts on the base, shell used as a contact or only used as a mechanical support), and for some lamps an electrical contact at either end of a tubular lamp.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Only one, but it really gets screwed.
  • Funny2 - Light Bulb Jokes 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.funny2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Light Bulb Jokes | Funtasticus.com Humor & Fun Blog 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.funtasticus.com [Source type: General]

.Some tubular lamps have an electrical contact at either end.^ Some tubular lamps have an electrical contact at either end.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used, such as a screw base (one or more contacts at the tip, one at the shell), a bayonet base (one or more contacts on the base, shell used as a contact or only used as a mechanical support), and for some lamps an electrical contact at either end of a tubular lamp.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Miniature lamps may have a wedge base and wire contacts, and some automotive and special purpose lamps have screw terminals for connection to wires.^ Some lamps may take a special bulb.
  • Light Bulb Ideas ~ Chris Pirillo 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Special lamp bases .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Miniature lamps may have a wedge base and wire contacts, and some automotive and special purpose lamps have screw terminals for connection to wires.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Contacts in the lamp socket allow the electric current to pass through the base to the filament.^ Inside of the bulb is a filament of tungsten wire, through which an electrical current is passed.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An electric current passes through a thin filament , heating it and causing it to emit light.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Contacts in the lamp socket allow the electrical current to pass through the base to the filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Power ratings for incandescent light bulbs range from about 0.1 watt to about 10,000 watts.^ Comparable to a 55 watt light bulb.
  • General Bulb led lights 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ledlight.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent including halogen light bulbs .
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparable to a 200 Watt light bulb.
  • General Bulb led lights 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ledlight.com [Source type: General]

.The glass bulb of a general service lamp can reach temperatures between 200 and 260 degrees Celsius (400 to 550 degrees Fahrenheit).^ The filament's temperature is very high, generally over 2000 degrees Celsius, or generally over 3600 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glass bulb of a general service lamp can reach temperatures between 400 and 550 degrees Fahrenheit (200 to 260 degrees Celsius).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamp base temperature must be kept below 200 degrees C. .
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lamps intended for high power operation or used for heating purposes will have envelopes made of hard glass or fused quartz.^ Lamps intended for high power operation or used for heating purposes will have envelopes made of hard glass or fused quartz.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He used a complicated method of connection, the filament was connected to spiralled platinum wires which were fused into glass tubes.
  • Light bulbs - The Incandescent Lamp, 1800 to 1900 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.debook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't use a heat lamp for keeping my puppies warm, I use a heating pad specifically made for the job.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Manufacturing

Early lamps were laboriously hand-assembled; cost of lamps fell after automatic machinery was developed.
.In manufacturing the glass bulb, a type of "ribbon machine" is used.^ Now the government wants to tell me what type of light bulb I can use.
  • Incandescent Light Bulb Ban in 2012 | Zillow Blog - Real Estate Market Stats, Celebrity Real Estate, and Zillow News 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

^ After this, break out the small glass tube, and then break the inside tube *very carefully* using a screwdriver since it’s easy to destroy the whole bulb.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ Comparing and contrasting the differences and advantages of using one type of bulb over another is the only way to know for sure which is best and most cost efficient.
  • Light Bulbs Information | Business.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.A continuous ribbon of glass is passed along a conveyer belt, heated in a furnace, and then blown by precisely aligned air nozzles through holes in the conveyer belt into molds.^ Photons from the daylight spot bulb provides a focused beam of heat and light that pass through the glass heating the opposing surface, creating a direct basking spot for reptile.

^ Heat is added to the house through the furnace, hot water pipes, cooking appliances, light bulbs, people, etc.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ Photons from the daylight bulb pass through the glass heating the opposing surface allowing the reptile to bask in its warmth.

.Thus the glass bulbs are created.^ Photons from the daylight spot bulb provides a focused beam of heat and light that pass through the glass heating the opposing surface, creating a direct basking spot for reptile.

^ As for the dust being a “respiratory irritant”, I think they are talking about the tiny shards of glass created by pulverizing the glass itself, not the powder in the bulbs.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

.After the bulbs are blown, and cooled, they are cut off of the ribbon machine.^ Museums and galleries don't use the fluorescent bulbs as a common practice because they give off a high amount of UV rays which are harmful.
  • Recently at Reason.tv: Light Bulbs vs. The Nanny State - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

^ After five minutes or so of taking pictures and examining the light for myself, I turned off the lights and removed each bulb, intending to see how warm they got in the process.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ If you'll notice, most bulbs fail when turned on, not in the middle of operation, or when they are turned off.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A machine of this sort may be able to produce 50,000 bulbs per hour.^ The WDM bulbs are rated for 50,000-100,000 hours of use.

^ Each bulb is 120 volts and rated for 50,000 hours.

^ A 100 W bulb for 120 V systems, produces 17.5 lumens per watt, compared to a theoretical "ideal" of 242.5 lumens per watt for white light.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[43]

Filament

.The first successful light bulb filaments were made of carbon (from carbonized paper or bamboo).^ I made a light bulb inside a light bulb :) REPLY .
  • Light bulb snow globes 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Inert fill gas replacing the vacuum inside the bulb, tungsten filaments swapped in for carbon ones, and the coil design were all tweaks made by the early 1900s.
  • Let’s Ban the Light Bulb Confusion — The Green Grok 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.nicholas.duke.edu [Source type: General]

^ In a suit filed by rivals seeking to get around Edison's lightbulb patent, the German-American inventor Heinrich Göbel claimed he had developed the first light bulb in 1854: a carbonized bamboo filament, in a vacuum bottle to prevent oxidation, and that in the following five years he developed what many call the first practical light bulb.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Early carbon filaments had a negative temperature coefficient of resistance - as they got hotter, their electrical resistance decreased.^ The actual resistance of the filament is temperature dependent.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unfortunately, tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvins).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unfortunately, tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid (below 3683 kelvin).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.This made the lamp sensitive to fluctuations in the power supply, since a small increase of voltage would cause the filament to heat up, reducing its resistance and causing it to draw even more power and heat even further.^ Incandescent lamps are very sensitive to changes in the supply voltage.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For a supply voltage V , Light output is approximately proportional to V 3.4 Power consumption is approximately proportional to V 1.6 Lifetime is approximately inversely proportional to V 16 Color temperature is approximately proportional to V 0.42 This means that 5% reduction in operating voltage will double the life of the bulb, at the expense of reducing its light output by 20%.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bulbs heat up and then cold drafts hit the bulbs (unlikely) f) Condensation on a bulb causes thermal stress when dry parts of the bulb get hot (not especially likely).
  • Trouble Shooting the Simple Light Bulb - InterNACHI Message Board 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.nachi.org [Source type: General]

