Independent Order of Odd Fellows: Wikis

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Independent Order of Odd Fellows
(IOOF)
Official Logo of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
Founded April 26, 1819 (1819-04-26) (190 years ago)
Baltimore, Maryland U.S.A.
Type Service Fraternity
Scope International
Motto Friendship,
Love,
Truth
Colors       White
      Blue and
      Red
Symbol Three Link Chain
Headquarters 422 Trade Street,
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
Homepage http://www.ioof.org
"Past Grand Sires of the Grand Lodge of the United States IOOF" including founder Thomas Wildey.
The IOOF Hall at the corner of Yonge and College streets in Toronto, Ontario
The IOOF building at 47 Gawler Place, Adelaide.
Odd Fellow-gården, Stortingsgata 28, Oslo.
Lodge buildings bearing the IOOF emblem stand in many small American towns. (Rockfield, Indiana shown.)
There are various Orders of Odd Fellows world wide; this article is about the North American organization and fellowship, and its international off-shoots.
For IOOF, the Australian investment company see IOOF (company)

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), also known as the Three Link Fraternity, is an altruistic and benevolent fraternal organization derived from the similar British Oddfellows service organizations which came into being during the 1700s, at a time when altruistic and charitable acts were far less common.[1] In the U.S., it is a "Mutual Benefit Corporation"[2] (U.S. IRS tax code 501(c)(8)).

The word "Independent" in the organization's name was given by the English parent organization as part of the chartered title in the new North American chapter:

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded on the North American Continent in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819 when Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England.[1]

Contents

Name

Several theories aim to explain the meaning of the name "Odd Fellows".

One says that they were called "odd" because in the beginning of Odd Fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of industrialization, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as benevolence, charity and fraternalism.[3]

A variation on that theory states: 'The Odd Fellows, at least according to one story, got its curious name from the fact that it was a lodge that opened its doors to the working class who at that time did not ordinarily belong to fraternal orders--and were thus "odd". This may or may not be true as the Odd Fellows have been around for a long time and a good many things get lost in the fog of history.'[4]

Another theory states that Odd Fellows were people who engaged in miscellaneous or "odd" trades. In the 18th century, major trades were organized in guilds or other forms of syndicate, but smaller trades did not have any social or financial security. For that reason, people who exercised unusual trades joined together to form a larger group of "odd" fellows.[3]

A slightly different version of this second theory states: 'By the 13th century, the tradesmen's Guilds had become established and prosperous. During the 14th Century, with the growth of trade, the guild "Masters" moved to protect their power (and wealth) by restricting access to the Guilds. In response, the less experienced (and less wealthy) "Fellows" set up their own rival Guilds. In smaller towns and villages, there weren't enough Fellows from the same trade to set up a local Guild, so Fellows from a number of trades banded together to form a local Guild of Fellows from an odd assortment of trades. Hence, Guilds of Odd Fellows.'[5]

Philosophy & Purpose

According to the IOOF's brochure, its mandate is "To Improve and Elevate the Character of Mankind",[6] which results in the Odd Fellows' duties "to visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan". "Today, the Odd Fellows is a worldwide fraternal Order having over 10,000 lodges in 25 countries. We are actively involved in a variety of civic and philanthropic efforts on a local, national and international level."[6] More recent publications note the Order now has lodges in 29 countries.[7][8][9]

The brochure lists the following as highlights of the organization's works:[6]

  • The Odd Fellows and Rebekahs spend over $775 million in relief projects annually
  • The Educational Foundation provides substantial loans and grants to students
  • SOS Children’s Village provides a caring home for orphaned children in Cambodia
  • Living Legacy focuses on planting trees and enhancing our environment
  • The Arthritis Foundation
  • Visual Research Foundation supports vision care and research through the Wilmer Eye Institute
  • United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth
  • Annually sponsor a float in the Rose Parade

Fellowship in the IOOF entails:[10]

  • The strongest fraternal society on the continent.
  • A great worldwide united brotherhood.
  • A fraternity founded on the basis of universal brotherhood.
  • Based on the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
  • Founded on the North American continent in 1819.
  • Based upon the purest principles of equality, Non-political and non-sectarian.
  • A source of comfort in times of trouble and adversity.
  • A world-wide force that stands for all that is noblest and highest.
  • An everyday guide for conduct, a mantle that should be worn always.
  • An organization that favors no person for their wealth and frowns on none for their poverty.
  • An ideal that exists in the heart and mind of every genuine Odd Fellow or Rebekah.
  • Fulfilling a mission in the world which no other institution has successfully attempted.
  • A vitalizing, sympathetic, and actuating influence in the lives of all its real members.
  • A ministering spirit succoring the needy, cheering the despondent and protecting the helpless.
  • The handmaid of virtue and religion.
  • Founded on the inspired word of God as revealed to man in the Holy Bible.

