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Indianapolis
—  Consolidated city–county  —
Downtown Indianapolis

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): Indy, The Circle City, Speedy City
The Crossroads of America, The Racing Capital of the World, Naptown,
Amateur Sports Capital of the World
Location in the state of Indiana
Indianapolis is located in the USA
Indianapolis
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 39°46′5.88″N 86°9′29.52″W / 39.7683°N 86.1582°W / 39.7683; -86.1582
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
Townships See Marion Co. Townships
Founded 1821
Government
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Mayor Gregory A. Ballard (R)
 - Governing body City-County Council
Area
 - Consolidated city–county 372 sq mi (963.5 km2)
 - Land 365.1 sq mi (945.6 km2)
 - Water 6.9 sq mi (17.9 km2)
Elevation 715 ft (218 m)
Population (2008)[1]
 - Consolidated city–county 798,382 (14th)
 Density 2,152/sq mi (837/km2)
 Urban 1,219,000
 Metro 1,715,459 (33rd)
 - Demonyms Indianapolitan, Indypolitan
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Zip Codes 46201 - 46209, 46211, 46214
46216 - 46231, 46234 - 46237
46239 - 46242, 46244, 46247
46249 - 46251, 46253 - 46256
46259, 46260, 46266, 46268
46274, 46275, 46277, 46278
46280, 46282, 46283, 46285
46290, 46291, 46295, 46296
46298
Area code(s) 317
Twin Cities
 - Campinas  Brazil
 - Hangzhou  People's Republic of China
 - Taipei  Republic of China
 - Cologne  Germany
 - Monza  Italy
 - Eldoret  Kenya
 - Piran  Slovenia
FIPS code 18-36003[2]
Website http://www.indy.gov

Indianapolis (pronounced /ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs/) is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. The United States Census estimated the city's population, excluding the included towns, at 798,382 in 2008.[1] It is Indiana's largest city and is the 14th largest city in the U.S., the third largest city in the Midwest (behind Chicago and Detroit), the second most populous state capital (after Phoenix, Arizona), and the most populous state capital east of the Mississippi River.

For much of its history, Indianapolis oriented itself around government and industry, particularly manufacturing. Today, Indianapolis has a much more diversified economy, contributing to the fields of education, health care, and finance. Tourism is also a vital part of the economy of Indianapolis, and the city plays host to numerous conventions and sporting events. Of these, perhaps the most well known is the annual Indianapolis 500. Other major sporting events include the Brickyard 400 and the Men's and Women's NCAA Basketball Tournaments.

Greater Indianapolis has seen moderate growth among U.S. cities,[3] especially in nearby Hamilton, Hendricks, and Johnson counties.[4] The population of the metropolitan statistical area is estimated at 1,715,459, making it the 33rd-largest in the U.S. The combined statistical area population of Indianapolis is 2,035,327, the 23rd-largest in the U.S.

Contents

History

Native Americans who lived in the area included the Miami and Lenape (or Delaware) tribes, who were removed from the area by the early 1820s.[5]

Indianapolis was selected as the site of the new state capital in 1820. While most American state capitals tend to be located in the central region of their respective states, Indianapolis is the only capital to be in the exact center of its state.[6] Jeremiah Sullivan, a judge of the Indiana Supreme Court, invented the name Indianapolis by joining Indiana with polis, the Greek word for city; literally, Indianapolis means "Indiana City". The city was founded on the White River under the incorrect assumption that the river would serve as a major transportation artery; however, the waterway was too sandy for trade. The capital moved from Corydon on January 10, 1825 and the state commissioned Alexander Ralston to design the new capital city. Ralston was an apprentice to the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, and he helped L'Enfant plan Washington, DC. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a city of only one square mile (3 km²). At the center of the city sat Governor's Circle, a large circular commons, which was to be the site of the governor's mansion. Meridian and Market Streets converge at the Circle and continue north and south and east and west, respectively. The governor's mansion was eventually demolished in 1857 and in its place stands a 284-foot (87 m) tall neoclassical limestone and bronze monument, the Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. The surrounding street is now known as Monument Circle.

The city lies on the original east-west National Road. The first railroad to service Indianapolis, the Madison & Indianapolis, began operation on October 1, 1847, and subsequent railroad connections made expansive growth possible. Indianapolis was the home of the first Union Station, or common rail passenger terminal, in the United States. By the turn of the century, Indianapolis had become a large automobile manufacturer, rivaling the likes of Detroit. With roads leading out of the city in all directions, Indianapolis became a major hub of regional transport connecting to Chicago, Louisville, Cincinnati, Columbus, Detroit, Cleveland and St. Louis, befitting the capital of a state whose nickname is "The Crossroads of America." This same network of roads would allow quick and easy access to suburban areas in future years.

City population grew rapidly throughout the first half of the 20th century. While rapid suburbanization began to take place in the second half of the century, race relations deteriorated. Even so, on the night that Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, Indianapolis was the only major city in which rioting did not occur.[7] Many credit the speech by Robert F. Kennedy, who was in town campaigning for President that night, for helping to calm the tensions. Racial tensions heightened in 1970 with the passage of Unigov, which further isolated the middle class from Indianapolis's growing African American community. Court-ordered school desegregation busing by Judge S. Hugh Dillin was also a controversial change.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Indianapolis suffered at the hands of urban decay and white flight. Major revitalization of the city's blighted areas, such as Fall Creek Place, and especially the downtown, began in the 1990s and led to an acceleration of growth on the fringes of the metropolitan Area. The opening of Circle Centre in downtown Indianapolis jumpstarted a major revitalization of the central business district.

Indianapolis's future appears bright as the city continues to invest heavily in improvement projects, such as an expansion to the Convention Center, upgrading of the I-465 beltway and an entirely new airport terminal for the Indianapolis International Airport, which is now open.[8] Construction of the Indianapolis Colts' new home, Lucas Oil Stadium, was completed in August 2008, and the proposed hotel and convention center expansion is expected to open within the next three years.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the balance (the part of Marion County not part of another municipality) has a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km2) – 361.5 square miles (936 km2) of it is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) of it is water. The total area is 1.81% water. These figures do not, however, represent the entire Consolidated City of Indianapolis (all of Marion County, except the four excluded communities). The total area of the Consolidated City of Indianapolis, not including the four excluded communities, covers approximately 373.1 square miles (966 km2).

At the center of Indianapolis is the One-Mile Square, bounded by four appropriately-named streets: East, West, North, and South Streets. Nearly all of the streets in the Mile Square are named after U.S. states. The exceptions are Meridian Street, which numerically divides west from east; Market Street, which intersects Meridian Street at Monument Circle; Capitol and Senate Avenues, where many of the Indiana state government buildings are located; and Washington Street, which was named after President George Washington. The street-numbering system centers not on the Circle, but rather one block to the south, where Meridian Street intersects Washington Street — National Road.

Indianapolis is situated in the Central Till Plains region of the United States. Two natural waterways dissect the city: the White River, and Fall Creek.

Physically, Indianapolis is similar to many other Midwestern cities. A mix of deciduous forests and prairie covered much of what is considered Indianapolis prior to the 19th century. Land within the city limits varies from flat to gently sloping; most of the changes in elevation are so gradual that they go unnoticed, and appears to be flat from close distances. The mean elevation for Indianapolis is 717 feet (219 m). The highest point in Indianapolis lies on the Northeast-side of Indianapolis, it was previously assumed that it was Crown Hill Cemetery (the tomb of famed Hoosier writer James Whitcomb Riley) with an elevation of 842 feet (257 m), and the lowest point in Indianapolis lies at the Marion County/Johnson County line, with an elevation of about 680 feet (207 m). The highest hill in Indianapolis is Mann Hill, a bluff located along the White River in Southwestway Park that rises about 150 feet (46 m) above the surrounding land. Variations in elevation from 700–900 feet occur throughout the city limits. There are a few moderately-sized bluffs and valleys in the city, particularly along the shores of the White River, Fall Creek, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir, and especially on the city's northeast and northwest sides.

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Climate

Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa). Like most cities in the Midwest, it has four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with high temperatures regularly approaching 90 °F (32 °C), with some days exceeding 95 °F (35 °C). Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, with temperatures reaching around 65 °F (18 °C). Spring, however, is much less predictable than autumn; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F (17°C) are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (86 °F/30 °C) followed within 36 hours by snowfall not unheard of during these months. Winters are cool to cold, with daily highs barely inching above freezing. Temperatures occasionally dip below 0 °F (−18 °C). The rainiest months are in the spring and summer, with average rainfalls of over four inches (102 mm) per month mostly derived from thunderstorm activity, there is no distinct dry season with slightly higher summer averages.

The city's average annual precipitation is 41 inches (1,000 mm).

The average July high is 85.6 °F (29.8 °C), with the low being 65.2 °F (18.4 °C). January highs average 34.5 °F (1.4 °C), and lows 18.5 °F (−7.5 °C). The record high for Indianapolis is 107 °F (42 °C), on July 25, 1954. The record low is −27 °F (−32.8 °C), on January 19, 1994. Average annual snowfall is 27 inches (69 cm) [9].

Climate data for Indianapolis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
77
(25)
83
(28)
90
(32)
98
(37)
103
(39)
107
(42)
105
(41)
100
(38)
92
(33)
84
(29)
78
(26)
107
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 34.5
(1.4)
39.9
(4.4)
51.4
(10.8)
62.9
(17.2)
73.5
(23.1)
82.1
(27.8)
85.6
(29.8)
83.7
(28.7)
77.4
(25.2)
65.6
(18.7)
51.6
(10.9)
39.2
(4)
62.3
(16.8)
Average low °F (°C) 18.5
(-7.5)
22.5
(-5.3)
32.0
(0)
41.2
(5.1)
51.8
(11)
61.3
(16.3)
65.2
(18.4)
63.3
(17.4)
55.2
(12.9)
43.6
(6.4)
34.1
(1.2)
24.0
(-4.4)
42.7
(5.9)
Record low °F (°C) -29
(-34)
-22
(-30)
-15
(-26)
-8
(-22)
12
(-11)
23
(-5)
40
(4)
28
(-2)
18
(-8)
6
(-14)
-12
(-24)
-21
(-29)
-29
(-34)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.48
(63)
2.41
(61.2)
3.44
(87.4)
3.61
(91.7)
4.36
(110.7)
4.13
(104.9)
4.42
(112.3)
3.82
(97)
2.88
(73.2)
2.76
(70.1)
3.61
(91.7)
3.03
(77)
40.95
(1,040.1)
Snowfall inches (mm) 9.3
(236.2)
6.1
(154.9)
3.1
(78.7)
0.4
(10.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.4
(10.2)
1.3
(33)
6.4
(162.6)
27.0
(685.8)
Source: National Weather Service [10] September 2009

Cityscape

High rise construction in Indianapolis started in 1888 with the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. The 284-foot (87 m) tall monument sits at the center of Indianapolis and was the tallest structure in the city until the completion of City Hall in 1962.

