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State of Indiana
Flag of Indiana State seal of Indiana
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Hoosier State
Motto(s): The Crossroads of America
before statehood, known as
the Indiana Territory
Map of the United States with Indiana highlighted
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) Northern, Midwestern and
Southern English Dialects,
German, French, Spanish, Ilocano
Other Languages
Demonym Hoosier [1]
Capital Indianapolis
Largest city Indianapolis
Largest metro area Indianapolis Metropolitan Area
Area  Ranked 38th in the US
 - Total 36,418 sq mi
(94,321 km2)
 - Width 140 miles (225 km)
 - Length 270 miles (435 km)
 - % water 1.5
 - Latitude 37° 46′ N to 41° 46′ N
 - Longitude 84° 47′ W to 88° 6′ W
Population  Ranked 16th in the US
 - Total 6,423,113 (2009 est.)[2]
 - Density 169.5/sq mi  (65.46/km2)
Ranked 17th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Hoosier Hill
Franklin Township, Wayne County [3]
1,257 ft  (383 m)
 - Mean 689 ft  (210 m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River and mouth
of Wabash River
Point Township, Posey County [3]
320 ft  (98 m)
Admission to Union  December 11, 1816 (19th)
Governor Mitch Daniels (R)
Lieutenant Governor Becky Skillman (R)
U.S. Senators Richard Lugar (R)
Evan Bayh (D)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats,
4 Republicans (list)
Time zones  
 - 80 counties Eastern UTC-5/-4
 - 12 counties in
Evansville and
Gary Metro Areas
For more information, see Time in Indiana
Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations IN US-IN
Website http://www.in.gov
Indiana State Symbols
Flag of Indiana.svg
The Flag of Indiana.

Indiana state seal.png
The Seal of Indiana.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) Cardinal
Flower(s) Peony
Tree Tulip tree

Inanimate insignia
Beverage Water
Poem "Indiana"
Slogan(s) Restart your Engines
Soil Miami
Song(s) "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away"

Route marker(s)
Indiana Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Indiana
Released in 2002

Lists of United States state insignia

Indiana (Listeni /ɪndiˈænə/) is a U.S. state, the 19th admitted to the Union. It is located in the Great Lakes region, and with approximately 6.3 million residents, is ranked 16th in population and 17th in population density.[4] Indiana is ranked 38th in land area, and is the smallest state in the continental US west of the Appalachian Mountains. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis, the largest of any state capital east of the Mississippi River.

Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 as well as a number of smaller industrial cities and small towns. It is home to several major sports teams and athletic events including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts, the NBA's Indiana Pacers, the Indianapolis 500 motorsports race (which is the largest single-day sporting event in the world).

Residents of Indiana are known as Hoosiers, but the origin of the term is unknown. Many explanations are given including the humorous one's of James Whitcomb Riley stating that Indiana pioneers would yell out "Who's There" in the wilderness or "Who's Ear?" after a brawl. The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land". This name dates back to at least the 1768 and was first used by Congress when the Indiana Territory was incorporated in 1800, before which it had been part of the Northwest Territory.[5][6] Prior to this, Indiana had been primarily inhabited by Native Americans; Angel Mounds State Historic Site, one of the best preserved Native American sites in the United States, can be found in Southwestern Indiana near Evansville.[7]

Contents

History

The first people to live in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, ingressing about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the conclusion of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as Mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping, knapping and flaking.[8] The subsequent phase of Indiana's Native American antiquity is called the Archaic period, which occurred between 5000 and 4000 BC. They differed from the Paleo-Indians in that they used new tools and techniques to prepare food. Such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They also used ground stone tools such as stone axes, woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, mounds and middens were created, indicating that their settlements were becoming more permanent. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC.[8] Afterwards, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, ceramics and pottery were created as well as the increase of usage in horticulture. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began exploration of long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, an exhaustive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture to grow crops such as corn and squash. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD.[8] The incoming period afterwards was known as the Mississippian period, which lasted from 1000 to 1650 AD. During this stage, large settlements were created that had similarities to towns, such as the Angel Mounds. They had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where instrumental individuals of the settlement lived or conducted rituals.[8]

French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River in 1679. He returned the following year to gain knowledge of northern Indiana. French fur traders also came along and brought blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1732, the French had made three trading posts along the Wabash River with the efforts to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In a period of a few years, the British arrived and contended against the French for management of the fruitful fur trade. Fighting between the French and British occurred throughout the 1750s as a result. Due to mistreatment from the British, the Native American tribes sided with the French during the French and Indian War. By the conclusion of the war in 1763, the French had lost all land west of the colonies, and control had been ceded to the British crown. Neighboring tribes in Indiana, however, did not give up and destroyed Fort Ouiatenon and Fort Miami during Pontiac's Rebellion. The royal proclamation of 1763 ceded the land west of the Appalachians for Indian use, and was thus labelled Indian territory. In 1775, the American Revolutionary War began as the colonists looked to free themselves from British rule. The majority of the fighting took place in the east, but military officer George Rogers Clark called for an army to help fight the British in the west.[9] Clark's army won significant battles to overtake Vincennes and Fort Sackville on February 25, 1779.[10] During the war, Clark managed to cut off British troops who were attacking the colonist from the west. His success is often credited for changing the course of the American Revolutionary War.[11] At the end of the revolutionary war, through the treaty of Paris, the British crown ceded the land south of the great lakes to the newly formed United States. They did so without the input of the Indian tribes living in the area. The tribes were not party to the treaty. Some scholars argue that because of this lack of representation, Indian rights to the land were unfairly ceded to the US by the British Crown.

Present-day Indiana became part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. In 1800, Ohio was separated from the Northwest Territory by Congress, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory.[12] President Thomas Jefferson chose William Henry Harrison as the governor of the territory and Vincennes was established as the capital.[13] After Michigan was separated and the Illinois Territory was formed, the size of Indiana was reduced to its current state.[12] In 1810, Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa encouraged other tribes to resist European settlement into the territory. Supporters of Tecumseh formed Prophetstown while Harrison countered by building Fort Harrison nearby. The fort was often targeted by Prophetstown for attacks. Using the attacks as a reason to invade Prophetstown, Harrison went on the offensive and defeated the Native Americans in the Battle of Tippecanoe on November 7, 1811. After the attack, Tecumseh, who was away during the battle, went to different tribes to encourage them to retaliate. For nearly two years, his followers killed and kidnapped settlers and burned their homes. Tecumseh was killed in 1813 during the Battle of Thames. After his death, while some Native Americans returned to their settlements, others fled the area or were forced to go further west.[14]

In December 1813, Corydon was established as the capital of the Indiana Territory.[12] Two years later, a petition for statehood was approved by the Indiana legislature and sent to Congress. Afterwards, an Enabling Act was passed to provide an election of delegates to write a constitution for Indiana. On June 10, 1816, delegates assembled at Corydon to write the constitution, which was completed in nineteen days. President James Madison approved Indiana's admission into the union as the nineteenth state on December 11, 1816.[10] In 1825, the state capital was moved from Corydon to Indianapolis and 26 years later, a new constitution was adopted.[12] Following statehood, the new government set out on an ambitious plan to transform Indiana from a wilderness frontier into a developed, well-populated, and thriving state to accommodate for significant demographic and economic changes. The state's founders initiated a program that led to the construction of roads, canals, railroads and state-funded public schools. The plans nearly bankrupted the state and were a financial disaster, but increased land and produce value more than fourfold.[15]

During the American Civil War, Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the affairs of the nation. As the first western state to mobilize for the war, Indiana's soldiers were present in all of the major engagements during the war. Indiana residents were present in both the first and last battles and the state provided 126 infantry regiments, 26 batteries of artillery and 13 regiments of cavalry to the cause of the Union.[16] In 1861, Indiana was assigned a quota of 7,500 men to join the Union Army.[17] So many volunteered in the first call that thousands had to be turned away. Before the war ended, Indiana contributed 208,367 men to fight and serve in the war. Casualties were over 35% among these men: 24,416 lost their lives in the conflict and over 50,000 more were wounded.[18] The only Civil War battle fought in Indiana was the Battle of Corydon, which occurred during Morgan's Raid. The battle left 15 dead, 40 wounded, and 355 captured.[19]

Following the American Civil War, Indiana industry began to grow at an accelerated rate across the northern part of the state leading to the formation of labor unions and suffrage movements.[20] The Indiana Gas Boom led to rapid industrialization during the late 19th century.[21] In the early 20th century, Indiana developed into a strong manufacturing state.[22] The state also saw many developments with the construction of Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the takeoff of the auto industry.[23] During the 1930s, Indiana, like the rest of the nation, was affected by the Great Depression. The economic downturn had a wide-ranging negative impact on Indiana, such as the decline of urbanization. The situation was aggravated by the Dust Bowl, which caused an influx of migrants from the rural Midwestern United States. Governor Paul V. McNutt's administration struggled to build a state-funded welfare system to help the overwhelmed private charities. During his administration, spending and taxes were both cut drastically in response to the depression and the state government was completely reorganized. McNutt also ended Prohibition in the state and enacted the state's first income tax. On several occasions, he declared martial law to put an end to worker strikes.[24] World War II helped lift the economy in Indiana, as the war required steel, food and other goods that were produced in Indiana.[25] Roughly 10 percent of Indiana's population joined the armed forces while hundreds of industries earned war production contracts and began making war material.[26] The effects of the war helped end the Great Depression.[25]

With the conclusion of World War II, Indiana rebounded to levels of production prior to the Great Depression. Industry became the primary employer, a trend that continued into the 1960s. Urbanization during the 1950s and 1960s led to substantial growth in the state's urban centers. The auto, steel and pharmaceutical industries topped Indiana's major businesses. Indiana's population continued to grow during the years after the war, exceeding five million by the 1970 census.[27] In the 1960s, the administration of Matthew E. Welsh adopted its first sales tax of two percent.[28] Welsh also worked with the General Assembly to pass the Indiana Civil Rights Bill, granting equal protection to minorities in seeking employment.[29] Beginning in 1970, a series of amendments to the state constitution were proposed. With adoption, the Indiana Court of Appeals was created and the procedure of appointing justices on the courts was adjusted.[30] The 1973 oil crisis created a recession that hurt the automotive industry in Indiana. Companies like Delco Electronics and Delphi began a long series of downsizing that contributed to high unemployment rates in manufacturing in Anderson, Muncie, and Kokomo. The deindustrialization trend continued until the 1980s when the national and state economy began to diversify and recover.[31]

Geography

Perfectly square quarter sections of farmland cover Central Indiana.

With a total area of 36,418 square miles (94,320 km2), Indiana ranks as the 38th largest state in size.[32] The state has a maximum dimension north to south of 250 miles (400 km) and a maximum east to west dimension of 145 miles (233 km).[33] The state is bordered on the north by Michigan, on the east by Ohio and on the west by Illinois.[34] The Ohio River separates Indiana from Kentucky on the southern border.[35] Indiana is one of eight states that make up the Great Lakes region.[36] The state includes two natural regions of the United States, the Central Lowland and the Interior Low Plateau.[37] The average altitude of Indiana is about 760 feet (230 m) above sea level.[38] The highest point in the state is Hoosier Hill, which is 1,257 feet (383 m) above sea level.[39] Only 2,850 square miles (7,400 km2) have an altitude greater than 1,000 feet (300 m) and this area is enclosed within 14 counties. About 4,700 square miles (12,000 km2) have an elevation of less than 500 feet (150 m).[40]

The till plains make up the central allotment of Indiana. Much of its appearance is a result of elements left behind by glaciers. The area includes some low hills and the soil is composed of glacial sands, gravel and clay, which results to exceptional farmland in central Indiana.[34] The unglaciated segment of the state carries a different and off-balance surface, characterized in places by profound valleys and expeditious streams. A limited area in the southeastern area of the state possesses these types of characteristics. The soil is fertile in the valleys of Indiana, most notably Whitewater Valley which is known for its prodigious farming. In northwest Indiana, there are various sand hills and dunes, due in some measure to a former extension of the lake and wind action. In the basin of the Kankakee River there is an extensive scope of lakes, marshes and prairies. In northeastern Indiana there is a region of tall moraines, one of which is 200 to 500 feet (61 to 150 m) deep, 25 miles (40 km) wide and stretching across a distance of 100 miles (160 km).[41]

The Wabash River, which is the longest free-flowing river east of the Mississippi, is the official river of Indiana.[42][43] At 475 miles (764 km) in length, the river bisects the state from northeast to southwest before flowing south, mostly along the Indiana-Illinois border. The river has been the subject of several songs, such as On the Banks of the Wabash, The Wabash Cannonball and Back Home Again, In Indiana.[44][45]

The Kankakee River goes through northern Indiana and serves as a demarcating line between suburban northwest Indiana and the rest of the state.[46] There are over 1,000 lakes in Indiana.[47] Tippecanoe Lake is the deepest lake in the state reaching depths at nearly 120 feet (37 m)) while Lake Wawasee is the largest natural lake in Indiana.[48]

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Climate

Indiana has a humid continental climate, with cool winters and warm, irriguous summers.[49] The extreme southern portion of the state is within the humid subtropical climate area and receives more precipitation than other parts of Indiana.[34] Temperatures generally diverge from the north and south sections of the state, with the annual mean temperature being 49°F-58°F (9°C-12°C) in the north and 57°F (14°C) in the south. While temperatures can fall below 0°F (-18°C) in the winter, the average in January ranges between 17°F (-8°C) and 35°F (2°C). Average temperatures during July differentiate from 63°F (17°C) to 88°F (31°C). The record high temperature for the state was 116°F (47°C) set on July 14, 1936 at Collegeville. The record low was -36°F (-38°C) on January 19, 1994 at New Whiteland. The growing season typically spans from 155 days in the north and 185 days in the south. While droughts occasionally occur in the southern region, rainfall totals are administered equally throughout the year. Precipitation totals range from 35 inches (89 cm) near Lake Michigan to 45 inches (110 cm) along the Ohio River, with the state averages to 40 inches (100 cm). The annual snowfall in Indiana averages less than 22 inches (56 cm) and the average wind speed in the state is 8 miles per hour (13 km/h).[50] Indiana is one of the most tornado-prone states in the country, ranking sixth in a list by VorTek, an Alabama company. The city of South Bend was ranked the 14th most tornado-prone city in the country, ahead of cities such as Houston and Wichita.[51] The same company also published a list of the most tornado prone cities and states in April, with Indiana coming in first and South Bend ranking 16th.[52] Despite its vulnerability, Indiana is not a part of tornado alley.[51]

Average Precipitation in Indiana[53]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annum
2.48 2.27 3.36 3.89 4.46 4.19 4.22 3.91 3.12 3.02 3.44 3.13 41.49

Demographics

Population

Indiana Population Density Map
Age and gender distribution in Indiana
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1800 2,632
1810 24,520 831.6%
1820 147,178 500.2%
1830 343,031 133.1%
1840 685,866 99.9%
1850 988,416 44.1%
1860 1,350,428 36.6%
1870 1,680,637 24.5%
1880 1,978,301 17.7%
1890 2,192,404 10.8%
1900 2,516,462 14.8%
1910 2,700,876 7.3%
1920 2,930,390 8.5%
1930 3,238,503 10.5%
1940 3,427,796 5.8%
1950 3,934,224 14.8%
1960 4,662,498 18.5%
1970 5,193,669 11.4%
1980 5,490,224 5.7%
1990 5,544,159 1.0%
2000 6,080,485 9.7%
Est. 2009[2] 6,423,113 5.6%

As of 2008, there were 6,376,792 people residing in the state. The population density was 169.5 persons per square mile. The racial makeup of the state was 88.0% White, 9.1% African American, 1.4% Asian, 1.2% from a biracial or multiracial background and 0.3% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 5.2% of the population.[54] The Hispanic population is Indiana’s fastest growing minority.[55] In the state, 24.9% of the population are under the age of 18, 6.9% are under the age of five and 12.8% are 65 years of age or older.[54] The median age is 36.4 years.[55] In 2005, 77.7% of Indiana residents lived in metropolitan counties, 16.5% lived in micropolitan counties and 5.9% lived in non-core counties.[56]

German is the largest ancestry reported in Indiana, with 22.7% of the population reporting that ancestry in the Census. Persons citing American (12.0%) and English ancestry (8.9%) are also numerous, as are Irish (10.8%) and Polish (3.0%).[57]

The center of population of Indiana is located in Hamilton County, in the town of Sheridan.[58] Population growth since 1990 has been concentrated in the counties surrounding Indianapolis, with four of the top five fastest-growing counties in that area: Hamilton, Hendricks, Johnson, and Hancock. The other county is Dearborn County, which is near Cincinnati. Hamilton County has also been the fastest growing county in the area consisting of Indiana and its bordering states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and Kentucky and the 27th fastest growing county in the country.[59]

In 2005, the median household income for Indiana residents was $43,993. Nearly 498,700 Indiana households had incomes from $50,000 to $74,999, accounting for 20% of all households. Hamilton County’s median household income is nearly $35,000 higher than the Indiana average. At $78,932, it ranks seventh in the country among counties with less than 250,000 people. The next highest median incomes in Indiana are also found in the Indianapolis suburbs; Hendricks County has a median of $57,538, followed by Johnson County at $56,251.[60]

Demographics of Indiana (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 90.13% 8.91% 0.65% 1.21% 0.08%
2000 (Hispanic only) 3.31% 0.15% 0.07% 0.03% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 89.57% 9.42% 0.63% 1.44% 0.08%
2005 (Hispanic only) 4.29% 0.19% 0.08% 0.04% 0.02%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.51% 8.99% -0.26% 23.11% 11.31%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 1.33% 8.68% -2.87% 22.97% 9.77%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 33.38% 26.82% 21.02% 28.42% 16.70%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Religion

St. Meinrad Archabbey, located in the town of St. Meinrad in northeastern Spencer County, Indiana, is one of only two archabbeys in the United States and one of 11 in the world.