History

In 1688 England, when the Catholic King James II was deposed in favor of the Dutch Protestant William of Orange, the organization split into two factions, the "Patriotic Order of Odd fellows" (based in the south of England and supporting William) and the "Ancient Order of Odd fellows" (based in the north and favoring the Stuarts). The "Patriotic Order" was followed by successors during a period of merger and re-organization by the "Union of United Orders" and then "The Loyal Order".

In 1789, the two factions formed a partial amalgamation as the "Union Order", (now known as the Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society (GUOOFS)),[11] abandoning all political and religious disputes and committing itself to promoting the harmony and welfare of its members. Then, as now, the Oddfellows has no religious or political affiliations and accept members from all walks of life regardless of sex, color or belief. In 1813, various lodges of the Union Order organized the "Manchester Unity of Oddfellows" which chartered the Odd Fellows in North America in 1819.[12]

While several unofficial lodges had existed in New York City before, because of the charter relationship, American Odd Fellowship is regarded as being founded in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern[13] on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey and some associates,[1] who assembled in response to a newspaper advertisement. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges.

In 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, the American Lodges separated from the English Order and in 1843 changed their name to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[12] In the following years, lodges were instituted all over the country, first in the east and later in the west. Also in 1842, the English Odd Fellow Grand Lodges issued a warrant to an African American sailor named Peter Ogden from New York City; unlike Wildey and the IOOF, Ogden and the African American Odd Fellows lodges never separated from the English order, and they remain part of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF),[14] still headquartered in Philadelphia.[12]

On September 20, 1851, IOOF became the first national fraternity to accept both men and women when it formed the Daughters of Rebekah. Schuyler Colfax, (Vice President of the United States (1869-1873) under President Ulysses S. Grant), was the force behind the movement. Though the term sorority was not yet coined in this year, it may be considered that the Rebekah is the first and oldest sorority in the world.[15][12] Both the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs have higher branches known as Encampments and Patriarchs Militant.[16][17]

The American Civil War (1861-1865) shattered the IOOF in America; membership decreased and many lodges were unable to continue their work, especially in the southern States.[18] After the Civil War, with the beginning of industrialization, the deteriorating social circumstances brought large numbers of people to the IOOF and the lodges rallied.

From 1860 to 1910/1920, also known as the "Golden Age of Fraternalism" in America,[4][12] the Odd Fellows became the largest of the fraternal organizations.[12] By 1889, the IOOF had lodges in every American state.[19][20]

In 1896, the World Almanac showed the Odd Fellows as the largest of the fraternal organizations.[4] The Order had also spread to most of the rest of the world, establishing lodges in the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. The peak of membership was probably in 1915 when the IOOF had 3.4 million active members.[21]

20th century

The Great Depression and the introduction of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal brought a decline in membership. During the depression, people could not afford Odd Fellows membership fees, and when the New Deal's social reforms started to take effect, the need for the social work of the Odd Fellows declined.[18]

Some branches of the order (i.e. some countries) have allowed women to join the Odd Fellows itself, leading to the Rebekahs decline in importance. Also, the higher branches and their degrees are, in some countries, becoming regarded as less important or too time-consuming, and (in those countries) are gradually being abandoned.

21st century

Although there was a decline in membership in fraternal organizations in general during the 20th century, membership in the 21st century has started to increase. The IOOF continues in the 21st century with lodges around the world, and is claimed to be the "largest united international fraternal order in the world under one head",[22] with every lodge working with the Sovereign Grand Lodge located in the United States. Also, the British "Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity", and the IOOF have recognized each other inter-fraternally; members of the Manchester Unity and the IOOF can visit each other's lodges, and are welcome as brothers and sisters.

