Indian Naval Air Arm: Wikis

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Indian Naval Air Arm
Founded 1961
Country India
Size  ? personnel
 ? aircraft
 ? combat capable
Part of Indian Navy
Insignia
Roundel Roundel
Fin flash The IN Fin Flash
Aircraft flown
Attack BAE Sea Harrier
Indian Navy
Naval Ensign of India.svg
Indian Navy crest.svg
Motto: शं नो वरुणः
Transliteration: Sha no Varuna
("May the Lord of the Oceans be auspicious unto us")
Organization
Commands and bases
History and traditions
History of the Indian Navy
Navy Day: 4th December
Components
Current fleet
Full Indian Navy ship list
Submarines
Naval Air Arm
MARCOS (Marine Commandos)
Weapons systems
Personnel
Chief of Naval staff
Officer insignia

The Indian Naval Air Arm is part of the Indian Navy which is tasked to provide an aircraft carrier based strike capability, fleet air defence, maritime reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare. To undertake these tasks, the Indian Navy employs an aircraft carrier and a variety of manned and unmanned aircraft and helicopters. The INS Viraat carries a complement of Sea Harrier aircraft and Kamov, Sea King, Chetak and Dhruv helicopters. The Kamov Ka-31 provides AEW support for the fleet. In the anti-submarine role, the Sea King, Ka-28 and the indigenously-built HAL Dhruv are used. The MARCOS use Sea King and HAL Dhruv helicopters while conducting operations. Reconnaissance operations are carried out by Tupolev Tu-142s, Ilyushin Il-38s, Dornier Do 228s and also by HAL Chetak helicopters. The UAV arm consists of around 30 UAVs, such as Heron and Searcher-IIs, that are operated from ships and shore for better surveillance. The Indian Navy also maintains an aerobatic display team, the Sagar Pawan. The Sagar Pawan team will be replacing the present HJT-16 Kiran with the HJT-36.[1] The HJT-36 will also be used in training pilots.

Contents

History

The INS Vikrant is now a museum ship in Mumbai
The Vikrant, as seen from the HMS Centaur - March 1962
The Hawker Sea Hawk
The Alize Anti-Submarine Aircraft used on the Vikrant

The first naval air station, INS Garuda, was inaugurated in Cochin on 11 May 1953.[2] This went hand-in-hand with the commissioning of the No.550 Squadron[3], utilizing Short Sealand aircraft.[4] and Fairey Firefly aircraft[5]

1960 saw the No.300 White Tigers Squadron,[6] consisting of Sea Hawks[7] aircraft being commissioned.

In the very next year (1961), INS Vikrant (formerly HMS Hercules) was acquired by the Indian Navy.[8] The Vikrant's initial airwing consisted of British Hawker Sea Hawk fighter-bombers and a French Alize anti-submarine aircraft. On May 18, 1961, the first jet landed on board, piloted by Lieutenant (later Admiral) R H Tahiliani. That year, the No.310 Cobras Squadron (consisting of Alize aircraft [7][9]) was commissioned. After playing an important role in several major Indian military actions, specifically the liberation of Goa and the India-Pakistan war in 1971, she was decommissioned in January 1997[10] and turned into a museum ship[11].

In 1976, the Indian Air Force handed over Super Constellation[12] aircraft to the No.312 Albatross Squadron[13] in Dabolim, Goa. Being fairly old aircraft at that point, these were withdrawn from active service by 1983. The No.315 Winged Stallions Squadron was commissioned in 1977[14] with the Ilyushin Il-38[15] aircraft.

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Operation Vijay

The INS Vikrant participated in Operation Vijay, the liberation of Goa from Portugal. Its role was primarily to deter foreign naval intervention[16] during the 40-hour long military action in December, 1961.

