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Independence Day
Independence Day
Displays of fireworks, such as these over the Washington Monument, take place nationwide.
Also called The Fourth of July
The Glorious Fourth
The Fourth
Observed by United States
Type National
Significance The day the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress
Date July 4
Celebrations Fireworks, Family reunions, Concerts, Barbecues, Picnics, Parades, Baseball games

In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts, baseball games, political speeches and ceremonies, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the national day of the United States.[1][2][3]

Contents

Background

During the American Revolution, the legal separation of the American colonies from Great Britain occurred on July 2, 1776, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve a resolution of independence that had been proposed in June by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia.[4][5] After voting for independence, Congress turned its attention to the Declaration of Independence, a statement explaining this decision, which had been prepared by a Committee of Five, with Thomas Jefferson as its principal author. Congress debated and revised the Declaration, finally approving it on July 4. A day earlier, John Adams had written to his wife Abigail:

The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more.[6]

Adams' prediction was off by two days. From the outset, Americans celebrated independence on July 4, the date shown on the much-publicized Declaration of Independence, rather than on July 2, the date the resolution of independence was approved in a closed session of Congress.[7]

One of the most enduring myths about Independence Day is that Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.[8][9] The myth had become so firmly established that, decades after the event and nearing the end of their lives, even the elderly Thomas Jefferson and John Adams had come to believe that they and the other delegates had signed the Declaration on the fourth.[10] Most delegates actually signed the Declaration on August 2, 1776.[11] In a remarkable series of coincidences, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two founding fathers of the United States and the only two men who signed the Declaration of Independence to become president, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, which was the United States' 50th anniversary.

Observance

An 1825 invitation to an Independence Day celebration
  • In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired, once at morning and again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. Philadelphia celebrated the first anniversary in a manner a modern American would find quite familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, speeches, prayers, music, parades, troop reviews, and fireworks. Ships were decked with red, white, and blue bunting.[12]
  • In 1778, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France.[13]
  • In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday. The holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5.[13]
  • In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature to recognize July 4 as a state celebration.[13]
  • In 1783, Moravians in Salem, North Carolina, held a celebration of July 4 with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter. This work was titled "The Psalm of Joy".
  • In 1791 the first recorded use of the name "Independence Day" occurred.
  • In 1820 the first Fourth of July celebration was held in Eastport, Maine which remains the largest in the state.[14]
  • In 1870, the U.S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees.[15]
  • In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.[16]

Customs

In addition to the fireworks show, Miami lights one of its tallest buildings with the patriotic red, white and blue color scheme on Independence Day.
New York City's fireworks display, shown above over the East Village, is sponsored by Macy's and the largest[17] in the country.
Independence Day, 1940 Promotion.ogv
Patriotic trailer shown in theaters prior to the 4th of July, 1940.

Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations often take place outdoors. Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions (like the postal service and federal courts) are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, laws, history, society, and people.

Families often celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue and take advantage of the day off and, in some years, long weekend to gather with relatives. Decorations (e.g., streamers, balloons, and clothing) are generally colored red, white, and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades often are in the morning, while fireworks displays occur in the evening at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares.

Independence Day fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner", "God Bless America", "America the Beautiful", "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", "This Land Is Your Land", "Stars and Stripes Forever", and, regionally, "Yankee Doodle" in northeastern states and "Dixie" in southern states. Some of the lyrics recall images of the Revolutionary War or the War of 1812.

Firework shows are held in many states, and many fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Safety concerns have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed. Illicit traffic transfers many fireworks from less restrictive states.

A salute of one gun for each state in the United States, called a “salute to the union,” is fired on Independence Day at noon by any capable military base.[18]

In 2009, New York City had the largest fireworks display in the country, with over 22 tons of pyrotechnics exploded.[17]. Other major displays are in Chicago on Lake Michigan; in San Diego over Mission Bay; in Boston on the Charles River; in St. Louis on the Mississippi River; and on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.. During the annual Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, Detroit, Michigan hosts one of the world's largest fireworks displays, over the Detroit River, to celebrate Independence Day in conjunction with Windsor, Ontario's celebration of Canada Day.

While the official observance always falls on July 4th, participation levels may vary according to which day of the week the 4th falls on. If the holiday falls in the middle of the week, some fireworks displays and celebrations may take place during the weekend for convenience, again, varying by region.

Unique or historical celebrations

Originally entitled Yankee Doodle, this is one of several versions of a scene painted by A. M. Willard that came to be known as The Spirit of '76. Often imitated or parodied, it is a familiar symbol of American patriotism.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "National Days of Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade website. New Zealand. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Embassies/2-Foreign-representatives-to-NZ/National-Days.php. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  2. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "National Holiday". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2109.html. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  3. ^ "National Holiday of Member States". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/holidays.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  4. ^ Becker, p. 3.
  5. ^ Staff writer (July 1, 1917). "How Declaration of Independence was Drafted". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D03E2DE133BE03ABC4953DFB166838C609EDE. Retrieved 2009-11-20. "On the following day, when the formal vote of Congress was taken, the resolutions were approved by twelve Colonies–all except New York. The original Colonies, therefore, became the United States of America on July 2, 1776."  
  6. ^ "Letter from John Adams to Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776, ‘Had a Declaration…’". Adams Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/aea/cfm/doc.cfm?id=L17760703jasecond. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  7. ^ Maier, Pauline (7 Aug 1997). "Making Sense of the Fourth of July". American Heritage. http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/1997/August/20050606131757pssnikwad0.3779871.html. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  8. ^ Warren, Charles (July 1945). "Fourth of July Myths". The William and Mary Quarterly. 3d 2 (3): 238–272.  
  9. ^ "Top 5 Myths About the Fourth of July!". History News Network. George Mason University. 30 June 2001. http://hnn.us/articles/132.html. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  10. ^ Burnett, Edward Cody (1941). The Continental Congress. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 191–96.  
  11. ^ Becker, p. 184–85.
  12. ^ Heintze, “The First Celebrations.”
  13. ^ a b c Heintze, “A Chronology of Notable Fourth of July Celebration Occurrences.”
  14. ^ Maine.info. (2008). 4th of July in Maine. Retrieved on February 6, 2009 from http://www.maine.info/July4.php
  15. ^ Heintze, “How the Fourth of July was Designated as an ‘Official’ Holiday”.
  16. ^ Heintze, “Federal Legislation Establishing the Fourth of July Holiday”.
  17. ^ a b Biggest fireworks show in U.S. lights up sky, USA Today, July 2009.
  18. ^ "Origin of the 21-Gun Salute". U.S. Army Center of Military History. http://www.history.army.mil/faq/salute.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  19. ^ "History". Rebild Society website. Rebild National Park Society. http://www.rebildfesten.dk/default.asp?pageId=48&mainId=9&lang=UK. Retrieved 2009-06-30.  
  20. ^ "2009 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks". Federated Department Stores. 2009-04-29. http://www.fds.com/pressroom/macys/macysnational/media_kits.asp?mediakit=318. Retrieved 2009-07-04.  
  21. ^ "Welcome to Boston's 4th of July Celebration". Boston 4 Celebrations Foundation. 2009. http://www.july4th.org/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-04.  
  22. ^ "Boston Pops Fireworks Spectacular". CBS. 2007. http://www.cbs.com/specials/bostonfireworks/. Retrieved 2009-07-04.  

References

External links

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