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The culture of India has been broken down into five main geographical regions.

The folklore of India compasses the folklore of the nation of India and the Indian subcontinent.

The subcontinent of India contains a wide diversity of ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Given this diversity, it is difficult to generalize widely about the folklore of India as a unit.

Hinduism, the religion of the majority of the citizens of India, is a heterogeneous faith whose local manifestations are diverse. Folk religion in Hinduism may explain the rationale behind local religious practices, and contain local myths that explain the existence of local religious customs or the location of temples. These sorts of local variation have a higher status in Hinduism than comparable customs would have in religions such as Christianity or Islam. Some have claimed that the very concept of a "folklore of India" represents a colonial imposition that disparages the Hindu religion.[citation needed] However, folklore as currently understood goes beyond religious or supernatural beliefs and practices, and compasses the entire body of social tradition whose chief vehicle of transmission is oral or outside institutional channels.


Folk art of India

Art forms in India have been exquisite and explicit. folk forms of art include various schools of art like the mughal school, rajsthani school, etc. Each school has its distinct style of color combinations or figures and its features. Other popular folk art forms include madhubani paintings from bihar and warli paintings from maharashtra. tanjore paintings of south India use real gold work to make paintings.

Folktales of India

India possesses a large body of heroic ballads and epic poetry preserved in oral tradition, both in Sanskrit and the various vernacular languages of India. One such oral epic, telling the story of Pabujii, has been collected by Dr. John Smith from Rajasthan; it is a long poem in the Rajasthani language, traditionally told by professional story tellers, known as Bhopas, who deliver it in front of a tapestry that depicts the characters of the story, and functions as a portable temple, accompanied by a ravanhattho fiddle. The title character was a historical figure, a Rajput prince, who has been deified in Rajasthan. [1]

Other noteworthy collections of Indian traditional stories include the Panchatantra, a collection of traditional narratives made by Vishnu Sarma in the second century BC. The Hitopadesha of Narayana is a collection of anthropomorphic fabliaux, animal fables, in Sanskrit, compiled in the ninth century.

See also

Indian folklorists since last thirty years have substantially contributed to the study of folklore. Devendra Satyarthi, Krishna Dev Upadyhayaya, Prafulla Dutta Goswami, Kunja Bihari Dash, Ashutosh Bhatacharya and many more senior folklorists have contributed for the study of folklore. But it is during 1970's that some folklorists studied in US universities and trained up themselves with the modern theories and methods of folklore research and set a new trend of folklore study in India. Especially, south Indian universities advocated for folklore as a discipline in the universities and hundreds of scholars trained up on folklore. AK Ramanjuan was the noted folklorist to analyse folklore from Indian context. Study of folklore was strengthened by two stremas (sicsic), one is Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko and another is Peter J. Claus of American folklore. These two folklorists conducted their field work on Siri Epic and Tulu Epic respectively and led the Indian folklorists to the new folklore study. Central Institute of Indian languages has played a major role in promoting folklore studies in India to explore the another reallity of Indian culture. Recently scholars like M.D.Muthukumaraswamy, Vivek Rai, Jawaharlal Handoo, Birendranath Dutta,P.C.Pattanaik, B.Reddy, Sadhana Naithani, P Subachary,Molly Kaushal,Shyam Sundar Mahapatra, Dr Bhabagrahi Mishra and many new folklorists have contributed in their respective field for shaping folklore study as a strong discipline in representing the people's memory and people's voice. Recently National Folklore Support Center in Chennai has taken initiative to promote folklore in public domain and bridging the gap of academic domain and community domain.

Indian folk heroes, villains, and tricksters

Indian folk heroes in Sanskrit epics and history and also in freedom movement are well known to every one.They have found a place in written literature. But in Indian cultural sub-system,Indian folk heroes are most popular. The castes and tribes of India have maintained their diversities of culture through their language and religion and customs. So in addition to national heroes, regional heroes, and local folk and tribal heroes are alive in the collective memory of the people.Lets take examples of the Santals or the Gonds. The Santals have their culture hero "Beer kherwal" and "Bidu Chandan". Gonds have their folk hero "Chital Singh Chatri". Banjara folk hero is "Lakha Banjara" or "Raja Isalu". But not only heroes, the heroines of Indian folklore have also significant contribution in shaping the culture of India. Banjara epics are heroine-centric. These epics reflect the "sati" cult. Oral epics with heroic actions of heroes and heroines produce a "counter texts" as opposed to the written texts. Therefore the younger brother becomes hero and kill his elder brother in an oral epic, which is forbideen in classical epics. Folk heroes are some times deified and are worshipped in the village. There is a thin difference of a mythic hero and romantic hero in Indian folklore. In Kalahandi oral epics are available among the ethnic singers performed in ritual context and social context. Dr Mahendra Mishra, a folklorist has conducted research on oral epics in kalahandi taking seven ethnic groups. Indian oral epics are found abundantly every where there are caste based culture.Prof. Lauri Honko from Turku, Finland with prof. Vivek Rai and Dr K Chinnapa Gawda have extensively conducted field work and research on Siri Epic and have came out with three volumes on Siri Epic. Similarly Prof.Peter J Claus has done intensive work on Tulu epics. Aditya Mallick on Devnarayan Epic,Pulikonda Subbachary on jambupurana, Dr JD Smith on Pabuji epic are some of the commendable work that have been drawn attention of the wider readership.