Although the largest single religious denomination in the state is Roman Catholic (836,009 members), most of the population are members of various Protestant denominations. The largest Protestant denomination by number of adherents in 2000 was the United Methodist Church with 288,308.[61] A study by the Graduate Center found that 20 percent are Roman Catholic, 14 percent belong to different Baptist churches, 10 percent are other Christians, nine percent are Methodist, and six percent are Lutheran. The study also found that 16 percent are secular.[62]

Indiana is home to the St. Meinrad Archabbey, one of two archabbeys in the United States and one of 11 in the world. Two conservative denominations, the Free Methodist Church and the Wesleyan Church, have their headquarters in Indianapolis as does the Christian Church.[63][64] The Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches maintains offices and publishing work in Winona Lake.[65] Huntington serves as the home to the Church of the United Brethren in Christ.[66] Anderson is home to the headquarters of the Church of God.[67] The headquarters of the Missionary Church is located in Fort Wayne.[68] The Friends United Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, the largest branch of American Quakerism, is based in Richmond,[69] which also houses the oldest Quaker seminary in the United States, the Earlham School of Religion.[70] Indiana is home to an estimated 250,000 Muslims.[71] The Islamic Society of North America is headquartered in Plainfield.[72]

Cities and towns

Indianapolis is the state capital and largest city in Indiana.

With a population of 795,458, Indianapolis is the largest city in Indiana and 13th largest in the United States. Three other cities in Indiana have a population greater than 100,000: Fort Wayne (251,247), Evansville (116,253) and South Bend (104,069). Since 2000, Fishers has seen the largest population rise amongst the state’s 20 largest cities with an increase of 69.1 percent. Hammond and Gary have seen the largest population declines regarding the top 20 largest cities since 2000, with a decrease of -6.8 and -5.9 percent respectively.[73] Other cities that have seen extensive growth since 2000 are Noblesville (39.4 percent), Greenwood (26.3 percent), Carmel (21.4 percent) and Lawrence (9.3 percent). Meanwhile, Evansville (-4.2 percent), Anderson (-4 percent) and Muncie (-3.9 percent) are cities that have seen the steepest decline in population in the state.[74] Indianapolis has the largest metropolitan area in the state and 33rd largest in the country.[75] It consist of Marion County and eight surrounding counties in central Indiana.[76] Altogether there are 13 metropolitan areas in Indiana.[77]

Law and government

Governor Mitch Daniels during Indianapolis Navy Week in August 2006

The Governor of Indiana serves as the chief executive of the state and has the authority to manage the government as established in the Constitution of Indiana. The governor and the lieutenant governor are jointly elected to four-year terms.[78] The governor may not serve more than two consecutive terms. The governor works with the Indiana General Assembly and the Supreme Court of Indiana to govern the state and has the authority to adjust the other branches. Special sessions of the General Assembly can be called upon by the governor as well as have the power to select and remove leaders of nearly all state departments, boards and commissions. Other notable powers include calling out the Indiana Guard Reserve or the Indiana National Guard in times of emergency or disaster, issuing pardons or commuting the sentence of any criminal offenders except in cases of treason or impeachment and possessing an abundant amount of statutory authority.[78][79][80] The lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Senate and is responsible for ensuring that the senate rules are acted in accordance with by its constituents. The lieutenant governor can only vote to break ties. If the governor dies in office, becomes permanently incapacitated, resigns or is impeached, the lieutenant governor becomes governor. If both the governor and lieutenant governor positions are unoccupied, the Senate President pro tempore becomes governor.[81]

The Indiana General Assembly is composed of a 50-member Senate and 100-member House of Representatives. The Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly and the House of Representatives is the lower house.[78] The General Assembly has exclusive legislative authority within the state government. Both the Senate and House of Representatives can introduce legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not authorized to initiate legislation that will affect revenue. Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but must be passed by both houses before they can submitted to the Governor.[82] The legislature can nullify a veto from the governor with a majority vote of full membership in the Senate and House of Representatives.[78] Each law passed by the General Assembly must be used without exception to the entire state. The General Assembly has no authority to create legislation that targets only a particular community.[82][83] The General Assembly can manage the state's judiciary system by arranging the size of the courts and the bounds of their districts. It also can oversee the activities of the executive branch of the state government, has restricted power to regulate the county governments within the state, and has exclusive power to initiate the method to alter the Indiana Constitution.[82][84]

The Indiana Supreme Court is made up of five judges with a Court of Appeals composed of 15 judges. The governor selects judges for the supreme and appeal courts from a group of applicants chosen by a special commission. After serving for two years, the judges must acquire the support of the electorate to serve for a 10-year term.[78] In nearly all cases, the Supreme Court does not have original jurisdiction and can only hear cases that are petitioned to the court following being heard in lower courts. Local circuit courts are where the majority of cases begin with a trial and the consequence decided by the jury. The Supreme Court does has original and sole jurisdiction in certain specific areas including the practice of law, discipline or disbarment of Judges appointed to the lower state courts, and supervision over the exercise of jurisdiction by the other lower courts of the State.[85][86]

The state is divided into 92 counties, which are led by a board of county commissioners. Most counties in Indiana have their own circuit court with judges that are elected for six-year terms. Approximately one-fourth of them have superior courts and a few of the densely populated counties have juvenile courts, criminal courts and probate courts. County officials that are elected to four-year terms include an auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner and clerk of the circuit court. All incorporated cities in Indiana have a mayor and council form of municipal government. Towns are governed by a town council and townships are governed by a township trustee and advisory board.[78]

Politics

Presidential elections results[87]
Year Republican Democratic
2008 48.83% 1,345,648 49.86% 1,374,039
2004 59.94% 1,479,438 39.26% 969,011
2000 56.65% 1,245,836 41.01% 901,980
1996 47.13% 1,006,693 41.55% 887,424
1992 42.91% 989,375 36.79% 848,420
1988 59.84% 1,297,763 39.69% 860,643
1984 61.67% 1,377,230 37.68% 841,481
1980 56.01% 1,255,656 37.65% 844,197
1976 53.32% 1,183,958 45.70% 1,014,714
1972 66.11% 1,405,154 33.34% 708,568
1968 50.29% 1,067,885 37.99% 806,659
1964 43.56% 911,118 55.98% 1,170,848
1960 55.03% 1,175,120 44.60% 952,358

From 1880 to 1924, a resident of Indiana was included in all but one presidential election. Indiana Representative William Hayden English was nominated for Vice-President and ran with Winfield Scott Hancock in the 1880 election.[88] In 1884, former Indiana Governor Thomas A. Hendricks was elected Vice-President of the United States. He served until his death on November 25, 1885, under President Grover Cleveland.[89] In 1888, Indiana Senator Benjamin Harrison was elected President of the United States and served one term. He remains the only U.S. President from Indiana. Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks was elected Vice-President in 1904, serving under President Theodore Roosevelt until 1913.[90] Fairbanks made another run for Vice-President with Charles Evans Hughes in 1912, but they both lost to Woodrow Wilson and Indiana Governor Thomas R. Marshall, who served as Vice-President from 1913 until 1921.[91] Not until 1989 did another presidential election involved a native of Indiana, when Senator Dan Quayle was elected Vice-President and served one term with George H. W. Bush.[34]

Indiana has long been considered to be a Republican stronghold.[92][93] The Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI) rates Indiana as a R+8. Indiana was one of only ten states to support Republican Wendell Willkie in 1940.[34] On 14 occasions has the Republican candidate defeated the Democrat by a double digit margin in the state, including six times where a Republican won the state by more than 20%.[94] In 2000 and 2004, George W. Bush won the state by a wide margin while the election was much closer overall. The state has only supported a Democrat for president five times since 1900. In 1912, Woodrow Wilson became the first Democrat to win the state with 43% of the vote. 20 years later, Franklin D. Roosevelt won the state with 55% of the vote over incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover. Roosevelt won the state again in 1936. In 1964, 56% of voters supported Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson over Republican Barry Goldwater. 44 years later, Democrat Barack Obama narrowly won the state against John McCain 50% to 49%.[95]

Statistically, Indiana is more of a stronghold for Republican presidential candidates than for candidates elected to state government. Where as only five Democratic presidential nominees have carried Indiana since 1900, 11 Democrats were elected governor during that time. Before Mitch Daniels became governor in 2005, Democrats had held the office for 16 consecutive years. Indiana elects two senators and nine representatives to Congress. The state has 11 electoral votes in presidential elections.[94] Seven of the districts favor the Republican Party according to the CPVI rankings. However, there are five Democrats serving as representatives compared to four Republicans. Historically, Republicans have been strongest in the eastern and central portions of the state, while Democrats have been strongest in the northwestern part of the state. Occasionally, certain counties in the southern part of the state will vote Democratic. Marion County, Indiana's most populated county, supported the Republican candidates from 1968 to 2000, before backing the Democrats in the 2004 and 2008 elections. Indiana's second most populated county, Lake County, is a strong supporter of the Democratic party that has not voted for a Republican since 1972.[94] In 2005, the Bay Area Center for Voting Research rated the most liberal and conservative cities in the United States on voting statistics in the 2004 presidential election, based on 237 cities with populations of more than 100,000. Five Indiana cities were mentioned in the study. On the liberal side, Gary was ranked second and South Bend came in at 83. Regarding conservative cities, Fort Wayne was 44th, Evansville was 60th and Indianapolis was 82nd on the list.[96]

Economy

Indiana State Quarter

In 2000, Indiana had a work force of 3,084,100.[97] The total gross state product in 2005 was US$214 billion in 2000 chained dollars.[98] Indiana's per capita income, as of 2005, was US$31,150.[99] A high percentage of Indiana's income is from manufacturing.[100] The Calumet region of northwest Indiana is the largest steel producing area in the U.S. Indiana's other manufactures include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, automobiles, electrical equipment, transportation equipment, chemical products, rubber, petroleum and coal products, and factory machinery.

Despite its reliance on manufacturing, Indiana has been much less affected by declines in traditional Rust Belt manufactures than many of its neighbors. The explanation appears to be certain factors in the labor market. First, much of the heavy manufacturing, such as industrial machinery and steel, requires highly skilled labor, and firms are often willing to locate where hard-to-train skills already exist. Second, Indiana's labor force is located primarily in medium-sized and smaller cities rather than in very large and expensive metropolises. This makes it possible for firms to offer somewhat lower wages for these skills than would normally be paid. Firms often see in Indiana a chance to obtain higher than average skills at lower than average wages.[101]

Indiana is home to the international headquarters of pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in Indianapolis, the state's largest corporation, as well as the world headquarters of Mead Johnson Nutritionals in Evansville.[102] Overall, Indiana ranks fifth among all U.S. states in total sales and shipments of pharmaceutical products and second highest in the number of biopharmaceutical related jobs.[103]

The state is located within the Corn Belt. The state has a feedlot-style system raising corn to fatten hogs and cattle. The state is also located with the Grain Belt. Along with corn, soybeans are also a major cash crop. Its proximity to large urban centers, such as Indianapolis and Chicago, assure that dairying, egg production, and specialty horticulture occur. Other crops include melons, tomatoes, grapes, mint, popping corn, and tobacco in the southern counties.[104] Most of the original land was not prairie and had to be cleared of deciduous trees. Many parcels of woodland remain and support a furniture-making sector in the southern portion of the state.

Indiana's economy is considered to be one of the most business-friendly in the U.S. This is due in part to its conservative business climate, low business taxes, relatively low union membership, and labor laws. The doctrine of at-will employment, whereby an employer can terminate an employee for any or no reason, is in force.

Indiana has a flat state income tax rate of 3.4%. Many Indiana counties also collect income tax. The state sales tax rate is 7%. Property taxes are imposed on both real and personal property in Indiana and are administered by the Department of Local Government Finance. Property is subject to taxation by a variety of taxing units (schools, counties, townships, cities and towns, libraries), making the total tax rate the sum of the tax rates imposed by all taxing units in which a property is located. However, a "circuit breaker" law enacted on March 19, 2008 limits property taxes to one percent of assessed value for homeowners, two percent for rental properties and farmland and three percent for businesses.

State Budget

Indiana doesn't have a legal requirement to balance the state budget either in law or its constitution. Instead, Indiana has a constitutional ban on assuming debt. Indiana has a Rainy Day Fund and for healthy reserves proportional to spending. Indiana is one of the few states in the U.S. which do not allow a line-item veto. Indiana does not use Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

Energy

Indiana's power production chiefly consists of the consumption of fossil fuels, mainly coal. Indiana has 24 coal power plants, including the largest coal power plant in the United States, Gibson Generating Station, located across the Wabash River from Mount Carmel, Illinois. While Indiana has made commitments to increasing use of renewable resources such as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, or solar power, however, progress has been very slow, mainly because of the continued abundance of coal in Southern Indiana. Most of the new plants in the state have been coal gasification plants. Another source is hydroelectric power.

Solar power and wind power are being investigated, and geothermal power is being used commercially. New estimates in 2006 raised the wind capacity for Indiana from 30 MW at 50 m turbine height to 40,000 MW at 70 m, which could double at 100 m, the height of newer turbines.[105] As of the end of June 2008, Indiana has installed 130 MW of wind turbines and has under construction another 400 MW.[106]

Sources of energy (2009) See below Navbox for individual facilities.
Fuel Capacity Percent of Total Consumed Percent of Total Production Number of Plants/Units
Coal 22,190.5 MW 63 % 88.5 % 28 Plants
Natural Gas 2,100 MW 29 % 10.5 % 15 Facilities
*Often used in Peaking Stations
Coal Gasification 600 MW  ?  ? 1 Facility under Construction
Petroleum 575 MW 7.5 % 1.5 % 10 Units
Wind 530.5 MW
885.5 MW
when Fowler Ridge is complete
 ?  ? 2 Farms/531 Towers
(1 additional farm half complete)
Hydroelectric 64 MW 0.0450 % 0.0100 % 1 Plant
Biomass 28 MW 0.0150 % 0.0020 % 1 Facility
Wood & Waste 18 MW 0.0013 % 0.0015 % 3 Units
Geothermal and/or Solar 0 MW 0.0 % 0.0 No Facilities at this time
Nuclear 0 MW 0.0 % 0.0 2 facilites never completed
Total 22,797.5 MW
* only includes top number of wind
100% 100% 46 Generating Facilities

Transportation

Airports

Indianapolis International Airport serves the greater Indianapolis area and has just finished constructing a new passenger terminal. The new airport opened in November 2008 and offers a new midfield passenger terminal, concourses, air traffic control tower, parking garage, and airfield and apron improvements.[107]

Other major airports include Evansville Regional Airport, Fort Wayne International Airport (which houses the 122d Fighter Wing of the Air National Guard), and South Bend Regional Airport. A long-standing proposal to turn the under-utilized Gary Chicago International Airport into Chicago's third major airport received a boost in early 2006 with the approval of $48 million in federal funding over the next ten years.[108]

The Terre Haute International Airport has no airlines operating out of the facility but is used for private flying. Since 1954, the 181st Fighter Wing of the Indiana Air National Guard has been stationed at the airport. However, the BRAC Proposal of 2005 stated that the 181st would lose its fighter mission and F-16 aircraft, leaving the Terre Haute facility as a general-aviation only facility.

The southern part of the state is also served by the Louisville International Airport across the Ohio River in Louisville, Kentucky. The southeastern part of the state is served by the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport also across the Ohio River in Florence Kentucky. Many residents of northwestern Indiana use the two Chicago airports, O'Hare International Airport and Chicago Midway International Airport.

Highways

2008–2013 Indiana license plate This Plate comes in the four variants shown above. The variant immediately above is the grandfathered version. In all four cases, the county, in this case Gibson, is displayed on a white tag at the top of the plate.

The major U.S. Interstate highways in Indiana are I-64, I-164, I-65, I-265, I-465, I-865, I-69, I-469, I-70, I-74, I-80, I-90, I-94 and I-275. The various highways intersecting in and around Indianapolis, along with its historical status as a major railroad hub, and the canals that once crossed Indiana, are the source of the state's motto, the Crossroads of America.

There are also many state highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation. These are numbered according to the same convention as U.S. Highways. Indiana allows highways of different classifications to have the same number. For example, Interstate 64 and State Road 64 both exist (rather close to each other) in Indiana, but are two distinct roads with no relation to one another.

County roads

Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the older arbitrary system of road numbers and names, and (among other things) makes it much easier to identify the sources of calls placed to the 9-1-1 system. Such systems are easier to implement in the glacially flattened northern and central portions of the state. Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have grids and more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (e.g., Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott, and Washington Counties); there are also counties in the northern portions of the state that have never implemented a grid, or have only partially implemented one. Some counties are also laid out in an almost diamond-like grid system (e.g. Clark, Floyd, Gibson, Knox, and Vanderburgh Counties). Such a system is also almost useless in those situations as well. Knox County once operated two different grid systems for county roads because the county was laid out using two different survey grids, but has since decided to use road names and combine roads instead.

Notably, the county road grid system of St. Joseph County, whose major city is South Bend, uses perennial (tree) names (i.e. Ash, Hickory, Ironwood, etc.) in alphabetical order for North-South roads and Presidential and other noteworthy names (i.e. Adams, Edison, Lincoln Way, etc.) in alphabetical order for East-West roads. There are exceptions to this rule in downtown South Bend and Mishawaka.

