Indianapolis Motor Speedway: Wikis

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Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Brickyard
IMS Centennial Era.svg

Ims aerial.jpg

Aerial photo of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Location 4790 West 16th Street
Speedway, Indiana 46222
Time zone GMT−5
Capacity 257,325[1] permanent, plus temporary infield seating to make total capacity of approximately 400,000.
Owner Hulman and Co.
Operator Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation (subsidiary of Hulman and Co.)
Broke ground March 15, 1909
Opened August 12, 1909
Construction cost $3 million
Architect Carl G. Fisher, James A. Allison, F. H. Wheeler and Arthur Newby
Major events IRL IndyCar Series
Indianapolis 500-Mile Race

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
Brickyard 400

FIM MotoGP
Red Bull Indianapolis GP
Rectangular Oval Track
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Length 2.500 mi (4.023 km)
Turns 4
Banking Turns: 9° 12´
Straights: 0°
Lap record 0:00:37.895; 237.498 mph (Arie Luyendyk, Treadway Racing, 1996, IRL IndyCar Series)
Grand Prix Road Course
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Length 2.605 mi (4.192 km)
Turns 13
Lap record 0:01:10.399; 133.546 mph (Rubens Barrichello, Ferrari, 2004, Formula One)
Motorcycle Course
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Length 2.621 mi (4.218 km)
Turns 16
Lap record 0:01:39.730; 94.611 mph (Dani Pedrosa, Repsol Honda, 2009, MotoGP)
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark District
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway under construction
Indianapolis Motor Speedway is located in Indiana
Location: 4790 W. 16th St., Speedway, Indiana
Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278
Built/Founded: 1909
Architect: Andrews, Park Taliaferro
Architectural style(s): Motor Racing Circuit
Governing body: Private
Added to NRHP: March 7, 1975
Designated NHLD: February 27, 1987[3]
NRHP Reference#: 75000044[2]

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway, Indiana (an enclave suburb of Indianapolis) in the United States, is the home of the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race and the Brickyard 400.[4]

It has existed since 1909, and is the original Speedway, the first racing facility historically to incorporate the word. With a permanent seating capacity for more than 257,000 people[1] and infield seating that raises capacity to approximately 400,000, it is the largest and highest-capacity sporting facility in the world.[5] (By comparison, Strahov Stadium, the world's largest stadium, seats 220,000 spectators.)

Considered relatively flat by American standards but high-banked by Europeans, the Motor Speedway is a two and a half mile, nearly rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained essentially unchanged since its inception: four 1/4 mile turns, two 5/8 mile long straightaways between the fourth and first and second and third turns, and two 1/8 mile short straightaways, termed "short chutes," between the first and second, and third and fourth turns.

A modern infield road course was constructed between 1998 and 2000, incorporating the western and southern portions of the oval (including the southwest turn) to create a 2.605-mile (4.192 km) track. In 2008, the road course was modified to replace the southwest turn with an additional infield section, for motorcycle use, resulting in a 2.621-mile (4.218 km) course. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres (1.3 km2) on which the Speedway was first built to cover over an area of over 559. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it currently remains the only such landmark to be affiliated with automotive racing history since its inception.

Besides the Indianapolis 500, NASCAR's Brickyard 400 also takes place there. The Speedway also hosted the United States Grand Prix for Formula One from 2000 to 2007. The inaugural race drew an estimated 225,000, which set a Formula One attendance record. In 2008, the Speedway added the Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix, a Grand Prix motorcycle racing event.

From August 19, 1909 through May 24, 2009, 244 automobile races took place, with 136 separate drivers winning. After winning his fifth United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis in 2006, Formula One driver Michael Schumacher holds the record for most victories between the three major events (Indianapolis 500, Brickyard 400 and the F1 USGP), though all having come on the infield road course. A.J. Foyt, Al Unser and Rick Mears each won four times in the Indianapolis 500 on the rectangular shaped oval track, and Jeff Gordon has also won four times on the oval in the Brickyard 400. No driver to date has won any combination of the three major events, with only one driver (Juan Pablo Montoya) having competed in all three, winning the Indy 500, finishing fourth in the US Grand Prix, and placing second in the Brickyard 400. Johnny Aitken holds the record for total wins at the track, with 15 victories (all on the oval), during the 1909, 1910 and 1916 seasons.[6]

On the grounds of the Speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum, which opened in 1956, and the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which originally opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929. The Speedway was also the venue of the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games.

Contents

History

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Early history

Carl Graham Fisher (1874-1938) of Indiana, an American vehicle parts and highway entrepreneur, co-founder and first President of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Photo credit: U.S. Library of Congress, May 1909.

The first motorsports event at the track consisted of 7 motorcycle races, sanctioned by the Federation of American Motorcyclists (FAM), on August 14, 1909.[6] This was originally planned as a two-day, 15-race program, but ended before the first day was completed, due to concerns over suitability of the track surface for motorcycle use.

The first weekend of automobile races took place August 19-21, 1909, and consisted of 16 races sanctioned by the American Automobile Association (AAA).[6] The celebration quickly turned into a near-disaster, due to the surface of crushed stone and tar. There were several accidents, resulting in five fatalities, and the final race of the weekend was halted after 235 miles (378 km) of its originally-scheduled 300.

Following an initiative by automotive parts and highway pioneer Carl G. Fisher, an Indiana native who was both a former race car driver and one of the principal investors in the track, the safety concerns for race drivers and spectators eventually led to a substantial additional expenditure to pave the track surface with 3.2 million paving bricks, thus giving the track its popular nickname "The Brickyard." Today, 3 feet (0.91 m) of original bricks remain at the start/finish line, still giving meaning to the 'brick yard'. The final brick added to the roadway was made of gold and laid in a special cermony by Governor Thomas R. Marshall in 1909.

