Independence: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A personification of independence as represented by a statue in The American Adventure in the World Showcase pavilion of Walt Disney World's Epcot.

Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, or some portion thereof, generally exercising sovereignty.

The term independence is used in contrast to subjugation, which refers to a region as a "territory" —subject to the political and military control of an external government. The word is sometimes used in a weaker sense to contrast with hegemony, the indirect control of one nation by another, more powerful nation.


Independence can be the initial status of an emerging nation (often filling a political void), but is often an emancipation from some dominating power. It can be argued that independence is a negative definition: the state of not being controlled by another power through colonialism, expansionism or imperialism. Independence may be obtained by decolonization, or by separation or dissolution.

Although the last three can often coincide with it, they are not to be confused with revolution, which typically refers to the violent overthrow of a ruling authority. This sometimes only aims to redistribute power—with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratizationwithin a state, which as such may remain unaltered. The Russian October Revolution, for example, was not intended to seek national independence; the United States Revolutionary War, however, was.

Autonomy (in slight contrast) refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution). A protectorate refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region. The dates of established independence (or, to a lesser degree, the commencement of revolution), are typically celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day.

Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence, the earliest surviving example being Scotland's Declaration of Arbroath, and the most recent example being Abkhazia's Act of State Independence. Another example is the U.S. Declaration of Independence issued in 1776.

Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many. Disillusionment rising from the establishment is a cause widely used in separatist movements, but it is usually severe economic difficulties that trigger these groups into action. The means can extend from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian independence movement, to a violent civil war.

See also

Article note

The dates of independence, as they have been ported into many articles from the CIA World Factbook are defined as follows:

For most countries, [the given date is that] when sovereignty was achieved...For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or fundamental change in the form of government, such as state succession.

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place named Independence:

United States of America

This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

INDEPENDENCE, a city and the county-seat of Jackson county, Missouri, U.S.A., 3 m. S. of the Missouri river and 10 M. E. of Kansas City. Pop. (1890) 6380, (1900) 6974, of whom 937 were negroes. The city is served by the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago & Alton, and the Kansas City Southern railways, and by an electric line and fine boulevard to Kansas City. It is situated about b000 ft. above the sea, and is surrounded by a fertile agricultural district. The city has a small public square (surrounding the court-house) and a public library, and is the seat of St Mary's Academy, under the control of the Sisters of Mercy. Among its manufactures are farming implements, flour and lumber. The municipality owns its electric lighting plant. Independence was laid out as a town and chosen as the county-seat in 1827, first chartered as a city in 1849 and made a city of the third-class in 1889. About 1500 Mormons, attracted by the "revelation" that this was to be a Zion, settled in and about Independence in 1831 and 1832. They contemplated building their chief temple about z m. W. of the site of the present court house, but in 1833 (partly because they invited free negroes to join them) were expelled by the "gentile" inhabitants of Independence. In 1867 a settlement of about 150 Hedrickites, or members of the "Church of Jesus Christ" (organized in Illinois in 1835), came here and secretly bought up parts of the "Temple Lot." The heirs of the settlers of1831-1832conveyed the lot by deed to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (with headquarters at Lamoni, Iowa), which brought suit against the Hedrickites, but in 1894 the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decided the case on the ground of laches in favour of the Hedrickites, who fifteen years afterwards had nearly died out. In1867-1869a few families belonging to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (monogamists) settled in Independence, and in 1908 their church here had about 2000 members. Besides a large church building, they have here a printing establishment, from which is issued the weekly Zion's Ensign (founded in 1891), and the "Independence Sanitarium" (completed in 1908). The faithful Mormons still look to Independence as the Zion of the church. In 1907 a number of Mormons from Utah settled here, moving the headquarters of the "Central States' Mission" from Kansas City to Independence, and founded a periodical called Liahona, the Elder's Journal. From about 1831 to 1844, when its river landing was destroyed by flood, Independence was the headquarters and outfitting point of the extensive caravan trains for the Santa Fe, Oregon and Old Salt Lake trails. During the Civil War about 300 Federals under Lieut.-Colonel D.H.Buel, occupying the town, were captured on the 16th of August 1862 by Colonel Hughes in command of 150o Confederates, and on the 22nd of October 1864 a part of General Sterling Price's These isomers are called isindazoles, and may Confederate army was defeated a few miles E. of Independence by General Alfred Pleasonton.


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Simple English

The word independence means "not having to depend on anyone or anything else". It also means to "be strong and be able to survive alone". The word is usually used in a good way.

Anything can be independent. When people talk about independence, it is usually about people, countries, or different areas of science.

A country gets its independence when it is no longer part of another country. Sometimes countries get their independence in a war, like when the United States beat Britain in the American War of Independence. Countries can also get their independence peacefully, like Canada did. Help from another country may be needed to get independence, like in World War II, when the allies (especially the United States, Canada, Britain and the Soviet Union) freed many countries that had been controlled by armies of Nazi Germany, Italy and Japan.

Singapore gained independence from Malaysia in 1965. The newest country to get its independence was Montenegro. In June, 2006 it became independent from Serbia and Montenegro. This was done by a peaceful vote, although many other countries in the area fought wars. Other countries that became independent not long ago are East Timor (also called Timor-Leste) in 2002, Eritrea (1993), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992). However, some countries have political parties that discuss whether their country should become independent. Some examples of these are the Kurdish Independence Party (PKK) and the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP).

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