India Pakistan War 1971

The INS Vikrant played a major role in the successful Naval blockade of East Pakistan [17]. Stationed off the Andaman & Nicobar islands along with Indian naval ships, INS Bramhaputra and INS Beas, the Vikrant redeployed towards Chittagong[18] at the outbreak of hostilities. The morning of December 4, 1971, the eight Sea Hawk aircraft on the Vikrant launched an air raid on Cox's Bazaar from 60 nm away. That evening, the air group struck Chittagong harbour. Future strikes targeted Khulna and Mongla. A PTI message is supposed to have read, "Chittagong harbour abalze as ships and aircraft of the (Pakistan) Eastern Naval Fleet bombed and rocketed. Not a single vessel can be put to sea from Chittagong". Air strikes staged from the Vikrant continued till December 10, 1971.

Given naval intelligence that indicated the intent of the Pakistan Navy to break through the Indian Naval blockade using camouflaged merchant ships, the Vikrant's Sea Hawks struck shipping in the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar harbours, sinking or incapacitating most merchant ships there.

The PNS Ghazi submarine was deployed to sink the INS Vikrant. However, she sank off Visakhapatnam harbor under mysterious circumstances[19].

Aircraft Carrier

INS Viraat in the Bay of Bengal

INS Viraat was originally commissioned in the Royal Navy as the HMS Hermes on November 18, 1959 [20]. While in the Royal Navy, the Hermes was the flagship carrier during the Falkland Islands campaign. The vessel was acquired by the Indian Navy in April 1986 following an extensive refit at Devonport Dockyard. Another refit followed between 1999 and 2001, which is expected to extend her useful life till 2010. However, there is some uncertainty around this retirement date.[21]. The second refit upgraded propulsion systems, added a package of sensors to sound emergency alerts, and introduced modern communication systems. In addition, long-range surveillance radar, weapon systems, and new hangar with fire curtains was installed. The lift system was revamped to reduce reaction time in the event of an attack and a new flood alarm system was installed[20]. Another year of down time followed while the ship received the Israeli Barak surface-to-air missile system in 2004 [20]. In a wartime scenario, the INS Viraat can embark up to 18 combat aircraft. INS Viraat is ideally suited for two missions: supporting amphibious operations and conducting ASW operations. Despite its age and range considerations, INS Viraat can quite effectively project naval and air power anywhere in the South Asia region.

Current Inventory of the Naval Air Arm

Aircraft

The Mig-29 Ks to be stationed on the INS Vikramaditya
A Sea Harrier takes off from INS Viraat
Indian Navy Tu-142 and IL-38SD are long range strategic bombers
Heron UAV

The MiG-29K program was revived by Russia in response to the decision of the Indian Navy to acquire the Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov[22][23]. As reported by MiG Bureau, the Indian Navy's association with the MiG-29K began in Apr 2002 when a team led by Commander Gupta reached Moscow to evaluate the MiG-29K prototype for possible induction into the Indian Navy. The Team evaluated the aircraft on ground as well as in the air (the flight evaluation was conducted by a Navy Test Pilot Commander Ahuja). Some other aircraft were also evaluated but the MiG-29K was chosen. The first 4 of the 16 aircraft contracted for were inducted into the Indian Navy late 2009. The Indian Navy is likely to buy 29 more of these aircraft. On January 20, 2004, the Indian Navy signed a contract for 12 single-seat MiG-29K and 4 two-seat MiG-29KUB. The first MIG-29K for the Indian Navy took flight on January 22 2007. Though it is ready it is not yet in service.[24] First four of the sixteen aircraft was expected to be delivered by September 2008.[25][26] but has been delayed until the spring of 2009.[27] The fighter plane is different from the MiG-29 flown by Indian Air Force. The aircraft has been made ready for aircraft carrier operation by hardening the undercarriage. The aircraft also has much better over-the-nose vision to make it easy to land aboard a carrier at high angle of attack. The Naval version also has additional fuel carrying capacity as also a capacity to carry more weapons since there are a total of nine stations as against only seven with the Air Force version. The aircraft also has a full glass cockpit with three large size multi-function displays. Modifications were made for Indian Navy requirement featured Zhuk-ME radar, RD-33MK engine, combat payload up to 5,500 kg, 13 hardpoints (inclusive of the multi-lock bomb carriers), additional fuel tanks situated in dorsal spine fairing and wing LERXs, increased total fuel capacity by 50% comparing to first variant of MiG-29 and updated 4-channel digital fly-by-wire flight control system. With special coatings MiG-29K radar reflecting surface is 4-5 times smaller than of basic MiG-29. Cockpit displays consist of wide HUD and 3 (7 on MiG-29KUB) colour LCD MFDs and French Sigma-95 satellite GPS module and Topsight E helmet-mounted targeting system. Compatible with the full range of weapons carried by the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.[28] The MIG-29 KUB ( double seat trainer) is more similar to the MIG-29K but with reduced operational range. The aircraft will be fielded on the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya.[29]. A new squadron has been raised & is being christened "Black Panthers". It will get its first batch of four MiG-29K fighters later this year. The squadron will (initially IFTU, will be led by Cdr AD Theophilus, an ex-Sea Harrier pilot)[30]