.In the "flashing" process, carbon filaments were heated by current passing through them, while in an evacuated vessel containing hydrocarbon (gasoline) vapor.^ An electric current passes through a thin filament , heating it and causing it to emit light.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An electrical current passes through a thin filament , heating it until it produces light.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a platinum coil in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The carbon deposited by this treatment improved the uniformity and strength of filaments, and their efficiency.^ Since that time, the incandescent lamp has been improved by using tantalum and later tungsten filaments, which evaporate more slowly than carbon.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1936 the coiled-coil filament was introduced which further improved the efficiency of lamps.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Twice as efficient as carbon filament lamps, Nernst lamps were briefly popular until overtaken by lamps using metal filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.A metallized or graphitized filament was first heated in a high-temperature oven before flashing and lamp assembly; this transformed the carbon into graphite, which further strengthened and smoothed the filament, and as a byproduct had the advantage of changing the lamp to a positive temperature coefficient like a metallic conductor.^ Like most metals, tungsten has a positive temperature coefficient of resistance, so resistance increases with higher temperatures.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Air oxidizes the filament at high temperatures.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This helped stabilize power consumption, temperature and light output against minor variations in supply voltage.^ And that power consumption is roughly proportional to voltage to the 1.4 to 1.55 power, and that light output is roughly proportional to the 3.1 to 3.4 power of applied voltage.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Voltage, light output, and lifetime .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For a supply voltage V , Light output is approximately proportional to V 3.4 Power consumption is approximately proportional to V 1.6 Lifetime is approximately inversely proportional to V 16 Color temperature is approximately proportional to V 0.42 This means that 5% reduction in operating voltage will double the life of the bulb, at the expense of reducing its light output by 20%.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1902 the Siemens company developed a tantalum lamp filament.^ Since that time, the incandescent lamp has been improved by using tantalum and later tungsten filaments, which evaporate more slowly than carbon.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These lamps were more efficient than even graphitized carbon filaments and could operate at higher temperatures.^ These lamps can operate at a higher filament temperature without unacceptable loss of life, giving them a higher luminous efficiency.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The filament can be operated at a higher temperature with a fill gas than with a vacuum.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is not offset by the advantage of operating the filament at a higher temperature, then the bulb is more efficient with a vacuum.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the metal had a lower resistivity than carbon, the tantalum lamp filament was quite long and required multiple internal supports.^ It was a metal-coated carbon filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cold resistance is much lower than the resistance when the lamp is lit.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another trade-off between efficiency and long life.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The metal filament had the property of gradually shortening in use; the filaments were installed with large loops which tightened in use.^ The downside is these bulbs are not as efficient as regular mercury vapor lamps because they use the resistive properties of the large filaments as a ballast, and worse of all these bulbs are very expensive, around $100 plus or minus $30.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twice as efficient as carbon filament lamps, Nernst lamps were briefly popular until overtaken by lamps using metal filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.This made lamps in use for several hundred hours quite fragile.^ Theatrical, photographic, and projection lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours, trading life expectancy for high output in a compact form.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Small but important improvements have been made over the years, and considering the minimal cost of a typical 75W lamp, they are quite remarkable value for money.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lamps intended for high power operation or used for heating purposes will have envelopes made of hard glass or fused quartz.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[44] .Metal filaments had the property of breaking and re-welding, though this would usually decrease resistance and shorten the life of the filament.^ Overall resistance would not change much, but lifespan would be severely hampered, sinch the filament now has a week spot.
  • DailyTech - New Laser Treatment Could Make Incandescent Bulbs as Efficient as Fluorescent 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ You’re right – the lamp would much sooner break or become unfashionable before the lightbulb burns out.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ You’re right – the lamp would much sooner break or become unfashionable before the lightbulb burns out.” .
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

General Electric bought the rights to use tantalum filaments and produced them in the United States until 1913.[45]
.From 1898 to around 1905 osmium was also used as a lamp filament in Europe, but the metal was so expensive that used broken lamps could be returned for part credit.^ In the 1890s the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wiring, and then osmium , and produced an operative version in 1898.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the 1890s, the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wiring, and then osmium , and produced an operative version in 1898.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The SMPS used in LED lamps has around the same power factor as typical CFLs, so the peak current drawn will be of a similar order.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

[46] .It could not be made for 110 V or 220 V so several lamps were wired in series for use on standard voltage circuits.^ To use LED lamps with a dimmer, at least one incandescent lamp must remain in the circuit.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the time we are concerned with how much amperage is being used by a lamp, not how much resistance it places in the circuit.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, the inverter could be used as-is with the addition of a voltage tripler.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1906 the tungsten filament was introduced, which is still used.^ In 1906, the General Electric Company was the first to patent a method of making tungsten filaments for use in incandescent light bulbs.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since that time, the incandescent lamp has been improved by using tantalum and later tungsten filaments, which evaporate more slowly than carbon.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By using a halogen (typically either iodine or bromine gas), an interesting phenomenon occurs - the halogen causes vaporised tungsten to be re-deposited on the filament.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tungsten metal was initially not available in a form that allowed it to be drawn into fine wires.^ Suitable initiatives should be put into place immediately, if not sooner, and should be mandatory for all forms of fluorescent lamp.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like the diode-based ones, they are available in a form that is built into caps that one could stick onto the tip of the base of a light bulb.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Filaments made from sintered tungsten powder were quite fragile.^ Sintered tungsten filaments were costly, but by 1910 William David Coolidge (1873–1975) had invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Very long filaments for high voltages are fragile, and lamp bases become more difficult to insulate so lamps with rated voltages over 300 V are not made.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nowadays, incandescent lamps are still made with tungsten filaments.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1910, a process was developed by William D. Coolidge at General Electric for production of a ductile form of tungsten.^ Tungsten filaments were costly, but by 1910 William David Coolidge (1873–1975) had invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1906, the General Electric Company was the first to patent a method of making tungsten filaments for use in incandescent light bulbs.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The filaments were costly, but by 1910 William David Coolidge (1873–1975) had invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The process required pressing chemically produced tungsten powder into bars, then several steps of sintering, swaging, and then wire drawing.^ However, they contain FAR less mercury than is emitted into the atmosphere by power plants producing the extra power required by incandescents.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The halogen is chemically reactive, and combines with this tungsten deposit on the glass to produce tungsten halides, which evaporate fairly easily.
  • The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was found that very pure tungsten formed filaments that sagged in use, and that a very small "doping" treatment with potassium, silicon, and aluminum oxides at the level of a few hundred parts per million, greatly improved the life and durability of the tungsten filaments.^ Tungsten filaments were costly, but by 1910 William David Coolidge (1873–1975) had invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this, break out the small glass tube, and then break the inside tube *very carefully* using a screwdriver since it’s easy to destroy the whole bulb.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ Very small bulbs are often used for Christmas lighting The incandescent light bulb (also spelled lightbulb ) or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[30]
.To improve the efficiency of the lamp, the filament usually consists of coils of coiled fine wire, also known as a 'coiled coil.'^ To improve the efficacy of the lamp, the filament usually consists of coils of fine wire, also known as a 'coiled coil'.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1936 the coiled-coil filament was introduced which further improved the efficiency of lamps.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To improve the efficacy of the lamp, the filament usually consists of coils of fine wire.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.For a 60-watt 120-volt lamp, the uncoiled length of the tungsten filament is usually 22.8 inches or 580 mm [29], and the filament diameter is 0.0018 inches (0.045 mm).^ For a 60 watt 120-volt lamp, the uncoiled length of the filament is usually 22.8 inches or 580 mm [17] and the filament diameter is 0.0018 inches (0.045 mm).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For a 60 watt 120-volt lamp, the length of the filament is usually 6.5 feet or 2 meters.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a 60 watt 120-volt lamp, the length of the filament is usually 2 meters or 6.5 feet.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The advantage of the coiled coil is that evaporation of the tungsten filament is at the rate of a tungsten cylinder having a diameter equal to that of the coiled coil.^ During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the lamp operates the tungsten filament becomes thinner due to evaporation and it eventually breaks.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a regular incandescent bulb, the tungsten filament evaporates, and over time the inside of the bulb is coated with a fine coat of tungsten from condensed tungsten vapor.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coiled-coil filament evaporates more slowly than a straight filament of the same surface area and light-emitting power.^ I don’t have any lights that are on for more than about 8, ever.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ The same Vita-Lite tube from a lighting supplier is about $7, and the Chroma 75 I have obtained for less than $5.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plus you are paying more for lighting than you have to......then may have to pay for some extra cooling.
  • Trouble Shooting the Simple Light Bulb - InterNACHI Message Board 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.nachi.org [Source type: General]

.If the filament is then run hotter to bring back evaporation to the same rate, the resulting filament is a more efficient light source.^ During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I absolutely hate those energy efficient bulbs – the light they cast is hash and dim at the same time.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ As known in the art, fluorescent light bulbs generally are more energy-efficient than conventional incandescent light bulbs.
  • Methods for converting incandescent lighting products to fluorescent lighting products - Patent 7316499 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.There are several different shapes of filament used in lamps, with differing characteristics.^ The test used to determine whether or not a lamp is a hazardous waste is the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, TCLP .
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Factor With any AC load, there are two things that can influence the power factor (the difference between the actual power used, and the volts and amps (VA) drawn from the mains).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 11th, 2009 There is a website with bulbs from several different manufacturers for several different applications — ledlight.com the bulbs are fairly affordable, and listed at around 60,000hrs .
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

Manufacturers designate the types with codes such as C-6, CC-6, C-2V, CC-2V, C-8, CC-88, C-2F, CC-2F, C-Bar, C-Bar-6, C-8I, C-2R, CC-2R, and Axial.
Filament of a 200 watt incandescent lightbulb highly magnified
Filament of a burnt-out 50 watt incandescent lightbulb in an SEM in stereoscopic mode, presented as an anaglyph image.
Filament of a 50 watt incandescent lightbulb in an SEM in stereoscopic mode, presented as an anaglyph image.
.Electrical filaments are also used in hot cathodes of fluorescent lamps and vacuum tubes as a source of electrons or in vacuum tubes to heat an electron-emitting electrode.^ A hot lamp filament is very fragile.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a platinum coil in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