The Speedway reopened in 1910, with a total of 66 automobile races held during three holiday weekends (Memorial Day, Fourth of July and Labor Day).[6] Each weekend featured two or three races of 100-mile (160 km) to 200-mile (320 km) distance, with several shorter contests. None of the short races served as a qualifying race, or "heat" race, for the longer events. Each race stood on its own and earned its own trophy. All races were sanctioned by the AAA (as were the Indianapolis 500 races up through 1955). A change in marketing focus led to only one race per year, beginning in 1911.

Attracting an estimated 80,000 spectators to the first 500 mile (804.672 km) race on Memorial Day May 30, 1911, at $1 admission, the Speedway hosted the first in a long line of 500-mile (804.672 km) races, now known as the Indianapolis 500. Ray Harroun won at the brisk average speed of 74.602 mph (120.060 km/h). "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" was born.

1912–1929: The Golden Age

Advertisement for an Indianapolis Motor Speedway "Harvest Classic" race.

A classic race followed in 1912 when Ralph DePalma lost a five lap lead with five laps to go when his car broke down. As his car was being pushed around the circuit, Joe Dawson made up the deficit to win the race. Three of the next four winners were Europeans, with DePalma being the exception as an American national, though originally Italian born. These races gave Indy a worldwide reputation and international drivers began to enter.

The 1916 race was shortened to 120 laps for 300 miles (480 km). This was for multiple reasons including a lack of entries from Europe (there were so few entries that the Speedway itself entered several cars), a lack of oil, and out of respect for the war in Europe.

On September 9, 1916, the Speedway hosted a day of short racing events termed the Harvest Classic, composed of three races held at 20, 50 and 100-mile (160 km) distances.[7][8][9] Johnny Aitken, in a Peugeot, in the end triumphed in all three events, his final victories at the facility. The Harvest Classic contests were the last races other than the Indianapolis 500 to be held on the grounds for seventy-eight years.

Racing was interrupted in 1917-1918 by World War I, when the facility served as a military hub for repairs.

When racing resumed, speeds quickly increased. In 1925 Peter DePaolo became the first to average 100 mph (160 km/h) for the race.

1930s: The Junkyard Formula

With the Great Depression hitting the nation, the purse dropped from a winners share of $50,000 and a total of $98,250 in 1930 to $18,000 and $54,450 respectively. It's a common misconception that the rules were "dumbed down" to what was called the "junkyard formula" to allow more entries during the depression. The rules were indeed changed, but it was due to an effort by the Speedway to get more car manufacturers involved in the race by discouraging the entry of specialized racing machines which dominated the 500 during the mid- to late-'20s. The rule changes in fact were already being laid out before the market crash. A record of 42 cars started the 1933 500. With one exception between 1934 until 1979, 33 drivers started the 500; 1947 saw 30 cars start due to a strike by certain teams affiliated with the ASPAR drivers, owners and sponsors association.

By the early 1930s, however, the increasing speeds began to make the track increasingly dangerous, and in the period 1931-1935 there were 15 fatalities. This forced another repavement, with tarmac replacing the bricks in parts of the track. In addition, during the '35-'36 seasons the inside wall was removed in the corners, the angle of the outside wall in relation to the track was changed to keep cars from launching over, hard crash helmets became mandatory, and the first yellow light system was devised around the track. The danger of the track during this period, however, didn't stop Louis Meyer or Wilbur Shaw from becoming the first two three-time winners, with Shaw also being the first back-to-back winner in 1939 and 1940.

1940s: Start of the Hulman Era

The IMS wing and wheel logo has been used since 1909. Currently shelved for the Centennial Era celebration, it will make its return in 2012.

At the beginning of the 1940s, the track required further improvement. In 1941, half of "Gasoline Alley," the garage area, burned down before the race. With US involvement in World War II, the 1942 500-Mile race was cancelled in December, 1941. Late in 1942, a ban on all auto racing led to the canceling of the 500-Mile Race for the rest of the war for a total of four years (1942-1945). The track was more or less abandoned during the war and was in bad shape.

Many of the locals conceded that the Speedway would be sold after the war and become a housing development. With the end of the war in sight, on November 29, 1944, three-time 500 winner Wilbur Shaw came back to do a 500-mile (800 km) tire test approved by the government for Firestone. Shaw was shocked at the state of the Speedway and contacted owner Eddie Rickenbacker, only to discover that it was for sale. Shaw then sent out letters to the automobile industry to try to find a buyer. All the responses indicated that the Speedway would be turned into a private facility for the buyer. Shaw then looked around for someone to buy the Speedway, who would reopen the racetrack as a public venue. He found Terre Haute, Indiana businessman Tony Hulman. Meetings were set up and the Speedway was purchased on November 14, 1945. Though not officially acknowledged, the purchase price for the Speedway was reported by the Indianapolis Star and News to be $750,000. Major renovations and repairs were made at a quick pace to the frail Speedway, in time for the 1946 race. Since then the Speedway has continued to grow. Stands have been built and remodeled many times over, suites and museums were added, and many other additions helped bring back Indy's reputation as a great track.

1950s: The Fabulous Roadsters

Several successful drivers helped increase the reputation of The Brickyard as well, including three-time winner Mauri Rose and 1953-54 winner Bill Vukovich.

In the 1950s, cars were topping out at 150 mph (240 km/h), helping to draw more and more fans. The low-slung, sleek cars were known as roadsters and the Kurtis, Kuzma, and Watson chassis dominated the field. Nearly all were powered by the Offenhauser engines. The crowd favorite Novi, with its unique sound and look, was the most powerful car of the decade that dominated time trials. However, they would never make the full 500 miles (800 km) in first place, often breaking down before the end or having to make too many pit stops because of the massive engine's thirst for fuel and the weight that went with the extra fuel.