Units of the Order in the U.S.A. include:[7]

  • Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Rebekah Lodge
  • Encampment
  • Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA)
  • Patriarchs Militant
  • Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM)
  • Junior Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Theta Rho Girls’ Club
  • United Youth Groups

There are IOOF lodges in at least 29 countries:[7][8][9][23]

  1. Australia
  2. Austria
  3. Belgium
  4. Belize
  5. Canada
  6. Chile
  7. Cuba
  8. Czech Republic
  9. Denmark
  10. Dominican Republic
  11. Estonia
  12. Finland
  13. France
  14. Germany
  15. Iceland
  16. Italy
  17. Mexico
  18. Netherlands
  19. New Zealand
  20. Nigeria
  21. Norway
  22. Philippines
  23. Poland
  24. Spain
  25. Sweden
  26. Switzerland
  27. United Kingdom[23]
  28. USA
  29. Uruguay
  30. Venezuela
Continent
Country
County /
State /
Province /
etc.
Founded
Website
Europe - 2006 Grand Lodge of Europe SGL entry
Europe Austria -
Europe Belgium - 1911 Belgium Flemmish, English
Europe Czech Republic -
Europe Denmark - Denmark Dannish
Europe Estonia - Estonia Estonian
Europe Finland - Finland Finnish, Swedish
Europe France - 1884
Europe Germany - 1870 Germany German
Europe Iceland - Iceland Icelandic
Europe Netherlands - Netherlands Dutch, English
Europe Norway - Norway Norwegian
Europe Poland - Poland Polish
Europe Spain -
Europe Sweden - Sweden: 1, 2 Swedish
Europe Switzerland - Switzerland: Men's Lodges, Women's Lodges Swiss-German
Europe United Kingdom[23] - 1810 Manchester Unity
Europe United Kingdom[23] - Manchester Unity - South Yorkshire & North Derbyshire
Europe United Kingdom[23] - 1797 GUOOFS[11]
Americas Belize -
Americas Canada - 1843 Canada
Americas Canada AB Alberta SGL entry
Americas Canada BC 1864 British Columbia
Americas Canada MB Manitoba
Americas Canada NL & NS Atlantic Provinces SGL entry
Americas Canada ON Ontario
Americas Canada QC 1878 Quebec SGL entry
Americas Canada SK Saskatchewan SGL entry
Americas Chile - 1874 Chile SGL entry
Americas Cuba - 1883 Cuba Spanish
Americas Dominican Republic -
Americas Mexico - 1882 Mexico SGL entry
Americas Puerto Rico - 1999 Puerto Rico
Americas U.S.A - 1819 U.S.A.
Americas U.S.A AZ 1884 Arizona
Americas U.S.A CA 1847 California
Americas U.S.A CO 1860 Colorado
Americas U.S.A DC District of Columbia
Americas U.S.A GA Georgia
Americas U.S.A HA 1846 Hawaii
Americas U.S.A IL Illinois
Americas U.S.A IA Iowa
Americas U.S.A ME Maine
Americas U.S.A MD Maryland
Americas U.S.A MA Massachusetts
Americas U.S.A MI Michigan
Americas U.S.A MO 1834 Missouri
Americas U.S.A NH New Hampshire
Americas U.S.A NJ New Jersey
Americas U.S.A NM New Mexico
Americas U.S.A NY 1806 New York
Americas U.S.A OH Ohio
Americas U.S.A OK 1875 Oklahoma
Americas U.S.A PA 1821 Pennsylvania
Americas U.S.A SD South Dakota
Americas U.S.A TN Tennessee
Americas U.S.A TX Texas
Americas U.S.A WA 1878 Washington
Americas U.S.A WV West Virginia
Americas U.S.A WI 1835 Wisconsin
Americas Uruguay -
Australasia Australia - Australia SGL entry
Australasia Australia NSW 1836 New South Wales
Australasia Australia SA South Australia
Australasia Australia Tas
Australasia Australia WA
Australasia New Zealand - 1843 New Zealand, SGL entry
Asia Philippines - 1872 Philippines
Africa Nigeria - 2008

Symbols, lodges, officers, positions and degrees

The most widely encountered symbol of the IOOF – on signage and gravemarkers – is the three-link chain ("the Chain With Three Links", the "Triple Links") with three initials, 'F', 'L' and 'T', one each inside each link, signifying Friendship, Love and Truth.