The BAE Sea Harrier operates from the INS Viraat[31]. The BAE Sea Harrier FRS Mk.51 / T Mk.60 fly with the INAS 300 and INAS 552 squadrons of the Indian Navy. They were first acquired by the Indian Navy in the mid-1980s. After years of undergoing maintenance in the UK, the Indian Navy launched Project Ashok to set up a maintenance facility in Kochi in 1994. A mid-life upgrade in 1999 for these aircraft was cancelled when the decision was made to purchase MiG-29K air defence fighters, to be deployed aboard the INS Vikramaditya (formerly Admiral Gorshkov). The Sea Harriers are armed with the Matra Magic-II AAM and the Sea Eagle Anti-ship missiles. The aircraft were upgraded with the Elta EL/M-2032 radar and the Rafael Derby BVRAAM missiles[32]. Though the Sea Harriers were expected to remain in service with the Indian Navy till 2012-15, limited upgrades are being performed on these Sea Harriers to extend the life of the aircraft by 15 years, indicating a retirement date of 2023.[33] The upgrades are expected to be performed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).

The Indian Navy operates eight Tu-142 aircraft. The aircraft was inducted into service in the year 1988. Upgrading of the aircraft are taking place, which helps to extend the service life of the aircraft by sixteen years. One the upgraded aircraft has been handed over to the Indian Navy.[34] The aircraft operates from INS Rajali and INS Hansa. Two Tu-142 aircraft are being fitted with the air launched version of the Brahmos. The aircraft will be the test platform for the Brahmos cruise missiles. The integration and tests of the missile is expected to be completed by 2010.[35] The eight aircraft will be fitted with the Brahmos cruise missiles.

The Indian Navy currently has one squadron (INAS 342) that operates the Heron and Searcher Mk-II UAVs. There are plans to have at least three squadron of UAVs.[36] UAVs are operated from ships to increases the range of surveillance. There are plans to introduce rotary UAVs into the Indian Navy.[37] These UAVs will have higher endurance and load carrying capability resulting in better reconnaissance capabilities.[38]

Helicopters

Dhruv of the Indian Navy.
A Sea King assigned to the destroyer INS Mumbai.

HAL Dhruv Developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited with MBB of Germany (now Eurocopter Deutschland), the Navy received its first Dhruvs on 28 March 2002[39]. It is expected to receive a total of 120 units to replace the Chetak helicopters in service. The naval variant is fitted with the Super Vision-2000 maritime radar, capable of detecting targets with low radar cross section at a range of 200 km. The anti-submarine version of the helicopter is fitted with dunking sonar, torpedoes, depth charges. The helicopter may also be fitted with the missiles for anti-ship roles.