The track’s reputation improved so much the 500-Mile Race became part of the Formula One World Championship for 11 years (1950-1960), even though none of the Indy drivers raced in Formula One and only Ferrari's Alberto Ascari of the F1 drivers at the time raced in the 500. Five time World Champion Juan Fangio practiced at the Speedway in 1958, but ultimately decided against it.

The 1950s were also the most dangerous era of American racing. Of the 33 drivers to qualify for the 1953 race, nearly half, 16, were to eventually die in racing accidents.

1960s: Rear Engine Revolution

Starting line, featuring the Yard of Bricks
The pylon

In October 1961, the final remaining brick sections of the track were paved over with asphalt, with the exception of a distinct three-foot-wide line of bricks at the start/finish line. The "Brickyard" thus became known for its "Yard of Bricks".

Ironically, a wave of F1 drivers went to the Speedway in the 1960s, and the mid-engine revolution that was started in F1 by the Cooper team changed the face of the 500 as well; since Jim Clark's win in 1965, every winner has driven a rear-engined car. Graham Hill won the following year in his first attempt, eventually to become the only driver to date to achieve auto racing's "Triple Crown of Motorsport" of winning the Monaco Grand Prix, Indianapolis 500, and Le Mans 24 Hours. There were enough Americans to compete with them, with A.J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, and Bobby and Al Unser leading the charge in the 1960s and 1970s, of whom Foyt and Al Unser would eventually become, respectively, the first two of three drivers, to date, to win four times each.

From 1970 to 1981, Indianapolis had a twin in the city of Ontario, California by the name of the Ontario Motor Speedway, this track was known as the "Indianapolis of the West" and the home of the California 500; but was a financial failure due to bad management and not holding enough races on the racetrack.

The 1980s brought a new generation of speedsters, led by four-time race winner Rick Mears who also broke the 220 mph (355 km/h) speed mark in qualifying (1989) and won six pole positions. Other stars of the decade included Danny Sullivan, Bobby Rahal, and F1 veteran Emerson Fittipaldi. The 1989 race came down to a final ten-lap, thrilling duel between Fittipaldi and Al Unser, Jr., culminating in Unser crashing in the third turn of the 199th lap after making contact with Fittpaldi's right front tire.

The early 1990s witnessed Arie Luyendyk winning in the fastest 500 to date, with an average speed 185.981 mph (299.307 km/h). Mears becoming the third four-time winner after a late-race duel with Michael Andretti in 1991, and Al Unser, Jr. finally securing victory by defeating last-place-starting driver Scott Goodyear by 0.043 of a second in 1992, the closest finish in race history to date.

The 500 got a new look in 1996 when it became an Indy Racing League event, formed as a rival to CART.

2000s: Unification

The early 2000s saw drivers from the rival Champ Car series begin to cross over to compete at the Indianapolis 500, beginning with the 2000 Indianapolis 500, in which Chip Ganassi Racing and Juan Pablo Montoya won by a large margin. Montoya became the seventh rookie to win the Indianapolis 500.

Team Penske made its return to the Indianapolis 500 after a five year absence by capturing its 11th Indianapolis 500 victory with Hélio Castroneves behind the wheel in the 2001 Indianapolis 500. Hélio Castroneves became the eighth rookie to win the Indianapolis 500. Penske would follow this with victories the next two years. Team Penske and other prominent Champ Car teams, such as Chip Ganassi Racing, Andretti Green Racing, and Rahal Letterman Racing, would switch from Champ Car to the Indy Racing League shortly thereafter.

Buddy Rice became the first American driver since 1998 to win the race in the rain-shortened 2004 Indianapolis 500. At the time, Rice drove for the team co-owned by 1986 Indianapolis 500 winner Bobby Rahal and the Indiana native television talk show host and comedian David Letterman.

In 2005, Danica Patrick became the first female driver to lead the race at Indianapolis, first when acquiring it for a lap near the 125-mile (201 km) mark while cycling through pit stops, and late in the race when she stayed out one lap longer than her rivals during a set of green-flag pit stops. Dan Wheldon would go on to win the 2005 Indianapolis 500

Sam Hornish Jr. became the first driver to ever overtake for the lead on the race's final lap, ultimately winning the 2006 Indianapolis 500 in the last 450 feet (140 m) by a 0.0635-second margin over rookie Marco Andretti.

Dario Franchitti became the first native of Scotland since Jim Clark's victory in 1965, to win the rain-shortened 2007 Indianapolis 500.

In mid February, 2008, Champ Car filed for bankruptcy. In late February, an agreement was reached for Champ Car to be merged with the IRL, and the first IRL IndyCar Series season since the unification took place in 2008. Scott Dixon, driving for Chip Ganassi Racing, became the first native of New Zealand to win the 2008 Indianapolis 500.

In the 100th anniversary year of the construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Hélio Castroneves became the sixth three-time winner of the 500 Mile Race in the 2009 Indianapolis 500. Danica Patrick also had her best finish ever (third place) in the race. This was also the best finish ever by a woman in the history of the Indianapolis 500.

NASCAR and IROC at Indy

From 1919 to 1993, the 500 was the only race run at the Brickyard. However, when Tony George (Hulman's grandson) inherited the track, he brought more racing to the Speedway, with NASCAR in 1994 (the Brickyard 400, known from 2005 to 2009 as the Allstate 400 at The Brickyard), and an International Race of Champions (IROC) event in 1998. (The last IROC at Indy race was held in 2003.)