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the USA has three levels of "Lodge": the Subordinate Lodge, the Encampment, and the Patriarchs Militant. In addition, there is a private club named The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS). In Australia, this system has been implemented in a slightly different, but largely similar manner.[24]

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Subordinate Lodge

The Subordinate Lodge is the Lodge assigned to new initiates.[25] The initials of the subordinate lodge are "FLT" (Friendship, Love and Truth). Once a member has made their way through all the degrees and has had the 3rd degree (truth) bestowed upon them, they are entitled to hold an officer position in their lodge, and are also eligible to go on further in Odd Fellowship through the higher degree branches such as the Encampment and the Patriarchs Militant (aka the Canton).

Subordinate Lodge Officer Positions[26]
  • Noble Grand
  • Vice Grand
  • Past Grand
  • Treasurer
  • Recording Secretary
  • Financial Secretary
  • Right Supporter to the Noble Grand
  • Left Supporter to the Noble Grand
  • Right Supporter to the Vice Grand
  • Left Supporter to the Vice Grand
  • Right Scene Supporter
  • Left Scene Supporter
  • Warden
  • Chaplain
  • Conductor
  • Color Bearer
  • Musician
  • Inside Guardian
  • Outside Guardian
Subordinate Lodge Degrees

0 Initiatory
1 Friendship
2 Brotherly/Sisterly Love
3 Truth

Encampment

In Odd Fellowship one must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the highest branch, the Patriarchs Militant.[27] Once one has accomplished the 3rd degree of the Encampment, one is eligible to hold an officer position in the Encampment and is also eligible for the Patriarchs Militant.

The initials of the Encampment are FHC which stands for Faith, Hope and Charity. The Encampment's seal is a purple tent with golden trim, the triple links above the tent door and crossed shepherds crooks. These symbols can be seen on the purple fez that American members of this branch wear. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within their own subordinate lodge while in the Encampment.

Encampment Officers[26]
  • Chief Patriarch (male)/ Chief Matriarch (female)
  • Senior Warden
  • Junior Warden
  • Scribe
  • Treasurer
  • High Priest
  • Instructor
  • Marshal
  • Colour Bearer
  • Musician
  • Inside Sentinel
  • Outside Sentinel
  • Guide
  • First Watch
  • Second Watch
  • Third Watch
  • Fourth Watch
  • First Guard of the Tent
  • Second Guard of the Tent
  • Third Guard of the Tent
  • Fourth Guard of the Tent
Encampment Degrees

1 Patriarch
2 Golden Rule
3 Royal Purple

Again, in legal terminology, American Encampments are also considered U.S. I.R.S. 501(c)(8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

Patriarchs Militant

The Patriarchs Militant (PM) is Odd Fellowship's uniformed branch,[28] and is the branch which offers the highest degree of the IOOF. There is only one degree, the Chevalier degree. Upon completion of this degree, one is entitled to hold office in the Canton. Sometimes the Patriarchs Militant is referred to as "the Canton", due to the Canton being the name used in lieu of "Lodge". The seal of the PM is a gold and jeweled crown, within which is a shepherds crook crossed with a sword and the triple links of Odd Fellowship connecting the two at the bottom. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within both the subordinate lodge and Encampment while a member of the PM.

Canton Officers
  • Commandant
  • Lieutenant
  • Ensign
  • Clerk/Accountant
  • Chaplain
  • Colour Bearer
  • Guard
  • Sentinel
  • Picket
Patriarch Militant Degree

1 Chevalier

American Cantons are also considered U.S. I.R.S. 501(c)(8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS)

AMOS[29] was preceded by a number of independent clubs, such as the OOH&P (Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection) and the Imperial Order of Muscovites. These were disbanded in the first two decades if the 20th Century, and melded together to form the AMOS. The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans is not an officially recognized body within Odd Fellowship; it is a private club to which only those who are Odd Fellows may belong. A brother who holds the third degree and is in good standing within his subordinate lodge (i.e. he has not been expelled or in arrears of dues, etc.) is eligible to make an application to join.

The brothers who belong to the AMOS, much like the Shriners, wear a red fez, but the tassel which hangs from the fez is of different colors depending on the degree attained or the office held. The seal of the AMOS is an owl sitting upon a pyramid. Above the owl are the words "WE NEVER SLEEP"; at the base of the pyramid is the word Xerxes, and below the pyramid is the Arabian sword called a scimitar. The word Xerxes alludes to the password of the first degree of the AMOS.