In the 1970s the central business district, like many other Rust Belt cities of the United States, saw decreased economic activity, racial tension, and white flight to growing suburbs. As a result, downtown Indianapolis saw little new construction. The city of Indianapolis addressed these issues by developing plans, in the 1980s, to redefine the city's downtown. Neighborhoods in the downtown area were designated in relation to their proximity to the city center, and plans were initiated for them to be redeveloped. A series of modern skyscrapers were constructed, including what is currently the tallest building in the state; the newly renamed Chase Tower.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1840 2,692
1850 8,091 200.6%
1860 18,611 130.0%
1870 48,244 159.2%
1880 75,056 55.6%
1890 105,436 40.5%
1900 169,164 60.4%
1910 233,650 38.1%
1920 314,194 34.5%
1930 364,161 15.9%
1940 386,972 6.3%
1950 427,173 10.4%
1960 476,258 11.5%
1970 744,624 56.3%
1980 700,807 −5.9%
1990 731,327 4.4%
2000 781,870 6.9%
Est. 2008 798,382 [1] 2.1%

The 2008 Census estimate for the Indianapolis balance (the portion of the city not part of an included town) was 798,382,[1] while the 2007 estimate for the entire city was 808,466.[11]

Greater Indianapolis is a rapidly growing region located at the center of Indiana and consists of Marion County, Indiana and several adjacent counties. The Combined Statistical Area (CSA) of Indianapolis exceeded 2 million people in the 2007 estimate, ranking 23rd in the United States and 7th in the Midwest. As a unified labor and media market, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had a 2006 population of 1.66 million people, ranking 33rd in the United States and 7th largest in the Midwest.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 66.4% of Indianapolis's population; of which 63.8% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 25.7% of Indianapolis's population; of which 25.6% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.2% of the city's population. Asian Americans made up 1.6% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 3.7% of the city's population; of which 0.3% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 2.2% of the city's population; of which 1.9% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 6.6% of Indianapolis's population.[12][13] From 2000 to 2004, the Hispanic population in Indianapolis increased by 43%.[14]

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 791,926 people, 324,342 households, and 195,578 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,160.9 people per square mile (834.4/km²). There were 356,980 housing units at an average density of 974.1 per square mile (376.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.34% White, 25.29% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, and 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.88% of the population. Indianapolis has around 10,000 immigrants from the former Yugoslavia.

There were 324,342 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,154, and the median income for a family was $48,979. Males had a median income of $36,372 versus $27,757 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,789. About 9.0% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under the age of 18 and 8.1% of those ages 65 or older.

Law and government

The Indiana State Capitol in Indianapolis.

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government known as Unigov. Under this system, many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. The city has a mayor-council form of government.

Mayor

The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. The current Mayor of Indianapolis is Republican Gregory_A._Ballard. The mayor appoints city department heads and members of various boards and commissions.

City-County Council

The legislative body for the city and county is the City-County Council. It is made up of 29 members, 25 of whom represent districts, with the remaining four elected at large. As of 2009, Republicans hold a 15-13-1 majority. The council passes ordinances for the city and county and also makes appointments to certain boards and commissions.

Courts

All of the courts of law in Indianapolis are part of the Indiana state court system. The Marion Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction. The 35 judges on the court hear all criminal, juvenile, probate, and traffic violation cases, as well as most civil cases. The Marion Circuit Court hears certain types of civil cases. Small claims cases are heard by Small Claims Courts in each of Marion County's nine townships. The Appeals Courts and the Indiana Supreme Court meet in the Indiana Statehouse.

Fire protection

Historically there was a fire department maintained by each suburban township, which provided service to the areas of the townships outside of the pre-Unigov city limits and the corporate limits of the excluded cities. In January 2007, by a resolution jointly passed by the Washington Township Board and by the Indianapolis City-County Council, the Washington Township Fire Department was merged into the City of Indianapolis Fire Department. In July 2007, by a similar resolution between the City-County Council and the Warren Township Board, the Warren Township Fire Department was also merged into the city fire department. In an effort to resolve upcoming budget shortfalls in 2010, Perry Township became the third township to merge with the Indianapolis Fire Department effective August 1, 2009. All of the career fire-fighting personnel and emergency medical services personnel were absorbed into the city department. Franklin Township began pursuing a potential merger of its fire department in July 2009 as well as Lawrence Township in November 2009.

Law enforcement

Indianapolis and Marion County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Indianapolis Police Department and Marion County Sheriff's Department. On January 1, 2007, a new agency, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department, was formed by merging the two departments. IMPD is a separate agency, as the Sheriff's Department maintains jail and court functions. IMPD has jurisdiction over those portions of Marion County not explicitly covered by the police of an excluded city or by a legacy pre-Unigov force. As of February 29, 2008, the IMPD is headed by a Public Safety Director appointed by the Mayor of Indianapolis; the Public Safety Director appoints the Police Chief. The IMPD was formerly under the leadership of the Sheriff of Marion County, Frank J. Anderson. The Sheriff remains in charge of the County Jail and security for the City-County Building, service of warrants, and certain other functions. The Sheriff must be consulted, but does not have final say, on the appointment of the Public Safety Director and the Police Chief.[15]

Crime

For the past decade, crime rates within the Indianapolis city limits have fluctuated greatly. In the late 1990s, violent crimes in inner-city neighborhoods located within the old city limits (pre-consolidation) peaked. The former Indianapolis Police District (IPD), which serves about 37% of the county's total population and has a geographic area covering mostly the old pre-consolidation city limits, recorded 130 homicides in 1998 to average approximately 40.3 homicides per 100,000 people. This is over 6 times the 1998 national homicide average of 6.3 per 100,000 people. Meanwhile, the former Marion County Sheriff's Department district serving the remaining 63% of the county's population, which includes the majority of the residents in the Consolidated City, recorded only 32 homicides in 1998, averaging about 5.9 murders per 100,000 people, slightly less than the 1998 national homicide average. Homicides in the IPD police district dropped dramatically in 1999 and have remained lower through 2005. In 2005, the IPD police district recorded 88 homicides to average 27.3 homicides per 100,000 people; nonetheless, the murder rate in the IPD is still almost 5 times the 2005 national average.

When considering the total Consolidated City of Indianapolis, the overall crime rate has historically been low compared to the national average. It is important to note, however, that Indianapolis is unique in its incorporation of historically suburban areas into the official "city limits" since the establishment of Unigov in 1970. This can make the overall numbers for the city misleading, as crime in working class inner-city neighborhoods remains a problem. Areas of Indianapolis that were unincorporated or separate municipalities before the 1970 city-county consolidation generally have significantly lower crime rates although their aggregate population is higher than the old pre-consolidation Indianapolis city limits. Thus, crime figures for the Consolidated City and the entire Marion County average out to a low rate. However, according to FBI reports in 2006, for the first half of the year, Indianapolis saw one of the larger increases in homicides in the country for the first half of 2006 as compared to the same time period in 2005.[16] Overall violent crime in Indianapolis increased 8% for the first half of 2006 compared to the first half of 2005.[17] While Marion County has still not surpassed its record homicide number of 162 set in 1998, it is on pace to see one of the highest numbers of homicides since then, with 153 committed in 2006[18] as the year draws to a close. In one 2006 event, seven individuals from the same family were murdered in their home. In 2007, city leaders such as Sheriff Frank J. Anderson and former Mayor Bart Peterson held rallies in neighborhoods in effort to stop the violence in the city. In 2008, 122 homicides were recorded in Indianapolis.

The immediate downtown area of the city around most main attractions, venues, and museums remain relatively safe. IMPD uses horseback officers and bicycle officers to patrol the downtown area or the city. Certain areas of Indianapolis, most notably portions of the city's East Side, remain a challenge for law enforcement officials. Indianapolis was ranked as the 33rd most dangerous city in the United States in the 2008–2009 edition of CQ Press's City Crime Rankings.[19]

Politics

Until the late 1990s, Indianapolis was considered to be one of the most conservative metropolitan areas in the country but this trend is reversing. Republicans had held the majority in the City-County Council for 36 years, and the city had a Republican mayor for 32 years from 1967 to 1999. This was in part because the creation of Unigov added several then-heavily Republican areas of Marion County to the Indianapolis city limits. More recently, Republicans have generally been stronger in the southern and western parts (Decatur, Franklin, Perry, and Wayne, townships) of the county while Democrats have been stronger in the central and northern parts (Center, Pike, and Washington townships). Republican and Democratic prevalence is split in Warren and Lawrence townships.[20] Outside of Marion County and the city proper, Republicans hold strong majorities in the suburbs of the metropolitan area.

In the 1999 municipal election, Democrat Bart Peterson defeated Indiana Secretary of State Sue Anne Gilroy by 52 percent to 41 percent. Four years later, Peterson was re-elected with 63 percent of the vote over Marion County Treasurer Greg Jordan. Republicans narrowly lost control of the City-County Council that year. In 2004, Democrats won the Marion County offices of treasurer, surveyor and coroner for the first time since the 1970s. The county GOP lost further ground during the 2006 elections with Democrats winning the offices of county clerk, assessor, recorder and auditor. Only one GOP countywide office remained: Prosecutor Carl Brizzi, who defeated Democratic challenger Melina Kennedy with 51 percent of the vote in his bid for a second term, despite outspending her two-to-one. At the township level, Democrats picked up the trustee offices in Washington, Lawrence, Warren and Wayne townships, while holding on to Pike and Center townships.

In the 2007 municipal election, fueled by voter angst against increases in property and income taxes as well as a rise in crime, Republican challenger Greg Ballard narrowly defeated Peterson 51 percent to 47 percent—the first time an incumbent Indianapolis mayor was removed from office since 1967. Discontent among these issues also returned control of the City-County Council to the GOP with a 16-13 majority.[21]

Most of Indianapolis is within the 7th Congressional District of Indiana, represented by Democrat André Carson. He is the grandson of the district's previous representative, Julia Carson who held the seat from 1997 until her death on December 15, 2007.[22] The younger Carson, a former member of the City-County Council, won the seat in a special election on March 11, 2008. The northeastern and southeastern portions of the city are in the 5th District, represented by Republican Dan Burton. A portion of western Indianapolis is in the 4th District, represented by Republican Steve Buyer.

Education

Higher education

Indianapolis is the home of: Ball State University Indianapolis Center, Butler University, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, Marian College, Martin University, Oakland City University Indianapolis campus, The Art Institute of Indianapolis, Vincennes University Aviation Technology Center, and the University of Indianapolis.

Butler University was originally founded in 1855 as North Western Christian University. The school purchased land in the Irvington area in 1875. The school moved again in 1928 to its current location at the edge of Butler-Tarkington. The school removed itself officially from religious affiliation, giving up the theological school to Christian Theological Seminary. A private institution, Butler's current student enrollment is approximately 4,400.

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis was originally an urban conglomeration of branch campuses of the two major state universities: Indiana University in Bloomington and Purdue University in West Lafayette, created by the state legislature. In 1969 a merged campus was created at the site of the Indiana University School of Medicine. IUPUI's student body is currently just under 30,000, making it the third-largest institute of higher learning in Indiana after the main campuses of IU and Purdue. This campus is also home to Herron School of Art and Design, which was established privately in 1902. A new building was built in 2005 under both private donation and state contribution enabling the school to move from its original location.

Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, a state funded public school, was founded as Indiana Vocational Technical College in 1963. With 23 campuses across Indiana, Ivy Tech has a total enrollment of 86,130, as of 2008, according to the school's website.

Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged. The college moved to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian is currently a private Catholic school and has an enrollment of approximately 1,800 students.

The University of Indianapolis is a private school affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Founded in 1902 as Indiana Central University, the school currently hosts almost 4,300 students.

Primary and secondary education

Indianapolis school districts.png   Indianapolis Public Schools
  School Town of Speedway
  Beech Grove City Schools
  MSD Pike Township
  MSD Washington Township
  MSD Lawrence Township
  MSD Warren Township
  Franklin Township CSC
  MSD Perry Township
  MSD Decatur Township
  MSD Wayne Township
Indianapolis Public School Districts

Indianapolis has eleven unified public school districts (eight township educational authorities and three legacy districts from before the unification of city and county government), each of which providing primary, secondary, and adult education services within its boundaries. The boundaries of these districts do not exactly correspond to township (or traditional) boundaries, but rather cover the areas of their townships that were outside the pre-consolidation city limits. Indianapolis Public Schools served all of Indianapolis prior to 1970, when almost all of Marion County was incorporated, and is still the city's largest school corporation today. Private schools part of the archdiocese of Indianapolis are Bishop Chatard, Roncalli, Cardinal Ritter, and Scecina. Other Private schools include Brebeuf, Park Tudor, and Cathedral.