Rail

Indiana has over 4,255 railroad route miles, of which 91 percent are operated by Class I railroads, principally CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway. Other Class I railroads in Indiana include the Canadian National Railway and Soo Line Railroad, a Canadian Pacific Railway subsidiary, as well as Amtrak. The remaining miles are operated by 37 regional, local, and switching & terminal railroads. The South Shore Line is one of the country's most notable commuter rail systems extending from Chicago to South Bend. Indiana is currently implementing an extensive rail plan that was prepared in 2002 by the Parsons Corporation.[109]

Ports

Indiana annually ships over 70 million tons of cargo by water each year, which ranks 14th among all U.S. states. More than half of Indiana's border is water, which includes 400 miles (640 km) of direct access to two major freight transportation arteries: the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway (via Lake Michigan) and the Inland Waterway System (via the Ohio River). The Ports of Indiana manages three major ports which include Burns Harbor, Jeffersonville, and Mount Vernon.[110]

Education

Indiana's 1816 constitution was the first in the country to implement a state-funded public school system. It also allotted one township for a public university.[111] However, the plan turned out to be far too idealistic for a pioneer society, as tax money was not accessible for its organization. In the 1840s, Caleb Mills pressed the need for tax-supported schools, and in 1851 his advice was included in the new state constitution. Although the growth of the public school system was held up by legal entanglements, many public elementary schools were in use by 1870. Most children in Indiana attend public schools, but nearly 10% attend private schools and parochial schools. About one-half of all college students in Indiana are enrolled in state-supported four-year schools. The largest institution is Indiana University, which was sanctioned as Indiana Seminary in 1820. Purdue University was commission as a land-grant college in 1865. The four other state universities are Indiana State University, Vincennes University, Ball State University and University of Southern Indiana. Many of the private colleges and universities in Indiana are affiliated with religious groups. University of Notre Dame is a highly regarded Roman Catholic school. Universities affiliated with Protestant denominations include DePauw University, Earlham College, Valparaiso University[78], and University of Evansville.[112]

Sports

Professional sports

Indiana has an extensive history with auto racing. Indianapolis hosts the Indianapolis 500 mile race over Memorial Day weekend at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway every May. The name of the race is usually shortened to "Indy 500" and also goes by the nickname "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing." The race attracts over 250,000 people every year making it the largest single day sporting event in the world. The track also hosts the Allstate 400 at the Brickyard (NASCAR) and the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix (MotoGP). From 2000 to 2007, it hosted the United States Grand Prix (Formula One). Indiana is also host to two major unlimited hydroplane racing power boat race circuits in the major H1 Unlimited league: Thunder on the Ohio (Evansville, Indiana) and the Madison Regatta (Madison, Indiana).

Indiana has a rich basketball heritage that reaches back to the formative years of the sport itself. Although James Naismith developed basketball in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891, Indiana is where high school basketball was born. In 1925, Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15,000 screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the center of the sport." The 1986 film Hoosiers is inspired by the story of the 1954 Indiana state champions Milan High School.

Club Sport League
Elkhart Express Basketball International Basketball League
Evansville IceMen Ice hockey All American Hockey League
Evansville Otters Baseball Frontier League
FC Indiana Soccer Women's Premier Soccer League
Fort Wayne Fever Soccer USL Premier Development League
Fort Wayne Flash Football Women's Football Alliance
Fort Wayne Firehawks Arena football Continental Indoor Football League
Fort Wayne Komets Ice hockey International Hockey League (2007-)
Fort Wayne Mad Ants Basketball NBA Development League
Fort Wayne Pistons (now Detroit Pistons) Basketball National Basketball Association
Fort Wayne TinCaps Baseball Midwest League
Gary SouthShore RailCats Baseball Northern League
Gary Steelheads Basketball International Basketball League
Indiana Fever Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Indiana Ice Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Indiana Pacers Basketball National Basketball Association, formerly, the American Basketball Association
Indiana Invaders Soccer USL Premier Development League
Indiana Speed Football Women's Professional Football League
Indianapolis Colts Football National Football League
Indianapolis Indians Baseball International League
South Bend Silver Hawks Baseball Midwest League
Chi Town Shooters Hockey All American Hockey League

College sports

Indiana has had great sports success at the collegiate level. Notably, Indiana University has won five NCAA basketball championships, six swimming and diving NCAA championships, and seven NCAA soccer championships and Notre Dame has won 11 football championships. Schools fielding NCAA Division I athletic programs include:

Other sports

The Hilly Hundred is a bicycle tour that attracts 5,000 cycling enthusiasts each year. The course runs through Greene, Monroe and Owen counties.

The Bands of America and ISSMA marching band competitions take place here and have many finalist bands including Avon High School (ranked seven years in a row), Lawrence Central High School (two-time grand national champion), Carmel High School, Ben Davis High School, Castle High School, Knox High School (Bands of America Class A Grand Champion) and Center Grove High School.

Miscellaneous

Military installations

Indiana used to be home to two major military installations, Grissom Air Force Base near Peru (realigned to an Air Force Reserve installation in 1994) and Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, now closed, though the Department of Defense continues to operate a large finance center there.

Current active installations include Air National Guard fighter units at Fort Wayne, and Terre Haute airports (to be consolidated at Fort Wayne under the 2005 BRAC proposal, with the Terre Haute facility remaining open as a non-flying installation). The Army National Guard conducts operations at Camp Atterbury in Edinburgh, Indiana and helicopter operations out of Shelbyville Airport. The Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division is in the southwest of the state and the Army's Newport Chemical Depot, which is currently heavily involved in neutralizing dangerous chemical weapons stored there, is in the western part of the state. Also, Naval Operational Support Center Indianapolis is home to several Navy Reserve units, a Marine Reserve unit, and a small contingent of active and full-time-support reserve personnel.

Time zones

Map of U.S. time zones with new (2006) CST and EST areas displayed, showing Indiana largely in the Eastern zone

Indiana is one of thirteen U.S. states that is divided into more than one time zone. Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century. At present most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time. Debate continues on the matter.

Before 2006, most of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time (DST). Some counties within this area, particularly Floyd, Clark, and Harrison counties near Louisville, Kentucky, and Ohio and Dearborn counties near Cincinnati, Ohio, unofficially observed DST by local custom. Since April 2006 the entire state observes DST. Although DST is supposed to save energy, a 2008 study of billing data before and after the change in 2006 concluded that residential electricity consumption had increased by 1% to 4%, primarily due to extra afternoon cooling.[113]

See also

References

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  72. ^ Associated Press (2009-02-02). "Are American Muslims 'under more scrutiny' with Obama?". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2009-02-02-muslims-obama_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  73. ^ Nevers, Kevin (2008-07-11). "Duneland population growth rate slows a bit in 2007 Census estimates". Chesterton Tribune. http://chestertontribune.com/Duneland%20Community%20News/7112%20duneland_population_growth_rate.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  74. ^ Indiana University (2008-07-10). "Indiana sees big gains in population among certain cities and towns". Press release. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/8512.html. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  75. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". United States Census. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  76. ^ Besl, John. "Indianapolis Population Growth Spreads Out". Indiana University. http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/iib/08312001.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  77. ^ Dresang, Joel (2008-07-30). "Automaking down, unemployment up". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. http://www.jsonline.com/blogs/business/52021282.html. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f g "Indiana Facts". State of Indiana. http://www.state.in.us/portal/files/WebPageFactsBooklet.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  79. ^ Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2007), p. 10
  80. ^ "Indiana Constitution Article 5". Indiana University. 1999-02-25. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/inconst/art-5.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  81. ^ Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2007), p. 13
  82. ^ a b c "Indiana Constitution Article 4". Indiana University. 1999-02-25. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/inconst/art-4.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  83. ^ Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2005), p. 11
  84. ^ Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2005), p. 14
  85. ^ "Indiana Constitution Article 7". Indiana University. 1999-02-25. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/inconst/art-7.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  86. ^ "Appellate Process". State of Indiana. 2009-02-04. http://www.in.gov/judiciary/supreme/appellate.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  87. ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Indiana". US Election Atlas. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=18&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved December 31, 2009. 
  88. ^ Gray (1977), p. 23
  89. ^ Gray (1977), p. 82
  90. ^ Gray (1977), p. 118
  91. ^ Gray (1977), p. 162
  92. ^ Associated Press (2008-10-01). "Indiana poll shows tight race with McCain, Obama". Fox News Channel. http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2008Oct01/0,4670,Poll2008Indiana,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  93. ^ Purnick, Joyce (2006-10-21). "The 2006 Campaign: Struggle for the House; In a G.O.P. Stronghold, 3 Districts in Indiana Are Now Battlegrounds". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDA163FF932A15753C1A9609C8B63. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  94. ^ a b c "Presidential General Election Map Comparison". uselectionatlas.org. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/comparemaps.php?year=2008&fips=18&f=1&off=0&elect=0. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  95. ^ McPhee, Laura (2008-11-12). "Indiana's historic vote for Obama". NUVO. http://www.nuvo.net/news/article/indianas-historic-vote-obama. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  96. ^ Modie, Neil (2005-08-12). "Where have Seattle's lefties gone?". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/236320_liberal12.html. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  97. ^ "Economic Base". City of Valparaiso. http://www.ci.valparaiso.in.us/planning/ComprehensivePlan/CompPlan/ChapterI.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 
  98. ^ Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross State Product
  99. ^ Bureau of Economic Analysis: Annual State Personal Income
  100. ^ "Indiana Economy at a Glance". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://stats.bls.gov/eag/eag.in.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  101. ^ Manufacturers in Indiana. Purdue University Center for Rural Development. July 19, 1998. 
  102. ^ WNDU-TV: News Story: Bayer is leaving Elkhart - November 16, 2005
  103. ^ "Economy & Demographics". Terre Haute Economic Development Co.. http://www.terrehauteareaedc.com/econ_industry.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  104. ^ "USDA Crop Profiles". United States Department of Agriculture. http://cipm.ncsu.edu/cropprofiles/cplist.cfm?org=state. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  105. ^ Indiana's Renewable Energy Resources Retrieved 20 August 2008
  106. ^ U.S. Wind Energy Projects - Indiana Retrieved 20 August 2008
  107. ^ "New Indianapolis Airport". Indianapolis Airport Authority. http://www.newindianapolisairport.com. Retrieved 2007-01-06. 
  108. ^ "Gary Airpport Gets Millions in Federal Funding". CBS Channel 2. http://cbs2chicago.com/topstories/local_story_016180843.html. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  109. ^ "Indiana Rail Plan". Indiana Department of Transportation. http://www.in.gov/indot/3065.htm. 
  110. ^ "Ports of Indiana Website". http://www.portsofindiana.com. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  111. ^ "Indiana History Part 3". Northern Indiana Center for History. http://www.centerforhistory.org/indiana_history_main3.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  112. ^ "About UE". University of Evansville. http://www.evansville.edu/aboutue/. 
  113. ^ Matthew J. Kotchen; Laura E. Grant (2008-02-08). "Does daylight saving time save energy? evidence from a natural experiment in Indiana" (PDF) in Environmental and Energy Economics Program Meeting. Preliminary Program, National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.

Bibliography

  • Brill, Marlene Targ (2005). Indiana. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761420207. 
  • Gray, Ralph D (1977). Gentlemen from Indiana: National Party Candidates,1836-1940. Indiana Historical Bureau. ISBN 1885323298. 
  • Gray, Ralph D (1995). Indiana History: A Book of Readings. Indiana University Press. ISBN 025332629X. 
  • Pell, Ed (2003). Indiana. Capstone Press. ISBN 0736815821. 
  • Funk, Arville L (1967). Hoosiers In The Civil War. Adams Press. ISBN 0962329258. 
  • Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2005). Here is Your Indiana Government. 
  • Indiana State Chamber of Commerce (2007). Here is Your Indiana Government. 
  • Bodenhamer, David J.; Robert Graham Barrows & David Gordon Vanderstel (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253312221. 
  • Logan, William Newton; Edgar Roscoe Cumings, Clyde Arnett Malott, Stephen Sargent Visher, William Motier Tucker & John Robert Reeves (1922). Handbook of Indiana Geology. William B. Burford. 
  • Moore, Edward E (1910). A Century of Indiana. American Book Company. 
  • Indiana Writer's Project. Indiana: A Guide To The Hoosier State: American Guide Series (1937), famous WPA Guide to every location; strong on history, architecture and culture; reprinted 1973
  • Carmony, Donald Francis. Indiana, 1816 to 1850: The Pioneer Era (1998)
  • Jackson, Marion T., editor. The Natural Heritage of Indiana. © 1997, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 0-2533-3074-2.* James H. Madison. The Indiana Way: A State History (1990)
  • Skertic, Mark and Watkins, John J. A Native's Guide to Northwest Indiana (2003)
  • Taylor, Robert M., ed. The State of Indiana History 2000: Papers Presented at the Indiana Historical Society's Grand Opening (2001)
  • Taylor, Robert M., ed. Indiana: A New Historical Guide (1990), highly detailed guide to cities and recent history

External links

Directory
Government
Culture and history
Tourism and recreation
Geography
International community and business resources


Preceded by
Louisiana
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 11, 1816 (19th)
Succeeded by
Mississippi

Coordinates: 40°N 86°W / 40°N 86°W / 40; -86


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Farm in Prophetstown State Park
Farm in Prophetstown State Park

Indiana [1] is a state in the Midwest region of the USA. The state is bordered by Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Michigan.


Central Indiana
The vast heartland of the state surrounding the capital region, home to Purdue University
Nine-County Region
The population core of the state, in the greater metropolitan area of Indianapolis, home to the lion's share of the state's shopping, sights, dining, and nightlife
Northern Indiana
A large section of the state, home to Notre Dame football pilgrimage mecca South Bend and the state's second largest city, Fort Wayne
Northwestern Indiana
Where Chicagoland spills into and gradually fades into Indiana, with post-Apocalyptic industrial cities like Gary and the beautiful Indiana Dunes on Lake Michigan
Southern Indiana
Where the farms run up against hills and forest, is where you'll find enormous Indiana University in Bloomington; further south takes you to the Kentucky border at Louisville
Southwestern Indiana
Indiana's heavily forested hilly highlands, dotted with caves, on the border with Kentucky
  • Indianapolis — State Capital
  • Bloomington — Home of Indiana University
  • Evansville — Home of University of Evansville and University of Southern Indiana
  • Fort Wayne — The second largest city in the state
  • Gary — An industrial town close to Chicago
  • West Lafayette — Home of Purdue University
  • Muncie — Home of Ball State University
  • South Bend — Home of the University of Notre Dame
  • Terre Haute — Home of Indiana State University
Monument Circle in Indianapolis — a city full of monumental memorials
Monument Circle in Indianapolis — a city full of monumental memorials
Endless regular square plots of Indiana farmland
Endless regular square plots of Indiana farmland

Geography & Climate

Indiana is mostly rural with high population concentrations in a few major cities/towns. The majority of Indiana is open farmland, though this is changing with expansion.

Crossroads of America
Crossroads of America

Indianapolis International Airport [2] is the major airport in the state with flights to many cities around the country. Fort Wayne, Evansville and South Bend offer flights to nearby hub cities. Air service is also available from nearby airports in Chicago, Cincinnati and Louisville.

Numerous interstate highways enter and leave the state. Interstates 80 and 90 form the Indiana Toll Road in northern Indiana, linking Gary, South Bend and Ohio. Interstate 94 hugs most of Lake Michigan from Illinois to Michigan. Interstate 65 is the major north-south route from Gary south to Indianapolis then entering Kentucky at Louisville. Interstate 70 is the busiest east-west route linking Illinois (at Terre Haute) with Ohio (at Richmond), passing through Indianapolis midway. Interstate 74 does the same thing, except it enters near Danville, Illinois and leaves near Cincinnati. Interstate 64 crosses southern Indiana from Illinois (25 miles northwest of Evansville) to New Albany. Interstate 69 runs from northeast Indiana, out of Michigan, through Fort Wayne to Indianapolis, where it ends (there are plans to extend it to Evansville and eventually to Texas). Interstate 275 (the Cincinnati bypass) briefly enters Indiana for about five miles. US 41 extends from Gary to Evansville and is the major north-south route through western Indiana.

  • Indiana's motto is "The Crossroads of America" and it is deserving. Indiana has more Interstates (14) than any other state it's size, although the original name comes from all the railroad tracks that went through the state.
  • Amtrak offers a daily train service from Indianapolis to Chicago and vice versa. The fare is reasonable (about 15-25 dollars each way). The train also passes through Lafayette as well as a few other towns along its way to Chicago. The time of travel is roughly about 4.5 hours as compared to about 3-3.5 hours by car.
  • South Shore Line links Northern Indiana to Chicago, stopping at Hammond, East Chicago, Gary, Ogden Dunes, Beverly Shore, Michigan City, Hudson Lake and South Bend. It terminates at Chicago's Millennium Station. The overall travel time from South Bend to Chicago (and vice versa) 2.5 hours. The line utilizes a zone-based fare system, with prices rising based on the distance, and the prices drop slightly on the weekends. The prices range from $3.80 - $10.75 on weekdays and $3.00-$9.00 on weekends.

See

Your traditional sightseeing in Indiana belongs in Indianapolis, which is flush with big museums, an inordinate quantity of giant monuments and memorials, and a very nice canal walk with paddleboats and public art.

Outside the cities, and outside of the seemingly endless farmland in the plains, are a host of parks and outdoor recreation areas worth visiting. Without a doubt, the one to see, if you must choose, is Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (and Indiana Dunes State Park). The dunes are enormous, the water crystal clear, the swampy forests beautiful, and the far-off industrial views intriguing.