Map of the basic speedway

The Brickyard 400 currently has no official support races. From 1998-2003, an IROC event was held as a support race. Since 1982, nearby Indianapolis Raceway Park has held a NASCAR Nationwide Series event which, since the Brickyard 400 in 1994, has been held the night prior to the IMS event. Since 1995, a Camping World Truck Series race has also been held at IRP. Since 2001, qualifying for the Brickyard 400 has been held on Saturday afternoon, with the Nationwide series race run Saturday night.

In 2003, the Firestone Indy Lights Series, a minor league series to the IndyCar Series, made history with the first May race at the track since 1910, other than the 500. The Freedom 100, first held during the final qualifying weekend, has been moved to Carburetion Day on the Friday before the 500.

In 2005, the Firestone Indy Lights Series became the first racing series since 1916 to run at the famous race course twice in one year. The first event being the Freedom 100, held on the oval track as part of the Indianapolis 500 weekend, with the second event, the Liberty Challenge during the United States Grand Prix weekend, competing on the Grand Prix road course. (The last Liberty Challenge race was held in 2007.)

Formula One and road course racing

Formula One Grand Prix layout

In 1998, Tony George arranged for Formula One to return to the US for the first time since 1991. Two years of renovation and new construction for an Indy-based road course led to the first United States Grand Prix there in 2000, a race which was a great success. The 2001 event's success (185,000 fans were reported in attendance) was even more important with the race, then originally held in September, being the first major international sporting event in the United States after September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

Cars wind through the infield section at the start of the 2003 United States Grand Prix.

The Grand Prix road course, unlike the oval, is raced in a clockwise direction. This follows the general practice of Formula One, in which the vast majority of circuits (excepting Interlagos, Imola, Istanbul Park, and Abu Dhabi) run clockwise.

The short history of the event is littered with controversies. The 2002 United States Grand Prix was marred by a bizarre ending, in which Michael Schumacher, having already clinched the championship, seemingly tried to stage a dead heat with team-mate Rubens Barrichello. The official timings showed Barrichello ahead by 0.011 seconds at the line, leading fans and media to dub the event a farce.

The 2005 United States Grand Prix turned out to be one of the most controversial races in motorsport history. New rules meant cars had to use the same tires throughout the event. A practice crash on the banked corner (the only banked corner on the F1 calendar) led to Michelin realizing their tires were ill-equipped for the banking, and could complete no more than a fraction of the race before failing. The Michelin teams were unable to find a solution, and while debates raged until the second, the Michelin teams pulled into the pits at the end of the parade lap, leaving only the 3 Bridgestone teams to contest the race. As two of these teams were backmarkers under normal circumstances, this led to Ferrari winning the race, accepting the trophies from a presentation party hastily assembled after Speedway boss Tony George refused to take part.

The perceived outrage of this event put the future of Formula One at Indianapolis in doubt. However, the event was held on July 2, 2006, on the American Fourth of July weekend, with American Scott Speed driving for the new Scuderia Toro Rosso team. Speed had become the first American in Formula One since Michael Andretti drove for McLaren in 1993. In this race, Speed became the first American to compete in a United States Grand Prix since Eddie Cheever in 1989.

During the 2006 United States Grand Prix, Formula One boss Bernie Ecclestone said that it did not matter to him whether or not there was a Grand Prix in America, but also said he would be happy to discuss a new contract for the race.[10] There was also a rumor going around that in future seasons, there would be two Grands Prix held in the United States. Even with Ecclestone's statements, the 2007 calendar was confirmed on October 31, 2006, following an extension of the race contract into 2007.

On July 12, 2007, it was announced that Formula One would not return to the IMS for 2008, although a continuation of USGP at the IMS has not been completely ruled out for the future. Tony George stated difficulties in meeting the demands of Ecclestone to continue to host the event.[11] George and Ecclestone were in talks to revive the race for 2009[12], but no deal has been made for a future race in Indianapolis. In a statement on April 10, 2008, Indianapolis chairman Joie Chitwood said that the "door is open" for Formula One to return to the circuit.[13]

Motorcycle racing and a new road course

On July 16, 2007, the Speedway announced that it will begin hosting a round of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. The race was held for the first time on September 14, 2008, backed by Red Bull and known as the Red Bull Indianapolis GP. This marks the first motorcycle racing event at the facility since its first month of operation in August 1909.

Modifications approved by the FIA and FIM were made to the former Formula One circuit, bringing the new track to a total of 16 turns.[14] The motorcycles run counter-clockwise, in the same direction as the oval events at the Speedway, and completely bypass the banking of the oval with a new infield section inside Turn 1. This construction was completed before the opening day of the 92nd Indianapolis 500 in May, 2008.[15]

The event was heavily affected by the arrival of the remnants of Hurricane Ike in Indiana. On race day, the weather was overcast and cold, with a 100% chance of rain during the event. The 125cc class started with dry track however, and went on until rain began to fall, with 7 laps to go. However, since two thirds of the scheduled distance had been run, the race was declared over and full points were given. Rain intensity then led the organizers to postpone the 250cc race until after the MotoGP race, hoping the winds and rain would stop.

The MotoGP race was started at the scheduled time, with a very wet track but little rain. It ran until the 21st lap, when strong winds began again to blow. Fearing for the safety of the riders, the stewards red-flagged the race, which was declared over, and full World Championship points were given. The winds did not stop after the race, and safety concerns ultimately led to the cancellation of the 250cc race.

The Laguna Seca round has not been removed from the schedule, meaning that the United States now hosts two rounds of the championship.[16] While Laguna Seca round has only MotoGP class competing, Indianapolis will host also 125 cc and 250 cc races.

Other sporting events held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway

Brickyard Crossing Golf.svg
This logo is being used to commemorate the track's centennial from 2009 (the track's opening) through 2011 (the 100th anniversary of the Indianapolis 500), drawing on elements from 1909, 1933 and 1961.