Reducing filament evaporation

.One of the problems of the standard electric light bulb is evaporation of the filament.^ No one is advocating electric light bulb home heating.
  • Please don’t use incandescent bulbs for heating « Climate Progress 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ One of the major problems of the standard electric light bulb is evaporation of the filament.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the problems of the standard electric light bulb is evaporation of the filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Small variations in resistivity along the filament cause "hot spots" to form at points of higher resistivity [30]; a variation of diameter of only 1% will cause a 25% reduction in service life.^ The largest problem is that the inevitable variations in resistivity along the filament cause non-uniform heating, with "hot spots" forming at points of higher resistivity.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small variations in resistivity along the filament cause "hot spots" to form at points of higher resistivity; a variation of diameter of only 1% will cause a 25% reduction in service life [18] .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The inevitable variations in resistivity along the filament cause nonuniform heating, with "hot spots" forming at points of higher resistivity.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

[29] .The hot spots evaporate faster than the rest of the filament, increasing resistance at that point—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistance faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistivity faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The hot spots evaporate faster than the rest of the filament, increasing resistance at that point—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Irving Langmuir found that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation.^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Irving Langmuir found that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs over about 25 watts in rating are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.General service incandescent light bulbs over about 25 watts in rating are now filled with a mixture of mostly argon and some nitrogen,[47] or sometimes krypton.^ Irving Langmuir found that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs over about 25 watts in rating are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Our last bathroom had 8, yes 8, 25 watt incandescent bulbs.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Can the incandescent bulb be improved on now?
  • Let’s Ban the Light Bulb Confusion — The Green Grok 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.nicholas.duke.edu [Source type: General]

[48] .Xenon gas, much more expensive, is used occasionally in small bulbs, such as those for flashlights.^ Spiral CFLs, with its small size, will fit most applications where you currently use incandescent bulbs.
  • Spiral Compact Fluorescent Light CFL Bulbs at greenelectricalsupply.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.greenelectricalsupply.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We carry a wide variety of products, such as Accessories , Dishwashers , Disposals and Dispensers , Electric Ranges , Freezers , Gas Ranges , Hoods , Laundry , Microwave , Misc , Refrigerators , Small Appliances , and much more!
  • Ductless Hood - in Hayward, California From Airport Home Appliance 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.airportappliance.com [Source type: General]

.Since a filament breaking in a gas-filled bulb can form an electric arc which may spread between the terminals and draw very heavy current, intentionally thin lead-in wires or more elaborate protection devices are therefore often used as fuses built into the light bulb.^ These tubes output more (and a lot more) light by drawing more (and a lot more) current.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Light bulbs Break During Use: .
  • Troubleshooting Light Bulbs, Lighting Fixtures, and Lamps 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.arcadianlighting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then come back to me and tell me what kind of light bulbs I may/may not use.
  • Michelle Malkin » Incandescent stupidity: Washington outlaws 100-watt lightbulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

[49] .More nitrogen is used in higher-voltage lamps to reduce the possibility of arcing.^ Xenon arc lamps should not be used beyond their rated service life.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use the one that produces the higher output voltage for a given set of input conditions (drive and pulse rate/width).
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Compared to general service bulbs, for the same power, these bulbs produce far more light, and (more importantly) light at a higher color temperature, at the expense of greatly reduced life (which may be as short as 2 hours for a type P1 lamp).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster.^ During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistance faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistivity faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because of this, the lifetime of a filament lamp is a trade-off between efficiency and longevity.^ Because of this, the lifetime of a filament lamp is a trade-off between efficiency and longevity.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another trade-off between efficiency and long life.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The overall efficiency of a filament lamp is reduced even further by using a dimmer, but there are very few options that provide the versatility offered by the combination ...
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of several hundred to 2,000 hours for lamps used for general illumination.^ The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of 750-1000 hours for ordinary lamps.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lifetime of a filament lamp is a trade-off between efficiency and longevity.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of several hundred hours for lamps used for general illumination; theatrical, photographic, and motion-picture lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Theatrical, photographic, and projection lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours, trading life expectancy for high output in a compact form.^ Theatrical, photographic, and projection lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours, trading life expectancy for high output in a compact form.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of several hundred hours for lamps used for general illumination; theatrical, photographic, and motion-picture lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their life time is 10.000 hours but if you use only few hours a day.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

.Long-life general service lamps have lower efficiency but are used where the cost of changing the lamp is high compared to the value of energy used.^ Long life general service lamps have lower efficiency but are used where the cost of changing the lamp is high compared to the value of energy used.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I’d use them if they cost more over their life.
  • Michelle Malkin » Incandescent stupidity: Washington outlaws 100-watt lightbulbs 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ This high temperature is essential to their long life.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Filament notching describes another phenomenon that limits the life of lamps.^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another trade-off between efficiency and long life.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ LED lamps clearly better then cfl and CFL lamps life is limited to the stocs of philips and osram.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ These lamps can operate at a higher filament temperature without unacceptable loss of life, giving them a higher luminous efficiency.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Lamps operated on direct current develop random stair-step irregularities on the filament surface, reducing the cross section and further increasing heat and evaporation of tungsten at these points.^ As the lamp operates the tungsten filament becomes thinner due to evaporation and it eventually breaks.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistivity faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • Incandescent light bulb - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The hot spots evaporate faster than the rest of the filament, increasing resistance at that point—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In small lamps operated on direct current, lifespan may be cut in half compared to AC operation.^ This may be beneficial when driving small lamps.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The stated lifespan is generally taken as that where 50% of lamps are still working - in other words, half are not still working.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A medium screw base should not carry more than 25 amperes current; this may limit the practical rating of low-voltage lamps.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

Different alloys of tungsten and rhenium can be used to counteract the effect.[50][51]
.If a light bulb envelope leaks, the hot tungsten filament reacts with air, yielding an aerosol of brown tungsten nitride, brown tungsten dioxide, violet-blue tungsten pentoxide, and yellow tungsten trioxide which then deposits on the nearby surfaces or the bulb interior.^ When a light bulb envelope breaks while the lamp is on or if air leaks into the envelope, the hot tungsten filament reacts with the air, yielding an aerosol of brown tungsten nitride , brown tungsten dioxide , violet-blue tungsten pentoxide , and yellow tungsten trioxide which then deposits on the nearby surfaces or the bulb interior.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When a light bulb envelope breaks while the lamp is on or if air leaks into the envelope, the hot tungsten filament reacts with the air, yielding an aerosol of brown tungsten nitride, brown tungsten dioxide, violet-blue tungsten pentoxide, and yellow tungsten trioxide which then deposits on the nearby surfaces or the bulb interior.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

Bulb blackening

.In a conventional lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.^ In a conventional (not halogen) lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a conventional lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.For bulbs that contain a vacuum, the darkening is uniform across the entire surface of the envelope.^ For bulbs that contain a vacuum, the darkening is uniform across the entire surface of the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a conventional (not halogen) lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are evenly diffuse across the surface of the bulb, have a proper color temperature of approximately 3200K and come in three wattages.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope.^ When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now days the glass envelope is back filled with an inert gas like argon.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