Kamov Ka-25 Hormone, Kamov Ka-28 Helix-A, and the Kamov Ka-31 Helix-B: The KA-25 was acquired by the Indian Navy in 1980 for anti-submarine warfare, but had severe technological limitations. The KA-28 were acquired in the mid-80s, and were said to be a quantum leap over their predecessors from an ASW standpoint. The KA-31[40] takes the Kamov capabilities even further by enabling real-time network-centric warfare for the Indian Navy.

Westland Sea King and the Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King: Used principally for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and search & rescue roles,[41] the helicopter fleet operate from INS Garuda (Kochi) as well as INS Kunjali-II (Mumbai) air stations. US sanctions on India in response to India's nuclear tests resulted in a large part of the Sea King fleet being grounded for want of spare parts. Seventeen of the Sea King helicopters will be upgraded. The upgrade will feature day and night capability, capability to work in adverse weather conditions, integration of two anti-ship missiles with a range of fifty kilometres and a new radar.[42]

Aérospatiale SA 316 Alouette III: Also known as the Chetak, these choppers have seen active service in the Navy as well as the Coast Guard. They are carried on several combatant as well as non-combatant ships. They are also operated from and maintained at the INS Kunjali-II and INS Utkrosh Naval Air Stations in Mumbai and Port Blair respectively.

Naval Aircraft Inventory

The Navy operates 241 aircraft, including 18 (12 more added soon) combat jets, 13 tactical bombers, 145 helicopters and 30 UAVs.[43]

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[44] Notes
Harrier land Malabar 2007.jpg
BAE Sea Harrier
 United Kingdom Fighter
Trainer
FRS 51
T 60
8
3
Cleared to fly again after being grounded due to a harrier crash[45]
MiG-29K on the MAKS-2009 (02).jpg
Mikoyan MiG-29K
 Russia Multi role Fighter
Trainer
MiG-29K
MiG-29KUB
43
2
12 MiG-29Ks & 4 MiG-29KUBs ordered. The first four Russian-made MiG-29K fighters to be deployed on the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, formerly the Admiral Gorshkov, when it is inducted into the Indian Navy have been received in a knocked-down condition and will now be assembled in the country shortly. Additional order of 29 Mig 29K placed in Jan 2010 bringing the total number to 45 aircraft.[46]
Il-38 May.jpg
Ilyushin Il-38 May
 Russia Maritime patrol Il-38SD 5 Upgrade underway.[47]
Tu-95 Bear F.jpg
Tupolev Tu-142 Bear
 Russia Maritime patrol Tu-142M 8
Wiki dornierdo228 lgw1.jpg
Dornier Do 228
 Germany
 India
Utility transport Do 228-101
Do 228-201
1
19
To be replaced by NAL Saras
HAL Kiran Aero India-2007.jpg
HAL HJT-16 Kiran
 India Trainer 20[48] 12 Mk-I and 8 Mk-II.[49]
Islander.JPG
Britten-Norman Islander
 United Kingdom Utility transport BN-2 14
Indian Navy dhruv.jpg
HAL Dhruv
 India Utility helicopter 8
SeaKing Mk42B Indian Navy 2005.JPGWestland Sea King  United Kingdom Naval helicopter Sea King 42 Anti-submarine warfare version 5 12 built, 2 lost and 5 retired [50]
Sea King 42A Anti-submarine warfare version 2 3 built, 1 lost
Sea King 42B Anti-ship warfare version 17 20 built, 3 lost
Sea King 42C Search and rescue, utility transport version 5 5 built
SH3H HS15 CVW15 1995.JPEG
Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
 United States Anti Submarine Warfare Utility helicopter UH-3H 6
Indian Navy Chetak.jpg
Aérospatiale SA 316 Alouette III
 India Utility helicopter SA 316B
SA 319
30
25
built by HAL
JRM Kamov Ka-25.jpg
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
 Russia Naval helicopter 7
Kamov Ka-27SP.JPEG
Kamov Ka-28 Helix-A
 Russia Anti Submarine Naval helicopter 13 (incl. of 3 trainers)
Ka-31-2007.jpg
Kamov Ka-31 Helix-B
 Russia AEW 9

HAL HPT-32 Deepak
 India Basic trainer 8
Heron UAV 2009.jpg
IAI Heron
 Israel UAV 12
IAI-Searcher2.jpg
IAI Searcher MkII
 Israel UAV 18

Former aircraft

Future Aircraft Carriers

Vikrant class aircraft carrier will join the Indian Navy in 2012.