Since 1977, the city of Indianapolis has hosted a half marathon, which includes one lap around the Speedway. Known as the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, this event usually starts the official events that occur prior to the Indy 500.

From 1960-1968, the Speedway Golf Course, originally built in 1929, hosted a PGA Tour event, the 500 Festival Open Invitation, in conjunction with Indy 500 race week. In 1968, it also held an LPGA event. From 1991-1993, the course was demolished and changed from a 27-hole layout (18 holes outside, 9 in the infield) to an 18-hole championship course designed by legendary golf architect Pete Dye. The new course, renamed the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort features 14 holes outside, and 4 holes in the infield, along with an infield lake. A Champions Tour event, Brickyard Crossing Championship, was hosted there from 1994-1999.

At the 1987 Pan American Games, the speedway hosted opening ceremonies and the speed roller skating competition.[17]

Plans are for a three-year "Centennial Era", announced on May 23, 2008 which will include a balloon festival to commemorate the first event, along with the next three Indianapolis 500 IRL races, the next three Brickyard 400 NASCAR Sprint Cup races, and other special events.

IMS will be used to host events when Indianapolis hosts Super Bowl XLVI in February 2012.[18]

On September 3, 2009, Grand-Am tested IMS as a potential future venue. A total of nine cars, representing both the Daytona Prototype and GT classes, participated. Laps were run in a clockwise direction (like Formula 1 at this track, and unlike MotoGP). For most of the test, the southwest turn of the oval was used (as it had been with Formula 1). A brief period in the middle the day (approximately 20 minutes) was spent turning laps that included the southwest MotoGP road course section.[19]

Speed records

Gate #1
The Pagoda (the master control tower)
Track
Administrative offices

Indianapolis 500

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice*
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 10, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.616 239.260
385.052
Qualifying**
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 12, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.895 237.498
382.216
Qualifying**
(4 laps)
10.000
16.093
May 12, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:02:31.908 236.986
381.392
Race
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 26, 1996 United States Eddie Cheever 0:00:38.119 236.103
379.971
Race
(200 laps)
500.000
804.672
May 27, 1990 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 2:41:18.404 185.981
299.307
* Unofficial all-time track record, oval course; all laps run outside of direct qualification or race competition, unofficial

** Record did not count toward pole position, due to not being a first-day qualifier

Brickyard 400

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
August 7, 2004 California Casey Mears 0:00:48.311 186.293
299.782
Race
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
August 7, 2005 Indiana Tony Stewart 0:00:50.099 179.641
289.104
Race
(160 laps) *
400.000*
643.738*
August 5, 2000 Texas Bobby Labonte 2:33:55.979 155.912
250.893
* The 2004 race distance was extended by one lap, to 402.5 miles (647.8 km),
due to NASCAR's green-white-checker rule.

United States Grand Prix

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice*
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 19, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:09.454 135.025
217.301
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 19, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.223 133.546
214.921
Race
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 20, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.399 133.207
214.375
Race
(73 laps)
190.165
306.041
June 19, 2005 Germany Michael Schumacher 1:29:43.181 127.173
204.665
* All-time track record, IMS original (2000-2007) road course

Red Bull Indianapolis GP

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Rider Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 29, 2009 Spain Dani Pedrosa 0:01:40.271 94.101
151.365
Qualifying*
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 29, 2009 Spain Dani Pedrosa 0:01:39.730 94.611
152.186
Race
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 30, 2009 Spain Jorge Lorenzo 0:01:40.152 94.213
151.545
Race
(28 laps)
73.388
118.048
August 30, 2009 Spain Jorge Lorenzo 0:47:13.592 93.237
149.976
* All-time track record, IMS reconfigured (2008) road course

Race winners

Oval dimensions

Region Number Distance
(miles / km)
Width
(feet / meters)
Banking
Long straightaways 2 0.625 / 1.006 50 / 15.2
Short straightaways 2 0.125 / 0.201 50 / 15.2
Turns 4 0.250 / 0.402 60 / 18.3 9°12'
Total/Average   2.500 / 4.023 54 / 16.5 3°3'

The Speedway has a graphic[20] on its web site that shows that the following landmarks could all fit within the dimensions of the oval at the same time:

  1. Vatican City
  2. The Colosseum in Rome
  3. The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club Campus (home of the Wimbledon Championships)
  4. The Rose Bowl Stadium
  5. The original Yankee Stadium
  6. The racetrack at Churchill Downs (home of the Kentucky Derby), though not the stands or the rest of the complex

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Study puts Indy's capacity at 257,325 - USA Today - 5/27/2004
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. 
  3. ^ "Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1524&ResourceType=District. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  4. ^ Charleton, James H. (October 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/75000044.pdf.  and Accompanying two photos from 1985
  5. ^ List of stadiums with 100,000 plus capacity
  6. ^ a b c d Scott, D. Bruce; INDY: Racing Before the 500; Indiana Reflections; 2005; ISBN 0-9766149-0-1.
  7. ^ Dill, Mark; "A Forgotten Classic;" 2006 Allstate 400 at the Brickyard Official Program; Indianapolis Motor Speedway; 2006.
  8. ^ "1916 AAA National Championship Trail". Champcarstats.com. http://www.champcarstats.com/year/1916.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  9. ^ "Compete channel". Motorsport.com. http://www.motorsport.com/stats/champ/byyear.asp?Y=1916. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  10. ^ Ecclestone digs in over US deal - BBC - June 23, 2006
  11. ^ Formula One Will Not Return In 2008 To Indianapolis Motor Speedway - Tony George Transcript - July 12, 2007
  12. ^ Indy could return in 2009
  13. ^ Indy remains 'open' to F1 return
  14. ^ Red Bull Indianapolis GP - road course map
  15. ^ New IMS Motorcycle Circuit Design To Challenge Riders - Press Conference Transcript - July 16, 2007
  16. ^ Road Racing - Indy to Host City U.S. GP 2008? - December 21, 2006
  17. ^ The Games of August: Official Commemorative Book. Indianapolis: Showmasters. 1987. ISBN 9780961967604. 
  18. ^ NFL Names Indianapolis Site of Super Bowl XLVI
  19. ^ "Rolex Series to Hold Special Test at Indianapolis Motor Speedway". Grand-am.com. 2009-08-13. http://www.grand-am.com/news/index.cfm?cid=23452. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  20. ^ Speedway graphic