Libraries

Public library services are provided to the citizens of Indianapolis and Marion County by the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (IMCPL). The educational and cultural institution, founded in 1873, now consists of a main library, Central Library, located in downtown Indianapolis, and 22 branch locations spread throughout the city. Serving over 5.43 million visitors in 2006, IMCPL's mission is to provide "materials and programs in support of the lifelong learning, recreational and economic interests of all citizens of Marion County." A renovated Central Library building opened on December 9, 2007, ending a controversial multi-year rebuilding plan.[23]

Cultural features

The Central Canal in Indianapolis

Indianapolis prides itself on its rich cultural heritage. Several initiatives have been made by the Indianapolis government in recent years to increase Indianapolis's appeal as a destination for arts and culture.

Cultural Districts

Indianapolis has designated six official Cultural Districts. They are Broad Ripple Village, Massachusetts Avenue, Fountain Square, The Wholesale District, Canal and White River State Park, and Indiana Avenue. These areas have held historic and cultural importance to the city. In recent years they have been revitalized and are becoming major centers for tourism, commerce and residential living.

Cultural Trail

Scheduled to be complete by 2011, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: is a world-class urban bike and pedestrian path that connects the city's five downtown Cultural Districts, neighborhoods and entertainment amenities, and serves as the downtown hub for the entire central Indiana greenway system. The trail will include benches, bike racks, lighting, signage and bike rentals/drop-offs along the way and will also feature local art work.

Monument Circle

At the center of Indianapolis is Monument Circle, a traffic circle at the intersection of Meridian and Market Streets, featuring the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Monument Circle is depicted on the city’s flag. It is in the shadow of Indiana's tallest skyscraper, the Chase Tower. Until the early 1960s, Indianapolis zoning laws stated that no building could be taller than the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. Each Christmas season, lights are strung onto the monument and lit in a ceremony known as the Circle of Lights, which attracts tens of thousands of Hoosiers to downtown Indianapolis on the day after Thanksgiving.

War Memorial Plaza
The War Memorial

A five-block plaza at the intersection of Meridian and Vermont surrounds a large memorial dedicated to Hoosiers who have fought in American wars. It was originally constructed to honor the Indiana soldiers who died in World War I, but construction was halted due to lack of funding during the Great Depression, and it was finished in 1951. The purpose of the memorial was later altered to encompass all American wars in which Hoosiers fought.

The monument is modeled after the Mausoleum of Maussollos. At 210 feet (64 m) tall it is approximately seventy-five feet taller than the original Mausoleum. On the north end of the War Memorial Plaza is the national headquarters of the American Legion and the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library's Central Library.

Indiana Statehouse

The Statehouse houses the Indiana General Assembly, the Governor of Indiana, state courts, and other state officials.

Monuments

The city is second only to Washington, D.C., for number of monuments inside city limits.[24]

Other Heritage & History Attractions

Festivals, conventions, and organizations

Indianapolis has evolved into a center for music. The city plays host to Drum Corps International, Music for All, Inergy, Indy's Official Musical Ambassadors, the Percussive Arts Society, the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, the American Pianists' Association and Indy Jazz Festival.[25]

Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and hosts several BOA events annually. Indianapolis is now also the international headquarters of Drum Corps International, a professional drum and bugle corps association, and beginning in 2008 will host the DCI World Championships in the new Lucas Oil Stadium.

Indy Jazz Fest, a three day event held in Military Park near the canal, started in 1999.

The Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra holds an outdoor summer concert series called Symphony on the Prairie which attracts large crowds to Conner Prairie.

Every May Indianapolis holds the 500 Festival, a month of events culminating in the Indianapolis 500 Festival Parade the day before the running of the Indianapolis 500. The Festival was first held in 1957 and the first Queen, Ann Lawrie, was chosen in 1959.

In 2003, Indianapolis began hosting Gen Con, the largest role-playing game convention in the North America, at the Indiana Convention Center. Future expansion of the convention space is expected by many to further increase attendance numbers in coming years. The convention center has also recently hosted to events such as Star Wars Celebration II and III, which brought in Star Wars fans from around the world, including George Lucas.

Indianapolis will host the National FFA Convention from 2006 to 2012[26] and is one of two finalists for the convention from 2013–2019. FFA Convention draws approximately 55,000 attendees and has an estimated $30–$40 million direct visitor impact on the local economy. Attendees occupy 13,000 hotel rooms in 130 metro-area hotels on peak nights during the four-day convention, making it the largest convention in the history of Indianapolis.

Indianapolis is also home to the Indiana State Fair as well as the Heartland Film Festival, Epilogue Players, the Indianapolis International Film Festival, the Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival, the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival, and the Midwest Music Summit.

Indianapolis has been the headquarters of the Kiwanis International organization since 1982. The organization and its youth-sponsored Kiwanis Family counterparts, Circle K International and Key Club International, administer all their international business and service initiatives from Indianapolis.

Indianapolis contains the national headquarters for twenty-six fraternities and sororities. Many are congregated in the College Park area surrounding The Pyramids.

Ethnic and cultural heritage festivals

The Indianapolis Athenæum, originally known as Das Deutsche Haus

One of the largest ethnic and cultural heritage festivals in Indianapolis is the Summer Celebration held by Indiana Black Expo. This ten-day national event highlights the contributions of African-Americans to U.S. society and culture and provides educational, entertainment, and networking opportunities to the over 300,000 participants from around the country.

Indy's International Festival is held annually in November at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Local ethnic groups, vendors and performers are featured alongside national and international performers.

Sports

The labels of The Amateur Sports Capital of the World and The Racing Capital of the World have both been applied to Indianapolis.[27]

Indianapolis is home to the Indy Racing League's offices and many of its teams, Indianapolis Colts of the NFL, the Indiana Pacers of the NBA, the Indiana Fever of the WNBA, the Indianapolis Indians of the IL, and the Indiana Ice of the USHL.

In addition, the headquarters of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, is located in Indianapolis, as is the National Federation of State High School Associations. Indianapolis is also home to the national offices of USA Gymnastics, USA Diving, US Synchronized Swimming, and USA Track & Field. Indianapolis also hosts the headquarters of the Horizon League, the Great Lakes Valley Conference, and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference.

The city has hosted the Men's and Women's Final Fours (the semifinals and final of the NCAA basketball tournament) several times, and the NCAA is scheduled to hold the Women's Final Four in Indianapolis at least once every five years. Conseco Fieldhouse in Indianapolis will host the Big Ten Tournament for five straight years (beginning in 2008) after it won the Big Ten bid over Chicago and the United Center.

IMS hosts three major motor racing events every year: the Indianapolis 500, the Brickyard 400, and the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix.

On May 20, 2008, the city was awarded the rights to host Super Bowl XLVI. Indianapolis hosted the 1987 Pan American Games and the 2002 World Basketball Championships.

Cricket and Hurling are other popular sports among the immigrant communities in the city played at amateur level.

Club Sport League Venue
Indianapolis Colts Football National Football League (AFC)

Lucas Oil Stadium

Indiana Pacers Basketball National Basketball Association Conseco Fieldhouse
Indiana Fever Basketball Women's National Basketball Association Conseco Fieldhouse
Indianapolis Indians Baseball International League (AAA - affiliated with the Pittsburgh Pirates) Victory Field
Indiana Ice Hockey United States Hockey League Pepsi Coliseum
Indianapolis Impalas[28] Rugby USA Rugby Lake Sullivan Sports Complex

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway

Indianapolis Motor Speedway

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS), located in Speedway, Indiana, is the site of the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race (also known as the Indy 500), an open-wheel automobile race held each Memorial Day weekend on a 2.5 miles (4.0 km) oval track. The Indy 500 is the largest single-day sporting event in the world, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats (not including the infield area). The track is often referred to as the Brickyard, as it was paved with 3.2 million bricks shortly after its construction in 1909. Today the track is paved in asphalt although a section of bricks remains at the start/finish line.

IMS also hosts the NASCAR Brickyard 400. The first running of the Brickyard 400 was in 1994, and it is currently NASCAR's highest attended event.

From 2000 to 2007, IMS hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix (USGP). Contract negotiations between the IMS and Formula One resulted in a discontinuation of the USGP at Indianapolis (at least for the foreseeable future). Formula One has not scheduled a USGP venue for the 2008 and 2009 seasons.

The Speedway hosted its first MotoGP, with the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix taking place in September 2008.

O'Reilly Raceway Park

Indianapolis is also home to O'Reilly Raceway Park. Though not as well known as Indianapolis Motor Speedway, O'Reilly is home to the NHRA Mac Tool U.S. Nationals, the biggest, oldest, richest, and most prestigious drag race in the world, held every Labor Day weekend.

OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon

Indianapolis is home to the largest mini-marathon (and eighth-largest running event) in America. 2007 was the 30th anniversary of the Mini, and run in the first weekend in May every year. This event is part of the 500 Festival, its 50th year running. The race starts on Washington Street just off Monument Circle and ends on New York Street back downtown. The Mini has been sold out every year, with well over 35,000 runners participating.

Recreation

Parks

Indianapolis has an extensive municipal park system with nearly 200 parks occupying over 10,000 acres (40 km2). The flagship Eagle Creek Park is the largest municipal park in the city, and ranks among the largest urban parks in the United States.[29]

Other major Indianapolis Regional parks include:

  • Garfield Park (established in 1881 and the oldest park in Indianapolis. Located on the Near South Side)
  • Riverside Park (Near West Side)
  • Sahm Park (Northeast side)
  • Southeastway Park (Franklin Township, Marion County)
  • Southwestway Park (Decatur Township, Marion County)
  • White River State Park (Just West of downtown. Has cultural, educational and recreational attractions as well as trails and waterways.)

Additionally, Indianapolis has an urban forestry program that is recognized by the National Arbor Day Foundation's Tree City USA standards.

Indianapolis Zoo

Opened in 1988, the Indianapolis Zoo is the largest zoo in the state and is just west of downtown. It has 360 species of animals and is known for its dolphin exhibit which includes the only underwater viewing dome in the Midwest.

Theatres & Performing Arts Venues

Indianapolis is home to a wealth of venues for the performing arts. The following theatres offer plays, Broadway hits, comedy, musicals, concerts, and other live performances to Indy theater goers.

Museums & Galleries

Indianapolis has a wide variety of museums and galleries which appeal to art lovers, car enthusiasts, sports fans, history channel addicts, and science and technology brain acts.

Other places of interest

Local media

Indianapolis is served by local, regional, and national media.

National broadcast television affiliates include ABC affiliate WRTV (channel 6), CBS affiliate WISH (channel 8), NBC affiliate WTHR (channel 13), and Fox affiliate WXIN (channel 59), and PBS local affiliate WFYI (channel 20).

The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily newspaper.

Economy

The largest industry sectors by employment in Indianapolis are manufacturing, health care & social services, and retail trade.[31] Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing.[32]

Companies

Many of Indiana's largest and most recognized companies are headquartered in Indianapolis, including pharmaceutical manufacturer Eli Lilly and Company, wireless distribution & logistics provider Brightpoint, health insurance provider Wellpoint, Republic Airways Holdings (including Chautauqua Airlines, Republic Airlines, and Shuttle America,[33] real estate company Simon Property Group, and Finish Line, Inc. The U.S. headquarters of Roche Diagnostics, Thomson SA, Conseco, First Internet Bank of Indiana, Peerless Pump Company, Dow AgroSciences, Emmis Communications and Steak 'n Shake are also located in Indianapolis. Other major Indianapolis area employers include Clarian Health, Sallie Mae, Cook Group, Rolls Royce, Delta Faucet Company and General Motors.