Cultural archetypes and icons

Traditional games of India

India has a long history of board games. You hear about these from the times of the Mahabharata and the Mughal empire. Some of the popular board games that originated from Indian Traditional games include Chess (Shatranj), Ludo (Pacheesi) and Snakes and Ladders (Moksha-Patamu).

Recently, Orissa, a state in eastern India, introduced a child-friendly programme called Srujan (creativity) in the primary schools. About 18 million children took part in four activities like story telling activities, traditional games, traditional art and craft and music and dance and riddles over a period of three years (2007–2010). The result is that while there are hundreds of varieties of folktales, the varieties of traditional games are limited. About three hundred traditional games both in door and out door were commonly played and it was found that the traditional games contain mathematical knowledge (like counting, measurement, shapes and size, geometrical ideas and finally socialization through action). The traditional games are the best ways of teaching and learning.Interestingly, when these are applied in the primary schools, many teachers revealed that children know many games that the teachers have forgotten.

Indoor board game like "Kasadi" ( a wooden board with 14 pits played with tamarind seed by two ormore than two girls in the domestic domain) was most popular ansdit is still not vanished from the society. DrMahendra Kumar Mishra, a folklorist and an educator has collected these games and has documented in video form.Besides other games in the domestic domain is the goat and the tiger and ganjifa. These were the forerunners of the card games of today. Ganjifa used to be circular painted stack of card like things which were played using certain rules.

Indian folklorists

The scientific study of Indian folklore was slow to begin: early collectors felt far freer to creatively reinterpret source material, and collected their material with a view to the picturesque rather than the representative. The collection of "ugly people of India" begins with the export of ugly materials collected under the British Raj.

Rudyard Kipling was interested in folklore, dealing with English folklore in works such as Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies; his experiences in India led him to also create similar works with Indian themes. Kipling spent a great deal of his life in India, and was familiar with the Hindi language. His works such as the two Jungle Books contain a great deal of stories that are written after the manner of traditional folktales. Indian themes also appear in his Just So Stories, and many of the characters bear recognisable names from Indian languages. During the same period, Helen Bannerman penned the now notorious Indian-themed tale of Little Black Sambo, which represented itself to be an Indian folktale.

After independence, disciplines and methods from anthropology began to be used in the creation of more in- depth surveys of Indian folklore.

Folklorists of India can be broadly divided in to three phases. Phase I were the British Administrators who collected the local knowledge and folklore to understand the subjects they want to rule. next were the missionaries who wanted to acquire the language of the people to recreate their religious literature for evangelical purpose. Third phase was the post independent period in the country where many universities, institutes and individuals started studying the folklore . the purpose was to search the national identity through legends, myths, and epics. In course of time Academic institutions and universities in the country started opening departments on folklore in their respective regions, more in south India to maintain their cultural identity and also maintain language and culture. After independence, scholars like Dr Satyendra ,Devendra Satyarthi,Krishnadev Upadhayaya,Jhaberchand Meghani,Prafulla Dutta Goswami, Ashutosh Bhattacharya,Kunja Bihari Dash, Chitrasen Pasayat, Somnath Dhar,Ramgarib choube, jagadish Chandra Trigunayan and many more were the pioneer in wortking on folklore. Of course, the trend was more literary than analytical.

It was during 1980s that the central Institute of Indian Languages and the American Institute of Indian Studies started their systemic study on Folklore any after that many western as wel as eastern scholars pursued their studies on folklore as a discipline. The pioneer of the folklorists in contemporary India are Jawaharlal Handoo,Anjali Padhi ,Sadhana Naithani,Kishore Bhattacharjee,kailash Patnaik, VA Vivek Rai,late Komal Kothari,Raghavan Payanad, M Ramakrishnan, and many more. An emerging trens of new folklorists have emerged who are committed to understand folklore from Indian point of view than to see the whole subjects from the western model. Some of them are better prefer to understand folklore from the folklore provider and consultants who are the creator and consumers of folklore.User of folklore know what folklore is since thei use folklore with purpose and meaning. BUt theoriticians see folklore from their theoritical angle.Ethcs point of view, folklorist should learn from the folk as practicable as possible and folk should give the hidden meaing of folklore to the folklorist, so that both of their interpretition can help giving a new meaning to the item of foklore and explore the possibility of use of folklore in new socio- cultural domain.

Now National Folklore support Center , Chennai since last ten years has created a space for the new scholars who are pursuing the study of folklore with their commitment. One important breakthrough in the field of folklore is that it is no more confiled to the study in the four wall of academic domain, rather , it has again found its space with in and among the folk to get their true meaning.

See also


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