.An incandescent lamp which gives 93% or less of its initial light output at 75% of its rated life is regarded as unsatisfactory, when tested according to IEC Publication 60064. Light loss is due to filament evaporation and bulb blackening.^ The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An incandescent lamp bulb and its glowing filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using a voltage less than the rated lamp voltage will increase lamp life but, reduce light output.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Study of the problem of bulb blackening led to the discovery of the Edison effect, thermionic emission and invention of the vacuum tube.^ (Some of Edison's experiments to stop this blackening led to the invention of the electronic vacuum tube.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Some of Edison's experiments to stop this blackening led to the invention of the electronic vacuum tube .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With the help of Charles Stearn, an expert on vacuum pumps, Swan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening in 1878.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.A very small amount of water vapor inside a light bulb can significantly affect lamp darkening.^ Inside the tube is a partial vacuum and a small amount of mercury vapor.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of mercury in a single fluorescent light bulb is small.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marvin Pipkin, an American chemist, in 1924 patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them, and in 1947 patented a process for coating the inside of lamps with silica.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Water vapor dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen at the hot filament.^ The enclosing glass bulb prevents the oxygen in air from reaching the hot filament, which otherwise would be destroyed rapidly by oxidation.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The oxygen attacks the tungsten metal, and the resulting tungsten oxide particles travel to cooler parts of the lamp.^ Metal Halide discharge lamps should only be operated in an enclosed fixture that safely contains all lamp parts in the event of a lamp burst or rupture.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any foreign particles or materials on the bulb surface can cause hot spots on the bulb and result in lamp failure.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metal halide lamps give very good results, but are the most expensive and difficult to obtain of all the HID lamps.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hydrogen from water vapor reduces the oxide, reforming water vapor and continuing this water cycle.[30] .The equivalent of a drop of water distributed over 500,000 lamps will significantly increase darkening.^ It is also worth noting that using an incandescent lamp at a slightly lower voltage than rated will give significantly increased life.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Small amounts of substances such as zirconium are placed within the lamp as a getter to react with any oxygen that may bake out of the lamp components during operation.^ This may be beneficial when driving small lamps.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases you can bend the center contact in the lamp socket out and use the E26 in the E27 socket in base down operation.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, for other uses (such as a single bulb that lights a small room), you may want to wait for next generation LEDs.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

.Some old, high-powered lamps used in theater, projection, searchlight, and lighthouse service with heavy, sturdy filaments contained loose tungsten powder within the envelope.^ Some old, high-powered lamps used in theater, projection, searchlight, and lighthouse service with heavy, sturdy filaments contained loose tungsten powder within the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamps also vary in the number of support wires used for the tungsten filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a conventional (not halogen) lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From time to time, the operator would remove the bulb and shake it, allowing the tungsten powder to scrub off most of the tungsten that had condensed on the interior of the envelope, removing the blackening and brightening the lamp again.^ From time to time, the operator would remove the bulb and shake it, allowing the tungsten powder to scrub off most of the tungsten that had condensed on the interior of the envelope, removing the blackening and brightening the lamp again.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some old, high-powered lamps used in theater, projection, searchlight, and lighthouse service with heavy, sturdy filaments contained loose tungsten powder within the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a light bulb envelope breaks while the lamp is on or if air leaks into the envelope, the hot tungsten filament reacts with the air, yielding an aerosol of brown tungsten nitride, brown tungsten dioxide, violet-blue tungsten pentoxide, and yellow tungsten trioxide which then deposits on the nearby surfaces or the bulb interior.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]

Halogen lamps

.
Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp.
^ The tungsten from this molecule returns to the filament while the halogen returns to the atmosphere inside the bulb.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp Approximately 90%-95% of the power consumed by an incandescent light bulb is emitted as heat , rather than as visible light .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Elmer G. Fridrich, inventor of the Tungsten Halogen Lamp A Short History of the Invention of the Incandescent Light Bulb Light Source Spectra 60W-100W Incandescent light bulb spectra .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

The two ring-shaped structures left and right are filament supports.
.The halogen lamp reduces uneven evaporation of the filament and darkening of the envelope by filling the lamp with a halogen gas at low pressure, rather than an inert gas.^ Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) which is filled with an inert gas to reduce evaporation of the filament and reduce the required strength of the glass.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a halogen lamp uneven evaporation of the filament and darkening of the envelope is reduced by filling the lamp with a halogen gas at low pressure.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Irving Langmuir suggested that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation and still avoid combustion, and so ordinary incandescent light bulbs are now filled with nitrogen , argon , or krypton .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The halogen cycle increases the lifetime of the bulb and prevents its darkening by redepositing tungsten from the inside of the bulb back onto the filament.^ The tungsten from this molecule returns to the filament while the halogen returns to the atmosphere inside the bulb.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By adding a trace amount of a halogen gas (methyl bromide) inside the bulb, a chemical reaction removes the tungsten from the wall of the glass and deposits it back onto the filament, extending the life of the bulb.

^ In a conventional (not halogen) lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The halogen lamp can operate its filament at a higher temperature than a standard gas filled lamp of similar power without loss of operating life.^ The resistance of the filament is higher at the thinner portions which causes the thin areas to be hotter than the thicker parts of the filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This high temperature is essential to their long life (see the section on halogen lamps above).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ive almost filled up a 7-pack of bulbs that advertise long-life, up to 10 years, with bulbs that have died in less than 2 years under typical usage.

Incandescent arc lamps

.A variation of the incandescent lamp did not use a hot wire filament, but instead used an arc struck on a spherical bead electrode to produce heat.^ In an ordinary incandescent lamp, the thickness of the filament may vary slightly.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An incandescent lamp bulb and its glowing filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A hot lamp filament is very fragile.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electrode then became incandescent, with the arc contributing little to the light produced.^ The day white incandescent bulb is coated with rare earth neodymium phosphors produce a brighter, whiter light.

^ I personally (and strongly, FWIW) prefer the sort of light that comes out of incandescent bulbs, and I’m more than happy to pay a little extra for it.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ The light produced by a normal incandescent light-bulb does turn to heat when it strikes an object.
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs - dslreports.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

.Such lamps were used for projection or illumination for scientific instruments such as microscopes.^ Lamps intended for use in optical systems (such as film projectors, microscope illuminators, or theatrical lighting instruments) have bases with alignment features so that the filament is positioned accurately within the optical system.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of several hundred to 2000 hours for lamps used for general illumination.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.These arc lamps ran on relatively low voltages and incorporated tungsten filaments to start ionization within the envelope.^ Lamps designed for low voltages (for example, 12 volts) generally have filaments made of much heavier wire and do not require any additional support wires.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some Xenon arc lamps produce Ozone that is considered toxic at relatively high concentration levels.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some old, high-powered lamps used in theater, projection, searchlight, and lighthouse service with heavy, sturdy filaments contained loose tungsten powder within the envelope.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.They provided the intense concentrated light of an arc lamp but were easier to operate.^ They do not radiate light 360 degrees as CFLs and other fluorescent lamps do.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Xenon arc lamps produce Ozone that is considered toxic at relatively high concentration levels.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For applications requiring a REALLY BRIGHT light, the current GE lighting catalog lists a 10,000 watt carbon arc lamp used for lighthouses.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Developed around 1915, these lamps were displaced by mercury and xenon arc lamps.^ Some Xenon arc lamps produce Ozone that is considered toxic at relatively high concentration levels.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a program should be in place now to deal with standard fluorescent lamps, as these also contain the phosphors and the mercury.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Xenon arc lamps have a high internal pressure.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54][55][56]

Electrical characteristics

.Incandescent lamps are nearly pure resistive loads with a power factor of 1. This means the actual power consumed (in watts) and the apparent power (in volt-amperes) are equal.^ This means the actual power consumed (in watts) and the apparent power (in volt-amperes) are equal.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because incandescent lamps are pure resistance, they have unity power factor.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent lamps are purely resistive loads which means they have a power factor of 1.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The actual resistance of the filament is temperature-dependent.^ The actual resistance of the filament is temperature dependent.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is measured in watts and depends mainly on the resistance of the filament, which in turn depends mainly on the filament's length, thickness and material.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The current heats the filament to an extremely high temperature (typically 2000 K to 3300 K depending on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current passed through).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The cold resistance of tungsten-filament lamps is about 1/15 the hot-filament resistance when the lamp is operating.^ The cold resistance is about 1/15 the resistance when the lamp is lit.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A hot lamp filament is very fragile.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But hot spots evaporate faster, increasing their resistance faster—a positive feedback which ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a 100-watt, 120-volt lamp has a resistance of 144 ohms when lit, but the cold resistance is much lower (about 9.5 ohms) [29][57].^ For example a 100 watt 120 volt lamp will produce about 17.1 lumens per watt.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cold resistance is much lower than the resistance when the lamp is lit.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cold resistance is about 1/15 the resistance when the lamp is lit.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Since incandescent lamps are resistive loads, simple triac dimmers can be used to control brightness.^ Simple SCR based dimmers can be used to control brightness.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since incandescent lamps are resistive loads, simple triac dimmers can be used to control brightness.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electrical contacts may carry a "T" rating symbol indicating that they are designed to control circuits with the high inrush current characteristic of tungsten lamps.^ They also have a high failure rate.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ They provide protection in an electrical circuit.
  • Replacement Light bulbs-Light Bulb and Lamp resource 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical contacts may carry a "T" rating symbol indicating that they are designed to control circuits with the high inrush current characteristic of tungsten lamps.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.For a 100-watt, 120 volt general-service lamp, the current stabilizes in about 0.10 seconds, and the lamp reaches 90% of its full brightness after about 0.13 seconds.^ So as an example a 100 watt bulb would generate 90 watts of heat.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ They take ~ 10 seconds to get up to full brightness.
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs - dslreports.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