  • late April Thunder Over Louisville Clarksville and Jeffersonville. [3] The opening ceremonies to Louisville, Kentucky's Kentucky Derby Festival. Thunder Over Louisville is the largest annual fireworks show in the country, and the best viewing is along the Indiana shore of the Ohio River. If you plan to get a good seat, prepare to come the day before and camp. In the afternoon, private and military aircraft provide a magnificent airshow. After sunset, the fireworks begin and last nearly half an hour.
  • Early-Mid August Indiana State Fair State Fairgrounds, Indianapolis. [4] The biggest summer event in the state. A trip to Indiana isn't complete without a trip to the fair. Animals, crafts, art, rides, dancing, eduation, enviromentalism, Hoosier Pride and FOOD!! I go at least 2-3 times within the two week period. They also have live music and concerts. Prairie Home Companion comes every other year.
  • Mid-September Lanesville Heritage Weekend Lanesville. [5] A fall festival typical of many in southern Indiana. Is similar to a county fair, but later in the year. Local food and crafts are available, while rides and tractor and truck pulls provide entertainment.
  • Early October West Side Nut Club Fall Festival Evansville. Called the second largest street festival in the United States after Mardi Gras. It takes place on several blocks of Franklin Street on the west side of the city during the first full week of October. The main attraction of the festival is its food booths which sell a large variety of foods including brain sandwiches and chocolate-covered grasshoppers. The festival draws over a hundred thousand visitors every fall.
  • Early-mid October Harvest Homecoming Festival New Albany. [6] The largest festival in southern Indiana brings participants from miles around. The festivities begin with a Saturday morning parade through the streets of New Albany. THe festival lasts for several weeks, and includes vendor booths downtown and carnival rides.
  • Mid October Feast of the Hunters' Moon Lafayette, [7] The Feast re-creates early 18th century life near the site of Fort Ouiatenon, a French trading outpost.
The beautiful beaches at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore on Lake Michigan
The beautiful beaches at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore on Lake Michigan
  • College sports- Indiana is home to many Division I NCAA schools, including: Ball State University (Muncie) Butler University (Indianapolis), IUPUI (Indianapolis), Indiana State University (Terre Haute), Indiana University (Bloomington), Purdue University (West Lafayette), University of Evansville (Evansville) and University of Notre Dame (South Bend).
  • Racing- The Indianapolis 500 race is the most attended sporting event in the world. It's common to see many vendors and spectacular displays during the pre-race (most notably the singing of "Back Home Again In Indiana" by Jim Nabors and the overfly of the stealth bomber at the conclusion of the National Anthem). Also don't forget the Allstate 400 (formerly the Brickyard 400) NASCAR race held every summer in Indianapolis. IRP (Indianapolis Raceway Park) also holds the grand nationals of drag racing at it's facility. IRP is located about 10 miles west north-west of Indianapolis in Hendricks County
  • Racing- Salem Speedway. [8] Home to many small-circuit races throughout the year, Salem is often called the "fastest half mile in the world." With only a chain-link fence separating the pit lane from the infield, Salem offers a more interactive fan experience than many larger tracks.

Eat

Cuisine throughout much of the state is typical Mid-western, with the occasional odd dish like Corn Casserole. Outside of the main cities most of the restaurants are diners or family-style, while in the bigger cities you can find all sorts of varied cuisine. Indianapolis, in particular, has a very cosmopolitan selection of ethnic restaurants from around the world. Lake County, as in most everything, diverges from the norm in Indiana, and is a better place to find Chicago-style food like hot dogs and pizza.

Drink

Hoosiers know how to drink! Wherever you are, you would be hard pressed to not find a bar. The trendiest part of the state for a drink is probably Broad Ripple in Indianapolis, but you will find streets packed with bars and pubs throughout the cities of the state, especially near major universities in Bloomington, West Lafayette, and South Bend. Micro-breweries are present in all the major cities, Upland from Bloomington is especially popular and available throughout the state. Note too, that drink prices can be very low in Indiana—especially out of the Nine-County Region.

For dancing and nightlife, the main options are in and around Indianapolis, as well as by the major universities.

By law, liquor stores are closed on Sundays throughout the state. But certainly the worst liquor law on the table in Indiana is the prohibition on the sale of cold beer. If you want to pick up a six-pack, you'll be cooling that yourself.

Stay safe

Largely rural, Indiana has a fairly low crime rate per capita. In 2006 (the latest year for which data is available) it ranked 29th in crimes per 100,000 population. Large urban areas are exceptions like the former steel town Gary and the outlying Chicago area in the Northwest and certain segments of Indianapolis.

While outside of Tornado Alley, Indiana has a fairly high occurrence of tornados. You might want to check the Tornado safety page if you are visiting Indiana.

Contact

The vast majority of Indiana is on Eastern Time and -- as of 2006 -- does now observe Daylight Savings Time. The five counties of Northwestern Indiana (near Chicago) as well as several counties around Evansville are on Central Time

  • Illinois - Chicago, the largest city in the Midwest, is located just across Indiana's western border, making it an ideal day-trip destination.
  • Kentucky - Indiana's neighbor to the south is known for its rolling hills, horses, and rural inhabitants, offering travelers a less-visited but tremendously beautiful destination.
  • Ohio - Located to the east of Indiana, the city of Cincinnati is a short drive from southeastern Indiana.
  • Michigan - Indiana's northern neighbor borders four of the five Great Lakes and features stunning natural beauty.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Indiana
by James Frederick Hanley (music) and Ballard MacDonald (lyrics)
Sheet music cover

I have always been a wand'rer Ballard MacDonald James F. Hanley IndianaHomeAgainCover.jpg

[Verse 1]

I have always been a wand'rer
Over land and sea
Yet a moonbeam on the water
Casts a spell o'er me
A vision fair I see
Again I seem to be

[Chorus]

Back home again in Indiana
And it seems that I can see
The gleaming candlelight, still shining bright
Thru the sycamores for me
The new mown hay sends all its fragrance
From the fields I used to roam
When I dream about the moonlight on the Wabash
Then I long for my Indiana home

[Verse 2]

Fancy paints on mem'ry's canvas
Scenes that we hold dear
We recall them in days after
Clearly they appear
And often times I see
A scene that's dear to me
(chorus)
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1942, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

INDIANA, a north-central state of the United States of America, the second state to be erected from the old North-West. Territory; popularly known as the " Hoosier State." It is located between latitudes 37° 47' and 41° so' N. and longitudes 8 4° 49' and 88° 2' W. It is bounded on the N. by Michigan and Lake Michigan, on the E. by Ohio, on the S. by Kentucky from which it is separated by the Ohio river, and on the W. by Illinois. Its total area is 36,350 sq. m., of which 440 sq. m. are water surface.

Table of contents

Physiography

Topographically, Indiana is similar to Ohio and Illinois, the greater part of its surface being undulating prairie land, with a range of sand-hills in the N. and a chain of picturesque and rocky hills, known as " Knobs," some of which rise to a height of 500 ft., in the southern counties along the Ohio river. This southern border of hills is the edge of the " Cumberland Plateau " physiographic province. In the northern portion of the state there are a number of lakes, of glacial origin, of which the largest are English Lake in Stark county, James Lake and Crooked Lake in Steuben county, Turkey Lake and Tippecanoe Lake in Kosciusko county and Lake Maxinkuckee in Marshall county. In the limestone region of the south there are numerous caves, the most notable being Wyandotte Cave in Crawford county, next to Mammoth Cave the largest in the United States. In the southern and south-central part of the state, particularly in Orange county, there are many mineral springs, of which the best known are those at French Lick and West Baden. The larger streams flow in a general south-westerly direction, and the greater part of the state is drained into the Ohio through the Wabash river and its tributaries. The Wabash, which has a total length of more than 500 m., has its headwaters in the western part of Ohio, and flows in a north-west, south-west, and south direction across the state, emptying into the Ohio river and forming for a considerable distance the boundary between Indiana and Illinois. It is navigable for river steamboats at high water for about 350 m. of its course. Its principal tributaries are the Salamanie, Mississinewa, Wild Cat, Tippecanoe and White rivers. Of these the White river is by far the most important, being second only to the Wabash itself in extent of territory drained. It is formed by the confluence of its East and West Forks, almost 50 m. above its entrance into the Wabash, which it joins about 100 m. above the Ohio. Other portions of the state are drained by the Kankakee, a tributary of the Illinois, the St Joseph and its principal branch, the Elkhart, which flow north through the south-west corner of Michigan and empty into Lake Michigan; the St Mary's and another St Joseph, whose confluence forms the Maumee, which empties into Lake Erie; and the White Water, which drains a considerable portion of the south-west part of the state into the Ohio.

Flora and Fauna

The flora of the state is varied, between 1400 and 1500 species of flowering plants being found. Among its native fruits are the persimmon, the paw-paw, the goose plum and the fox grape. Cultivated fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes and berries, are raised in large quantities for the market. The economic value of the forests was originally great, but there has been reckless cutting, and the timber-bearing forests are rapidly disappearing. As late as 1880 Indiana was an important timber-producing state, but in 1900 less than 30% of the total acreage of the state - only about 10,800 sq. m. - was woodland, and on very little of this land were there forests of commercial importance. There are about 110 species of trees in the state, the commonest being the oak. The bald cypress, a southern tree, seems to be an anomalous growth. Blue grass is valuable for grazing and hay-making. The principal crops include Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, buckwheat, rye and clover.

The fauna originally included buffalo, elk, deer, wolves, bear, lynx, beaver, otter, porcupine and puma, but civilization has driven them all out entirely. Rattlesnakes and copperheads were formerly common in the south. The game birds include quail (Bob White), ruffed grouse and a few pinnated grouse (once very plentiful, then nearly exterminated, but now apparently reappearing under strict protection), and such water birds as the mallard duck, wood duck, blueand green-winged teals, Wilson's snipe, and greater and lesser yellow legs (snipe). The song birds and insectivorous birds include the cardinal grosbeak, scarlet and summer tanagers, meadow lark, song sparrow, catbird, brown thrasher, wood thrush, house wren, robin, blue bird, goldfinch, red-headed woodpecker, flicker (golden-winged woodpecker), and several species of warblers. The game fish include the bass (small-mouth and large-mouth), brook trout, pike, pickerel, and muskallonge, and there are many other large and small food fishes.

Climate

The climate of Indiana is unusually equable. The mean annual temperature is about 52° F., ranging from 49° F. in the north to 54° in the south. The mean monthly temperature varies from 25° in the months of December and January to 77°-79° in July and August. Cold winds from the Great Lakes region frequently cause a fall in temperature to an extreme of -25°F. in the north and north central parts of the state. The mean annual rainfall for the entire state is about 43 in., varying from 35 in. in the north to 46 in. in the Ohio Valley.

The soil of the greater part of the state consists of a drift deposit of loose calcareous loam, which extends to a considerable depth, and which is exceedingly fertile. In the Ohio and White Water river valleys a sandstone and limestone formation predominates. The north and north central portions of the state, formerly rather swampy, have become since the clearing of the forests as productive as the south central. The most fertile part of the state is the Wabash valley; the least fertile the sandy region, of small extent, immediately south of Lake Michigan.

Industry and Manufactures

Agriculture has always been and still is the chief industry of the state of Indiana. According to the census of 1900, 94.1% of the land area was included in farms, and of this 77.2% was improved. The proportion of farms rented comprised 28.6% of the whole number, four-fifths of these being rented on a share basis. The average size of farms, which in 1850 was 136.2 acres, had decreased to 105.3 acres in 1880 and to 97.4 acres in 1900. The value of the farm property increased from $726,781,857 in 1880 to $978,616,471 in 1900. The farms are commonly cultivated on the three-crop rotation system. The proximity of such good markets as Chicago, Cincinnati, St Louis and Louisville, in addition to the local markets, and the unusual opportunities afforded by the railways that traverse every portion of the state, have been important factors in the rapid agricultural advance which has enabled Indiana to keep pace with the newly developed states farther west. Indiana was ninth in the value of its agricultural products in 1889, and retained the same relative rank in 1899, although the value had considerably more than doubled, increasing from $94,759,262 in 1889 to $204,450,196 in 1899. The principal crops in which the state has maintained a high relative rank are Indian corn, wheat and hay; the acreage devoted to each of these increased considerably in the decade 1890-1900. In 1907, according to the Department of Agriculture, the acreage of Indian corn was 4,690,000 acres (7th of the states), and the yield was 168,840,000 bushels (5th of the states); of wheat, 2,362,000 acres (6th of the states) was planted, and the crop was 34,013,000 bushels (7th of the states); and 2,328,000 acres of hay (the 8th largest acreage among the states of the United States) produced 3,143,000 tons (the 8th largest crop). Other important staple crops are oats, rye and potatoes, of which the crops in 1907 were respectively 36,683,000 bushels, 961,000 bushels, and 7,3 08 ,000 bushels. There are no well-defined crop belts, the production of the various crops being general throughout the state, except in the case of potatoes, most of which are raised in the sandy regions of the north. The value of the orchard products is large, and is steadily increasing: in the decade1890-1900the number of pear trees increased from 204,579 to 868,184, and between 1889 and 1899 the crop increased from 157,707 to 231,713 bushels. Of apple trees, which surpass all other orchard trees in number, there were more than 8,600,000 in 1900. The total value of the state's orchard products in 1899 was $3,166,338, and the value of small fruits was $1,113,527. The canning industry both for fruits and small vegetables has become one of much importance since 1890.

Stock-raising is an industry of growing importance, the value of the live stock in the state increasing from $71,068,758 in 1880 to $93,361,422 in 1890 and $109,550,761 in 1900. Sheep-raising, however, which is confined largely to the north and east portions of the state, decreased slightly in importance between 1890 and 1900. The value of the dairy products sold in 1899 (census of 1900) was $8,027,370, nearly one-half of which was represented by butter; and the total value of dairy products was $15,739,594.

In the value, extent and producing power of her manufacturing industries Indiana has made remarkable advance since 1880. This increase, which more than kept pace with that of the country as a whole, was due largely to local causes, among which maybe mentioned the unusual shipping facilities afforded by the network of railways, the discovery and development of natural gas, and the proximity of coal fields, the gas and the coal together furnishing an ample supply of cheap fuel. The number of manufacturing establishments (under the " factory " system) within the state was 7128 in 1900, 7044 n 1905; their invested capital was $219,321,080 in 1900 and $312,071,234 in 1905, an increase of 42.3%; and the value of their total product was $337,071,630 in 1900 and $393,954,405 in 1905, an increase of 16.9 / 0. The most important manufactured products in 1905 were flour and grist mill products, valued at $3 6 ,473,543; in 1900, when they were second in importance to slaughter-house products and packed meats, they were valued at $29,037,843. Next in importance in 1905 was the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, of which the total product was valued at $29,352,593; in 1900 it was valued at $43,862,273. Other important manufactured products were: those of machine shops and foundries, the value of which increased from $17,228,096 in 1900 to $23,108,516 in 1905, or 34.1%; distilled liquors, the value of which had increased from $16,961,058 in 1900 to $20,520,261 in 1905, an increase of 21%; iron and steel, valued at $19,338,481 in 1900 and at $16,920,326 in 1905; carriages and wagons, valued at $12,661,217 in 1900 and at $15,228,337 in 1905; lumber and timber products, valued at $ 1 9,979,97 1 in 1900 and at $14,559,662 in 1905; and glass, valued at $14,757,883 in 1900 and at $14,706,929 in 1905 - this being 3.7% of the product value of all manufactures in the state in 1905, and 18.5% of the value of glass produced in the United States in that year. The growth in the preceding decade of the iron and steel industry, the products of which increased in value from $4,742,760 in 1890 to $19,338,481 in 1900 (307.7%), and of the manufacture of glass, the value of which increased from $2,995,409 in 1890 to $ 1 4,757, 88 3 in 1900 (392.7%), is directly attributable to the development of natural gas as fuel; the decrease in the value of the products of these same industries in1900-1905is partly due to the growing scarcity of the natural gas supply. As compared with the other states of the United States in value of manufactured products, Indiana ranked second in 1900 and in 1905 in carriages and wagons, glass and distilled liquors; was seventh in 1900 and fourth in 1905 in furniture; was fourth in 1900 and seventh in 1905 in wholesale slaughtering and meat-packing; was fifth in 1900 and sixth in 1905 in agricultural implements; and in iron and steel and flour and grist mill products was fifth in 1900 and eighth in 1905. The most important manufacturing centres are Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Evansville, South Bend, Fort Wayne, Anderson, Hammond, Richmond, Muncie, Michigan City and Elwood, each having a gross annual product of more than $6,000,000.

According to the annual report on Mineral Resources of the United States for 1906, Indiana ranked fifth in the Union in the value of natural gas produced, sixth in petroleum, and sixth in coal. Natural gas was discovered in 1886 in the east-central part of the state, and its general application to manufacturing purposes caused an industrial revolution in the immediate region. Pipe lines carried it to various manufacturing centres within the state and to Chicago, Ill., and Dayton, Ohio. During the early years an enormous amount was wasted; this was soon prohibited by law, and a realization that the supply was not unlimited resulted in a better appreciation of its great value. The gas, which is found in the Trenton limestone, had an initial pressure at the point of discovery of 325 lb; this pressure had decreased in the field centre by January 1896 to 230 lb, and by January 1901 to 115 lb, the general average of pressure at the latter date being 80 lb. The gas field extends over Hancock, Henry, Hamilton, Tipton, Madison, Grant and Delaware counties. The value of the output fell from $7,254,539 in 1900 to $1,750,715 in 1906, when the state's product was only 4.2% of that of the entire country. On the 1st of January 1909 there were 3223 wells in operation, some of which were 1200 ft. deep. It has been found that " dead " gas wells, if drilled somewhat deeper, generally become active oil wells. The development of the petroleum field, which extends over Adams, Wells, Jay, Blackford and Grant counties, was rapid up to 1904. The annual output increased from 33,375 barrels in 1889 to 11,339,124 barrels in 1904, the latter amount being valued at $12,235,674 and being 12.09% of the value of the product of the entire country. In 1906 there was an output of only 7,673,477 barrels, valued at $6,770,066, being 7.3% of the product value of the entire country. The Indiana coal fields which cover an area of between 7000 and 75 00 sq. m. in the west and south-west, chiefly in Clay, Vigo, Sullivan, Vermilion and Greene counties, yielded in 1902 9,446,424 tons, valued at $10,399,660; in 1907, 1 3,9 8 5,7 1 3 tons, valued at $15,114,300; the production more than trebled since 1896, when it was 3,905,779 tons. The deposits consist of workable veins, 50 to 220 ft. in depth, and averaging 80 ft. below the surface. It is a high grade block, or " splint " coal, remarkably free from sulphur and rich in carbon, peculiarly adapted to blast furnace use. The quarries and clay beds of the state are of great value. The quarries of sandstone and limestone are chiefly in the south and south-central portions of the state. The value of the limestone quarried in 1908 was $3, 6 43, 261, as compared with $2,553,502 in 1902. The Bedford oolitic limestone quarries in Owen, Monroe, Lawrence, Washington and Crawford counties furnish one of the most valuable and widely used building stones in the United States, the value of the product in 1905 being $2,492,960, of which $2,393,475 was from Lawrence and Monroe counties and $1,550,076 from Lawrence county alone. Beds of brick-clays and potters' clay are widely distributed throughout the state, the total value of pottery products in 1902 being $5,283,733 and in 1906 $7,158,234. Marls adapted to the manufacture of Portland cement are found along the Ohio river, and in the lake region in the north. In 1905 and 1906 Indiana ranked third among the states in the production of Portland cement, which in 1908 was 6,478,165 barrels, valued at $5,386,563 - an enormous advance over 1903, when the product was 1,077,137 barrels, valued at $1,347,797. The production of natural rock cement, chiefly in Clark county, is one of the two oldest industries in the state, but in Indiana as elsewhere it is falling off - from an output in 1903 of about 1,350,000 barrels to 212,901 barrels (valued at $240,000) in 1908. There are many mineral springs in the state, and there are famous resorts at French Lick and West Baden in Orange county. A large part of the water bottled is medicinal: hence the high average price per gallon ($0.99 in 1907 when 514,366 gallons were sold, valued at $507,746, only 2% being table waters). In 1907 19 springs were reported at which mineral waters were bottled and sold; they were in Allen, Hendricks, Pike, Bartholomew, Warren, Clark, Martin, Brown, Gibson, Wayne, Orange, Vigo and Dearborn counties. A law of 1909 prohibited the pumping of certain mineral waters if such pumping diminished the flow or injured the quality of the water of any spring.