External links


Simple English

Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Brickyard

Aerial photo of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

Location 4790 West 16th Street
Speedway, Indiana 46222
Time zone GMT−5
Capacity 257,325[1] permanent, plus temporary infield seating to make total capacity of approximately 400,000.
Owner Hulman and Co.
Operator Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation (subsidiary of Hulman and Co.)
Broke ground March 15, 1909
Opened August 12, 1909
Construction Cost $3 million
Architect Carl G. Fisher, James A. Allison, F. H. Wheeler, and Arthur Newby
Major Events IRL IZOD IndyCar Series
Indianapolis 500

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
Brickyard 400

FIM MotoGP
Red Bull Indianapolis GP

Rectangular Oval Track
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Circuit Length 2.500 mi (4.023 km)
Turns 4
Banking Turns: 9° 12´
Straights: 0°
Lap Record 0:00:37.895; 237.498 mph (Arie Luyendyk, Treadway Racing, 1996, IRL IndyCar Series)
Grand Prix Road Course
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Circuit Length 2.605 mi (4.192 km)
Turns 13
Lap Record 0:01:10.399; 133.546 mph (Rubens Barrichello, Ferrari, 2004 Formula One)
Motorcycle Course
Surface Asphalt and Brick
Circuit Length 2.621 mi (4.218 km)
Turns 16
Lap Record 0:01:39.730; 94.611 mph (Dani Pedrosa, Repsol Honda, 2009 MotoGP)
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway under construction
Location: 4790 W. 16th St., Speedway, Indiana
Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278
Area: 559
Built/Founded: 1909
Architect: Andrews, Park Taliaferro
Architectural style(s): Motor Racing Circuit
Added to NRHP: March 7, 1975
NRHP Reference#: 75000044[2]
Governing body: Private

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS), located in Speedway, Indiana (an enclave suburb of Indianapolis) in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 race and the Brickyard 400 race.[3]

It was built in 1909. It is the original Speedway, the first racing facility to use the word Speedway. IMS has permanent seating for more than 257,000 people.[1] The infield raises capacity to approximately 400,000. It is the largest and highest-capacity sporting facility in the world.[4]

The Speedway is considered relatively flat by American standards but high-banked by Europeans. It is a two and a half mile, nearly rectangular oval. Each of the four turns are 1/4 mile. Two 5/8 mile long straight connect turns 2 to 3 and turns 4 to 1. Two 1/8 mile short straights, termed short chutes, connect turns 1 to 2 and turns 3 to 4.

A modern infield road course was constructed between 1998 and 2000. It used part of the the oval and the infield to create a 2.605-mile (4.192 km) track. In 2008, the road course was changed to add another infield section. This is used for motorcycle racing, and is a 2.621-mile (4.218 km) course.

On the grounds of the Speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum, which opened in 1956. It is also the home of the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which originally opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929.

Indianapolis Motor Speedway was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987.

In addition to the Indianapolis 500, the Speedway also hosts NASCAR's Brickyard 400. The Speedway also hosted the United States Grand Prix for Formula One from 2000 to 2007. In 2008, the Speedway added the Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix.

After winning his fifth United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis in 2006, Formula One driver Michael Schumacher holds the record for most victories with the Forumula One version of the road course. A.J. Foyt, Al Unser and Rick Mears each won the Indianapolis 500 four times on the traditional oval. Jeff Gordon has also won four times on the oval in the Brickyard 400. Johnny Aitken holds the record for total wins at the track, with 15 victories (all on the oval), during the 1909, 1910 and 1916 seasons.[5]

Contents

History

Early history

File:Carl G Fisher
Carl Graham Fisher (1874–1938) of Indiana, an American vehicle parts and highway entrepreneur, co-founder and first President of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. May 1909.

The first motorsports event at the track consisted of 7 motorcycle races, sanctioned by the Federation of American Motorcyclists (FAM), on August 14, 1909.[5]

The first weekend of automobile races took place August 19–21, 1909. It was 16 races sanctioned by the American Automobile Association (AAA).[5] The event almost turned into a disaster because of the surface of crushed stone and tar. There were several accidents and five fatalities. The final race of the weekend was halted after 235 miles (378 km) of its originally-scheduled 300 miles.[6]

Carl G. Fisher, was an Indiana native, and both a former race car driver and one of the owners of the track. He led the work to make the track safer for the drivers and spectators. The track surface was paved with 3.2 million paving bricks. This gave the track its popular nickname The Brickyard. Today, 3 feet (0.91 m) (one yard) of the original bricks remain at the start/finish line. , still giving meaning to the 'brick yard'. The final brick added to the roadway was a gold plated brick and laid by Governor Thomas R. Marshall on December 17, 1909.[6]

The Speedway reopened in 1910. Sixty-six automobile races held during three holiday weekends (Memorial Day, Fourth of July and Labor Day).[5] Each weekend featured two or three races of 100-mile (160 km) to 200-mile (320 km) distance. Several shorter contests were also held. Each race was its own event and earned its own trophy. All races were sanctioned by the AAA. In 1911, a change in marketing focus led to holding only one race per year.