Indianapolis is a prime center for logistics and distribution facilities. It is home to a FedEx hub and distribution centers for companies such as Amazon.com, FoxConn, Finish Line, Target, and CVS Pharmacy.[34]

Before Detroit came to dominate the American automobile industry, Indianapolis was also home to a number of carmakers, including American Motor Car Company, Parry Auto Company,[35] and Premier Motor Manufacturing.[36] In addition, Indianapolis hosted auto parts companies such as Prest-O-Lite, which provided acetylene generators for brass era headlights and acetylene gas starters.[37]

ATA Airlines (previously American Trans Air) was headquartered in Indianapolis prior to its collapse.[38]

Business and real estate

The National Association of Home Builders and Wells Fargo ranked Indianapolis the most affordable major housing market in the U.S. for the fourth quarter of 2009,[39] and Forbes magazine ranked it the sixth-best city for jobs in 2008, based on a combined graded balance of perceived median household incomes, lack of unemployment, income growth, cost of living and job growth.[40] However, in 2008, Indiana ranked 12th nationally in total home foreclosures and Indianapolis led the state.[41]

In 2009, Indianapolis ranked first on CNN/Money's list of the top 10 cities for recent graduates.[42]

Transportation

Airports

New Midfield Terminal Completed

Indianapolis International Airport, airport code IND, is the largest airport in Indiana and serves the Indianapolis metropolitan area as well as many other communities in the state of the Indiana.

The airport is home to the second largest FedEx operation in the world (after the Memphis headquarters) and the United States Postal Service Eagle Network Hub. The entire airport is a global free trade zone called INZONE with 18 designated subzones.

Thirty years in planning, Indianapolis recently completed building a new airport. The $1.1 billion project is the largest development initiative in the city's history. The new Indianapolis Airport covers 1,200,000 square feet (111,000 m2), with 40 gates, a 145,000 sq ft (13,500 m2) baggage processing area, a 73,000 sq ft (6,800 m2) baggage claim area, and Civic Plaza, a large pre-security gathering and concession space with a 60-foot (18 m) skylight, containing both local and national restaurants and retailers as well as local Indianapolis artwork. The new terminal is the first built in the United States since September 11, 2001. It opened officially for arriving flights 11/11/08 and departures 11/12/08.

Highways

Interstate highways

Several interstates serve the Indianapolis area. Interstate 65 runs northwest to Gary, where other roads eventually take drivers to Chicago, and southward to Louisville, Kentucky. Interstate 69 runs northeast to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and terminates in the city at I-465. Interstate 70 follows the old National Road, running east to Columbus, Ohio and west to St. Louis, Missouri. Interstate 74 moves northwest towards Danville, Illinois, and southeast towards Cincinnati, Ohio. Finally, Interstate 465 circles Marion County and joins the aforementioned highways together. In 2002, the interstate segment connecting Interstate 465 to Interstate 65 on the northwest side of the city was redesignated Interstate 865 to reduce confusion. The Indianapolis area also has three other expressways; Sam Jones Expressway (old Airport Expressway), the new Airport Expressway, and Shadeland Avenue Expressway.

US Highways
Indiana State Trunklines

To comply with an Indiana state law limiting the number of miles of state highways, all US and Indiana State numbered routes were rerouted along I-465 instead of going through the center of the city. At one point (between Exits 47 and 49) on the southeast side of the city, I-465, US 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, Indiana 37, and Indiana 67 use the same right-of-way. Between Exits 49 and 2 (along the south end of the city), I-74, I-465, US 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, Indiana 37 and Indiana 67 operate on the same right-of-way.

Public Transportation

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, known locally as IndyGo, provides public transportation for the city. IndyGo was established in 1975 after the city of Indianapolis took over the city's transit system. Prior to 1997, IndyGo was called Metro. Central Indiana Commuter Services (CICS), funded by IndyGo to reduce pollution, serves Indianapolis and surrounding counties.

Starting in 2010, private industry leaders from Central Indiana proposed a $10 billion multimodal regional transportation plan that includes expanded roadways, express bus routes, light rail, and commuter rail pathways. If public and legislative approval is granted, construction could begin as soon as 2012.

People mover

Clarian Health operates a people mover connecting the Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Wishard Hospital and IUPUI & Indiana University School of Medicine facilities at the north end of the Downtown Canal with Methodist Hospital. Plans for a larger system are being considered that would operate throughout downtown Indianapolis. The existing people mover is sometimes inaccurately described as a monorail, but in fact rides on dual concrete beams with the guideway as wide as the vehicle.

Intercity transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Indianapolis at the Indianapolis Union Station. Amtrak provides a thrice-weekly service of the Cardinal to Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. and the daily Hoosier State to Chicago.

Greyhound Lines also operates a terminal from Indianapolis Union Station downtown.

Transportation issues

Indianapolis suffers from numerous transportation issues, such as a lack of sidewalks in suburban areas and a lack of adequate mass transit for a city its size. It is the largest US city without a mass transit system such as light rail or subway. Plans are underway to build a commuter Light Rail System from Downtown Indianapolis to Fishers with 6 stops so far, possibly including a second line to the Indianapolis International Airport.

Indianapolis in popular media

  • The basketball film Hoosiers was filmed in some parts of the Indianapolis area.
  • A large segment of the film Eagle Eye takes place in Indianapolis.
  • In the classic sitcom I Love Lucy, Fred Mertz was originally from Indianapolis and his mother still lived there. Before moving to New York and meeting the Ricardos, he and his wife, Ethel Mertz, ran a diner there.
  • The television sitcom One Day at a Time was set in Indianapolis. The opening credits of the show include a shot of the Pyramids, a set of three distinctive office buildings located near the northwestern edge of the city.
  • The film Eight Men Out was filmed in Indianapolis, primarily at Bush Stadium.
  • The first season of Good Morning Miss Bliss (later to become Saved by the Bell) was set in Indianapolis.
  • The first season of Thunder Alley was set in Indianapolis.
  • The American version of Men Behaving Badly was set in Indianapolis.
  • CBS's 2005 drama Close to Home was set in Indianapolis, revolving around a prosecuting attorney in Marion County.
  • Indianapolis is featured in The Shift on the Investigation Discovery Channel, as cameras follow Indianapolis's homicide unit.
  • The Bob and Tom Show, a nationally-syndicated radio show which is also televised by WGN America, is based out of WFBQ-FM (Q95) in Indianapolis.
  • David Letterman, host of CBS's Late Show and the original host of NBC's Late Night, was born and raised in Indianapolis and began his broadcasting career there as a weatherman for WLWI-TV (now WTHR). His mother, Dorothy Mengering, who still lives in the Indianapolis area, has made frequent appearances on the show.
  • The Paul Newman film Winning is about the Indianapolis 500 and takes place at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
  • The 2007 film An American Crime is about the 1965 Indianapolis basement torture and murder of a Sylvia Likens, starring Ellen Page and Catherine Keener. The film was nominated for a Golden Globe.

See also

Gallery

Sister cities

Indianapolis has seven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population" (CSV). US Census Bureau. 2009-07-01. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Census Figures". United States Census. 2006. http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/Estimates%20pages_final.html. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  4. ^ Counties in Indiana
  5. ^ Bodenhamer, David J.; Robert Graham Barrows, David Gordon Vanderstel (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253312221. http://books.google.com/books?id=bg13QcMSsq8C.  p. 1042
  6. ^ Caldwell, Howard; Jones, Darryl (1990). Goodall, Kenneth. ed. Indianapolis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32998-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=BKLMAAAACAAJ. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  7. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89365887
  8. ^ "Indiana Convention Center Expansion Revealed". WISH-TV. 2007-06-25. http://www.wishtv.com/global/story.asp?s=6707164. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  9. ^ NWS Indianapolis, IN
  10. ^ "NWS Indianapolis, IN". http://www.crh.noaa.gov/ind/print_localdata.php?loc=txtdat&data=climatenormals.txt. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions, Individual States". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-07-01. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/SUB-EST2008-states.html. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  12. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Indianapolis&_cityTown=Indianapolis&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010
  13. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US1836003&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on
  14. ^ "New face for business growth in Indy: Hispanic Business Council at forefront with its first meeting". Indianapolis Star. 2006-04-03. http://www.indychamber.com/mmm/articles/04-03-06.html. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  15. ^ "Council vote gives Ballard IMPD control". Indianapolis Star. 2008-04-03. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008302120002. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  16. ^ Table 4, Illinois-Missouri
  17. ^ http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20061219/LOCAL/612190411/-1/ZONES04
  18. ^ No comfort zone | IndyStar.com | The Indianapolis Star
  19. ^ Kathleen O'Leary Morgan and Scott Morgan, editors (2008). Kathleen O'Leary Morgan, Scott Morgan, Rachel Boba. ed. City Crime Rankings 2008–2009. CQ Press. ISBN 978-0-87289-932-2. http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime2008/citycrime2008.htm.  Retrieved on January 2, 2009.
  20. ^ "Voter turnout a key factor in Carson win". Indianapolis Star. 2008-03-15. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080315/NEWS05/803150480&GID=nIq1uOP+A3cbqZSZNGuHlLASClyMUoB2zZgnAmgB4lo%3D. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  21. ^ City-County Council Party Switch
  22. ^ Rep. Julia Carson dies at age 69
  23. ^ Storybook Ending?, Indianapolis Star. Accessed December 22, 2007.
  24. ^ "Marine training in Indy stirs concerns". Indianapolis Star. 2008-06-03. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080605/NEWS/80605055. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  25. ^ Indianapolis: The Center for the Music Arts?, Halftime Magazine. Accessed on July 24, 2008
  26. ^ http://www.ffa.org/indymove/index.htm accessed on October 23, 2006
  27. ^ "About Indianapolis, Sports and Recreation". Greater Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce. 2008-06-11. http://www.indychamber.com/sportsrec.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  28. ^ Indianapolis Impalas Rugby Football Club
  29. ^ Indianapolis Parks
  30. ^ The Association of Children's Museums website
  31. ^ http://www.incontext.indiana.edu/2005/mar-apr/articles/4_metro.pdf
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ "Contact Us." Republic Airways Holdings. Retrieved on May 19, 2009.
  34. ^ http://www.indianapoliseconomicdevelopment.com/targeted-clusters/Logistics.aspx
  35. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza, 1950), p.102.
  36. ^ Clymer, p.36.
  37. ^ Clymer, p.128-9.
  38. ^ "ATA Facts." ATA Airlines. February 3, 2007. Retrieved on May 19, 2009.
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ Best Cities For Jobs In 2008 - Forbes.com
  41. ^ Foreclosed homes lower neighborhood values - WTHR news report
  42. ^ [3] CNN
  43. ^ Indianapolis City County Council Minutes (2007-10-08).