Communications

During the early period, the settlement of the northern and central portions of the state was greatly retarded by the lack of highways or navigable waterways. The Wabash and Erie canal (1843), which connected Lake Erie with the Ohio river, entering the state in Allen county, east of Fort Wayne, and following the Wabash river to Terre Haute and the western fork of the White river from Worthington, Greene county, to Petersburg, Pike county, whence it ran south-south-west to Evansville; and the White Water canal from Hagerstown, Wayne county, mostly along the course of the White Water river, to Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio River, in the south-eastern corner of the state, although now abandoned, served an important purpose in their day. The completion (about 1850) of the National Road, which traversed the state, still further aided the internal development. With the beginning of railway construction (about 1847), however, a new era was opened. Indiana is unusually well served with railways, which form a veritable network of track in every part of the state. It is traversed by nearly all the great transcontinental trunk line systems, and also by important north and south lines. The total railway mileage in January 1909 was 7286.20 m. There has been a great development also in interurban electric lines,which have been adapted both to passenger and to light freight and express traffic; in 1908 there were 31 interurban electric lines within the state with a mileage of 1500 m. Indianapolis is the centre of this interurban network. The first trolley sleeping cars were those used on the Ohio and Indiana interurban railways. The deepening of the channel of the Wabash river was begun in 1872. Below Vincennes before 1885 boats of 3-ft. draft could navigate the river, but after work was concentrated in 1885 on the lock at Grand Rapids, near Mt Carmel, Ill., the channel was soon clogged again, and in 1909 it was impossible for boats with a greater draft than 20 in. to go from Mt Carmel to Vincennes, although up to June 1909 about $810,000 had been spent by the Federal government on improving this river. In 1879 an appropriation was made for the improvement of the channel of the White river, but no work was done here between 1895 and 1909, and although the lower 13 m. of the river was navigable for boats with a draft of 3 ft. or less, there was practically no traffic up to 1909 on the White, because there was no outlet for it by the Wabash river.

Population

The population of Indiana, according to the Federal Census of 1910, was 2,700,876, and the rank of the state in the Union as regards population was ninth. In 1810, the year following the erection of the western part of Indiana into Illinois Territory, the population was 24,520, in 1820 it had increased to 147,178, in 1850 to 988,416, in 1870 to 1,680,637, in 1890 to 2,192,404, and in 1900 to 2,516,462. In 1900 34.3% was urban, i.e. lived in places of 2500 inhabitants and over. The foreign-born population in the same year amounted to 142,121, or 5.6% of the whole, and the negro population to 57,505, or 2 . 3 %. There were in 1900 five cities with a population of more than 35,000, viz. Indianapolis (169,164), Evansville (59,007), Fort Wayne (45,115), Terre Haute (36,673), and South Bend (35999) In the same year there were 14 cities with a population of less than 35,000 (all less than 21,000) and more than 10,000; and there were 21 places with a population of less than 10,000 and more than 5000. In 1906 it was estimated that there were 938,405 members of different religious denominations; of this total 2 33,443 were Methodists (210,593 of the Northern Church), 1 74,849 were Roman Catholics, 108,188 were Disciples of Christ (and 10,259 members of the Churches of Christ), 92,705 were Baptists (60,203 of the Northern Convention, 13,526 of the National (Colored) Convention, 8132 Primitive Baptists, and 6671 General Baptists), 58,633 were Presbyterians (49,041 of the Northern Church, and 6376 of the Cumberland Church - since united with the Northern), 55,768 were Lutherans (34,028 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference, 8310 of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and other states), 52,700 were United Brethren (48,059 of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ; the others of the " Old Constitution ") and 21,624 of the German Evangelical Synod.

Constitution

Indiana is governed under a constitution adopted in 185r, which superseded the original state constitution of 1816. An amendment to the constitution may be proposed by either branch of the General Assembly; if a majority of both houses votes in favour of an amendment and it is favourably voted upon by the General Assembly chosen by the next general election, the amendment is submitted to popular vote and a majority vote is necessary for its ratification. The constitution of 1816 had conferred the suffrage upon all " white male citizens of the United States of the age of twenty-one and upward," had prohibited slavery, and had provided that no alteration of the constitution should ever introduce it. The new constitution contained similar suffrage restrictions, and further by Article XIII., which was voted upon separately, prohibited the entrance of negroes or mulattoes into the state and made the encouragement of their immigration or employment an indictable offence. This prohibition was held by the United States Supreme Court in 1866 to be in conflict with the Federal Constitution and therefore null and void. It was not until 1881 that the restriction of the suffrage to " white " males, which was in conflict with the Fifteenth Amendment (1870) to the Federal Constitution, was removed by constitutional amendment. Since that date those who may vote have been all male citizens twenty-one years old and upward who have lived in Indiana six months immediately preceding the election, and every foreign-born male of the requisite age who has lived in the United States one year and in Indiana six months immediately preceding the election, and who has declared his intention of becoming a citizen of the United States; but the General Assembly has the power to deprive of the suffrage any person convicted of an infamous crime. The Australian ballot was adopted in 1889. The general state election (up to 1881, held in October) takes place on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of even-numbered years. The governor and lieutenant-governor (minimum age, 30 years) and the clerk of the Supreme Court are chosen in presidential years for a term of four years,' the other state officers - secretary of state, attorney-general, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction - every two years. The state legislature, known as the General Assembly, which meets biennially in odd-numbered years and in special session summoned by the governor, consists of a Senate of fifty members (minimum age, 25 years) elected for four years, and a House of Representatives of one hundred members (minimum age, 21 years) elected for two years. Two-thirds of each house constitute a quorum to do business. The governor has the veto power, but the provision that a bill may be passed over his veto by a majority of all elected members renders it little more than an expression of opinion.

Law

The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court of five members elected for districts by the state at large for a term of six years, an appellate court (first constituted in 1891), and a system of circuit and minor criminal and county courts. The system of local government has undergone radical changes in recent years. A law of 1899, aimed to separate the legislative and executive functions, provided for the election of legislative bodies in every township and county. These bodies have control of the local expenditures and tax levies, and without their consent the local administrative officers cannot contract debts. In 1905 a new municipal code, probably the most elaborate and complete local government act in the United States, providing for a uniform system of government in all cities and towns, went into effect. It was constructed on the lines of the Indianapolis city charter, adopted in 1891, and repealed all individual charters and special corporation acts. Its controlling principle is the more complete separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers. For this purpose all cities are divided into 1 No man can serve as governor for more than four years in any period of eight years.

five classes according to population, the powers being concentrated and simplified by degrees in the case of the smaller cities, and reaching a maximum of separation and completeness in class 1, i.e. cities of 100,000 and over, which includes only Indianapolis. In all classes the executive officer is a mayor elected for four years and ineligible to succeed himself. There are six administrative departments (the number is often less in cities of the lower classes, where several departments may be combined under one head)-departments of public works, public safety, public health and charities, law, finance, and collection and assessment. There is a city court with elected judge or judges, and an elected common council, which may authorize the municipal ownership of public utilities by ordinance, and can pass legislation over the mayor's veto by a two-thirds vote. Communities under 2500 in population are regarded as towns, and have a separate form of government by a board of trustees.

Until 1908 the state had a prohibition law " by remonstrance," under which if a majority of the legal voters of a township or city ward remonstrated against the granting of licences for the sale of liquor, no licence could be granted by the county commissioners in that township or ward. Under this system Boo out of 1016 townships and more than 30 entire counties were in 1908 without saloons. In 1908, when the Republican party had declared in favour of county option and the Democratic party favoured township and ward option, a special session of the legislature, called by the Republican governor, passed the Cox Bill for county options.

Education.-Indiana has a well-organized free public school system. Provision was made for such a system in the first state constitution, to utilize the school lands set aside in all the North-West Territory by the Ordinance of 1787, but the existing system is of late growth. The first step toward such a system was a law of 1824 which provided for the election of school trustees in every township and for the erection of school buildings, but made no provision for support. Therefore, before 1850 what schools there were were not free. The constitution of 185r made further and more complete provisions for a uniform system, and on that basis the general school law of 1852 erected the framework of the existing system. It provided for the organization of free schools, supported by a property tax, and for county and township control. The movement, however, was retarded in 1858 by a decision of the supreme court holding that under the law of 1852 the system was not " uniform " as provided for by the constitution. In 1865 a new and more satisfactory law was passed, which with supplemental legislation is still in force. Under the existing system supreme administrative control is vested in a state superintendent elected biennially. County superintendents, county boards, and township trustees are also chosen, the latter possessing the important power of issuing school bonds. Teachers' institutes are regularly held, and a state normal school, established in 1870, is maintained at Terre Haute. There are normal schools at Valparaiso, Angola, Marion and Danville, and a Teachers' College at Indianapolis, which are on the state's " accredited " list and belong to the normal school system. In 1897 a compulsory education law was enacted. In1906-1907the state school tax was increased from 11 6 cents per $100 to 13.6 cents per $100; an educational standard was provided, coming into effect in August 1908, for public school teachers, in addition to the previous requirement of a written test; a regular system of normal training was authorized; uniform courses were provided for the public high schools; and small township schools with twelve pupils or less were discontinued, and transportation supplied for pupils in such abandoned schools to central school houses. The proportion of illiterates is very small, in 1900, 95.4% of the population (of 10 years old or over) being able to read and write. The total school revenue from state and local sources in 1905 amounted to $10,642,638, or $13.85 per capita of enumeration ($ 1 9.34 per capita of enrolment). In 1824 a state college was opened at Bloomington; it was re-chartered in 1838 as the State University. Purdue University (1874) at Lafayette, maintained under state control, received the benefit of the Federal grant under the Morrill Act. Other educational institutions of college rank include Vincennes University (non-sectarian), at Vincennes; Hanover College (1833, Presbyterian), at Hanover; Wabash College (1832, non-sectarian), at Crawfordsville; Franklin College (1837, Baptist), at Franklin; De Pauw University (1837, Methodist Episcopal), at Greencastle; Butler University (1855, Christian), at Indianapolis; Earlham College (1847, Friends), at Richmond; Notre Dame University (1842, Roman Catholic), at Notre Dame; Moore's Hill College (r856, Methodist Episcopal), at Moore's Hill; the University of Indianapolis (nonsectarian), a loosely affiliated series of schools at Indianapolis, centring around Butler University; and Rose Polytechnic Institute (1883, non-sectarian), at Terre Haute.

The charitable and correctional institutions of Indiana are well administered in accordance with the most improved modern methods, and form one of the most complete and adequate systems possessed by any state in the Union. The state was one of the first to establish schools for the deaf and the blind. Its Institution for the Education of the Deaf was established in 1844, and its Institution for the Education of the Blind in 1847, both being in Indianapolis. The first State Hospital for the Insane was opened in Indianapolis in 1848 and became the Central Indiana Hospital for the Insane in 1883; other similar institutions are the Northern Indiana Hospital at Logansport (1888), the Eastern at Richmond (1890), the Southern at Evansville (1890), and the South-eastern at North Madison (1905). There are a Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown (1868), and a State Soldiers' Home at Lafayette (1896); a School for FeebleMinded Youth (1879), removed from Knightstown to Fort Wayne in 1890; a village for epileptics at New Castle (1907); and a hospital for the treatment of tuberculosis, authorized in 1907, for which a site at Rockville was purchased in 1908. There are five state penal and correctional institutions: the Indiana Boys' School (1868-1883, the House of Refuge; 1883-1903, the Reform School for Boys), at Plainfield; the Indiana Girls' School, established at Indianapolis (1873), and removed to Clermont in 1907; a woman's prison (the first in the United States, authorized in 1869 and opened in 1873 at Indianapolis), which is entirely under the control of women (as is also the Indiana Girls' School) and has a correctional department (1908), in reality a state workhouse for women, formed with a view to removing as far as possible sentenced women from the county jails; a reformatory (1897), at Jeffersonville, conducted upon a modification of the " Elmira plan," formerly the State Prison (1822), later (1860) the State Prison South, so called to distinguish it from the State Prison North (1860) at Michigan City; and the prison at Michigan City, which became the Indiana State Prison in 1897. The old State Prison at Jeffersonville was at first conducted on the lease system, but public opinion compelled the abandonment of that system some years before the Civil War. The prisoners of the reformatory work under a law providing for trade schools; the product of the work is sold to the state institutions and to the civil and political divisions of the state, the surplus being disposed of on the market. At the State Prison practically one half the prisoners are employed on contracts. Not more than 100 may be employed on any one contract, and the day's work is limited to eight hours. The remainder of the population of the prison is employed on state account. The policy of indeterminate sentence and paroles was adopted in 1897 in the two prisons and the reformatory. Prisoners released upon parole are carefully supervised by state agents. Indiana has an habitualcriminal law, and a law providing for the sterilization of mental degenerates, confirmed criminals, and rapists. There are also an adult probation law and a juvenile court law, the latter applying to every county in the state. Each of the state institutions mentioned above is under the control of a separate bi-partisan board of four members. The whole system of public charities is under the supervision of a bi-partisan Board of State Charities (1889), which is appointed by the governor, and to which the excellent condition of state institutions is largely due. In the counties there are unsalaried boards of county charities and correction and county boards of children's guardians, appointed by the circuit judges. The township trustees, 1016 in number, are ex-officio overseers of the poor. They dispense official outdoor relief. Nowhere else have the principles of organized charities in the administration of public outdoor relief been applied to an entire state. Each county provides for the indoor care of the poor in poor asylums and children's homes, and for local prisoners in county jails. Provision is made for truant, dependent, neglected and delinquent children. No child can be made a public ward except upon order of the juvenile court, and all such children may be placed in family homes by agents of the Board of State Charities.

Finance.-The total true value of taxable property in the state was, according to the tax levy of 1907, $1,767,815,487, and the total taxes, including delinquencies, in the same year amounted to $38,880,257. The total net receipts for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1908, were $4,771,628, and the total net expenditure $5,259,002, the cash balance in the treasury for the year ending September 30, 1907, amounted to $1,096,459, leaving a cash balance on September 30, 1908, of $609,085. The total state debt on September 30, 1908, was $1,389,615.

History

Of the prehistoric inhabitants of Indiana little is known, but extensive remains in the form of mounds and fortifications abound in every part of the state, being particularly numerous in Knox and Sullivan counties. Along the Ohio river are remnants of several interesting stone forts. Upon the earliest arrival of Europeans the state was inhabited chiefly by the various tribes of the Miami Confederacy, a league of Algonquian Indians formed to oppose the advance of the Iroquois. The first Europeans to visit the state were probably French coureurs des bois or Jesuit missionaries. La Salle, the explorer, it is contended, must have passed through parts of Indiana during his journeys of 1669 and the succeeding years. Apparently a French trading post was in existence on the St Joseph river of Michigan about 1672, but it was in no sense a permanent settlement and seems soon to have been abandoned. It seems probable that the Wabash-Maumee portage was known to Father Claude Jean Allouez as early as 1680. When, a few years later, this portage came to be generally used by traders, the necessity of establishing a base on the upper Wabash as a defence against the Carolina and Pennsylvania traders, who had already reached the lower Wabash and incited the Indians to hostility against the French, became evident; but it was not, apparently, until the second decade of the 18th century that any permanent settlement was made. About 1720 a French post was probably established at Ouiatenon (about 5 m. S.W. of the present city of Lafayette), the headquarters of the Wea branch of the Miami, on the upper Wabash. The military post at Vincennes was founded about 1731 by Francois Margane, Sieur de Vincennes (or Vincent), but it was not until about 1735 that eight French families were settled there. Vincennes, which thus became the first actual white settlement in Indiana, remained the only one until after the War of Independence, although military posts were maintained at Ouiatenon and at the head of the Maumee, the site of the present Fort Wayne, where there was a French trading post (1680) and later Fort Miami. After the fall of Quebec the British took possession of the other forts, but not at once of Vincennes, which remained for several years under the jurisdiction of New Orleans, both under French and Spanish rule. The British garrisons at Ouiatenon and Fort Miami (near the site of the later Fort Wayne) on the Maumee were captured by the Indians as a result of the Pontiac conspiracy. All Indiana was united with Canada by the Quebec Act (1774), but it was not until three years later that the forts and Vincennes were occupied by the British, who then realized the necessity of ensuring possession of the Mississippi Valley to prevent its falling into the hands of the rebellious colonies. Nevertheless, in 1778 Vincennes fell an easy prey to agents sent to occupy it by George Rogers Clark, and although again occupied a few months later by General Henry Hamilton, the lieutenantgovernor at Detroit, it passed finally into American control in February 1779 as a result of Clark's remarkable march from Kaskaskia. Fort Miami remained in British hands until the close of the war.