^ For example a 100 watt 120 volt lamp will produce about 17.1 lumens per watt.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[29]

Power

Comparison of efficacy by power (120 Volt lamps)[citation needed]
Power (W) Output (lm) Efficacy (lm/W)
5 25 5
15 110 7.3
25 200 8.0
35 350 10.0
40 500 12.5
50 700 14.0
55 800 14.5
60 850 14.2
65 1,000 15.4
70 1,100 15.7
75 1,200 16.0
90 1,450 16.1
95 1,600 16.8
100 1,700 17.0
135 2,350 17.4
150 2,850 19.0
200 3,900 19.5
300 6,200 20.7
.Incandescent light bulbs are usually marketed according to the electrical power consumed.^ Incandescent light bulbs are usually marketed according to the electrical power consumed.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Customer: *whispers* incandescent light bulbs .
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent light bulb .
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is measured in watts and depends mainly on the resistance of the filament, which in turn depends mainly on the filament's length, thickness, and material.^ The actual resistance of the filament is temperature dependent.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is measured in watts and depends mainly on the resistance of the filament, which in turn depends mainly on the filament's length, thickness and material.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For a 60 watt 120-volt lamp, the uncoiled length of the filament is usually 22.8 inches or 580 mm [17] and the filament diameter is 0.0018 inches (0.045 mm).
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.For two bulbs of the same voltage, type, color, and clarity, the higher-powered bulb gives more light.^ For two bulbs of the same voltage, type, colour, and clarity, the higher-powered bulb gives more light.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Compared to general service bulbs, for the same power, these bulbs produce far more light, and (more importantly) light at a higher color temperature, at the expense of greatly reduced life (which may be as short as 2 hours for a type P1 lamp).
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is difficult for the average consumer to predict the light output of a bulb given the power consumed but it can be safely assumed, for two bulbs of the same type, colour, and clarity, that the higher-powered bulb is brighter.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The table shows the approximate typical output, in lumens, of standard incandescent light bulbs at various powers.^ The table shows the approximate typical output, in lumens, of standard incandescent light bulbs at various powers.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Neither does a standard incandescent bulb.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Customer: *whispers* incandescent light bulbs .
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Note that the lumen values for "soft white" bulbs will generally be slightly lower than for standard bulbs at the same power, while clear bulbs will usually emit a slightly brighter light than correspondingly powered standard bulbs.^ Note that the lumen values for "soft white" bulbs will generally be slightly lower than for standard bulbs at the same power, while clear bulbs will usually emit a slightly brighter light than correspondingly-powered standard bulbs.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the compact bulbs create a "soft white" light.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: Government to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ General Service (A) Yellowish-white light emitted in all directions.
  • WikiSlice 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Physical characteristics

Bulb shapes, sizes, and terms

.Incandescent light bulbs come in a range of shapes and sizes.^ Customer: *whispers* incandescent light bulbs .
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent light bulbs .
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Responses to “Incandescent light bulbs” .
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The names of the shapes may be slightly different in some regions.^ Both fluorescent and metal halide bulbs of different sizes/powers may have slightly different efficiencies of conversion of electrical energy into light.
  • Aqua Botanic-light bulb comparison 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.aquabotanic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all make, almost without exception, the same tubes, under different trade names although there are some notable exceptions.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these shapes have a designation consisting of one or more letters followed by one or more numbers, e.g.^ The reasons why goods cost more to manufacture here is that many of these "hidden" costs are no longer hidden in US goods, but are accounted for in the price.

^ Many small aquariums have a small plastic or metal hood that has one or two tube shaped incandescent bulbs.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just took them down and replaced them with new more energy efficient ones even though the lamps were in good shape.
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs - dslreports.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

A55 or PAR38. The letters represent the shape of the bulb. .The numbers represent the maximum diameter, either in eighths of an inch, or in millimetres, depending on the shape and the region.^ They are a roughly 1 inch diameter cylinder with a rounded end, kind of like a test tube so it’s a really great shape if you can get some.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ PAR (Parabolic Aluminised Reflector) lamp sizes are based on the number of units of 1/8 inch that indicates the diameter, so this lamp is 2½ inches in diameter (or 63mm in real measurements).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like all light bulbs, the number represents the diameter of the bulb in 1/8s of an inch.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

For example, 63 mm reflectors are designated R63, but in the U.S. they are known as R20 (2.5 inches). .However, in both regions, a PAR38 reflector is known as PAR38. In Australia an R80 is 1 inch in diameter.^ PAR (Parabolic Aluminised Reflector) lamp sizes are based on the number of units of 1/8 inch that indicates the diameter, so this lamp is 2½ inches in diameter (or 63mm in real measurements).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

Common shapes:
General Service
Light emitted in (nearly) all directions. Available either clear or frosted.
Types: General (A), Mushroom
High Wattage General Service
Lamps greater than 200 watts.
Types: Pear-shaped (PS)
Decorative
lamps used in chandeliers, etc.
Types: candle (B), twisted candle, bent-tip candle (CA & BA), flame (F), fancy round (P), globe (G)
Reflector (R)
Reflective coating inside the bulb directs light forward. Flood types (FL) spread light. Spot types (SP) concentrate the light. Reflector (R) bulbs put approximately double the amount of light (foot-candles) on the front central area as General Service (A) of same wattage.
Types: Standard reflector (R), elliptical reflector (ER), crown-silvered
Parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR)
Parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR) bulbs control light more precisely. They produce about four times the concentrated light intensity of general service (A), and are used in recessed and track lighting. Weatherproof casings are available for outdoor spot and flood fixtures.
120 V sizes: PAR 16, 20, 30, 38, 56 and 64
230 V sizes: Par 38, 56 and 64
Available in numerous spot and flood beam spreads. Like all light bulbs, the number represents the diameter of the bulb in 1/8ths of an inch. Therefore, a PAR 16 is 2" in diameter, a PAR 20 is 2.5" in diameter, PAR 30 is 3.75" and a PAR 38 is 4.75" in diameter.
Multifaceted reflector (MR)
HIR
"HIR" is a .GE designation for a lamp with an infrared reflective coating.^ This reflective coating provides the direction control by reflecting most of the incident light and directing it through the uncoated surface or clear window of the aperture lamp."
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aperture lamps have a 330 or 300 degree reflective coating.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like our Nocturnal Infrared Heat Lamp, the Nightlight Red Reptile bulb is also made of true red glass (not painted or coated) for better heat transfer.

.Since less heat escapes, the filament burns hotter and more efficiently.^ I had more then six of them burn in less then six months.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, less heat escapes, so the filament burns hotter and more efficiently.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each additional support wire makes the filament mechanically stronger, but removes heat from the filament, creating another trade-off between efficiency and long life.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[58] The Osram designation for a similar coating is "IRC".[59]

Lamp bases

40 watt light bulbs with standard E10, E14 and E27 Edison screw base
.Very small lamps may have the filament support wires extended through the base of the lamp, and can be directly soldered to a printed circuit board for connections.^ This may be beneficial when driving small lamps.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lamps also vary in the number of support wires used for the tungsten filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Our old chandeliers, wired with those funky small bases, etc.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some reflector-type lamps include screw terminals for connection of wires.^ The metal screw base could be dissected with some care exposing the connecting wires and the glass insulator can even be left in place is you go slow.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ In most shops, there isn't an incandescent lamp to be seen, although some have small fancy types as might be used in some specialty chandeliers or similar fittings.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some experimentation with the core gap may be needed to optimize performance for a given lamp type and input voltage.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most lamps have metal bases that fit in a socket to support the lamp and conduct current to the filament wires.^ Lamps also vary in the number of support wires used for the tungsten filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Contacts in the lamp socket allow the electrical current to pass through the base to the filament.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most domestic and industrial light bulbs have a metal fitting (or lamp base) compatible with standard sockets.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