External links

Coordinates: 39°47′27″N 86°08′52″W / 39.790942°N 86.147685°W / 39.790942; -86.147685


Indianapolis
—  City-county  —
File:Flag of
Flag
Nickname(s): Indy, The Circle City, The Indy
City, Crossroads of America, The Racing Capital of the World, Naptown,
Amateur Sports Capital of the World

Indianapolis
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 39°46′5.88″N 86°9′29.52″W / 39.7683°N 86.1582°W / 39.7683; -86.1582
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
Townships See Marion Co. Townships
Founded 1821
Government
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Mayor Gregory A. Ballard (R)
 - Governing body City-County Council
Area
 - City-county 372 sq mi (963.5 km2)
 - Land 365.1 sq mi (945.6 km2)
 - Water 6.9 sq mi (17.9 km2)
Elevation 715 ft (218 m)
Population (2009)[1]
 - City-county 807,584 (14th)
 Density 2,212/sq mi (854/km2)
 Urban 1,219,000
 Metro 1,715,459 (33rd)
 - Demonyms Indianapolitan, Indypolitan
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Zip Codes 46201 - 46209, 46211, 46214
46216 - 46231, 46234 - 46237
46239 - 46242, 46244, 46247
46249 - 46251, 46253 - 46256
46259, 46260, 46266, 46268
46274, 46275, 46277, 46278
46280, 46282, 46283, 46285
46290, 46291, 46295, 46296
46298
Area code(s) 317
Twin Cities
 - Campinas  Brazil
 - Hangzhou File:Flag of the People' People's Republic of China
 - Taipei  Republic of China
 - Cologne  Germany
 - Monza  Italy
 - Eldoret Template:Country data Kenya
 - Piran  Slovenia
FIPS code 18-36003[2]
Interstates I-65, I-69, I-70, I-74
Interstate Spurs I-465, I-865
Waterways White River
Airports Indianapolis International Airport
Public transit IndyGo
Clarian Health People Mover
Airports Amtrak
Website http://www.indy.gov
Indianapolis (pronounced /ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɨs/), often abbreviated Indy (/ˈɪndi/), is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. The United States Census estimated the city's population, excluding the included towns, at 807,584 in 2009.[1] It is Indiana's largest city and is the 14th largest city in the U.S., the third largest city in the Midwest (behind Chicago and Detroit), the second most populous state capital (after Phoenix, Arizona), and the most populous state capital east of the Mississippi River. Indianapolis is also the fastest growing region in the Midwest. For much of its history, Indianapolis has oriented itself around government and industry, particularly manufacturing. Today, Indianapolis has a much more diversified economy, contributing to the fields of education, health care, and finance. Tourism is also a vital part of the economy of Indianapolis, and the city plays host to numerous conventions and sporting events. Of these, perhaps the most well known is the annual Indianapolis 500. Other major sporting events include the Brickyard 400 and the Men's and Women's NCAA Basketball Tournaments. Greater Indianapolis has seen moderate growth among U.S. cities,[3] especially in nearby Hamilton, Hendricks, and Johnson counties.[4] The population of the metropolitan statistical area is estimated at 1,715,459, making it the 33rd-largest in the U.S. The combined statistical area population of Indianapolis is 2,035,327, the 23rd-largest in the U.S.

Contents

History

in 1898.]]

Native Americans who lived in the area originally included the Miami and Lenape (or Delaware) tribes, but they were removed from the area by the early 1820s.[5]

Indianapolis was selected as the site of the new state capital in 1820, the old state capitol having been Corydon since the formation of the state of Indiana. While most American state capitals tend to be located in the central region of their respective states, Indianapolis is the closest capital to being placed in the exact center of its state.[6] It was founded on the White River both because of this, and because of the incorrect assumption that the river would serve as a major transportation artery. However, the waterway eventually proved to be too sandy for trade. Jeremiah Sullivan, a judge of the Indiana Supreme Court, invented the name Indianapolis by joining Indiana with polis, the Greek word for city; Indianapolis literally means "Indiana City". The state commissioned Alexander Ralston to design the new capital city. Ralston was an apprentice to the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, and he helped L'Enfant plan Washington, DC. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a city of only one square mile (3 km²). At the center of the city sat Governor's Circle, a large circular commons, which was to be the site of the governor's mansion. Meridian and Market Streets converge at the Circle and continue north-south and east-west, respectively.The Capitol moved from Corydon on January 10, 1825. The governor's mansion was eventually demolished in 1857 and in its place stands a 284-foot (87 m) tall neoclassical limestone and bronze monument, the Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. The surrounding street is now known as Monument Circle.

The city lies on the original east-west National Road. The first railroad to service Indianapolis, the Madison & Indianapolis, began operation on October 1, 1847, and subsequent railroad connections made expansive growth possible. Indianapolis was the home of the first Union Station, or common rail passenger terminal, in the United States. By the turn of the century, Indianapolis had become a large automobile manufacturer, rivaling the likes of Detroit. With roads leading out of the city in all directions, Indianapolis became a major hub of regional transport connecting to Chicago, Louisville, Cincinnati, Columbus, Detroit, Cleveland and St. Louis, befitting the capital of a state whose nickname is "The Crossroads of America." This same network of roads would allow quick and easy access to suburban areas in future years.

City population grew rapidly throughout the first half of the 20th century. While rapid suburbanization began to take place in the second half of the century, race relations deteriorated. Even so, on the night that Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, Indianapolis was the only major city in which rioting did not occur.[7] Many credit the speech by Robert F. Kennedy, who was in town campaigning for President that night, for helping to calm the tensions. Racial tensions heightened in 1970 with the passage of Unigov, which further isolated the middle class from Indianapolis's growing African American community. Court-ordered school desegregation busing by Judge S. Hugh Dillin was also a controversial change.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Indianapolis suffered at the hands of urban decay and white flight. Major revitalization of the city's blighted areas, such as Fall Creek Place, and especially the downtown, began in the 1990s and led to an acceleration of growth on the fringes of the metropolitan area. The opening of Circle Centre in downtown Indianapolis jumpstarted a major revitalization of the central business district.

The city has invested heavily in improvement projects such as an expansion to the Convention Center, upgrading of the I-465 beltway and an entirely new airport terminal for the Indianapolis International Airport, which is now open.[8] Construction of the Indianapolis Colts' new home, Lucas Oil Stadium, was completed in August 2008, and the proposed hotel and convention center expansion is expected to be completed in 2011.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the balance (the part of Marion County not part of another municipality) has a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km2) – 361.5 square miles (936 km2) of it is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) of it is water. The total area is 1.81% water. These figures do not, however, represent the entire Consolidated City of Indianapolis (all of Marion County, except the four excluded communities). The total area of the Consolidated City of Indianapolis, not including the four excluded communities, covers approximately 373.1 square miles (966 km2).

At the center of Indianapolis is the One-Mile Square, bounded by four appropriately-named streets: East, West, North, and South Streets. Nearly all of the streets in the Mile Square are named after U.S. states. The exceptions are Meridian Street, which numerically divides west from east; Market Street, which intersects Meridian Street at Monument Circle; Capitol and Senate Avenues, where many of the Indiana state government buildings are located; and Washington Street, which was named after President George Washington. The street-numbering system centers not on the Circle, but rather one block to the south, where Meridian Street intersects Washington Street — National Road.

Indianapolis is situated in the Central Till Plains region of the United States. Two natural waterways dissect the city: the White River, and Fall Creek.

Physically, Indianapolis is similar to many other Midwestern cities. A mix of deciduous forests and prairie covered much of what is considered Indianapolis prior to the 19th century. Land within the city limits varies from flat to gently sloping; most of the changes in elevation are so gradual that they go unnoticed, and appears to be flat from close distances. The mean elevation for Indianapolis is 717 feet (219 m). The highest point in Indianapolis lies on the Northeast-side of Indianapolis, it was previously assumed that it was Crown Hill Cemetery (the tomb of famed Hoosier writer James Whitcomb Riley) with an elevation of 842 feet (257 m), and the lowest point in Indianapolis lies at the Marion County/Johnson County line, with an elevation of about 680 feet (207 m). The highest hill in Indianapolis is Mann Hill, a bluff located along the White River in Southwestway Park that rises about 150 feet (46 m) above the surrounding land. Variations in elevation from 700–900 feet occur throughout the city limits. There are a few moderately-sized bluffs and valleys in the city, particularly along the shores of the White River, Fall Creek, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir, and especially on the city's northeast and northwest sides.

Climate

Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa). Like most cities in the Midwest, it has four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with high temperatures regularly approaching Template:Convert/°F, with some days exceeding Template:Convert/°F. Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, with temperatures reaching around Template:Convert/°F. Spring, however, is much less predictable than autumn; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F (17°C) are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (Template:Convert/°F) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unheard of during these months. Winters are cool to cold, with daily highs barely inching above freezing. Temperatures occasionally dip below Template:Convert/°F on 7 nights per year.[9] The rainiest months are in the spring and summer, with average rainfalls of over four inches (100 mm) per month mostly derived from thunderstorm activity, there is no distinct dry season with slightly higher summer averages.

The city's average annual precipitation is 41 inches (1,040 mm).

The mean July temperature is Template:Convert/°F, and the corresponding figure for January is Template:Convert/°F. The record high for Indianapolis is Template:Convert/°F, on July 25, 1954. The record low is Template:Convert/°F, on January 19, 1994. Average annual snowfall is 27 inches (69 cm) [10]

Cityscape

High rise construction in Indianapolis started in 1888 with the 256-foot (78 m) high Indiana Statehouse, followed by the 284-foot (87 m) Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 1898. However, because of a special ordinance disallowing building higher than the structure, the monument remained the highest structure until the completion of the City Hall in 1962.

In the 1970s the central business district, like many other Rust Belt cities of the United States, saw decreased economic activity and, as a result, downtown Indianapolis saw little new construction. By the 1980s, the city of Indianapolis addressed these issues by developing plans to redefine the city's downtown and neighborhoods. Tall skyscrapers started being built to define Indianapolis's skyline, such as the One Indiana Square building in 1982. This development also carried over to the 90's, when the Chase Tower was built.

Neighborhood development was also addressed. Indianapolis neighborhoods were designated in relation to their proximity to the city center, and plans were initiated for them to be redeveloped.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.

18402,692
18508,091200.6%
186018,611130.0%
187048,244159.2%
188075,05655.6%
1890105,43640.5%
1900169,16460.4%
1910233,65038.1%
1920314,19434.5%
1930364,16115.9%
1940386,9726.3%
1950427,17310.4%
1960476,25811.5%
1970744,62456.3%
1980700,807−5.9%
1990731,3274.4%
2000781,8706.9%
Est. 2009807,584[1]3.3%

The 2009 Census estimate for the Indianapolis balance (the portion of the city not part of an included town) was 807,584,[1] [12]

Greater Indianapolis is a rapidly growing region located at the center of Indiana and consists of Marion County, Indiana and several adjacent counties. The Combined Statistical Area (CSA) of Indianapolis exceeded 2 million people in the 2007 estimate, ranking 23rd in the United States and 7th in the Midwest. As a unified labor and media market, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had a 2006 population of 1.66 million people, ranking 33rd in the United States and 7th largest in the Midwest.

According to the 2006-2008 American Community Survey,[13] the racial composition of the city are 66.6% White (Non-Hispanic Whites: 63.3%), 25.9% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 1.7% Asian, 3.4% from some other race, 2.1% are from Two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos (of any race) make up 7.0% of the total population.

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 781,926 people, 324,342 households, and 195,578 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,160.9 people per square mile (834.4/km²). There were 356,980 housing units at an average density of 974.1 per square mile (376.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.34% White, 25.29% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, and 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.88% of the population. Indianapolis has around 10,000 immigrants from the former Yugoslavia.

A University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee study recently concluded that Indianapolis is the most racially integrated city in the northern United States, with 25% of the population living on a city block with both white and black residents.[14][15]

There were 324,342 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.03.

The age distribution was 25.7% under 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,154, and the median income for a family was $48,979. Males had a median income of $36,372 versus $27,757 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,789. About 9.0% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under the age of 18 and 8.1% of those ages 65 or older.

Law and government

in Indianapolis.]]

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government known as Unigov. Under this system, many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. The city has a mayor-council form of government.

Mayor

The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. The current Mayor of Indianapolis is Republican Greg Ballard. The mayor appoints city department heads and members of various boards and commissions.

City-County Council

The legislative body for the city and county is the City-County Council. It is made up of 29 members, 25 of whom represent districts, with the remaining four elected at large. As of 2009, Republicans hold a 15-13-1 majority. The council passes ordinances for the city and county and also makes appointments to certain boards and commissions.

Courts

All of the courts of law in Indianapolis are part of the Indiana state court system. The Marion Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction. The 35 judges on the court hear all criminal, juvenile, probate, and traffic violation cases, as well as most civil cases. The Marion Circuit Court hears certain types of civil cases. Small claims cases are heard by Small Claims Courts in each of Marion County's nine townships. The Appeals Courts and the Indiana Supreme Court meet in the Indiana Statehouse.