The first American settlement was made at Clarksville, between the present cities of Jeffersonville and New Albany, at the Falls of the Ohio (opposite Louisville), in 1784. The decade following the close of the war was one of ceaseless Indian warfare. The disastrous defeats of General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in October 1790 on the Miami river in Ohio, and of Governor Arthur St Clair on the 4th of November 1791 near Fort Recovery, Ohio, were followed in 1792 by the appointment of General Anthony Wayne to the command of the frontier. By him the Indians were signally defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers (or Maumee Rapids) on the 10th of August 1794, and Fort Wayne, Indiana, was erected on the Maumee river. On the 3rd of August 1795, at Greenville, Ohio, a treaty was concluded between Wayne and twelve Indian tribes, and a narrow slice of the east-south-eastern part of the present state (the disputed lands in the valley of the Maumee) and various other small but not unimportant tracts were ceded to the United States. Then came several years' respite from Indian war, and settlers began at once to pour into the region. The claims of Virginia (1784) and the other eastern states having been extinguished, a clear field existed for the establishment of Federal jurisdiction in the " Territory North-West of the Ohio," but it was not until 1787 that by the celebrated Ordinance of that year such jurisdiction became an actuality. The North-West Territory was governed by its first governor, Arthur St Clair, until 1799, when it was accorded a representative government. In 1800 it was divided, and from its western part (including the present states of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, the north-east part of Minnesota, and a large part - from 1803 to 1805 all - of the present state of Michigan) Indiana Territory was erected, with General William Henry Harrison - who had been secretary of the North-West Territory since 1798 - as its first governor, and with Vincennes as the seat of government. Harrison made many treaties with the Indians, the most important being that signed at Fort Wayne on the 7th of June 1803, defining the Vincennes tract transferred to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville; those signed at Vincennes on the 18th and the 27th of August 1804, transferring to the United States a strip north of the Ohio river and south of the Vincennes tract; that concluded at Grouseland on the 21st of August 1805, procuring from the Delawares and others a tract along the Ohio river between the parcels of 1795 and 1804; and the treaties of Fort Wayne, signed on the 30th of September 1809, and securing one tract immediately west of that of 1795 and another north of the Vincennes tract defined in 1803. In January 1805 Michigan Territory was erected from the northern part of Indiana Territory, and in July following the first General Assembly of Indiana Territory met at Vincennes. In March 1809 the Territory was again divided, Illinois Territory being established from its western portion; Indiana was then reduced to its present limits. In 1810 began the last great Indian war in Indiana, in which the confederated Indians were led by Tecumseh, the celebrated Shawnee chief; it terminated with their defeat at Tippecanoe (the present Battle Ground) by Governor Harrison on the 7th of November 1811. After the close of the second war with Great Britain, immigration began again to flow rapidly into the Territory, and, having attained a sufficient population, Indiana was admitted to the Union as a state by joint resolution of Congress on the 11th of December 1816. The seat of government was established at Corydon, whither it had been removed from Vincennes in 1813. In 1820 the site of the present Indianapolis was selected for a new capital, but the seat of government was not removed thither until 1825.

The first great political problem presenting itself was that of slavery, and for a decade or more the only party divisions were on pro-slavery and anti-slavery lines. Although the Ordinance of 1787 actually prohibited slavery, it did not abolish that already in existence. SIavery had been introduced by the French, and was readily accepted and perpetuated by the early American settlers, almost all of whom were natives of Virginia, Kentucky, Georgia or the Carolinas. According to the census of 1800 there were 175 slaves in the Territory. The population of settlers from slave states was considerably larger than in Illinois, the proportion being 20% as late as 1850. It was but natural, therefore, that efforts should at once have been made to establish the institution of slavery on Indiana soil, and as early as 1802 a convention called to consider the expediency of slavery asked Congress to suspend the prohibitory clause of the Ordinance for ten years, but a committee of which John Randolph of Virginia was chairman reported against such action. Within the Territory there were several attempts to escape, by means of legislation, the effects of the Ordinance. These efforts consisted in (1) a law regulating the status of " servants," by which it was sought to establish a legal relation between master and slave; (2) a law by which it was sought to establish practical slavery by a system of indenture. By 1808 the opponents of slavery, found chiefly among the Quaker settlers in the south-eastern counties, began to awake to the danger that confronted them, and in 1809 elected their candidate, xIv. 14 a Jonathan Jennings (1776-1834) to Congress on an anti-slavery platform. In 1810, by which year the number of slaves had increased to 237, the anti-slavery party was strong enough to secure the repeal of the indenture law, which had received the unwilling acquiescence of Governor Harrison. Jennings was re-elected in 1811, and subsequently was chosen first governor of the state on the same issue, and the state constitution of 1816 pronounced strongly against slavery. The liberation of most of the slaves in the eastern counties followed; and some slave-holders removed to Kentucky. In 1830 there were only three slaves in the state, and the danger of the establishment of slavery as an institution on a large scale was long past.

The problem of " internal improvements" came to be of paramount importance in the decade 1820-1830. In 1827 Congress granted land to aid in the construction of a canal to connect Lake Erie and the Ohio river. This canal was completed from the St Joseph river to the Wabash in 1835, opened in 1843, and later abandoned. In 1836 the state legislature passed a law providing for an elaborate system of public improvements, consisting largely of canals and railways. The state issued bonds to the value of $io,000,000, a period of wild speculation followed, and the financial panic of 1837 forced the abandonment of the proposed plan and the sale to private persons of that part already completed. The legislature authorized the issue of $1,50o,000 in treasury bonds, which by 1842 had fallen in value to 40 or 50% of their face value. A new constitution was adopted in February 1851 by a vote of 109,319 against 26,755.

Despite its large Southern population, Indiana's answer to President Lincoln's first call for volunteers at the outbreak of the Civil War was prompt and spirited. From first to last the state. furnished 208,000 officers and men for the Union armies, besides a home legion of some 50,000, organized to protect the state against possible invasion. The efficiency of the state military organization, as well as that of the civil administration during the trying years of the war, was largely due to the extraordinary ability and energy of Governor Oliver P. Morton, one of the greatest of the " war governors " of the North. The problems met and solved by Governor Morton, however, were not only the comparatively simple ones of furnishing troops as required. The legislature of 1863 and the state officers were opposed to him politically, and did everything in their power to thwart him and deprive him of his control of the militia. The Republican members seceded, legislative appropriations were blocked, and Governor Morton was compelled to take the extraconstitutional step of arranging with a New York banking house for the payment of the interest on the state debt, of borrowing money for state expenditure on his own responsibility, and of constituting an unofficial financial bureau, which disbursed money in disregard of the state officers. Furthermore Indiana was the principal centre of activity of the disloyal association known as the Knights of the Golden Circle, or Sons of Liberty, which found a ready growth among the large Southern population. Prominent among Southern sympathisers was Senator Jesse D. Bright (1812-1875), who on the 5th of February 1862 was expelled from the United States Senate for writing a letter addressed to Jefferson Davis, as President of the Confederacy, in which he recommended a friend who had an improvement in fire-arms to dispose of. The Knights of the Golden Circle at first confined their activities to the encouragement of desertion, and resistance to the draft, but in 1864 a plot to overthrow the state government was discovered, and Governor Morton's prompt action resulted in the seizure of a large quantity of arms and ammunition, and the arrest, trial and conviction of several of the leaders. In June 1863 the state was invaded by Confederate cavalry under General John H. Morgan, but most of his men were captured in Indiana and he was taken in Ohio. There were other attempts at invasion, but the expected rising, on which the invaders had counted, did not take place, and in every case the home legion was able to capture or drive out the hostile bands.

Politically Indiana has been rather evenly divided between the great political parties. Before the Civil War, except when William Henry Harrison was a candidate for the presidency, its electoral vote was generally given to the Democratic party, to which also most of its governors belonged. After the war the control of the state alternated with considerable regularity between the Republican and Democratic parties, until 1896, between which time and 1904 the former were continuously successful. In 1908 a Democratic governor was elected, but Republican presidential electors were chosen.

Governors Of Indiana Territorial. Arthur St Clair (North-West Territory) John Gibson, Territorial Secretary (acting) William Henry Harrison. .

John Gibson, Territorial Secretary (acting) Thomas Posey State. Jonathan Jennings .

Ratliff Boone (acting) William Hendricks .

James B. Ray, President of Senate (acting) James B. Ray Noah Noble David Wallace Samuel Bigger James Whitcomb .

Paris C. Dunning, Lt. - Gov. (acting) .

Joseph A. Wright .

Ashbel P. Willard. Abram A. Hammond, Lt.-Gov.

(acting). Henry S. Lane Oliver P. Morton, Lt.-Gov. (acting). Oliver P. Morton Conrad Baker, Lt-Gov. (acting) Conrad Baker. .. Thomas A. Hendricks.. .

James D. Williams.. Isaac P. Gray, Lt.-Gov. (acting) Albert G. Porter. ... .

Isaac P. Gray. .. .

Alvin P. Hovey. Ira J. Chase, Lt.-Gov. (acting). Claude Matthews. ... James A. Mount. .

Winfield T. Durbin. .

J. Frank Hanly. Thomas R. Marshall .

Bibliography. - There is 'a' bibliography of Indiana history, by Isaac S. Bradley, in the Proceedings of the Wisconsin State Historical Society for 1897. The History of Indiana by William Henry Smith (2 vols., Indianapolis, 1897) is the best general account of Indiana history and institutions. J. B. Dillon's History of Indiana (Indianapolis, 1859) is the most authoritative account of the early history to 1816. J. P. Dunn's Indiana, a Redemption from Slavery (Boston, 1888) in the " American Commonwealth " series, as its secondary title indicates, is devoted principally to the struggle over the provision in the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery. For the Civil War period consult J. A. Woodburn, " Party Politics in Indiana during the Civil War " in Annual Report of the American Historical Association (Washington, 1902); W. H. H. Terrell, " Indiana in the War of the Rebellion "(Official Report of the Adjutant-General Indianapolis, 1869); and E. B. Pitman, Trials for Treason at Indianapolis (Indianapolis, 1865). See also De W. C. Goodrich and C. R. Tuttle, Illustrated History of the State of Indiana (Chicago, 1875); the same, revised and enlarged by W. S. Haymond (Indianapolis, 1879); O. H. Smith, Early Indiana Trials and Sketches (Indianapolis, 1858); and Nathaniel Bolton, " Early History of Indianapolis and Central Indiana," in Indiana Historical Society Publications, No. 5. " The Executive Journal of Indiana Territory " has been reprinted in the Indiana Historical Society's Publications, vol. iii., 1900. For government and administration see E. L. Hendricks, History and Government of Indiana (New York, 1908), The Legislative and State Manual of Indiana (Indianapolis, published biennially by the State librarian), Constitutions of 1816 and 1851 of the State of Indiana with Amendments (Indianapolis, 1897), School Law of Indiana, with Annotations (Indianapolis, 1904), and Wm. A. Rawles, Centralizing Tendencies in the Administration of Indiana (New York and London,1903),Columbia Univ. Press. " The New Municipal Code of Indiana " is explained in an article by H. O. Stechhan in the Forum (October-December, 1905). For education see Fassett A. Cotton's Education in Indiana (Indianapolis, 1905), and James A. Woodburn, Higher Education in Indiana (Washington, 1891), U.S.:Documents, Bureau of Education, Circulars1816-182218221822-182518251825-1831-1831-18371837-1840-1840-18431843-1848-1848-18491849-1857-1857-18601860-186118611861-1865-1865-18671867-1869-1869-18731873-1877-1877-18801880-1881-1881-18851885-1889-1889-18911891-1893-1893-18971897-1901-1901-19051905-190919091787-1800-1800-18011801-1812-1812-18131813-1816DemocraticRepublican ,, Whig " Democrat Republican Democrat Republican Democrat Republican Democrat Republican Democrat of Information, No. 1. For resources, industries, &c., consult the Reports of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of Indiana (biennial, Indianapolis, 1886 to date), Annual Report of the Department of Geology and Natural Resources (Indianapolis, 1869 to date), and Reports of the State Agricultural Society. See also the Reports of the Twelfth Federal Census for detailed statistical matter as to production, industries and population.


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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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See also indiana

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Indiana

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Indiana

Plural
-

Indiana

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital and largest city: Indianapolis.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Esperanto

Adjective

Indiana (plural Indianaj, accusative singular Indianan, accusative plural Indianajn)

  1. Native American; American Indian
    Li parolas tri Indianajn lingvojn.
    He speaks three Native American languages.

See also

  • Indiano

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

The State of Indiana
Flag of Indiana State seal of Indiana
Flag of Indiana SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Hoosier State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Crossroads of America
Map of the United States with Indiana highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Indianapolis
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Indianapolis
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Indianapolis-Carmel MSA
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 38thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 36,418 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(94,321 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 140 miles (225 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 270 miles (435 km)
 - % water 1.5
 - Latitude 37° 46′ N to 41° 46′ N
 - Longitude 84° 47′ W to 88° 6′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 15thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 6,080,485
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 169.5/sq mi 
65.46/km² (16th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Hoosier Hill[1]
1,257 ft  (383 m)
 - Mean 689 ft  (210 m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River[1]
320 ft  (98 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  December 11, 1816 (19th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mitch Daniels (R) (2004)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Richard Lugar (R)
Evan Bayh (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - 80 counties Eastern UTC-5/-4
 - 12 counties in
Evansville and
Gary Metro Areas
Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations INImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-INImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.in.gov


The State of Indiana (IPA: /ˌɪndiˈænə/) is the 19th U.S. state and is located in the midwestern region of the United States of America. With about 6.3 million residents, it is ranked 14th in population and 17th in population density.[2] Indiana is ranked 38th in land area.

Indiana is a diverse state with a few large urban areas and a number of smaller industrial cities. It is known for the Indianapolis 500 automobile race, held annually over the Memorial Day weekend, and a strong basketball tradition, often called Hoosier Hysteria.

Residents of Indiana are called Hoosiers. There are several ideas about the origin of the name. Linguists have traced it to England, where in one dialect it meant "farmer." Others have traced it to the Indiana workers who crossed the Ohio River to work for Sam Hoosier during construction of the Louisville and Portland Canal; these workers were known as "Hoosier's Men." Another story told to Indiana youths is that in the early 1800s, bar fights would break out in Indiana saloons, with many a man losing an ear. Someone would pick it up and ask "Whose ear?", which somehow evolved into Hoosier.

The state's name means "Land of the Indians" and Angel Mounds State Historic Site, one of the best preserved prehistoric Native American sites in the United States, can be found in southern Indiana near Evansville.[3]

Contents

Geography

See also: Geography of Indiana, List of Indiana counties, List of Indiana rivers, and Watersheds of Indiana

Indiana is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan; on the east by Ohio; on the south by Kentucky, with which it shares the Ohio River as a border; and on the west by Illinois. Indiana is one of the Great Lakes states.

The northern boundary of the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois was originally defined to be a latitudinal line drawn through the southernmost tip of Lake Michigan. Since such a line would not provide Indiana with usable frontage on the lake, its northern border was shifted ten miles (16 km) north. The northern borders of Ohio and Illinois were also shifted from this original plan.[4]

The 475 mile (764 km) long Wabash River bisects the state from northeast to southwest and has given Indiana a few theme songs, On the Banks of the Wabash, The Wabash Cannonball and Back Home Again, In Indiana.[5][6] The Wabash is also the longest free-flowing river east of the Mississippi; 400 miles (640 km) from the Huntington dam to the Ohio River. The White River (a tributary of the Wabash, which is a tributary of the Ohio) zigzags through central Indiana.

There are 24 Indiana state parks, nine man-made reservoirs, and hundreds of lakes in the state. Areas under the control and protection of the National Park Service or the United States Forest Service include:[7]

Northern Indiana

The northwest corner of the state is part of the Chicago metropolitan area and has nearly one million residents.[8] Gary, and the cities and towns that make up the northern half of Lake, Porter, and La Porte Counties bordering on Lake Michigan, are effectively commuter suburbs of Chicago. Porter and Lake counties are commonly referred to as "The Calumet Region", or "The Region" for short. The name comes from the fact that the Grand Calumet and Little Calumet rivers run through the area. These counties are all in the Central Time Zone along with Chicago. NICTD owns and operates the South Shore Line, a commuter rail line that runs electric-powered trains between South Bend and Chicago.[9] Sand dunes and heavy industry share the shoreline of Lake Michigan in northern Indiana.

Most of northern and central Indiana is flat farmland dotted with small cities and towns, such as North Manchester.

The Kankakee River, which winds through northern Indiana, serves somewhat as a demarcating line between suburban northwest Indiana and the rest of the state.[10]

The South Bend metropolitan area, in north central Indiana, is the center of commerce in the region better known as Michiana. Fort Wayne, the state's second largest city, is located in the northeastern part of the state.

Central Indiana

The state capital, Indianapolis, is situated in the central portion of the state. It is intersected by numerous Interstates and U.S. highways, giving the state its motto as "The Crossroads of America".[11] Other cities and towns located within the area include Anderson, Bloomington, Brownsburg, Carmel, Columbus, Crawfordsville, Danville, Fishers, Franklin, Greenwood, Greenfield, Kokomo, Lafayette, Lebanon, Mooresville, Muncie, Plainfield, Richmond, Terre Haute, and West Lafayette.