Vikrant class aircraft carrier:In April 2005, India began construction of a 40,000 tonne Vikrant class aircraft carrier at a cost of Rs.40 billion and scheduled to operate 30 aircraft, including Naval LCA, MiG-29K, and Sea Harrier combat aircraft, as well as HAL Dhruv, Ka-31, and Sea King Mk.42 helicopters. Four turbine engines will power the ship. The carrier is being constructed by state-run Cochin Shipyard Limited.[51] and will be commissioned by 2012-13. The Indian Minister of State for Defence, Pallam Raju, went on record in September 2006 stating that the aircraft carrier is likely to be commissioned by 2011.[52] There are plans to build more Indigenous aircraft carriers.[53]

Admiral Gorshkov was sold to India for conversion into a STOBAR carrier to be named INS Vikramaditya.

INS Vikramaditya: On January 20, 2004, after years of negotiations, Russia and India signed a deal for the sale of the ship, the then-Admiral Gorshkov. The ship was free, while India will pay US$800 million for upgrade and refit of the ship, as well as at least an additional $1bn for the aircraft and weapons systems. The Navy looked at equipping the carrier with the E-2D, but decided not to. The deal also includes the purchase of 12 single-seat MiG-29K 'Fulcrum-D' (Product 9.41) and 4 dual-seat MiG-29KUB aircraft (with an option for 14 more aircraft)$1bn, 6 Kamov Ka-31 "Helix" reconnaissance and anti-submarine helicopters, torpedo tubes, missile systems, and artillery units. Facilities and procedures for training pilots and technical staff, delivery of simulators, spare parts, and establishment maintenance on Indian Navy facilities are also part of the contract. The announced delivery date for INS Vikramaditya was August 2008, an ambitious schedule, but one that would allow the carrier to enter service in 2009, around the time as light carrier INS Viraat (formerly HMS Hermes, last of the Centaur class) was scheduled to retire. The new ship will berth at the new Indian Navy facility in Karwar, on India’s west coast. The INS Viraat’s retirement is now set for 2010-2012. The sea trials of INS Vikramaditya are expected to begin by 2010 and delivery is expected by 2012.

Aircraft Under Development and Future Aircraft

HAL Tejas naval variant .
P-8 Poseidon test aircraft T-1 conducts a test flight 2009.
  • HAL Tejas:The naval variant of the Tejas will have strengthened landing gear and other necessary modifications for service on an aircraft carrier. Two Naval prototypes will be built, the NP-1 (Naval Prototype-1) which will be a two seat variant and NP-2 (Naval Prototype-2), a single seat variant for carrier operations. The Tejas is expected to be delivered before 2012.[54] The first flight of NP-1 is expected to take place by the end of 2008 but the carrier trials was delayed due to the delay in the delivery schedule of INS Vikramaditya. Hence the trials will have to be carried out at the SBTF (Shore-based Test Facility) under construction at the naval airbase INS Hansa in Goa. Indian Navy plans to operate two squadrons (40 aircraft) of carrier borne Tejas aircraft from the two aircraft carries.[55] Indian navy has placed an order for six Naval LCAs. At an approximate cost of Rs 150 crore per aircraft, that will provide a Rs 900 crore infusion into the Naval LCA programme.[56]
  • Additional Fighter Aircraft:Indian Navy has issued RFI to various fighter aircraft manufacturers including Boeing for F-18 Super Hornet & Dassault for its Rafale fighters.These aircraft will be used for supplements to MIG29K's operating from Indigenous & Vikramaditya class aircraft carriers.These are ordered in order to reduce the delays in the procurement of fighter aircraft. Unknown number of fighters will be procured.
  • Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft: The Indian Navy issued an RFP for eight maritime patrol aircraft. The plan is to induct up to thirty new maritime patrol aircraft by 2020. Out of all the bidders the P-8I Poseidon has won the contract.[57] New Delhi and Boeing have inked a lucrative, $2.1 billion contract for the delivery of eight P-8 Poseidon sub hunters.The new aircraft will replace a fleet of outdated Russian-manufactured Tupolev-142M planes.[58]
  • 15 NAL Saras aircraft have been ordered, mostly to replace the Dornier Do-228.[61]
  • 40 Unmanned helicopters [62]. This helicopter is under development and will be based on the HAL-built Cheetah helicopters.[63]