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) Degrees

1 Humility (or Samaritan) [Red fez with a yellow tassel]
2 Perfection (or Sheik) [Red fez with a red tassel]

Grand United Order of Odd Fellows

The American Grand United Order of Odd Fellows[14] is a fraternal organization founded in 1843 for black members.[30] Created at a time when the IOOF was primarily a white-only organization, the GUOOF obtained its charter directly from the Manchester Unity in Great Britain and the American IOOF organization had no control over it. Although still in existence, membership in the US has declined, due to the mainstream IOOF no longer being segregated and the decline in fraternal membership in general.

Architectural impact

Although in Britain the Odd Fellows tended to meet in pubs, in the U.S. the lodges often built their own facilities. Many of these are now on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places:

Notable Members of the Odd Fellows

'Odd Fellowship, unlike many other organizations, makes no special effort to attract "name" members. Ours is a warm, personal type of affiliation that doesn't rely on "rubbing elbows" with the famous to give us satisfaction.'[22]

Wyatt Earp's IOOF membership card, 1909

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "IOOF background from homepage". http://www.ioof.org/. Retrieved 2008-05-08. "
    In 17th century England, it was odd to find people organized for the purpose of giving aid to those in need and of pursuing projects for the benefit of all mankind. Those who belonged to such an organization were called "Odd Fellows". Odd Fellows are also known as "The Three Link Fraternity" - the three links contain the letters F, L and T, which stand for Friendship, Love and Truth.
    The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded on the North American Continent in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819 when Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England.
    Odd Fellowship became the first national fraternity to include both men and women when it adopted the beautiful Rebekah Degree on September 20, 1851. This degree is based on the teachings found in the Holy Bible, and was written by the Honorable Schuyler Colfax who was Vice President of the United States during the period 1868-1873. Odd Fellows and Rebekahs were also the first fraternal organizations to establish homes for our senior members and for orphaned children.
    "
     
  2. ^ "Mutual benefit corporation", www.sec.state.vt.us
  3. ^ a b Müller, Stephanie (2008): The name Odd Fellows, from Concept and contents of Odd Fellowship, Chapter 4 of Visit the Sick, Relieve the Distressed, Bury the Dead and Educate the Orphan: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A scientific work in the field of cultural studies, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. ISBN 978-3-86821-093-4. Retrieved on 2009-10-14.
  4. ^ a b c Burkley M. Gray (n.d.) Fraternalism in America (1860 - 1920), Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum, www.phoenixmasonry.org. (See also Odd Fellow Service Jewels.)
  5. ^ History and Traditions, Manchester Unity (U.K.), www.oddfellows.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  6. ^ a b c IOOF brochure, The Independent Order of Odd Fellows & Rebekahs. (Retrieved 2009-04-29.)
  7. ^ a b c IOOF News, Volume 12, Issue 2, March-April 2009, pg.1 Editor: Richard G. ‘Dick’ Proulx, Publisher: The Sovereign Grand Lodge, I.O.O.F., Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  8. ^ a b A lodge was instituted in Nigeria 2008, and a lodge was instituted in the Philippines on November 21, 2009, making a total of 29 countries with lodges.
  9. ^ IOOF – Frequently Asked Questions, "Odd Fellowship Is", ioof.org (Retrieved 2009-04-29.)
  10. ^ a b GUOOFS, Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society (U.K.), www.uk.guoofs.com
  11. ^ a b c d e f Mark A. Tabbert (2003) The Odd Fellows, Masonic Papers, first published Dec. 2003, "The Northern Light", Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, USA.
  12. ^ Volume four, p. 150, Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, ISBN 0-9693422-1-7.
  13. ^ a b GUOOF, (Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, USA), www.guoof.com
  14. ^ Barry, Dan (August 26, 2007). "A Grand Gathering, but One With a Solemn Note". New York Times. "
    As with most matters of Odd Fellowship, nearly every aspect of the annual convention of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows must adhere to protocol. The dais for the officers’ banquet, for example, must be two-tiered and able to accommodate 50 people, important on the bottom, really important on the top. Seats for the sovereign grand master, the deputy sovereign grand master, the sovereign grand warden, the sovereign grand secretary and the sovereign grand treasurer. Seats for the leaders of the two uniformed branches, the Patriarchs Militant and its Ladies Auxiliaries. A seat for the president of the International Association of Rebekah Assemblies, established when the Odd Fellows long ago recognized “the need for a woman’s touch.”"
     