Fire protection

Historically there was a fire department maintained by each suburban township, which provided service to the areas of the townships outside of the pre-Unigov city limits and the corporate limits of the excluded cities. In January 2007, by a resolution jointly passed by the Washington Township Board and by the Indianapolis City-County Council, the Washington Township Fire Department was merged into the City of Indianapolis Fire Department. In July 2007, by a similar resolution between the City-County Council and the Warren Township Board, the Warren Township Fire Department was also merged into the city fire department. In an effort to resolve upcoming budget shortfalls in 2010, Perry Township became the third township to merge with the Indianapolis Fire Department effective August 1, 2009. All of the career fire-fighting personnel and emergency medical services personnel were absorbed into the city department. Franklin Township began pursuing a potential merger of its fire department in July 2009 as well as Lawrence Township in November 2009.

Law enforcement

Indianapolis and Marion County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Indianapolis Police Department and Marion County Sheriff's Department. On January 1, 2007, a new agency, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department, was formed by merging the two departments. IMPD is a separate agency, as the Sheriff's Department maintains jail and court functions. IMPD has jurisdiction over those portions of Marion County not explicitly covered by the police of an excluded city or by a legacy pre-Unigov force. As of February 29, 2008, the IMPD is headed by a Public Safety Director appointed by the Mayor of Indianapolis; the Public Safety Director appoints the Police Chief. The IMPD was formerly under the leadership of the Sheriff of Marion County, Frank J. Anderson. The Sheriff remains in charge of the County Jail and security for the City-County Building, service of warrants, and certain other functions. The Sheriff must be consulted, but does not have final say, on the appointment of the Public Safety Director and the Police Chief.[16]

Crime

For the past decade, crime rates within the Indianapolis city limits have fluctuated greatly. In the late 1990s, violent crimes in inner-city neighborhoods located within the old city limits (pre-consolidation) peaked. The former Indianapolis Police District (IPD), which serves about 37% of the county's total population and has a geographic area covering mostly the old pre-consolidation city limits, recorded 130 homicides in 1998 to average approximately 40.3 homicides per 100,000 people. This is over 6 times the 1998 national homicide average of 6.3 per 100,000 people. Meanwhile, the former Marion County Sheriff's Department district serving the remaining 63% of the county's population, which includes the majority of the residents in the Consolidated City, recorded only 32 homicides in 1998, averaging about 5.9 murders per 100,000 people, slightly less than the 1998 national homicide average. Homicides in the IPD police district dropped dramatically in 1999 and have remained lower through 2005. In 2005, the IPD police district recorded 88 homicides to average 27.3 homicides per 100,000 people; nonetheless, the murder rate in the IPD is still almost 5 times the 2005 national average.

When considering the total Consolidated City of Indianapolis, the overall crime rate has historically been low compared to the national average. It is important to note, however, that Indianapolis is unique in its incorporation of historically suburban areas into the official "city limits" since the establishment of Unigov in 1970. This can make the overall numbers for the city misleading, as crime in working class inner-city neighborhoods remains a problem. Areas of Indianapolis that were unincorporated or separate municipalities before the 1970 city-county consolidation generally have significantly lower crime rates although their aggregate population is higher than the old pre-consolidation Indianapolis city limits. Thus, crime figures for the Consolidated City and the entire Marion County average out to a low rate. However, according to FBI reports in 2006, for the first half of the year, Indianapolis saw one of the larger increases in homicides in the country for the first half of 2006 as compared to the same time period in 2005.[17] Overall violent crime in Indianapolis increased 8% for the first half of 2006 compared to the first half of 2005.[18] While Marion County has still not surpassed its record homicide number of 162 set in 1998, it is on pace to see one of the highest numbers of homicides since then, with 153 committed in 2006[19] as the year draws to a close. In one 2006 event, seven individuals from the same family were murdered in their home. In 2007, city leaders such as Sheriff Frank J. Anderson and former Mayor Bart Peterson held rallies in neighborhoods in effort to stop the violence in the city. In 2008, 122 homicides were recorded in Indianapolis.

The immediate downtown area of the city around most main attractions, venues, and museums remain relatively safe. IMPD uses horseback officers and bicycle officers to patrol the downtown area or the city. Certain areas of Indianapolis, most notably portions of the city's East Side, remain a challenge for law enforcement officials. Indianapolis was ranked as the 33rd most dangerous city in the United States in the 2008–2009 edition of CQ Press's City Crime Rankings.[20]

Politics

Until the late 1990s, Indianapolis was considered to be one of the most conservative metropolitan areas in the country but this trend is reversing. Republicans had held the majority in the City-County Council for 36 years, and the city had a Republican mayor for 32 years from 1967 to 1999. This was in part because the creation of Unigov added several then-heavily Republican areas of Marion County to the Indianapolis city limits. More recently, Republicans have generally been stronger in the southern and western parts (Decatur, Franklin, Perry, and Wayne, townships) of the county while Democrats have been stronger in the central and northern parts (Center, Pike, and Washington townships). Republican and Democratic prevalence is split in Warren and Lawrence townships.[21] Outside of Marion County and the city proper, Republicans hold strong majorities in the suburbs of the metropolitan area.

In the 1999 municipal election, Democrat Bart Peterson defeated Indiana Secretary of State Sue Anne Gilroy by 52 percent to 41 percent. Four years later, Peterson was re-elected with 63 percent of the vote over Marion County Treasurer Greg Jordan. Republicans narrowly lost control of the City-County Council that year. In 2004, Democrats won the Marion County offices of treasurer, surveyor and coroner for the first time since the 1970s. The county GOP lost further ground during the 2006 elections with Democrats winning the offices of county clerk, assessor, recorder and auditor. Only one GOP countywide office remained: Prosecutor Carl Brizzi, who defeated Democratic challenger Melina Kennedy with 51 percent of the vote in his bid for a second term, despite outspending her two-to-one. At the township level, Democrats picked up the trustee offices in Washington, Lawrence, Warren and Wayne townships, while holding on to Pike and Center townships.

In the 2007 municipal election, fueled by voter angst against increases in property and income taxes as well as a rise in crime, Republican challenger Greg Ballard narrowly defeated Peterson 51 percent to 47 percent—the first time an incumbent Indianapolis mayor was removed from office since 1967. Discontent among these issues also returned control of the City-County Council to the GOP with a 16-13 majority.[22]

Most of Indianapolis is within the 7th Congressional District of Indiana, represented by Democrat André Carson. He is the grandson of the district's previous representative, Julia Carson who held the seat from 1997 until her death on December 15, 2007.[23] The younger Carson, a former member of the City-County Council, won the seat in a special election on March 11, 2008. The northeastern and southeastern portions of the city are in the 5th District, represented by Republican Dan Burton. A portion of western Indianapolis is in the 4th District, represented by Republican Steve Buyer.

Education

Higher education

Indianapolis is the home of: Ball State University Indianapolis Center, Butler University, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, Marian University, Martin University, Oakland City University Indianapolis campus, The Art Institute of Indianapolis, Vincennes University Aviation Technology Center, and the University of Indianapolis.

Butler University was originally founded in 1855 as North Western Christian University. The school purchased land in the Irvington area in 1875. The school moved again in 1928 to its current location at the edge of Butler-Tarkington. The school removed itself officially from religious affiliation, giving up the theological school to Christian Theological Seminary. A private institution, Butler's current student enrollment is approximately 4,400. Butler has a storied sports heritage in regards to basketball and volleyball. Butler is the site where both the film Hoosiers and the events that inspired it where filmed, the so called Milan Miracle. Butler's basketball stadium, Hinkle Fieldhouse, was the largest basketball facility when built and also historically hosted the first bout between the U.S. and Soviet Union in basketball. Butler University made its own impact felt with a championship appearance in its home city of Indianapolis in the NCAA championships in 2010. Butler also has hosted to date the largest attended volleyball match at 14,000 spectators.

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis was originally an urban conglomeration of branch campuses of the two major state universities: Indiana University in Bloomington and Purdue University in West Lafayette, created by the state legislature. In 1969 a merged campus was created at the site of the Indiana University School of Medicine. IUPUI's student body is currently just above 30,000, making it the third-largest campus for higher learning in Indiana after the main campuses of IU and Purdue. This campus is also home to Herron School of Art and Design, which was established privately in 1902. A new building was built in 2005 under both private donation and state contribution enabling the school to move from its original location. IUPUI has a division one basketball program and has made tournament appearances in the Horizon League alongside Indianapolis's other division one school, Butler University. IUPUI has the only Android Studies Department in the United States.

Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, a state funded public school, was founded as Indiana Vocational Technical College in 1963. With 23 campuses across Indiana, Ivy Tech has a total enrollment of 86,130, as of 2008, according to the school's website.

Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged. The college moved to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian is currently a private Catholic school and has an enrollment of approximately 1,800 students.

The University of Indianapolis is a private school affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Founded in 1902 as Indiana Central University, the school currently hosts almost 4,300 students. The University of Indianapolis prides itself on its teaching and nursing programs, as well as its opportunities to study abroad. U of I has satellite campuses in Cyprus, Jerusalem, and at the base of the Acropolis in Athens. The University of Indianapolis will host the practice facilities for one of the opponents in the super bowl in 2012.

Primary and secondary education

  Indianapolis Public Schools
  School Town of Speedway
  Beech Grove City Schools
  MSD Pike Township
  MSD Washington Township
  MSD Lawrence Township
  MSD Warren Township
  Franklin Township CSC
  MSD Perry Township
  MSD Decatur Township
  MSD Wayne Township
Indianapolis Public School Districts

Indianapolis has eleven unified public school districts (eight township educational authorities and three legacy districts from before the unification of city and county government), each of which providing primary, secondary, and adult education services within its boundaries. The boundaries of these districts do not exactly correspond to township (or traditional) boundaries, but rather cover the areas of their townships that were outside the pre-consolidation city limits. Indianapolis Public Schools served all of Indianapolis prior to 1970, when almost all of Marion County was incorporated, and is still the city's largest school corporation today.

Private schools run by the Archdiocese of Indianapolis are Bishop Chatard, Roncalli, Cardinal Ritter, and Scecina. Other private schools include Brebeuf, Park Tudor, Cathedral and Heritage Christian.

Libraries

Public library services are provided to the citizens of Indianapolis and Marion County by the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (IMCPL). The educational and cultural institution, founded in 1873, now consists of a main library, Central Library, located in downtown Indianapolis, and 22 branch locations spread throughout the city. Serving over 5.43 million visitors in 2006, IMCPL's mission is to provide "materials and programs in support of the lifelong learning, recreational and economic interests of all citizens of Marion County." The renovated Central Library building opened on December 9, 2007, ending a controversial multi-year rebuilding plan.[24]

Cultural features

in Indianapolis]]

Indianapolis prides itself on its rich cultural heritage. Several initiatives have been made by the Indianapolis government in recent years to increase Indianapolis's appeal as a destination for arts and culture.

Cultural Districts

Indianapolis has designated six official Cultural Districts. They are Broad Ripple Village, Massachusetts Avenue, Fountain Square, The Wholesale District, Canal and White River State Park, and Indiana Avenue. These areas have held historic and cultural importance to the city. In recent years they have been revitalized and are becoming major centers for tourism, commerce and residential living.

Cultural Trail

Scheduled to be complete by 2011, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: is a world-class urban bike and pedestrian path that connects the city's five downtown Cultural Districts, neighborhoods and entertainment amenities, and serves as the downtown hub for the entire central Indiana greenway system. The trail will include benches, bike racks, lighting, signage and bike rentals/drop-offs along the way and will also feature local art work.