Personnel and Structure

The 5000-person[64] Naval Air Arm is headed by Rear Admiral Vijay Shankar, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Air)[65]. The current Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Sureesh Mehta was in the Naval Air Arm and flew the Hawker Sea Hawk from the INS Vikrant earlier on in his career. He also held command of the INS Garuda air station in Kochi, Kerala.[66]

Western Command

Sea Harrier landing on aircraft carrier INS Viraat.

Established in 1986, the Flag Officer Naval Aviation (FONA)[67] is headquartered in Goa, and is responsible for all naval aviation aspects. The Directorate of Naval Air Staff at Naval HQ has centralized functions like laying down the general principles of operational deployment, organisation, administration and operational/training standards for the flying units. On the other hand, FONA controls training, maintenance and other functions of naval aviation. Aircraft yards at Kochi, Kerala and Dabolim, Goa are responsible for maintaining the fleet's air arm. An exclusive base, INS Shikra for helicopters was commissioned in Mumbai.[68]

Eastern Command

To protect and preserve India's growing trade with Southeast Asia[69] and offer a bulwark against Chinese dominance in the Bay of Bengal, a new naval base is being built near Visakhapatnam. It is expected to be capable of harboring two aircraft carriers, including the new Vikrant-class aircraft carrier that is being planned.

Southern Command

It has at least one airfield.[70]

Andaman & Nicobar Command

A fighter squadron is expected to be based in Port Blair in the future[71], to bolster the strength of the squadron of Mi-8 helicopters currently operating there.

Muscat (Oman)

A new airbase will be setup in Muscat, Oman to tackle piracy in the Gulf of Aden.[72]

Indian Navy's Sea Harriers fly along side U.S. Navy's F/A-18F Super Hornet during Malabar 2007.