  15. ^ Patriarchs Militant & Ladies Auxiliary Association: "The Patriarchs Militant are the uniformed branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), one of the oldest and largest fraternal orders in the world today. The Patriarchs Militant were established by the Sovereign Grand Lodge - the international governing body of Odd Fellowship - back in 1886."
  16. ^ PM Park, Clear Lake, Iowa contains a section summarizing the history of IOOF children's summer holiday camps established by the Patriarchs Militant.
  17. ^ a b Müller, Stephanie (2008): History of the Odd Fellows, from Concept and contents of Odd Fellowship, Chapter 2 of Visit the Sick, Relieve the Distressed, Bury the Dead and Educate the Orphan: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A scientific work in the field of cultural studies, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. ISBN 978-3-86821-093-4. Retrieved on 2009-10-14.
  18. ^ History of the IOOF in Marin County. Illustrates the spread of Oddfellowship in California in the 19th century. Also contains a section titled: Background, History, Ritual and Emblems.
  19. ^ The Morals of Odd-fellowship : a Discourse. Reproduction of the 1853 publication from the Grand Lodge of Northern New York. Demonstrates the influence of the Odd Fellows in the mid 19th century.
  20. ^ IOOF History, Grand Lodge of Belgium and the Netherlands. www.stichtingargus.nl (in English).
    Note: Some of the "facts" quoted are inaccurate, and there are no supporting references, so the reliability of this source is unknown.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Grand Lodge of California, IOOF (n.d.) A brief sketch of Odd Fellowship, RealStockCertificates.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-18
  22. ^ a b c d e It is not clear if there are any Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodges in the United Kingdom under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge of the IOOF. The British lodges are listed on the Odd Fellows page; none of the references to "Independent" Orders in the UK are to lodges in the jurisdiction of the U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge. The U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge's web site makes no mention of the United Kingdom on its jurisdiction pages.
  23. ^ In Australia, the system of lodges, officers, positions and degrees has been implemented in a similar but slightly different manner. For example, this page describes the systems used in the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge of South Australia, and the Grand Lodge of Australasia.
  24. ^ The Subordinate Lodge is Odd Fellowship's equivalent of the Free Mason's Blue / Symbolic Lodge. (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  25. ^ a b Greer, J.M. (1998). Inside a magical lodge: group ritual in western the tradition. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
  26. ^ The Encampment is the Odd Fellows' equivalent to Freemasonry's "Scottish Rite", as they both offer the most degrees outside the Subordinate Lodge. Unlike Freemasonry, where one can choose either the Scottish or York Rite branches, in Odd Fellowship one must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the highest branch, the Patriarchs Militant. (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  27. ^ The Patriarchs Militant (PM) is Odd Fellowship's uniformed branch, and is the equivalent of Freemasonry's "York Rite". (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  28. ^ The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) is the Odd Fellows' equivalent of Freemasonry's Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners). (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  29. ^ Black Fraternal Orders at nathanielturner.com. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  30. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Michigan, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Stephanie Müller (2008): Famous Odd Fellows, Chapter 5 of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. Retrieved on 2009-09-18.
  32. ^ Willis E. Parsons (1913). Odd Fellowship in Piscataquis County, Sprague's Journal of Maine History, Vol. I, No. 3, September, 1913. Retrieved on 2009-09-18.
  33. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Indiana, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  34. ^ Anson Jones, Pp.311-312 in William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J Part One, Kessinger Publishing's Rare Reprints, 2004, ISBN 1417975784, ISBN 9781417975785 Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  35. ^ Rice, William Marsh in The Handbook of Texas History Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved: 2009-09-09.
  36. ^ Madelein B Stern (1971). Lucy Hobbs Taylor, Pgs. 433-434 in Notable American women, 1607-1950: a biographical dictionary, Volume 3, Eds. Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S. Boyer, Harvard University Press, 1971, ISBN 0674627342, ISBN 9780674627345.
  37. ^ Ken Knott (n.d.) Major General Albert Winn, California State Military Museum. Retrieved on 2009-09-18.

Further reading

External links


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