Monument Circle

At the center of Indianapolis is Monument Circle, a traffic circle at the intersection of Meridian and Market Streets, featuring the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Monument Circle is depicted on the city’s flag. It is in the shadow of Indiana's tallest skyscraper, the Chase Tower. Until the early 1960s, Indianapolis zoning laws stated that no building could be taller than the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. Each Christmas season, lights are strung onto the monument and lit in a ceremony known as the Circle of Lights, which attracts tens of thousands of Hoosiers to downtown Indianapolis on the day after Thanksgiving.

War Memorial Plaza

A five-block plaza at the intersection of Meridian and Vermont surrounds a large memorial dedicated to Hoosiers who have fought in American wars. It was originally constructed to honor the Indiana soldiers who died in World War I, but construction was halted due to lack of funding during the Great Depression, and it was finished in 1951. The purpose of the memorial was later altered to encompass all American wars in which Hoosiers fought.

The monument is modeled after the Mausoleum of Maussollos. At 210 feet (64 m) tall it is approximately seventy-five feet taller than the original Mausoleum. On the north end of the War Memorial Plaza is the national headquarters of the American Legion and the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library's Central Library.

Indiana Statehouse

The Statehouse houses the Indiana General Assembly, the Governor of Indiana, state courts, and other state officials.

Monuments

The city is second only to Washington, D.C., for number of monuments inside city limits.[25]

Other Heritage & History Attractions

Conventions

In 2003, Indianapolis began hosting Gen Con, the largest role-playing game convention in the North America (with record attendance being over 30,000) at the Indiana Convention Center. Attendance of the event is expected to increase as the center is expanded. The convention center has also recently hosted to events such as Star Wars Celebration II and III, which brought in Star Wars fans from around the world, including George Lucas.

Indianapolis will host the National FFA Convention from 2006 to 2012[26] and is one of two finalists for the convention from 2013–2019. FFA Convention draws approximately 55,000 attendees and has an estimated $30–$40 million direct visitor impact on the local economy. Attendees occupy 13,000 hotel rooms in 130 metro-area hotels on peak nights during the four-day convention, making it the largest convention in the history of Indianapolis.

Organizations

Indianapolis has evolved into a center for music. The city plays host to Music for All, Inergy, Indy's Official Musical Ambassadors, the Percussive Arts Society, and the American Pianists' Association.[27]

As well as being the home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, Indianapolis is also home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands. Indianapolis is now also the international headquarters of Drum Corps International, a professional drum and bugle corps association.

Indianapolis has been the headquarters of the Kiwanis International organization since 1982. The organization and its youth-sponsored Kiwanis Family counterparts, Circle K International and Key Club International, administer all their international business and service initiatives from Indianapolis.

Indianapolis contains the national headquarters for twenty-six fraternities and sororities. Many of whom are congregated in the College Park area surrounding The Pyramids.

Festivals and Events

The International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Indy Jazz Fest, and the DCI World Championships are all held in Indianapolis.

The Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra sometimes holds free outdoor concerts at various IndyParks, and they annually hold an outdoor summer concert series called Symphony on the Prairie which attracts large crowds to Conner Prairie.

The city has an arts community that includes many fairs celebrating a wide variety of arts and crafts. They include the Broad Ripple Art Fair, Talbot Street Art Fair, Carmel Arts Festival, Indian Market and Festival, and the Penrod Art Fair.

Every May since 1957, Indianapolis holds the 500 Festival, a month of events including a mini marathon and festival parade, the latter being the day before the Indianapolis 500.

Indianapolis is also home to the Indiana State Fair as well as the Heartland Film Festival, the Indianapolis International Film Festival, the Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival, the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival, and the Midwest Music Summit.

The Circle City Classic is one of America’s top historically African-American college football games. This annual football game, held during the first weekend of October, is the showcase event of an entire weekend. The weekend is a celebration of cultural excellence and educational achievement while showcasing the spirit, energy and tradition of America’s historically black colleges and universities.

One of the largest ethnic and cultural heritage festivals in Indianapolis is the Summer Celebration held by Indiana Black Expo. This ten-day national event highlights the contributions of African-Americans to U.S. society and culture and provides educational, entertainment, and networking opportunities to the over 300,000 participants from around the country.

During the month of June, the Indianapolis Italian Street Festival is held at Holy Rosary Church just south of downtown.

Indy's International Festival is held annually in November at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Local ethnic groups, vendors and performers are featured alongside national and international performers.

Since 2006, in the months of March and October, Midwest Fashion Week [3] takes place, promoting both local and national designers. Started by Berny Martin of Catou [4], this event has grown to become a premier event in Indianapolis.

Sports

File:RCA Championships
Indianapolis Tennis Center, was the main tennis court at the Indianapolis Tennis Championships, which Indianapolis hosted through 2009

The labels of The Amateur Sports Capital of the World and The Racing Capital of the World have both been applied to Indianapolis.[28]

Indianapolis is home to the Indy Racing League's offices and many of its teams, Indianapolis Colts of the NFL, the Indiana Pacers of the NBA, the Indiana Fever of the WNBA, the Indianapolis Indians of the IL, and the Indiana Ice of the USHL.

In addition, the headquarters of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, is located in Indianapolis, as is the National Federation of State High School Associations. Indianapolis is also home to the national offices of USA Gymnastics, USA Diving, US Synchronized Swimming, and USA Track & Field. Indianapolis also hosts the headquarters of the Horizon League, the Great Lakes Valley Conference, and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference.

The city has hosted the Final Fours for the both the Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Basketball Championship several times, and Indianapolis is scheduled to host both every five years, although not on the same year.

Since 2008, Indianapolis has hosted the Big Ten Tournament at Conseco Fieldhouse. The city won the event for five consequtive years after edging out Chicago and the United Center for the Big Ten bid, which ends after the 2012 hosting.

Indianapolis hosted the Indianapolis Tennis Championships through 2009, one of the many tournaments which are part of the US Open Series.

In January 2010, Indianapolis became one of 18 host cities selected by the United States Soccer Federation for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bids. The final decision is scheduled to be in December 2010.

IMS hosts three major motor racing events every year: the Indianapolis 500, the Brickyard 400, and the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix.

On May 20, 2008, the city was awarded the rights to host Super Bowl XLVI. Indianapolis hosted the 1987 Pan American Games and the 2002 World Basketball Championships.

Cricket and Hurling are other popular sports among the immigrant communities in the city played at amateur level.

Club Sport League Venue
Indianapolis Colts Football National Football League (AFC)

Lucas Oil Stadium

Indiana Pacers Basketball National Basketball Association Conseco Fieldhouse
Indiana Fever Basketball Women's National Basketball Association Conseco Fieldhouse
Indianapolis Indians Baseball International League (AAA - affiliated with the Pittsburgh Pirates) Victory Field
Indiana Ice Hockey United States Hockey League Pepsi Coliseum
Indianapolis Impalas[29] Rugby USA Rugby Old Central State Hospital

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS), located in Speedway, Indiana, is the site of the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race (also known as the Indy 500), an open-wheel automobile race held each Memorial Day weekend on a 2.5 miles (4.0 km) oval track. The Indy 500 is the largest single-day sporting event in the world, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats (not including the infield area). The track is often referred to as the Brickyard, as it was paved with 3.2 million bricks shortly after its construction in 1909. Today the track is paved in asphalt, although a one yard strip of bricks remains at the start/finish line.

IMS also hosts the NASCAR Brickyard 400. The first running of the Brickyard 400 was in 1994, and it is currently NASCAR's highest attended event.

From 2000 to 2007, IMS hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix (USGP). Contract negotiations between the IMS and Formula One resulted in a discontinuation of the USGP at Indianapolis (at least for the foreseeable future). Formula One has not scheduled a USGP venue for the 2008 and 2009 seasons.

The Speedway hosted its first MotoGP, with the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix taking place in September 2008.

O'Reilly Raceway Park

Indianapolis is also home to O'Reilly Raceway Park. Though not as well known as Indianapolis Motor Speedway, O'Reilly is home to the NHRA Mac Tool U.S. Nationals, the biggest, oldest, richest, and most prestigious drag race in the world, held every Labor Day weekend.

OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon

Indianapolis is home to the largest mini-marathon (and eighth-largest running event) in America. 2007 was the 30th anniversary of the Mini, run in the first weekend in May every year. This event is part of the 500 Festival, its 50th year running. The race starts on Washington Street just off Monument Circle, goes to the brickyard, and ends on New York Street back downtown. The Mini has been sold out every year, with well over 35,000 runners participating.

Recreation

Parks

Indianapolis has an extensive municipal park system with nearly 200 parks occupying over 10,000 acres (40 km2). The flagship Eagle Creek Park is the largest municipal park in the city, and ranks among the largest urban parks in the United States.[30]

Other major Indianapolis Regional parks include:

  • Garfield Park (established in 1881 and the oldest park in Indianapolis. Located on the Near South Side)
  • Riverside Park (Near West Side)
  • Sahm Park (Northeast side)
  • Southeastway Park (Franklin Township, Marion County)
  • Southwestway Park (Decatur Township, Marion County)
  • White River State Park (Just West of downtown. Has cultural, educational and recreational attractions as well as trails and waterways.)

Additionally, Indianapolis has an urban forestry program that is recognized by the National Arbor Day Foundation's Tree City USA standards.

Indianapolis Zoo

Opened in 1988, the Indianapolis Zoo is the largest zoo in the state, and is located just west of downtown in White River State Park. It has 360 species of animals, and is known for its dolphin exhibit, which includes the only underwater viewing dome in the Midwest.

Theatres & Performing Arts Venues

Indianapolis is home to a wealth of venues for the performing arts. The following theatres offer plays, Broadway hits, comedy, musicals, concerts, and other live performances to Indy theater goers.

Museums & Galleries

Indianapolis has a wide variety of museums and galleries which appeal to art lovers, car enthusiasts, sports fans, history channel addicts, and science and technology brain acts.

Other places of interest

Local media

Indianapolis is served by local, regional, and national media.

National broadcast television affiliates include ABC affiliate WRTV (channel 6),[32] CBS affiliate WISH-TV (channel 8),[33] NBC affiliate WTHR (channel 13),[34] Fox affiliate WXIN (channel 59),[35] and PBS local affiliate WFYI (channel 20).[36]

The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily newspaper.

Economy

The largest industry sectors by employment in Indianapolis are manufacturing, health care & social services, and retail trade.[37] Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing.[37]

Companies

Many of Indiana's largest and most recognized companies are headquartered in Indianapolis, including pharmaceutical manufacturer Eli Lilly and Company, wireless distribution & logistics provider Brightpoint, health insurance provider Wellpoint, Republic Airways Holdings [38] (including Chautauqua Airlines, Republic Airlines, Frontier Airlines, and Shuttle America), REIT Simon Property Group, and retailer Finish Line, Inc. The U.S. headquarters of Roche Diagnostics, Technicolor SA, Conseco, First Internet Bank of Indiana, Peerless Pump Company, Dow AgroSciences, Emmis Communications and Steak 'n Shake are also located in Indianapolis. Other major Indianapolis area employers include Clarian Health, Sallie Mae, Cook Group, Rolls Royce, Delta Faucet Company and General Motors.

Indianapolis is a prime center for logistics and distribution facilities. It is home to a FedEx hub and distribution centers for companies such as Amazon.com, Foxconn, Finish Line, Target, and CVS Pharmacy.[39]

Before Detroit came to dominate the American automobile industry, Indianapolis was also home to a number of carmakers, including American Motor Car Company, Parry Auto Company,[40] and Premier Motor Manufacturing.[41] In addition, Indianapolis hosted auto parts companies such as Prest-O-Lite, which provided acetylene generators for brass era headlights and acetylene gas starters.[42]

ATA Airlines (previously American Trans Air) was headquartered in Indianapolis prior to its collapse.[43]

Business and real estate

The National Association of Home Builders and Wells Fargo ranked Indianapolis the most affordable major housing market in the U.S. for the fourth quarter of 2009,[44] and Forbes magazine ranked it the sixth-best city for jobs in 2008, based on a combined graded balance of perceived median household incomes, lack of unemployment, income growth, cost of living and job growth.[45] However, in 2008, Indiana ranked 12th nationally in total home foreclosures and Indianapolis led the state.[46]

In 2009, Indianapolis ranked first on CNN/Money's list of the top 10 cities for recent graduates.[47]

Transportation

Airports

[[File:|thumb|New Midfield Terminal Completed]] Indianapolis International Airport, airport code IND, is the largest airport in Indiana and serves the Indianapolis metropolitan area as well as many other communities in the state of the Indiana.