Rural areas in the central portion of the state are typically composed of a patchwork of fields and forested areas.

Southern Indiana

Evansville, the third largest city in Indiana, is located in the southwestern corner of the state. It is located in a tri-state area that includes Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. The southeastern cities of Clarksville, Jeffersonville, and New Albany are part of the Louisville metropolitan area. Vincennes, the oldest city in the state, is located on the Wabash River.

Southern Indiana is a mixture of farmland and forest. The Hoosier National Forest is a 200,000 acre (80,900 ha) nature preserve in south central Indiana. Southern Indiana's topography is more varied than that in the north and generally contains more hills and geographic variation than the northern portion, such as the "Knobs," a series of 1,000 ft (300 m). hills that run parallel to the Ohio River in south-central Indiana. Brown County is well-known for its hills covered with colorful autumn foliage, T.S. Eliot's former home, and Nashville, the county seat and shopping destination.

The limestone geology of Southern Indiana has created numerous caves and one of the largest limestone quarry regions in the USA. Many of Indiana's official buildings, such as the State capitol building, the downtown monuments, the Indiana University School of Law in Indianapolis, many buildings at Indiana University in Bloomington, and the Indiana Government Center are all examples of Indiana architecture made with Indiana limestone. Indiana limestone has also been used in many other famous structures in the US, such as the University of Illinois' Memorial Stadium, the Empire State Building, the Pentagon, and the Washington National Cathedral. In addition, 35 of the 50 state capitol buildings are also made of Indiana Limestone.[12]

For sixty years, from 1890 to 1950, the United States Census found the center of population to lie in southern Indiana.

Climate

Most of Indiana has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. The extreme southern portions of the state border on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) with somewhat milder winters. Summertime maximum temperatures average around 85 °F (29 °C) with cooler nights around 60 °F (16 °C). Winters are a little more variable, but generally cool to cold temperatures with all but the northern part of the state averaging above freezing for the maximum January temperature, and the minimum temperature below 20 °F (-8 °C) for most of the state.[13]The state receives a good amount of precipitation, 40 inches (1,000 mm) annually statewide, in all four seasons, with March through August being slightly wetter.

The state does have its share of severe weather, both winter storms and thunderstorms. While generally not receiving as much snow as some states farther north, the state does have occasional blizzards, some due to lake effect snow. The state averages around 40-50 days of thunderstorms per year, with March and April being the period of most severe storms. While not considered part of Tornado Alley, Indiana is the Great Lakes state which is most vulnerable to tornadic activity. In fact, three of the most severe tornado outbreaks in U.S. history affected Indiana, the Tri-State Tornado of 1925, the Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965 and the Super Outbreak of 1974. The Evansville Tornado of November 2005 killed 25 people, 20 people in Vanderburgh County and 5 in Warrick County.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures for Largest Indiana Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Evansville 40/23 45/26 56/35 67/44 77/54 86/64 89/68 86/64 81/57 70/45 56/36 44/27
Fort Wayne 31/16 35/19 47/29 60/38 72/49 81/59 84/62 82/60 75/53 63/42 48/33 36/22
Indianapolis 34/18 40/22 51/32 63/41 74/52 82/61 86/65 84/63 77/55 66/44 52/34 39/24
South Bend 31/16 36/19 47/28 59/38 71/48 80/58 83/63 81/61 74/53 62/42 48/33 36/22
Source: US Travel Weather[14]

History

The area of Indiana has been settled since before the development of the Hopewell culture (ca. 100–400 CE).[15] It was part of the Mississippian culture from roughly the year 1000 up to 1400.[16] The specific Native American tribes that inhabited this territory at that time were primarily the Miami and the Shawnee.[17] The area was claimed for New France in the 17th century, handed over to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the settlement at the end of the French and Indian War, given to the United States after the American Revolution, soon after which it became part of the Northwest Territory, then the Indiana Territory, and joined the Union in 1816 as the 19th state. See Northwest Indian War.[17]

Pioneer Era

On June 29, 1816, Indiana adopted a constitution, and on December 11, 1816, became the 19th State to join the Union.[18]

Indiana filled up from the Ohio River north. Migration, mostly from Kentucky and Ohio, was so rapid that by 1820 the population was 147,176, and by 1830 the sales of public lands for the previous decade reached 3,588,000 acres (5,600 sq mi; 14,500 km²) and the population was 343,031. It had more than doubled since 1820. The first state capital was in the southern Indiana city of Corydon.[19]

Transportation

Down the Mississippi and its tributaries (the Ohio and Wabash) was to be found the sole outlet for the increasing produce of the Middle West, whose waters drained into the great valley. Districts which were not upon streams navigable by even the lightest draught steamboat were economically handicapped. The small, flat boat was their main reliance. Roads suitable for heavy carriage were few up to the middle of the century. The expense and time attending shipment of merchandise from the east at that time were almost prohibitive. To meet this condition, the building of canals (espoused by the constitution of 1816) was long advocated, in emulation of Ohio which took example after New York State. In 1826, Congress granted a strip two and a half miles wide on each side of the proposed canal. A very extensive and ambitious scale of main and lateral canals and turnpikes was advocated in consequence.

Work began on the Wabash and Erie Canal in 1832, on the Whitewater Canal in 1836, on the Central in 1837. Bad financing and "bad times" nearly wrecked the whole scheme; yet, the Wabash and Erie Canal was completed from Toledo to Evansville. It was a great factor in the development of the state, although it brought heavy loss upon the bondholders with the advent of the railroad. Upon completion, the canal actually increased prices of farm products three or fourfold and reduced prices of household needs 60%, a tremendous stimulus to agricultural development. By 1840, the population of the upper Wabash Valley had increased from 12,000 to 270,000. The canal boat that hauled loads of grain east came back loaded with immigrants. In 1846, it is estimated that over thirty families settled every day in the state.

Manufacturing also developed rapidly. In the ten years between 1840 and 1850, the counties bordering the canal increased in population 397%; those more fertile, but more remote, 190%. The tide of trade, which had been heretofore to New Orleans, was reversed and went east. The canal also facilitated and brought emigration from Ohio, New York, and New England, in the newly established counties in the northern two-thirds of the state. Foreign immigration was mostly from Ireland and Germany. Later, this great canal fell into disuse, and finally was abandoned, as railway mileage increased.

In the next ten years, by 1840, of the public domain 9,122,688 acres (14,250 mi²; 36,918 km²) had been sold. But the state was still heavily in debt, although growing rapidly. In 1851 a new constitution (now in force) was adopted. The first constitution was adopted at a convention assembled at Corydon, which had been the seat of government since December, 1813. The original statehouse, built of blue limestone, still stands; but in 1821, the site of the present capital, Indianapolis, was selected by the legislature. It was in the wilds, sixty miles from civilization. By 1910, it was a city of 225,000 inhabitants, and was the largest inland steam and electric railroad center in the United States that was not located on a navigable waterway. No railroad reached it before 1847.

Demographics

Indiana Population Density Map


As of 2006, Indiana had an estimated population of 6,313,520, which is an increase of 47,501, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 233,003, or 3.8%, since the year 2000.[20] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 196,728 people (that is 541,506 births minus 344,778 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 51,117 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 68,935 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 17,818 people.

The center of population of Indiana is located in Hamilton County, in the town of Sheridan.[21] Population growth since 1990 has been concentrated in the counties surrounding Indianapolis, with four of the top five fastest-growing counties in that area: Hamilton, Hendricks, Johnson, and Hancock. The other county is Dearborn County, which is near Cincinnati.

The Evansville Area has experienced a shift in their population. Evansville continues to lose population as of 2005 while Vanderburgh has continued to grow by at least 3% a year. The other counties of the Evansville Area have started to grow at an increasingly faster rate, especially Gibson and Warrick Counties who are becoming Evansville's suburban counties. Gibson County, long having been a very conservative, reluctant to grow, has seen at least two towns Haubstadt and Fort Branch starting to become "Bedroom Communities" like Newburgh and Chandler in Warrick County. In addition, the two counties have seen their minority (in particular, their Asian African and Latin) populations just about double in the last 15 years as the area has started to become more receptive and tolerant of minorities. {{US DemogTable|Indiana|03-18.csv|= | 90.13| 8.91| 0.65| 1.21| 0.08|= | 3.31| 0.15| 0.07| 0.03| 0.02|= | 89.57| 9.42| 0.63| 1.44| 0.08|= | 4.29| 0.19| 0.08| 0.04| 0.02|= | 2.51| 8.99| -0.26| 23.11| 11.31|= | 1.33| 8.68| -2.87| 22.97| 9.77|= | 33.38| 26.82| 21.02| 28.42| 16.70}} As of 2005, the total population included 242,281 foreign-born (3.9%).[22]

German is the largest ancestry reported in Indiana, with 22.7% of the population reporting that ancestry in the Census. Persons citing "American" (12.0%) and English ancestry (8.9%) are also numerous, as are Irish (10.8%) and Polish (3.0%).[23]

Religion

Although the largest religious denomination in the state is Roman Catholic, the state is predominantly various Protestant denominations. A study by the Graduate Center found that 20% are Roman Catholic, 14% are Baptist, 10% are Christian, 9% are Methodist, and 6% are Lutheran. The study also found that 16% are secular.[24]

The state is home to the University of Notre Dame and also has a strong parochial school system in the larger metropolitan areas. Southern Indiana is the home to a number of Catholic monasteries and one of the two archabbeys in the United States, St. Meinrad Archabbey. Two conservative denominations, the Free Methodist Church and the Wesleyan Church, have their headquarters in Indianapolis as does the Christian Church. Anderson is home to the headquarters of Church of God Ministries and Warner Press Publishing House. Fort Wayne is the headquarters of the Missionary Church. Fort Wayne is also home to one of The Lutheran Church Missouri Synod's seminaries - Concordia Theological Seminary. The Islamic Society of North America is headquartered just off Interstate 70 in Plainfield, west of Indianapolis.

In 1906, the Census reported there were 938,405 members of different religious denominations; of this total, 233,443 were Methodists (210,593 of the Northern Church); 174,849 were Roman Catholics, 108,188 were Disciples of Christ (and 10,219 members of the Churches of Christ); 92,705 were Baptists (60,203 of the Northern Convention, 13,526 of the National (African American) Convention; 8,132 Primitive Baptists, and 6,671 General Baptists); 58,633 were Presbyterians (49,041 of the Northern Church, and 6,376 of the Cumberland Church—since united with the Northern); 55,768 were Lutherans (34,028 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference, 8,310 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio and other states), 52,700 were United Brethren (48,059 of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ; the others of the " Old Constitution ") and 21,624 of the German Evangelical Synod.[25]

Cities and towns

30 Largest Cities [26] 2005 Population
Indianapolis 784,118
Fort Wayne 223,341
Evansville 115,918
South Bend 105,262
Gary 98,715
Hammond 79,217
Bloomington 69,017
Muncie 66,164
Lafayette 60,459
Carmel 59,243
Anderson 57,500
Fishers 57,220
Terre Haute 56,893
Elkhart 52,270
Mishawaka 48,497
Kokomo 46,178
Greenwood 42,236
Lawrence 40,959
Columbus 39,380
Noblesville 38,825
Richmond 37,560
Portage 36,789
New Albany 36,772
Michigan City 32,205
Merrillville 31,525
Goshen 31,269
East Chicago 30,946
Marion 30,644
Valparaiso 29,102
Jeffersonville 28,621

Indianapolis is the capital of Indiana, near the geographic center of the state. Other Indiana cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include Anderson, Bloomington (home of Indiana University's main campus), Columbus, Elkhart, Evansville (home of University of Evansville and University of Southern Indiana), Fort Wayne (home of Concordia Theological Seminary), Gary (home of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore), Kokomo, Lafayette (adjoining West Lafayette, home of Purdue University), Michigan City, Muncie (home of Ball State University), South Bend (home of University of Notre Dame), and Terre Haute (home of Indiana State University and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology).

Map of Indiana

Indiana cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include Angola, Auburn, Bedford, Connersville, Crawfordsville, Decatur, Frankfort, Greensburg, Huntington, Jasper, Kendallville, Logansport, Madison, Marion, New Castle, North Vernon, Peru, Plymouth, Richmond, Scottsburg, Seymour, Vincennes,Wabash, Warsaw, and Washington.

Other communities with populations of 10,000 or more include Beech Grove, Brownsburg, Carmel, Chesterton, Clarksville, Connersville, Crawfordsville, Crown Point, Dyer, East Chicago, Fishers, Franklin, Goshen, Greencastle, Greenfield, Greenwood, Griffith, Hammond, Highland, Hobart, Jeffersonville, Lake Station, La Porte, Lawrence, Lebanon, Martinsville, Merrillville, Mooresville, Munster, New Albany, New Haven, Noblesville, Plainfield, Portage, Schererville, Shelbyville, Speedway, Valparaiso (home of Valparaiso University), West Lafayette (home of Purdue University), Westfield, and Zionsville.

The suburbs of Indianapolis include Anderson, Avon, Beech Grove, Brownsburg, Carmel, Clermont, Danville, Fishers, Franklin, Greenwood, Lawrence, Lebanon, Noblesville, Pendleton, Plainfield, Southport, Speedway, West Newton, Whiteland, and Zionsville.

See also: Nine-County Region

The Indiana suburbs of Chicago, Illinois include Crown Point, Dyer, East Chicago, Gary, Griffith, Hammond, Highland, Hobart, LaPorte, Lowell, Merrillville, Michigan City, Schererville, Munster, Valparaiso, Portage, Chesterton, St. John, and Whiting

See also: Northwest Indiana

The Indiana suburbs of Louisville include Clarksville, Jeffersonville, and New Albany.

Fort Wayne's Indiana suburbs include Huntertown, Leo-Cedarville, Monroeville, New Haven, and Woodburn.

Evansville's Indiana suburbs include Boonville, New Harmony, Newburgh, Mt. Vernon, and Princeton.

South Bend's Indiana suburbs include Granger, Mishawaka, North Liberty, Osceola, Walkerton, and Roseland.

See also: Michiana

Law and government

See also: List of Indiana Governors
See also: Indiana General Assembly
See also: Indiana Supreme Court

Indiana's government has three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The governor, elected for a four-year term, heads the executive branch. The General Assembly, the legislative branch, consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Indiana's fifty State Senators are elected for four-year terms and one hundred State Representatives for two-year terms. In odd-numbered years, the General Assembly meets in a sixty-one day session. In even-numbered years, the Assembly meets for thirty session days. The judicial branch consists of the Indiana Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, the Indiana Tax Court, and local circuit courts.

Politics

The current governor of Indiana is Mitch Daniels, whose campaign slogan was "My Man Mitch," an appellation given by President George W. Bush for whom Mitch Daniels was the director of the Office of Management and Budget. He was elected to office on November 2, 2004.

After 1964, when Indiana supported Lyndon B. Johnson over Barry Goldwater, Indiana has favored the Republican candidate in federal elections. Nonetheless, half of Indiana's governors in the 20th century were Democrats.

Indiana's delegation to the United States House of Representatives is not overly Republican as one might suspect. Instead, it has generally served as a bellwether for the political movement of the nation. For instance, Democrats held the majority of seats until the 1994 Republican Revolution, when Republicans took a majority. This continued until 2006, when three Republican congressmen were defeated in Indiana; (Chris Chocola, John Hostettler and Mike Sodrel), giving the Democrats a majority of the delegation again.[27]

Former governor and current U.S. Senator Evan Bayh announced in 2006 his plans for a presidential exploratory committee.[28] His father was a three-term senator who was turned out of office in the 1980 Reagan Revolution by conservative Republican (and future Vice-President) Dan Quayle, a native of the small town of Huntington in the northeastern part of the state. However, Bayh announced that he would not be seeking the Presidency on December 16, 2006.

The state's U.S. Senators are Senior Sen. Richard G. Lugar (Republican) and Junior Sen. B. Evans "Evan" Bayh III (Democrat).

Representative District Party
Peter Visclosky Indiana 1st District Democrat
Joe Donnelly Indiana 2nd District Democrat
Mark Souder Indiana 3rd District Republican
Steve Buyer Indiana 4th District Republican
Dan Burton Indiana 5th District Republican
Mike Pence Indiana 6th District Republican
Julia Carson Indiana 7th District Democrat
Brad Ellsworth Indiana 8th District Democrat
Baron Hill Indiana 9th District Democrat

Economy

The total gross state product in 2005 was US$214 billion in 2000 chained dollars.[29] Indiana's per capita income, as of 2005, was US$31,150.[30] A high percentage of Indiana's income is from manufacturing.[31] The Calumet region of northwest Indiana is the largest steel producing area in the U.S. Steelmaking itself requires generating very large amounts of electric power. Indiana's other manufactures include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, automobiles, electrical equipment, transportation equipment, chemical products, rubber, petroleum and coal products, and factory machinery.

Despite its reliance on manufacturing, Indiana has been much less affected by declines in traditional Rust Belt manufactures than many of its neighbors. The explanation appears to be certain factors in the labor market. First, much of the heavy manufacturing, such as industrial machinery and steel, requires highly skilled labor, and firms are often willing to locate where hard-to-train skills already exist. Second, Indiana's labor force is located primarily in medium-sized and smaller cities rather than in very large and expensive metropolises. This makes it possible for firms to offer somewhat lower wages for these skills than would normally be paid. In other words, firms often see in Indiana a chance to obtain higher than average skills at lower than average wages.[32]

Indiana is home to the international headquarters of pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in Indianapolis as well as the headquarters of Mead Johnson Nutritionals, a division of Bristol-Myers Squibb, in Evansville. Elkhart, in the north, has also had a strong economic base of pharmaceuticals, though this has changed over the past decade with the closure of Whitehall Laboratories in the 1990s and the planned drawdown of the large Bayer complex, announced in late 2005.[33] Overall, Indiana ranks fifth among all U.S. states in total sales and shipments of pharmaceutical products and second highest in the number of biopharmaceutical related jobs.[34] Medical device manufacturers include Zimmer in Warsaw and Cook in Bloomington.