An estimated 80,000 spectators came to the first Indianapolis 500 Mile Race on Memorial Day May 30, 1911. Admission was one dollar. Ray Harroun won the race at the average speed of 74.602 mph (120.060 km/h).[6]

The next five Indianapolis 500 were held from 1912–1916. Three of the Indy 500 winners were Europeans. These races drew worldwide attention to the Speedway. More international drivers began to enter.

The 1916 race was shortened to 120 laps for 300 miles (480 km). Several things caused the race to be shortened . There was a lack of entries from Europe and a lack of oil. Another reason was out of respect for the war in Europe.

On September 9, 1916, the Speedway hosted a day of short racing events. These were called the Harvest Classic. There were three races held at 20, 50 and 100-mile (160 km) distances.[7][8][9] Johnny Aitken, in a Peugeot, won all three events, his final victories at the track. After the Harvest Classic, no race other than the Indianapolis 500 to be held on the grounds for seventy-eight years.

Racing was interrupted in 1917–1918 by World War I. The facility served as a military center for repairs.

Racing resumed in 1919. Speeds quickly increased. In 1925 Peter DePaolo became the first to average 100 mph (160 km/h) for the race.

By the early 1930s, the increasing speeds began to make the track more dangerous. In the period 1931–1935 there were 15 fatalities. Part of the bricks were replaced with tarmac (a tar covered macadam or small stones). During the 1935–1936 seasons a number of changes were made. The inside wall was removed in the corners. The outside wall angle was changed to help keep cars inside the track. Hard crash helmets became required. The first yellow lights were installed around the track.

1940s: Start of the Hulman Era

At the beginning of the 1940s, the track needed more improvement. In 1941, half of the garage area, known as Gasoline Alley, burned down before the race. When the United States joined World War II, the 1942 race was canceled. In 1942 all auto racing was banned. The 500-Mile Race was canceled for the years 1942–1945. The track mostly abandoned during the war years.

On November 29, 1944, three-time 500 winner Wilbur Shaw came back to do a 500-mile (800 km) tire test for Firestone. The test was approved by the government. Shaw found the track to be in very bad condition. The contacted the owner, Eddie Rickenbacker, and found that the Speedway was for sale. Shaw try to find a buyer that would keep the Speedway as a race track. He found Indiana businessman Tony Hulman. The Speedway was purchased on November 14, 1945.

Major renovations and repairs were made to the Speedway. It opened in time for the 1946 race. Many improvements have been made since 1946.

The 500-Mile Race became part of the Formula One World Championship for 11 years (1950–1960). None of the regular Indy drivers raced in Formula One. Alberto Ascari from Ferrari was the only F1 driver to race in the 500 during this time.

In October 1961, the final remaining brick sections of the track were paved over with asphalt, with the exception of a distinct three-foot-wide line of bricks at the start/finish line. The "Brickyard" thus became known for its "Yard of Bricks".

NASCAR IROC and Indy Lights at Indy

From 1919 to 1993, the 500 was the only race run at the Brickyard. Tony George (Hulman's grandson) inherited the track. He brought more racing to the Speedway. NASCAR start racing in 1994 with the Brickyard 400. The International Race of Champions (IROC) event was added in 1998. The last IROC at Indy race was held in 2003.

File:Indianapolis Motor Speedway -
Map of the basic speedway

In 2003, the Firestone Indy Lights Series, a minor league series of the Indy Racing League, started racing at the Speedway. They were the first series to race in May other than the 500 since 1910.

Formula One and road course racing

File:Indianapolis Motor Speedway - road
Formula One Grand Prix layout

In 1998, Tony George made a deal to bring Formula One back to the United States. The last time F1 raced in the US was 1991. A new Indy-based road course using part of the oval track, and part of the infield was built in two years. The first United States Grand Prix held at the Speedway was in 2000. The 2001 event reported 185,000 fans were reported in attendance. The success was even more important with the race. The race was held on September 30, 2001. It was the largest international sporting event held in the United States after September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[10]

File:Formula
Cars wind through the infield section at the start of the 2003 United States Grand Prix.

Unlike the oval track, the Grand Prix road course is raced in a clockwise direction. This follows the general practice of Formula One, in where most circuits run clockwise.

On July 12, 2007, it was announced that Formula One would not return to the Speedway for 2008. Tony George said there were problems meeting the demands of Bernie Ecclestone to continue hosting the event.[11] On May 25, 2010 it was announced that Formula One would return to the United States in 2012 at a new purpose-built track in Austin, Texas.[12]

Tire problems

In 2005, there was a big problem with some of the Formula One tires. During practice, there was a big crash at turn 13. This part of the F1 circuit is the turn 1 of the oval track. This is also the only banked corner on the F1 calendar. Michelin realized their tires could not handle the banking. They would fail after a few laps. The cars using Bridgestone tires did not have the problem.

The Michelin teams could not solve the problem. Michelin wanted to add a chicane before the turn. The FIA would not allow the track to be modify. Everyone involved tried to fix the problem right up to to race. Michelin told their teams the tires were not safe to race with.

The Michelin teams lined up on the starting grid. They drove around the track for the slow parade lap. At the end of the lap, they pulled into the pits and parked their cars. This left only the three Bridgestone teams (six race cars) to run the race. The two Ferrari cars were the only cars on the lead lap at the end of the race.

Motorcycle racing and a new road course

On July 16, 2007, the Speedway announced that it would host a round of Grand Prix motorcycle racing beginning in 2008. The race was backed by Red Bull and known as the Red Bull Indianapolis GP. This was the first motorcycle racing event at the facility since its first month of operation, in August 1909.