In the late 19th century manufacturers introduced a multitude of incompatible lamp bases. .General Electric introduced standard base sizes for tungsten incandescent lamps under the Mazda trademark in 1909. This standard was soon adopted across the United States, and the Mazda name was used by many manufacturers under license through 1945. Today most incandescent lamps for general lighting service use an Edison screw or double contact bayonet base.^ Alternatives to standard incandescent lamps for general lighting purposes include: .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Edison's electric light: biography of an invention .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This standard was soon adopted across the United States, and the Mazda name was used by many manufacturers under license through 1945.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bayonet base lamps are frequently used in automotive lamps to resist loosening due to vibration.^ Bulbs with a bayonet (push-twist) base, for use with sockets having spring-loaded base plates, are produced in similar sizes and are given a B or BA designation.
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that at low dimmer settings the lamp draws more power than the table may indicate (the table is based on a constant resistance).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Large outdoor Christmas lights use an intermediate base, as do some desk lamps and many microwave ovens .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.A bipin base is often used for halogen or reflector lamps.^ PAR (Parabolic Aluminised Reflector) lamp sizes are based on the number of units of 1/8 inch that indicates the diameter, so this lamp is 2½ inches in diameter (or 63mm in real measurements).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Very small bulbs are often used for Christmas lighting The incandescent light bulb (also spelled lightbulb ) or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence .
  • Light Bulb K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nick_L : Incandescent, halogen and xenon can be used for motion based security lighting, accent, the rarely used guest room, closets, etc.
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs - dslreports.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

.Lamp bases may be secured to the bulb with a cement, or by mechanical crimping to indentations molded into the glass bulb.^ They do make these beasts, they are a bit larger than regular bulbs and may not fit in every lamp.
  • U.S. To Phase Out Incandescent Light Bulbs »» MetaEfficient Reviews 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.metaefficient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of this must fit into the base of the lamp itself.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These bulbs (around 250 watts) require no ballast, they just screw into a standard medium base (ie.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The double-contact bayonet cap on an incandescent bulb
.Miniature lamps used for some automotive lamps or decorative lamps have wedge-bases which have a partial plastic or even completely glass base.^ I get another aquarium going I am going to open some up put some LED’s insode reseal them and use them as decorations in an aquarium !!
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ July 1999 Environmental Fact Sheet: Some Used Lamps Are Universal Wastes (PDF) (2 pp, 13K, About PDF ) Basic information about universal wastes Top of Page .
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mycroft I'm all for CFL's, I've been using them for years now, but I also have some lava-lamps from the 70's that require 40 watt incandescent appliance bulbs.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, the wires wrap around to the outside of the bulb, where they press against the contacts in the socket.^ Just wrap some wire around the threads and hang it on a suction cup.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ Light bulbs Sometimes Get Dim and/or Flicker and then Go Out: a) Check for corroded contacts on the bulbs or in the socket.
  • Trouble Shooting the Simple Light Bulb - InterNACHI Message Board 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.nachi.org [Source type: General]

^ If they know where the socket is, they cannot locate the new bulb.
  • Light Bulb Jokes 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC pages.city2000.net [Source type: Original source]

.Miniature Christmas bulbs use a plastic wedge base as well.^ The 120 volt E27 base color changing globe 12 bulb pack can be used in a wide variety of accent and amusement lighting applications.

^ Not all current residential use is incandescent, and people may well replace an incandescent bulb with a "brighter" CFL, to compensate for perceived loss of light quality/"warmth."
  • Recently at Reason.tv: Light Bulbs vs. The Nanny State - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

^ The 120 volt E27 base yellow led bullet 12 bulb pack can be used in a wide variety of accent and amusement lighting applications.

.Lamps intended for use in optical systems (such as film projectors, microscope illuminators, or stage lighting instruments have bases with alignment features so that the filament is positioned accurately within the optical system.^ The availability and the current stock of light fittings heavily influence what types of lamp are being used in the domestic sector.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also use a decorative, auradescent GE crystal clear light bulb (40 watt) for my small tiffany-like touch lamp.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 120 volt E27 base color changing globe 12 bulb pack can be used in a wide variety of accent and amusement lighting applications.

.A screw-base lamp may have a random orientation of the filament when the lamp is installed in the socket.^ I have CFLs installed in my main bedroom (in a 3-lamp fitting), and had to install a small incandescent lamp in one socket to prevent the flashing at night.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairly obviously though, the risk may not be present at the time when the lamp is installed, but can occur at any time thereafter.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Incandescent lamp users also have the option of a Coil Bulb that screws into a standard light socket.

Voltage, light output, and lifetime

.Incandescent lamps are very sensitive to changes in the supply voltage.^ So, for home lighting, the better choice to change lamps (if you still have incandescent bulbs) are fluorescent lights.
  • Coming Soon: A 40-Watt LED Light Bulb - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also worth noting that using an incandescent lamp at a slightly lower voltage than rated will give significantly increased life.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is that no-one seems to disagree that 17.5 lu/W is reasonable for a 100W incandescent lamp, so how did it get changed?
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

These characteristics are of great practical and economic importance.
For a supply voltage V near the rated voltage of the lamp:
  • Light output is approximately proportional to V 3.4
  • Power consumption is approximately proportional to V 1.6
  • Lifetime is approximately proportional to V −16
  • Color temperature is approximately proportional to V 0.42 [60]
.This means that a 5% reduction in operating voltage will more than double the life of the bulb, at the expense of reducing its light output by about 20%.^ I don’t have any lights that are on for more than about 8, ever.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ Operation at around 90% of rated voltage will increase life by a factor of 3, but light output is reduced to about 70% of the normal level [ 9 ].
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, if every household in the United States replaced its next light bulb or fixture with an ENERGY STAR qualified model the country would save more than 8 billion kilowatt hours of energy.

.This may be a very acceptable trade off for a light bulb that is in a difficult-to-access location (for example, traffic lights or fixtures hung from high ceilings).^ Video: The light bulb goes … off .
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ I have a ceiling fixture that I have 4 compact fluorescent light bulbs in.
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs - dslreports.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.broadbandreports.com [Source type: General]

^ The blue 25 bulb pack of E12 candelabra based bulbs will fit in any candelabra based lighting fixture.

."Long-life" bulbs take advantage of this tradeoff.^ Ive almost filled up a 7-pack of bulbs that advertise long-life, up to 10 years, with bulbs that have died in less than 2 years under typical usage.

^ And I have several lamps with non standard fittings that they don’t make long life bulbs for.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Long-life Bulbs Don't Last as Long as Expected: a) Bulb is a junkier off-brand one.
  • Trouble Shooting the Simple Light Bulb - InterNACHI Message Board 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.nachi.org [Source type: General]

.Since the value of the electric power they consume is much more than the value of the lamp, general service lamps emphasize efficiency over long operating life.^ They are worse than incandescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ It had been much more than a year since I replaced the last one.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ And, well, CFLs are much more efficient than incandescents.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.The objective is to minimize the cost of light, not the cost of lamps.^ Small but important improvements have been made over the years, and considering the minimal cost of a typical 75W lamp, they are quite remarkable value for money.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) are an energy efficient and cost effective lighting alternative to traditional incandescent lamps.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.The relationships above are valid for only a few percent change of voltage around rated conditions, but they do indicate that a lamp operated at much lower than rated voltage could last for hundreds of times longer than at rated conditions, albeit with greatly reduced light output.^ They are worse than incandescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ It might last longer, but will it last 50 times longer?
  • Incandescent rage as lights go out on old 100W bulbs | Environment | guardian.co.uk 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I can't remember the last time I changed one.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.The Centennial Light is a light bulb which is accepted by the Guinness Book of World Records as having been burning almost continuously at a fire station in Livermore, California, since 1901. However, the bulb is powered by only 4 watts.^ Maybe your CFL does, when it's burning :-) So power stations are the problem, not light bulbs!

^ Each bulb consumes .5 watts of power.

^ It is after all only a light bulb.
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

.A similar story can be told of a 40-watt bulb in Texas which has been illuminated since September 21, 1908. It once resided in an opera house where notable celebrities stopped to take in its glow, but is now in an area museum.^ I also use a decorative, auradescent GE crystal clear light bulb (40 watt) for my small tiffany-like touch lamp.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why not just replace all incandescent bulbs with these bulbs now, since they’re cheaper over the bulb’s lifetime?
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ Long 40 watt FS-48 $21.00 .