Other Naval Air Arm

See also

References

  1. ^ 101 Center
  2. ^ Military Year-book - India 1965
  3. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Navy Timeline - "11 May 1953: First Naval Air Station, INS Garuda, inaugurated at Cochin. No.550 Squadron (consisting of Sealand and Firefly aircraft) commissioned"
  4. ^ Naval Aviation Museum, Dabolim, Goa, India - http://www.warbirdsofindia.com
  5. ^ Naval Aviation Museum, Dabolim, Goa, India - http://www.warbirdsofindia.com
  6. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Navy Timeline - "1960: No.300 White Tigers Squadron (consisting of Sea Hawk aircraft) commissioned."
  7. ^ a b Naval Aviation Museum, Dabolim, Goa, India - http://www.warbirdsofindia.com
  8. ^ Military Year-book - India 1965
  9. ^ Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and Their Aircraft By Richard Jones, Chris Bishop, Chris Chant, Christopher Chant
  10. ^ Students' Britannica India By Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani
  11. ^ INS Vikrant - the naval museum Posted by Nita
  12. ^ Naval Aviation Museum, Dabolim, Goa, India - http://www.warbirdsofindia.com
  13. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Navy Timeline - "1976: No.312 Albatross Squadron (consisting of Super Constellation aircraft) commissioned."
  14. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Navy Timeline - "01 October 1977: No.315 Winged Stallions Squadron (consisting of IL-38 aircraft) commissioned."
  15. ^ Bharat-Rakshak Indian Navy Timelines
  16. ^ Sankalp India Foundation - "What happened during Operation Vijay (1961)?"
  17. ^ Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and Their Aircraft By Richard Jones, Chris Bishop, Chris Chant, Christopher Chant
  18. ^ YouTube documentary
  19. ^ Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-first Century By Geoffrey Till
  20. ^ a b c - Centaur Class - http://www.bharat-rakshak.com
  21. ^ - R 22 Viraat Class HMS Centaur Class (UK) Aircraft Carrier - GlobalSecurity.org
  22. ^ MIG-29 FULCRUM (MIKOYAN-GUREVICH)
  23. ^ MiG-29K/KUB FULCRUM-D at Bharat-Rakshak
  24. ^ First MiG-29K/KUB aircraft for Indian Navy undergoes flight tests
  25. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com:The Indian Navy's first MiG-29KUB
  26. ^ Russia to deliver first four MiG 29K by September
  27. ^ Russia to start MiG fighter deliveries to India in spring 2009
  28. ^ Navy's MiGs superior to IAF's Sukhois
  29. ^ First MiG 29 K for Indian Navy takes off
  30. ^ http://livefist.blogspot.com/2009/08/exclusive-mig-29k-squadron-to-be-called.html
  31. ^ Indian Navy Sea Harrier Operations video on YouTube
  32. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: The White Tigers of Rewa
  33. ^ Flight Global
  34. ^ Modernized Tu-142 handed over to Indian Eastern Headquarters
  35. ^ Forceindia.net
  36. ^ Birds of a different feather
  37. ^ Maritime surveillance capability needs to be strengthened: Mehta
  38. ^ Indian Navy developing new generation UAV
  39. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: HAL Dhruv at Aero India '05
  40. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Eyes in the Skies
  41. ^ Sea King
  42. ^ India to Upgrade 17 Sea King Copters for $300M
  43. ^ Indian military aviation OrBat
  44. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  45. ^ http://oheraldo.in/pagedetails.asp?nid=26504&cid=2
  46. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-Russia-to-ink-12-bn-deal-for-29-more-MiG-29Ks/articleshow/5460879.cms
  47. ^ http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jau/jau_1019.html
  48. ^ timesofindia
  49. ^ the telegraph
  50. ^ http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NAVY/Aviation/Aircraft/112-Westland-Sea-King.html
  51. ^ India's construction of aircraft carrier.
  52. ^ IAC construction
  53. ^ *India to have ‘3-carrier Navy’
  54. ^ Naval Tejas
  55. ^ Gorshkov delay stalls carrier trials of naval LCA
  56. ^ http://news.rediff.com/report/2009/sep/21/navy-places-order-for-6-tejas-lca.htm Navy places Rs 900-cr order for 6 Tejas LCA
  57. ^ http://www.india-defence.com/reports-4113
  58. ^ http://www.itexaminer.com/new-delhi-and-boeing-ink-sub-hunter-deal.aspx
  59. ^ IAF to get 40 more Hawk AJTs
  60. ^ Indian Navy in the Market For New ASW Helicopters
  61. ^ Indian navy places order for Saras aircraft
  62. ^ India developing unmanned helicopter
  63. ^ Indian Navy RFPs for maritime patrol aircraft soon, to develop rotary wing UAVs ne
  64. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com:Administrative Structure
  65. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: NAVY SENIOR APPOINTMENTS & OFFICERS LIST
  66. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Admiral Sureesh Mehta
  67. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Eastern Command
  68. ^ Navy chief calls for enhanced preparedness
  69. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Western Command
  70. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Southern Command
  71. ^ Bharat-Rakshak.com: Andaman & Nicobar Command
  72. ^ Naval air base to tackle piracy

External links


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