The state is located within the Corn Belt and the state's agricultural methods and principal farm outputs reflect this: a feedlot-style system raising corn to fatten hogs and cattle. Soybeans are also a major cash crop. Its proximity to large urban centers, such as Chicago, assure that dairying, egg production, and specialty horticulture occur. Specialty crops include melons, tomatoes, grapes, and mint.[35] Most of the original land was not prairie and had to be cleared of deciduous trees. Many parcels of woodland remain and support a furniture-making sector in the southern portion of the state.

Indiana is becoming a leading state in the production of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel. Indiana now has 12 ethanol and 4 biodiesel plants located in the state.[36] Reynolds, locted north of Lafayette is now known as BioTown, USA. The town is experimenting with using biofuels and organic fuels, such as those made with manure, to power the town.[37]

In mining, Indiana is probably best known for its decorative limestone from the southern, hilly portion of the state, especially from Lawrence County (the home area of Apollo I astronaut Gus Grissom).[38] One of the many public buildings faced with this stone is The Pentagon, and after the September 11, a special effort was made by the mining industry of Indiana to replace those damaged walls with as nearly identical type and cut of material as the original facing.[39] There are also large coal mines in the southern portion of the state. Like most Great Lakes states, Indiana has small to medium operating petroleum fields; the principal location of these today is in the extreme southwest, though operational oil derricks can be seen on the outskirts of Terre Haute.

Indiana's economy is considered to be one of the most business-friendly in the U.S. This is due in part to its conservative business climate, low business taxes, relatively low union membership, and labor laws. The doctrine of at-will employment, whereby an employer can terminate an employee for any or no reason, is in force.

Indiana has a flat state income tax rate of 3.4%. Many Indiana counties also collect income tax. The state sales tax rate is 6%. Property taxes are imposed on both real and personal property in Indiana and are administered by the Department of Local Government Finance. Property is subject to taxation by a variety of taxing units (schools, counties, townships, cities and towns, libraries), making the total tax rate the sum of the tax rates imposed by all taxing units in which a property is located.

Energy

Indiana's Power Production chiefly consists of the consumption of fossil fuels, mainly coal. Indiana has 24 coal power plants, including the largest coal power plant in the United States, Gibson Generating Station, located near Owensville. While Indiana has made commitments to increasing use of renewable resources such as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, or solar power, however, progress has been very slow, mainly due to the continued abundance of coal in Southern Indiana. Most of the new plants in the state have been "Coal Gasification" Plants. Another mostly underutilized source is hydroelectric power. Indiana has at least 12 dams, however, only one of them, the Markland Dam, on the Ohio River, near Vevay actually produces electricity while the others simply hold back water in areas like Patoka Lake, Salamonie Lake, Mississinewa Lake and Brookville Lake and the Geist and Eagle Creek Resevoirs plus at least seven lock and dam systems on the Ohio River of similar design to Markland.

The Energy Makeup of Indiana (2001)

Fuel Capacity Percent of Total Consumed Percent of Total Production Number of Plants / Units
Coal 19,500MW 63.0000% 88.5000% 24 Plants
Natural Gas 2,100MW 29.0000% 10.5000% 12 Units / 2 plants
Petroleum 575MW 7.5000% 1.5000% 10 Units
Hydroelectric 64MW 0.0450% 0.0100% 1 Plant
Biomass 20MW 0.0150% 0.0020% 2 units
Wood & Waste 18MW 0.0013% 0.0015% 3 Units
Geothermal, Wind and/or or Solar 0MW 0.0% 0.0 No Facilities at this time

[40] US Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
[41] US Department of Energy - State Energy Profiles
[42] Indiana Office of Energy

Transportation

Airports

2003-2008 Indiana License plate, "large letter version".

Indianapolis International Airport serves the greater Indianapolis area and is currently in the process of a major expansion project. When fully completed, the airport will offer a new midfield passenger terminal, concourses, air traffic control tower, parking garage, and airfield and apron improvements.[43]

Other major airports include Evansville Regional Airport, Fort Wayne International Airport (which houses the 122nd Fighter Wing of the Air National Guard), and South Bend Regional Airport. Although Fort Wayne is designated as an international airport, there are no international flights operating out of the facility. A long-standing proposal to turn the under-utilized Gary Chicago International Airport into Chicago's third major airport received a boost in early 2006 with the approval of $48 million in federal funding over the next ten years.[44]
2003-2008 Indiana License plate, "small letter version".

The Terre Haute International Airport has no airlines operating out of the facility but is used for private flying. Since 1954, the 181st Fighter Wing of the Indiana Air National Guard has been stationed at the airport. However, the BRAC Proposal of 2005 stated that the 181st would lose its fighter mission and F-16 aircraft, leaving the Terre Haute facility as a general-aviation only facility.

The southern part of the state is also served by the Louisville International Airport across the Ohio River in Louisville, Kentucky.

Highways

The major U.S. Interstate highways in Indiana are I-69, I-65, I-94, I-70, I-74, I-64, I-80, and I-90. The various highways intersecting in and around Indianapolis earned it the nickname "The Crossroads of America".

There are also many state highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation.

County Roads

Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the older arbitrary system of road numbers and names, and (among other things) makes it much easier to identify the sources of calls placed to the 9-1-1 system. For this reason, the system is often called "9-1-1 addressing".

Counties have an east-west division line, dividing the county into north and south parts, and a north-south meridian line, dividing it into east and west parts. Roads are numbered by taking the distance, in miles, from the appropriate baseline and multiplying it by 100. Thus, a north-south road that is 1 mile east of the meridian line is county road 100 E; and an east-west road that is 4.75 miles north of the division line is county road 475 N. Some roads run diagonally, or do not run in straight lines; these roads are sometimes given names rather than numbers.

Rail

Indiana has over 4,255 railroad route miles, of which 91 percent are operated by Class I railroads, principally CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern. Other Class I railroads in Indiana include Canadian National and the Soo Line, a Canadian Pacific Railway subsidiary, as well as Amtrak. The remaining miles are operated by 37 regional, local, and switching & terminal railroads. The South Shore Line is one of the country's most notable commuter rail systems extending from Chicago to South Bend. Indiana is currently implementing an extensive rail plan that was prepared in 2002 by the Parsons Corporation.[45]

Ports

Indiana annually ships over 70 million tons of cargo by water each year, which ranks 14th among all U.S. states. More than half of Indiana's border is water, which includes 400 miles (640 km) of direct access to two major freight transportation arteries: the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway (via Lake Michigan) and the Inland Waterway System (via the Ohio River). The Ports of Indiana manages three major ports which include Burns Harbor, Jeffersonville, and Mount Vernon.[46]

Education


Indiana is known as the "Brain Bank of the Midwest" as Indiana's colleges and universities attract the fourth largest number of out-of-state students in the nation and the largest out-of-state student population in the midwest. In addition, Indiana is the third best state in the country at keeping high school seniors in-state as Indiana colleges and universities attract 88% of Indiana's college attendees.[47] Indiana universities also lead the nation in the attraction of international students with Purdue University and Indiana University ranked #3 and #17 respectively in the total international student enrollment of all universities in the United States.[48] This exceptional popularity is attributed to the high quality of the research and educational universities located in the state. The state's leading higher education institutions include Indiana University, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Purdue University, University of Notre Dame, Indiana-Purdue at Indianapolis, Indiana Wesleyan University, Butler University, Ball State University, Valparaiso University, Vincennes University, Wabash College, and DePauw University among the many public and private institutions located in the state.

Unfortunately, the state has had difficulty retaining its college graduates, bringing the issue of brain drain to the attention of Governor Daniels.

See also: List of colleges and universities in Indiana
See also: List of school districts in Indiana
See also: List of high schools in Indiana

Sports

Indiana has a rich basketball heritage that reaches back to the formative years of the sport itself. Although James Naismith invented basketball in Springfield, in 1891, Indiana is where high school basketball was born. In 1925, Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15,000 screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the center of the sport." The 1986 film Hoosiers is based on the story of the 1954 Indiana state champions Milan High School.

Indiana has a long history with auto racing. Indianapolis hosts the Indianapolis 500 mile race over Memorial Day weekend at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway every May. The name of the race is usually shortened to "Indy 500" and also goes by the nickname, "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing". The race attracts over 250,000 people every year. The track also hosts the Allstate 400 at the Brickyard (NASCAR) and the United States Grand Prix (Formula One).

Club Sport League
Anderson Packers (defunct) Basketball National Basketball Association
Elkhart Express Basketball Minor League Basketball
Evansville BlueCats Indoor football United Indoor Football
Evansville Crimson Giants (defunct) Football National Football League
Evansville Otters Baseball Minor League Baseball
Evansville Triplets (defunct) Baseball Minor League Baseball
Fort Wayne Fever Soccer USL Premier Development League
Fort Wayne Fusion Arena football af2
Fort Wayne Komets Ice hockey United Hockey League
Fort Wayne Mad Ants Basketball National Basketball Association Development League
Fort Wayne Wizards Baseball Minor League Baseball
Gary Steelheads Basketball Continental Basketball Association
FC Indiana Soccer Women's Premier Soccer League
Gary SouthShore RailCats Baseball Minor League Baseball
Indiana Fever Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Indiana Ice Ice hockey United States Hockey League
Indiana Invaders Soccer USL Premier Development League
Indiana Speed Football Women's Professional Football League
Indianapolis Colts Football National Football League
Indiana Pacers Basketball National Basketball Association
Indianapolis Indians Baseball Minor League Baseball
Hammond Pros (defunct) Football National Football League
Indianapolis Olympians (defunct) Basketball National Basketball Association
Indianapolis Jets (defunct) Basketball National Basketball Association
Indianapolis Racers (defunct) Ice Hockey World Hockey Association
Muncie Flyers (defunct) Football National Football League (American Professional Football Association)
South Bend Silver Hawks Baseball Minor League Baseball
Whiting All-American Caesars Basketball National Basketball League

Indiana has had great sports success at the collegiate level. Notably, Indiana University has won five NCAA basketball championships and seven NCAA soccer championships and Notre Dame has won 11 football championships. Schools fielding NCAA Division I athletic programs include:

Miscellaneous topics

Military installations

Indiana was formerly home to two major military installations, Grissom Air Force Base near Peru (reduced to reservist operations in 1994) and Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, now closed, though the Department of Defense continues to operate a large finance center there.

Current active installations include Air National Guard fighter units at Fort Wayne, and Terre Haute airports (to be consolidated at Fort Wayne under the 2005 BRAC proposal, with the Terre Haute facility remaining open as a non-flying installation). The Army National Guard conducts operations at Camp Atterbury in Edinburgh and helicopter operations out of Shelbyville Airport. The Crane Naval Weapons Center is in the southwest of the state and the Army's Newport Chemical Depot, which is currently heavily involved in neutralizing dangerous chemical weapons stored there, is in the western part of the state. Also, Naval Operational Support Center Indianapolis is home to several Navy Reserve units as well as a Marine Reserve unit and a small contingent of active and full-time-support reserve personnel.

Time zones

Main article: Time in Indiana
Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed
Prior to 2006, most of Indiana historically exempted itself from the observation of daylight saving time (DST). Some counties within this area, particularly Floyd, Clark, and Harrison counties near Louisville, and Ohio and Dearborn counties near Cincinnati, observed daylight saving time unofficially and illegally by local custom. Due to the confusion of anyone not from Indiana, the state passed a bill in 2005 whereby the entire state began observing daylight saving time starting in April 2006. Residents and officials of Indiana continue to debate whether the state should be in the Central or Eastern Time Zone.

State symbols

Famous Hoosiers

Indiana is the home state of many astronauts, including Gus Grissom, Frank Borman, and David Wolf. The state was the birthplace of numerous entertainers and athletes including Larry Bird, John Mellencamp, Michael Jackson, Don Larsen, David Letterman, Axl Rose, David Lee Roth, and Scott Rolen. Other notable people who were in Indiana during a major part of their career include:



See also: List of people from Indiana

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  2. ^ States ranked by population density
  3. ^ Angel Mounds State Historic Site. Evansville Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  4. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800-1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05658-3; pg. 436
  5. ^ Ozick, Cynthia. "MIRACLE ON GRUB STREET; Stockholm.", The New York Times, November 9, 1986. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (English) 
  6. ^ Fantel, Hans. "SOUND; CD'S MAKE THEIR MARK ON THE WABASH VALLEY", The New York Times, October 14, 1984. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (English) 
  7. ^ Find A Park. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  8. ^ Northwest Indiana Population Data. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  9. ^ Our History. Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  10. ^ Hudson, John C.. "Chicago: Patterns of the metropolis", Indiana Business Magazine, May 1, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (English) 
  11. ^ Verespej, Michael A.. "The atlas of U.S. manufacturing", April 3, 2000. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (English) 
  12. ^ Lawrence County Limestone History. Lawrence County, Indiana. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  13. ^ Indiana State Climate Office. agry.perdue.edu. Last accessed November 11, 2006.
  14. ^ Evansville Weather. US Travel Weather. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  15. ^ (January 12, 2003) Hopewell culture (in English). Britannica Elementary Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  16. ^ Kavasch, E. Barrie. "Ancient mound builders", Cobblestone Publishing Company, Cobblestone, January 10, 2003, p. 6. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (English) 
  17. ^ a b (January 1, 2005) Indiana (in English). World Almanac Books. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  18. ^ Our History. The Indiana Historian. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  19. ^ (January 12, 2005) Indiana (in English). Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  20. ^ Table 4: Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006
  21. ^ Population and Population Centers by State. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  22. ^ Census: Indiana, United States
  23. ^ Census: DP-2. Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000
  24. ^ American Religious Identification Survey. The Graduate Center. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  25. ^ Indiana - Online Information Article. Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  26. ^ Census Population Estimates for 2005
  27. ^ Democrats Take House by a Wide Margin. NPR. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  28. ^ Officials: Bayh to take first step in 2008 bid next week. CNN.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  29. ^ Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross State Product
  30. ^ Bureau of Economic Analysis: Annual State Personal Income
  31. ^ Indiana Economy at a Glance. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  32. ^ (July 19, 1998). "Manufacturers in Indiana". Purdue University Center for Rural Development.
  33. ^ WNDU-TV: News Story: Bayer is leaving Elkhart - November 16, 2005
  34. ^ Economy & Demographics. Terre Haute Economic Development Co.. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  35. ^ USDA Crop Profiles. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ [2]
  38. ^ NASA-Astronaut Bio: Virgil I. Grissom
  39. ^ Pentagon Renovation Program
  40. ^ http://www.eere.energy.gov/states/state_specific_statistics.cfm/state=IN
  41. ^ http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=IN
  42. ^ http://www.in.gov/energy/
  43. ^ New Indianapolis Airport. Indianapolis Airport Authority. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  44. ^ Gary Airpport Gets Millions in Federal Funding. CBS Channel 2. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  45. ^ Indiana Rail Plan. Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  46. ^ Ports of Indiana Website. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  47. ^ National Center for Education Statistics
  48. ^ Institute of International Education

Bibliography

  • Indiana Writer's Project. Indiana: A Guide To The Hoosier State: American Guide Series (1937), famous WPA Guide to every location; strong on history, architecture and culture; reprinted 1973
  • Donald Francis Carmony. Indiana, 1816 to 1850: The Pioneer Era (1998)
  • James H. Madison. The Indiana Way: A State History (1990)
  • Mark Skertic and John J. Watkins. A Native's Guide to Northwest Indiana (2003)
  • Robert M. Taylor, ed. The State of Indiana History 2000: Papers Presented at the Indiana Historical Society's Grand Opening (2001)
  • Robert M. Taylor, ed. Indiana: A New Historical Guide (1990), highly detailed guide to citiies and recent history

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Indiana

Government

  • IN.Gov - The Official website of the State of Indiana
  • IndyGov.Org - Official Indianapolis city government website

Cultural and Recreation

Professional Media

Business

International Community and Business Resources



CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 40° N 86° W

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Simple English

State of Indiana
File:Flag of File:Indiana state
Flag of Indiana Seal of Indiana
Also called: The Hoosier State,
Saying(s): The Crossroads of America
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Indiana highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Indianapolis
Largest city Indianapolis
Area  Ranked 38th
 - Total 36,418 sq mi
(94,321 km²)
 - Width 140 miles (225 km)
 - Length 270 miles (435 km)
 - % water 1.5
 - Latitude 37°47'N to 41°46'N
 - Longitude 84°49'W to 88°4'W
Number of people  Ranked 15th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (16th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Hoosier Hill[1]
1,257 ft  (383 m)
 - Average 689 ft  (210 m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River[1]
320 ft  (98 m)
Became part of the U.S.  December 11, 1816 (19th)
Governor Mitch Daniels (R)
U.S. Senators Richard Lugar (R)
Evan Bayh (D)
Time zones  
 - most of state Eastern: UTC-5/-4
 - extreme NW & SW Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations IN US-IN
Web site www.in.gov

Indiana is a state in the United States. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Other famous cities and towns include Bloomington, Gary, Ft. Wayne, South Bend, Evansville, Muncie, and Marion. People who live in Indiana or are from there are called Hoosiers.

Indiana touches 4 other states. Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio It also touches Lake Michigan which is the only Great Lake that is completely inside the United States.

Contents

Attractions

One famous attraction of Indiana is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, which is where the Indy 500 is held every year. The Indy 500 is one of the most famous car races in the United States. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is not actually in Indianapolis. It is in a town called Speedway, which is completely surrounded by Indianapolis.

Sports

As well as being home to the Indy 500, there are several well known sports teams in Indiana. Professional sports teams include the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) and the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Colleges and universities in Indiana with well known sports teams include Purdue University, Notre Dame University, and Indiana University.

References

Other websites

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