[61]
.In flood lamps used for photographic lighting, the tradeoff is made in the other direction.^ The availability and the current stock of light fittings heavily influence what types of lamp are being used in the domestic sector.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other day I tried to turn on the light in the hallway, a light that gets used maybe 2 minutes a day and I discovered that the CFL bulb was burned out.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Additional electronic flash and other strobe related schematics will be found in the document: " Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics ".
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

.Compared to general-service bulbs, for the same power, these bulbs produce far more light, and (more importantly) light at a higher color temperature, at the expense of greatly reduced life (which may be as short as 2 hours for a type P1 lamp).^ Recommended by: raines , A Siegel , Allamakee Democrat Average life of bulb x wattage = liftime power usage.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ We used CFL lighting and the light was blue which changed the colors in our interior and exterior and conflicted with our incadescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ However, for other uses (such as a single bulb that lights a small room), you may want to wait for next generation LEDs.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

.The upper limit to the temperature at which metal incandescent bulbs can operate is the melting point of the metal.^ It has been pointed out before that the heat from incandescent bulbs makes a significant contribution to the overall warmth of a house.
  • Incandescent rage as lights go out on old 100W bulbs | Environment | guardian.co.uk 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ As long as the CFL manufacturers could point to incandescent bulbs, the competition was not between CFL manufacturers.
  • EU Will Do More Harm Than Good In Banning The Incandescent Bulb | Techdirt 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ As a side issue, quartz is used because ordinary glass would soften or melt at the typical operating temperature of a quartz-halogen lamp.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

Tungsten is the metal with the highest melting point, 3695 K (6192°F). .A 50-hour-life projection bulb, for instance, is designed to operate only 50 °C (90 °F) below that melting point.^ BTW: I know they say incandescent bulbs only last a fraction of the time but as another poster pointed out, when you are looking at 3 hours of on-time a day, 1300 hours is almost 4 years.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ Halogen bulbs have a life of about 2000 hours.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a minimum rated life of 20,000 hours (up to 50,000 hours is also claimed on the pack, 80,000 hours elsewhere on the Net), no CFL can even come close.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such a lamp may achieve up to 22 lumens per watt, compared with 17.5 for a 750-hour general service lamp.^ However, for other uses (such as a single bulb that lights a small room), you may want to wait for next generation LEDs.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ CFL vs GLS Equivalence as a Product Most industry websites claim that the CFL is simply an equivalent product to the GLS (General Lighting Service) incandescent lamp.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using generator knowledge to determine if your lamp is hazardous waste : A generator may also use general knowledge to determine whether or not a lamp is hazardous.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.Lamps designed for different voltages have different luminous efficacy.^ Different lights have different luminous efficacies.
  • The Simple Dollar » The Light Bulb Showdown: LEDs vs. CFLs vs. Incandescent Bulbs – What’s the Best Deal Now … And In The Future? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Lamp Luminous Efficacy Tables So who decided on the "standard" equivalence table?
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition TCP offers its lamps in color temperatures from 3100k to 6500k, different colors, long neck, and different voltages.

.For example, a 100-watt, 120-volt lamp will produce about 17.1 lumens per watt.^ For example, It is about 1.5 lumens each piece LED. .
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ Life’s pleasures are not measured in watts per lumen.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ So as an example a 100 watt bulb would generate 90 watts of heat.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

.A lamp with the same rated lifetime but designed for 230 V would produce only around 12.8 lumens per watt, and a similar lamp designed for 30 volts (train lighting) would produce as much as 19.8 lumens per watt.^ The 7 watt true white led lamp produces 220 lumens of cool white light.

^ The Savi G11 consumes 1.2 watts and produces 30 lumens of blue light.

^ The 7 watt true white led lamp produces 220 lumens of warm white light.

[29] .Lower voltage lamps have a thicker filament, for the same power rating.^ This is one of the main reasons that quartz-halogen lamps last so long (as well as usually having much thicker filaments than conventional high voltage lamps).
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The dimmer works by preventing any voltage from getting to the lamps filament until a certain point is reached, when it switches on.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A power plant will emit 10 milligrams (mg) of mercury to produce the electricity to run an incandescent lamp compared to only 2.4 mg of mercury to run a CFL for the same time.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They can run hotter for the same lifetime before the filament evaporates.
.The wires used to support the filament make it mechanically stronger, but remove heat, creating another tradeoff between efficiency and long life.^ While Cinnamon creates a diversion by wearing a skimpy dress, I use a tiny narcotic dart to knock out the fascist dictator and remove his body.
  • The World's Most Complete Collection of Light Bulb Jokes 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.extremelysmart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the initial purchase of the fixture is made the low cost of operation and long life of the tubes makes fluorescent light very attractive.
  • Artificial Lighting 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If using Romex type cable in between the two locations, make sure to tape or paint the ends of the white wires black to indicate that they may be Hot as required by Code.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

.Many general-service 120-volt lamps use no additional support wires, but lamps designed for "rough service" or "vibration service" may have as many as five.^ The arguments assume that the number of CFLs used is the same as with incandescent lamps, but this may not be the case.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While many CFL packages do state that they should not be used with dimmers, some don't, and others use a rather cryptic symbol (shown above) that users may or may not understand.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Businesses may accumulate and store used lamps for up to one year before sending them to a recycler.
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low-voltage lamps have filaments made of heavier wire and do not require additional support wires.^ SV (Starting Voltage) is the minimum input voltage required to preheat the filaments before the lamp will turn on (current is lower until filaments are hot).
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition TCP offers its lamps in color temperatures from 3100k to 6500k, different colors, long neck, and different voltages.

^ Because LEDs are low voltage devices, the SMPS used to drive them is very easily made to have complete isolation to double-insulated standards.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Very low voltages are inefficient since the lead wires would conduct too much heat away from the filament, so the practical lower limit for incandescent lamps is 1.5 volts.^ Since it is very low power, no heat sink is used in this lamp.
  • Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ: Various Schematics and Diagrams 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.repairfaq.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Filament bulbs can take spikes in voltage and dimming very well.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent lamps are inefficient, typically over 95% of all energy consumed is converted into heat - not light.
  • Ban Incandescent Lamps? 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Very long filaments for high voltages are fragile, and lamp bases become more difficult to insulate, so lamps for illumination are not made with rated voltages over 300 V.[29] Some infrared heating elements are made for higher voltages, but these use tubular bulbs with widely separated terminals.^ Filament bulbs can take spikes in voltage and dimming very well.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Video: The light bulb goes … off 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ Another useful that can be made with a used light bulb ( more ) .
  • TeamDroid | DIY Hollow Out A Light Bulb 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.teamdroid.com [Source type: General]

^ Says: June 18th, 2008 at 2:41 pm Perhaps someone should start selling 40, 75 & 100 W ceiling mounted heating bulbs made in a traditional range of styles and at very low prices.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

Health Issues

.Although some sources claim fluorescent lighting causes more health problems than incandescent lighting (see Light sensitivity and Over-illumination for discussion), more research needs to be done in this field.^ City street lights can cause problems for me.
  • We need to remove this access barrier before it gets put up. (Incandescent lighting ban in California.) - Ballastexistenz 22 September 2009 21:20 UTC ballastexistenz.autistics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They produce much more light than two incandescent lights.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I did not see any mention of fluorescent lights as a cause, this is not to say that they are not causing your problem.
  • U.S. To Phase Out Incandescent Light Bulbs »» MetaEfficient Reviews 25 September 2009 14:13 UTC www.metaefficient.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the European Commission Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) in 2008, the only property of compact fluorescent lamps that could pose an added health risk is the ultraviolet and blue light emitted by such devices.^ Only 7% of the energy compact fluorescents use generate light.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ What are compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs)?
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are compact fluorescent light bulbs?
  • Mercury-Containing Light Bulb Frequent Questions | Universal Waste | US EPA 9 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The worst that can happen is that this radiation could aggravate symptoms in people who already suffer rare skin conditions that make them exceptionally sensitive to light.^ Sure some will argue that people will make bad choices and ignore the savings from more efficient light bulbs.
  • Incandescent light bulbs | Kiwiblog 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ But for earthy holistic spiritually sensitive people,( and really the majority of people period hate Florescent lighting!
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ (The closer the light gets to true daylight, however, the better for those who suffer from Seasonal Affective Disorder.
  • Recently at Reason.tv: Light Bulbs vs. The Nanny State - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

.They also stated that more research is needed to establish whether compact fluorescent lamps constitute any higher risk than incandescent lamps.^ They are worse than incandescent lamps.
  • Incandescent vs. CFL vs. LED Light Bulb Challenge | productdose.com 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC www.productdose.com [Source type: General]

^ They produce much more light than two incandescent lights.
  • How to get rid of the incandescent light bulb | DVICE 17 January 2010 2:43 UTC dvice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) offer great opportunities for savings.