Modifications approved by the FIA and FIM were made to the former Formula One circuit. The new circuit now has 16 turns.[13] The motorcycle course runs counter-clockwise, the same direction as the oval track. It bypass the banking of the oval with a new infield section inside Turn 1. Also, the double-hairpin at the Hulman Straight was replaced with traditional S-turns. The construction was finished before the opening day of the 2008 Indianapolis 500.[14]

Other sporting events

The city of Indianapolis has hosted a half-marathon. It includes one lap around the Speedway.

The Speedway Golf Course has hosted a PGA Tour event and an LPGA event. A Champions Tour event was hosted there from 1994–1999.

At the 1987 Pan American Games, the speedway hosted opening ceremonies and the speed roller skating competition.[15]

IMS will be used to host events when Indianapolis hosts Super Bowl XLVI in February 2012.[16]

Speed records

File:Indy
The Pagoda (the master control tower)
File:IMS HOF
The Hall of Fame museum
File:Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Administrative offices

Indianapolis 500

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice *
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 10, 1996 Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.616 239.260
385.052
Qualifying **
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 12, 1996 Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.895 237.498
382.216
Qualifying **
(4 laps)
10.000
16.093
May 12, 1996 Arie Luyendyk 0:02:31.908 236.986
381.392
Race
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
May 26, 1996 Eddie Cheever 0:00:38.119 236.103
379.971
Race
(200 laps)
500.000
804.672
May 27, 1990 Arie Luyendyk 2:41:18.404 185.981
299.307
* Unofficial oval track record. All laps run outside of qualification or race competition are unofficial

** Did not earn pole position because it was not set on the first-day of qualifying

Brickyard 400

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
August 7, 2004 Casey Mears 0:00:48.311 186.293
299.782
Race
(1 lap)
2.500
4.023
August 7, 2005 Tony Stewart 0:00:50.099 179.641
289.104
Race
(160 laps) *
400.000*
643.738 *
August 5, 2000 Bobby Labonte 2:33:55.979 155.912
250.893
** The 2004 race distance was extended by one lap, to 402.5 miles (647.8 km) because of NASCAR's green-white-checker rule.

United States Grand Prix

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Driver Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice *
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 19, 2004 Rubens Barrichello 0:01:09.454 135.025
217.301
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 19, 2004 Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.223 133.546
214.921
Race
(1 lap)
2.605
4.192
June 20, 2004 Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.399 133.207
214.375
Race
(73 laps)
190.165
306.041
June 19, 2005 Michael Schumacher 1:29:43.181 127.173
204.665
** All-time track record for the IMS original (2000–2007) road course

Red Bull Indianapolis GP

Type Distance
(mi)
(km)
Date Rider Time Average speed
(mph)
(km/h)
Practice
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 29, 2009 Dani Pedrosa 0:01:40.271 94.101
151.365
Qualifying *
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 29, 2009 Dani Pedrosa 0:01:39.730 94.611
152.186
Race
(1 lap)
2.621
4.218
August 30, 2009 Jorge Lorenzo 0:01:40.152 94.213
151.545
Race
(28 laps)
73.388
118.048
August 30, 2009 Jorge Lorenzo 0:47:13.592 93.237
149.976
* All-time track record for the IMS reconfigured (2008) road course

Oval dimensions

Region Number Distance
(miles / km)
Width
(feet / meters)
Banking
Long straightaways 2 0.625 / 1.006 50 / 15.2
Short straightaways 2 0.125 / 0.201 50 / 15.2
Turns 4 0.250 / 0.402 60 / 18.3 9°12'
Total/Average   2.500 / 4.023 54 / 16.5 3°3'

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Study puts Indy's capacity at 257,325 – USA Today – 5/27/2004
  2. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. 
  3. Charleton, James H. (October 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/75000044.pdf.  and Accompanying two photos from 1985
  4. "World Stadiums - Stadium List :: 100 000+ Stadiums". worldstadiums.com. World Stadiums. http://www.worldstadiums.com/stadium_menu/stadium_list/100000.shtml. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Scott, D. Bruce; INDY: Racing Before the 500; Indiana Reflections; 2005; ISBN 0-9766149-0-1.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "IMS Milestones: 1906-1911". indianapolismotorspeedway.com. IMS LLC. http://www.indianapolismotorspeedway.com/history/35207-1906-1911-Milestones/. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  7. Dill, Mark; "A Forgotten Classic;" 2006 Allstate 400 at the Brickyard Official Program; Indianapolis Motor Speedway; 2006.
  8. "1916 AAA National Championship Trail". Champcarstats.com. http://www.champcarstats.com/year/1916.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  9. "Compete channel". Motorsport.com. http://www.motorsport.com/stats/champ/byyear.asp?Y=1916. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  10. Kallmann, Dave (2001-09-29). "Drivers, organizers showing no fear - All involved feel safe after Sept. 11 attacks" (NewsBank). Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wisconsin: Journal Sentinel Inc): p. 10. http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AWNB:MWSB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0EED8C2CCA2D7E01&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated5&req_dat=0EAD847D4966C8AF. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  11. Formula One Will Not Return In 2008 To Indianapolis Motor Speedway – Tony George Transcript – July 12, 2007
  12. "Formula One Returns to the United States". formula1.com. Formula One Administration Ltd. 2010-05-25. http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2010/5/10824.html. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  13. Red Bull Indianapolis GP – road course map
  14. New IMS Motorcycle Circuit Design To Challenge Riders – Press Conference Transcript – July 16, 2007
  15. The Games of August: Official Commemorative Book. Indianapolis: Showmasters. 1987. ISBN 9780961967604. 
  16. NFL Names Indianapolis Site of Super Bowl XLVI

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