The airport is home to the second largest FedEx operation in the world (after the Memphis headquarters) and the United States Postal Service Eagle Network Hub. The entire airport is a global free trade zone called INZONE with 18 designated subzones.

Thirty years in planning, Indianapolis recently completed building a new airport. The $1.1 billion project is the largest development initiative in the city's history. The new Indianapolis Airport covers 1,200,000 square feet (111,000 m2), and has 40 gates, a 145,000 sq ft (13,500 m2) baggage processing area, a 73,000 sq ft (6,800 m2) baggage claim area, a large pre-security gathering, a concession space with a 60-foot (18 m) skylight, both local and national restaurants and retailers, and local Indianapolis artwork. The new terminal is the first built in the United States since September 11, 2001. It opened officially for arriving flights 11/11/08 and departures 11/12/08.

Highways

Interstate highways

Several interstates serve the Indianapolis area. Interstate 65 runs northwest to Gary, where other roads eventually take drivers to Chicago, and southward to Louisville, Kentucky. Interstate 69 runs northeast to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and currently terminates in the city at I-465, but will eventually be routed around the city on 465 to the new extension of Interstate 69 towards Evansville. Interstate 70 follows the old National Road, running east to Columbus, Ohio and west to St. Louis, Missouri. Interstate 74 moves northwest towards Danville, Illinois, and southeast towards Cincinnati, Ohio. Finally, Interstate 465 circles Marion County and joins the aforementioned highways together. In 2002, the interstate segment connecting Interstate 465 to Interstate 65 on the northwest side of the city was redesignated Interstate 865 to reduce confusion. The Indianapolis area also has two other expressways; Sam Jones Expressway (old Airport Expressway), and Shadeland Avenue Expressway.

US Highways
Indiana State Roads

To comply with an Indiana state law limiting the number of miles of state highways, all US and Indiana State numbered routes were rerouted along I-465 instead of going through the center of the city. At one point (between Exits 47 and 49) on the southeast side of the city, I-465, US 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, Indiana 37, and Indiana 67 use the same right-of-way. Between Exits 49 and 2 (along the south end of the city), I-74, I-465, US 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, Indiana 37 and Indiana 67 operate on the same right-of-way.

Public Transportation

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, known locally as IndyGo, provides public transportation for the city. IndyGo was established in 1975 after the city of Indianapolis took over the city's transit system. Prior to 1997, IndyGo was called Metro. Central Indiana Commuter Services (CICS), funded by IndyGo to reduce pollution, serves Indianapolis and surrounding counties.

Starting in 2010, private industry leaders from Central Indiana proposed a $10 billion multimodal regional transportation plan that includes expanded roadways, express bus routes, light rail, and commuter rail pathways. If public and legislative approval is granted, construction could begin as soon as 2012.

People mover

Clarian Health operates a people mover connecting the Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Wishard Hospital and IUPUI & Indiana University School of Medicine facilities at the north end of the Downtown Canal with Methodist Hospital. It is open to the public but mostly used by doctors, staff and patients of the various medical facilities. It is currently the only example of light or commuter rail in Indianapolis. The existing people mover is sometimes inaccurately described as a monorail, but in fact rides on dual concrete beams with the guideway as wide as the vehicle.

Intercity transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Indianapolis at the Indianapolis Union Station. Amtrak provides a thrice-weekly service of the Cardinal to Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. and the daily Hoosier State to Chicago.

Greyhound Lines also operates a terminal from Indianapolis Union Station downtown.

Transportation issues

Indianapolis suffers from numerous transportation issues, such as a lack of sidewalks in suburban areas and a lack of adequate mass transit for a city its size. It is the largest US city without a mass transit system such as light rail or subway. Plans are underway to build a commuter rail system from Downtown Indianapolis to Fishers with 6 stops so far, as well as a light rail system being proposed to go on Washington Street.

Indianapolis in popular media

  • The basketball film Hoosiers was filmed in some parts of the Indianapolis area.
  • A large segment of the film Eagle Eye takes place in Indianapolis.
  • In the classic sitcom I Love Lucy, Fred Mertz was originally from Indianapolis and his mother still lived there. Before moving to New York and meeting the Ricardos, he and his wife, Ethel Mertz, ran a diner there.
  • The television sitcom One Day at a Time was set in Indianapolis. The opening credits of the show include a shot of The Pyramids, a set of three distinctive office buildings located near the northwestern edge of the city.
  • The film Eight Men Out was filmed in Indianapolis, primarily at Bush Stadium.
  • The first season of Good Morning Miss Bliss (later to become Saved by the Bell) was set in Indianapolis.
  • The first season of Thunder Alley was set in Indianapolis.
  • The American version of Men Behaving Badly was set in Indianapolis.
  • CBS's 2005 drama Close to Home was set in Indianapolis, revolving around a prosecuting attorney in Marion County.
  • Indianapolis is featured in The Shift on the Investigation Discovery Channel, as cameras follow Indianapolis's homicide unit.
  • The Bob and Tom Show, a nationally-syndicated radio show which is also televised by WGN America, is based out of WFBQ-FM (Q95) in Indianapolis.
  • David Letterman, host of CBS's Late Show and the original host of NBC's Late Night, was born and raised in Indianapolis and began his broadcasting career there as a weatherman for WLWI-TV (now WTHR). His mother, Dorothy Mengering, who still lives in the Indianapolis area, has made frequent appearances on the show.
  • The Paul Newman film Winning is about the Indianapolis 500 and takes place at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
  • The 2007 film An American Crime is about the 1965 Indianapolis basement torture and murder of a Sylvia Likens, starring Ellen Page and Catherine Keener. The film was nominated for a Golden Globe.

See also

Indianapolis portal
Indiana portal

Sister cities

Indianapolis has Eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[48]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population" (CSV). US Census Bureau. 2010-06-22. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Census Figures". United States Census. 2006. http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/Estimates%20pages_final.html. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  4. ^ Counties in Indiana
  5. ^ Bodenhamer, David J.; Robert Graham Barrows, David Gordon Vanderstel (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253312221. http://books.google.com/?id=bg13QcMSsq8C.  p. 1042
  6. ^ Caldwell, Howard; Jones, Darryl (1990). Goodall, Kenneth. ed. Indianapolis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32998-1. http://books.google.com/?id=BKLMAAAACAAJ. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  7. ^ Morning Edition. "Robert Kennedy: Delivering News of King's Death". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89365887. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  8. ^ "Indiana Convention Center Expansion Revealed". WISH-TV. 2007-06-25. http://www.wishtv.com/global/story.asp?s=6707164. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  9. ^ a b "NCDC: U.S. Climate Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/in/124259.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  10. ^ a b "Average Weather for Indianapolis International Airport, IN - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/IND:9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of Indianapolis". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.hko.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/n_america/us/indianapolis_e.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  12. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions, Individual States". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-07-01. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/SUB-EST2008-states.html. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  13. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008". Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US1836003&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  14. ^ "http://www.jsonline.com/news/metro/jan03/110491.asp" (PDF). http://mumford.albany.edu/census/2003newspdf/jsonlineSeries/011403MURPHInjsonline.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  15. ^ "Racial Integration in 100 Largest Metro Areas". .uwm.edu. 2002-08-08. http://www4.uwm.edu/eti/integration/integration.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  16. ^ "Council vote gives Ballard IMPD control". Indianapolis Star. 2008-04-03. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008302120002. Retrieved 2008-02-15. [dead link]
  17. ^ Table 4, Illinois-Missouri
  18. ^ [1][dead link]
  19. ^ No comfort zone | IndyStar.com | The Indianapolis Star
  20. ^ Kathleen O'Leary Morgan and Scott Morgan, editors (2008). Kathleen O'Leary Morgan, Scott Morgan, Rachel Boba. ed. City Crime Rankings 2008–2009. CQ Press. ISBN 978-0-87289-932-2. http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime2008/citycrime2008.htm.  Retrieved on January 2, 2009.
  21. ^ "Voter turnout a key factor in Carson win". Indianapolis Star. 2008-03-15. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080315/NEWS05/803150480&GID=nIq1uOP+A3cbqZSZNGuHlLASClyMUoB2zZgnAmgB4lo%3D. Retrieved 2008-03-15. [dead link]
  22. ^ City-County Council Party Switch
  23. ^ Rep. Julia Carson dies at age 69
  24. ^ Storybook Ending?, Indianapolis Star. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
  25. ^ "Marine training in Indy stirs concerns". Indianapolis Star. 2008-06-03. http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080605/NEWS/80605055. Retrieved 2008-06-05. [dead link]
  26. ^ accessed on October 23, 2006
  27. ^ Indianapolis: The Center for the Music Arts?, Halftime Magazine. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  28. ^ "About Indianapolis, Sports and Recreation". Greater Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce. 2008-06-11. http://www.indychamber.com/sportsrec.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  29. ^ Indianapolis Impalas Rugby Football Club
  30. ^ Indianapolis Parks
  31. ^ The Association of Children's Museums website
  32. ^ "Indianapolis News, Indianapolis, Indiana News, Weather, and Sports - WRTV Indianapolis' Channel 6". Theindychannel.com. 2010-01-07. http://www.theindychannel.com/. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  33. ^ "Indianapolis, Indiana News Weather & Traffic". WISHTV.com. http://www.wishtv.com/. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  34. ^ "13 WTHR - Indianapolis News | Indiana Weather | Sports". Wthr.com. http://www.wthr.com/. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  35. ^ "Indiana News: Indiana News, Indiana Weather, Indiana School Delays and Indianapolis Traffic from your Fox Indiana Station, Fox 59 - WXIN". Fox59.com. http://www.fox59.com/. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  36. ^ "WFYI Indianapolis". Wfyi.org. 1962-07-09. http://www.wfyi.org/. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  37. ^ a b "The Indianapolis Metro Area" (PDF). http://www.incontext.indiana.edu/2005/mar-apr/articles/4_metro.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  38. ^ "Contact Us." Republic Airways Holdings. Retrieved on May 19, 2009.
  39. ^ "Logistics > Targeted Clusters | Develop Indy". Indianapoliseconomicdevelopment.com. http://www.indianapoliseconomicdevelopment.com/targeted-clusters/Logistics.aspx. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  40. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza, 1950), p.102.
  41. ^ Clymer, p.36.
  42. ^ Clymer, p.128-9.
  43. ^ "ATA Facts." ATA Airlines. February 3, 2007. Retrieved on May 19, 2009.
  44. ^ "Housing Affordability Record-High Level for Third Consecutive Quarter". NAHB. 2009-11-19. http://www.nahb.org/news_details.aspx?sectionID=135&newsID=10037. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  45. ^ Best Cities For Jobs In 2008 - Forbes.com
  46. ^ Foreclosed homes lower neighborhood values - WTHR news report
  47. ^ [2] CNN
  48. ^ "Sister Cities". http://www.indy.gov/eGov/Mayor/Diversity/Latino/Pages/SisterCities.aspx. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  49. ^ Indianapolis City County Council Minutes (2007-10-08).

External links

Coordinates: 39°47′27″N 86°08′52″W / 39.790942°N 86.147685°W / 39.790942; -86.147685


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