[62]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]Damerow, Gail "Storey's guide to raising chickens," Storey Publishing, LLC; 2nd edition (January 12, 1995), ISBN 978-1580173254. page 221. Retrieved November 10, 2009
  2. ^ [2]Cooper,Paulette "277 Secrets Your Snake and Lizard Wants you to Know Unusual and useful Information for Snake Owners & Snake Lovers," Ten Speed Press (March 1, 2004), ISBN 978-1580080354. Page 161. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  3. ^ [3] "It's lights out for traditional light bulbs" http://www.wnd.com
  4. ^ Friedel, Robert, and Paul Israel. 1986. Edison's electric light: biography of an invention. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. pages 115–117
  5. ^ Hughes, Thomas P. 1977. Edison's method. In Technology at the Turning Point, edited by W. B. Pickett. San Francisco: San Francisco Press Inc., 5–22.
  6. ^ Hughes, Thomas P. 2004. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm. 2nd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
  7. ^ Josephson, Matthew (1959). Edison: a biography. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0471548065. 
  8. ^ Davis, L.J. "Fleet Fire." Arcade Publishing, New York, 2003. ISBN 1-55970-655-4
  9. ^ Houston and Kennely 1896, chapter 2
  10. ^ "The History Of The Light Bulb". Net Guides Publishing, Inc.. 2004. http://www.thehistoryof.net/the-history-of-the-light-bulb.html. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  11. ^ "The History of the light bulb". IN-VSEE. http://invsee.asu.edu/Modules/lightbulb/meathist.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  12. ^ Houston and Kennely 1896, page 24
  13. ^ Charles D. Wrege J.W. Starr: Cincinnati's Forgotten Genius, Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 34 (Summer 1976): 102-120., retrieved 2010 Feb 16
  14. ^ T.K. Derry &, Trevor Williams (1960). A Short History of Technology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0486274721. 
  15. ^ http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/starr.html John Wellington Starr, retrieved 2010 Feb 16
  16. ^ Many of the above lamps are illustrated and described in Edwin J. Houston and A. E. Kennely Electric Incandescent Lighting, The W. J. Johnston Company, New York, 1896 pages 18–42. Available from the Internet Archive.
  17. ^ (1882) A new incandescent light. The New York Times. April 30, Page 2
  18. ^ a b Fouché, Rayvon, Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer, and Shelby J. Davidson.) (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London, 2003, pp.115–116. ISBN 0-8018-7319-3
  19. ^ http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/summer/scor/articles/scor18.htm The Canadian Electric Light, by Nigel Bunce and Jim Hunt, retrieved October 20, 2008
  20. ^ http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/evans.html Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans Lamp retrieved 2010 Feb 16
  21. ^ a b Swan K R Sir Joseph Swan and the Invention of the Incandescent Electric Lamp. 1946 Longmans, Green and Co. Pp 21–25.
  22. ^ [4] "Lamp Inventors 1880-1940: Carbon Filament Incandescent" Smithsonian National Museum of American History. retrieved February 6, 2008
  23. ^ R.C. Chirnside. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS – The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne 1979.
  24. ^ Paul Israel, Edison: a Life of Invention, Wiley (1998), page 186.
  25. ^ a b U.S. Patent 0,223,898 granted January 27, 1880
  26. ^ D'Oyly Carte Opera Company website, on Patience accessed March 1, 2007
  27. ^ "The History of Tungsram" (PDF). http://www.tungsram.hu/tungsram/downloads/tungsram/tu_short_history_1896-1996.pdf. 
  28. ^ http://energyhistory.energosolar.com/en_20th_century_electric_history.htm
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Incandescent Lamps, Publication Number TP-110, General Electric Company, Nela Park, Cleveland, OH (1964) pg. 3
  30. ^ a b c d Raymond Kane, Heinz Sell Revolution in lamps: a chronicle of 50 years of progress (2nd ed.), The Fairmont Press, Inc. 2001 ISBN 0881733784 page 37, table 2-1
  31. ^ IEEE Std. 100 definition of "luminous efficacy" pg. 647
  32. ^ a b c Keefe, T.J. (2007). "The Nature of Light". http://www.ccri.edu/physics/keefe/light.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  33. ^ a b Klipstein, Donald L. (1996). "The Great Internet Light Bulb Book, Part I". http://freespace.virgin.net/tom.baldwin/bulbguide.html. Retrieved 2006-04-16. 
  34. ^ a b Black body visible spectrum
  35. ^ See luminosity function.
  36. ^ Prof. Peter Lund, Helsinki University of Technology,[5] on p. C5 in Helsingin Sanomat Oct. 23, 2007.
  37. ^ Daley, Dan (February 2008). "Incandescent's Not-So-Dim Future". Projection Lights and Staging News (PLSN) (Timeless Communications Corp.) 09 (1): pp. 46. 
  38. ^ GE Announces Advancement in Incandescent Technology; New High-Efficiency Lamps Targeted for Market by 2010
  39. ^ "Proposed Bulb Ban Causes Chain Reaction". Projection Lights and Staging News (PLSN) Online. January 2008. http://www.plsn.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1606&Itemid=41. 
  40. ^ Daley, Dan (February 2008). "Incandescent's Not-So-Dim Future". Projection Lights and Staging News (PLSN) (Timeless Communications Corp.) 09 (1): pp. 46. 
  41. ^ Editorial note later added to July 7, 2003 press release
  42. ^ Broydo Vestel, Leora (July 6, 2009). "Incandescent Bulbs Return to the Cutting Edge". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/06/business/energy-environment/06bulbs.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  43. ^ http://www.enotes.com/how-products-encyclopedia/light-bulb
  44. ^ I. C. S. Reference Library Volume 4B, Scranton, International Textbook Company, 1908, no ISBN
  45. ^ http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/IN%20TA%20GE%2025W.htm
  46. ^ http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/osmium.html
  47. ^ John Kaufman (ed.), IES Lighting Handbook 1981 Reference Volume, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 1981 ISBN 0-87995-007-2 page 8-6
  48. ^ Burgin. Lighting Research and Technology 1984 16.2 61–72
  49. ^ Robert, Hunt (2001–2006). "Glass Blowing for Vacuum Devices - Lamp Autopsy". Teralab. http://www.teralab.co.uk/Glass_Blowing/Lamp_Autopsy/Lamp_Autopsy_Page1.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  50. ^ Toshiba Lighting Products Miniature Lamp Characteristics, retrieved 23 March 2008
  51. ^ John Kaufman (ed.), IES Lighting Handbook 1981 Reference Volume, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 1981 ISBN 0-87995-007-2 page 8-9
  52. ^ IEC 60064 Tungsten filament lamps for domestic and similar general lighting purposes.
  53. ^ John Kaufman (ed.), IES Lighting Handbook 1981 Reference Volume, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 1981 ISBN 0-87995-007-2 page 8-10
  54. ^ http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Miscellaneous.htm Incandescent arc lamps retrieved June 16, 2008
  55. ^ G. Arncliffe Percival, The Electric Lamp Industry, Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd. London, 1920 pp. 73–74, available from the Internet Archive
  56. ^ S. G. Starling, An Introduction to Technical Electricity', McMillan and Co., Ltd., London 1920, pp. 97–98, available at the Internet Archive, good schematic diagram of the Pointolite lamp
  57. ^ Edison's research team was aware of the large negative temperature coefficient of resistance of possible lamp filament materials and worked extensively during the period 1878–1879 on devising an automatic regulator or ballast to stabilize current. It wasn't until 1879 that it was realized a self-limiting lamp could be built. See Friedel and Israel Edison's Electric Light pages 29–31
  58. ^ Lighting Glossary
  59. ^ Osram IRC Saver calculator
  60. ^ Donald G. Fink and H. Wayne Beaty, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Eleventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978, ISBN 0-07020974-X, pg 22-8
  61. ^ Magazine Online
  62. ^ "Energy-Saving Lamps & Health". GreenFacts Website. http://copublications.greenfacts.org/en/energy-saving-lamps/index.htm. Retrieved Jan 20, 2010. 

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Incandescent light bulb, which are similar to those in the above article.








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