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Indigo (spectral approximation) (#6F00FF)

Indigo (web color) (#4B0082)

Indigo
Indian indigo dye lump.jpg
 — Spectral coordinates —
Wavelength 420–450 nm
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #4B0082
sRGBB (r, g, b) (75, 0, 130)
HSV (h, s, v) (275°, 100%, 51%)
Source HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Indigo is the color on the electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. Although traditionally considered one of seven divisions of the optical spectrum, modern color scientists do not usually recognize indigo as a separate division and generally classify wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm as violet.[2]

Like violet, whether indigo is considered a shade of purple depends on context. Common English usage defines a purple color as any color between red and blue whereas in color theory, a purple color is defined as any non-spectral color between violet and red (not including violet or red since they are spectral colors). Thus indigo and violet fit the common but not the color theory definition of purple.

One can see spectral indigo by looking at the reflection of a fluorescent tube on the underside of a non-recorded compact disc. This occurs because the CD functions as a diffraction grating, and a fluorescent lamp generally has a peak at 435.833 nm (from mercury), as is visible on the fluorescent lamp spectrum.

The first recorded use of indigo as a color name in English was in 1289. [3]

Contents

Etymology

India is believed to be the oldest center of indigo dyeing in the Old World. It was a primary supplier of indigo to Europe as early as the Greco-Roman era. The association of India with indigo is reflected in the Greek word for the "dye", which was indikon (ινδικόν). The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo.

Classification as a spectral color

Indigo was defined as a spectral color by Sir Isaac Newton when he divided up the optical spectrum, which has a continuum of wavelengths. He specifically named seven colors primarily to match the seven notes of a western major scale,[4] because he believed sound and light were physically similar, but also to link colors with the (known) planets, days of the week, and other lists that had seven items.

The human eye is relatively insensitive to hue changes in the wavelengths between blue and violet, where Newton defined indigo to be; most individuals do not distinguish indigo from blue and violet. For this reason, some commentators, including Isaac Asimov, hold that indigo should not be regarded as a color in its own right, but merely as a hue of blue or violet.

Color scientists typically divide the spectrum at about 450 nm between violet and blue, with no indigo.[2][5] Others continue to accept it,[6] as it has been accepted traditionally as one of Newton's named colors of the spectrum along with red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

Distinction between four shades of indigo

Like many other colors (orange, pink, and violet are the best-known), indigo gets its name from an object in the natural world—the plant named indigo once used for dyeing cloth (see also Indigo dye).

The color electric indigo is an approximation of spectrum indigo. This is the brightest color indigo that can be approximated on a computer screen—it is the color between the web color blue and the color electric violet.

The web color blue violet or deep indigo is a shade of indigo brighter than pigment indigo but not as bright as electric indigo.

The color pigment indigo is equivalent to the web color indigo and approximates the color indigo that is usually reproduced in pigments and colored pencils.

The color of indigo dye is a different color than either spectrum indigo or pigment indigo. This is the actual color of the dye from the indigo plant when swatched onto raw fabric. A vat full of this dye is a darker color, approximating the web color midnight blue.

Electric indigo

Electric Indigo
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #6F00FF
RGBB (r, g, b) (111, 0, 255)
HSV (h, s, v) (266°, 100%, 100[7]%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

In an RGB color space, spectral indigo and violet must be approximated by purples, that is, by mixing a little red with a lot of blue. Spectral indigo is closely approximated by the color electric indigo. This sample was taken directly from the CIE chromaticity diagram opposite the 430 nanometer line. It is much brighter than the pigment indigo reproduced below. Spectrum Indigo fits nicely between spectrum violet and spectrum blue as can be seen in the color bands displayed below.

It is impossible to represent spectrum indigo exactly on a computer screen, because true spectrum indigo is outside the color triangle or gamut of the RGB color space defined by the monitor primaries.

Deep indigo (web color blue-violet)

Blue-Violet
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #8A2BE2
RGBB (r, g, b) (138, 43, 226)
HSV (h, s, v) (271°, 81%, 89%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the web color blue-violet, a color intermediate in brightness between electric indigo and pigment indigo. This color is also called deep indigo.

Pigment indigo (web color indigo)

Pigment Indigo
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #4B0082
RGBB (r, g, b) (75, 0, 130)
HSV (h, s, v) (275°, 100%, 50%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The color box at right displays the web color Indigo which is equivalent to pigment indigo, the color indigo as it would be reproduced by artists' paints as opposed to the brighter indigo above (electric indigo) that it is possible to reproduce on a computer screen.

Pigment indigo can be obtained by mixing 55% pigment cyan with about 45% pigment magenta.

Compare the subtractive colors to the additive colors in the two primary color charts in the article on primary colors to see the distinction between electric colors as reproducible from light on a computer screen (additive colors) and the pigment colors reproducible with pigments (subtractive colors); the additive colors are a lot brighter because they are produced from light instead of pigment.

Pigment indigo (web color indigo) represents the way the color indigo was always reproduced in pigments, paints, or colored pencils in the 1950s. By the 1970s, because of the advent of psychedelic art, artists became used to brighter pigments, and pigments called "bright indigo" or "bright blue-violet" that are the pigment equivalent of the electric indigo reproduced in the section above became available in artists' pigments and colored pencils.

Indigo dye

Indigo Dye
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #00416A
RGBB (r, g, b) (0, 65, 106)
HSV (h, s, v) (203°, 100%, 42%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the color indigo dye, an approximation of the color of a swatch of indigo dye.

Sample of Indigo Dye color: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Indigo Dye (Indigo color sample #179)

Comparison of blue, indigo, and violet

Note: The spectrum colors can only be approximated on a computer screen but the colors shown below are a close approximation of the spectrum colors blue, indigo, and violet.

  • BLUE (Hex: #0000FF) (RGB: 0, 0, 255)
  • INDIGO (Electric Indigo) (Hex: #6F00FF) (RGB: 111, 0, 255)
  • VIOLET (Electric Violet) (Hex: #8B00FF) (RGB: 139, 0, 255)

Indigo in human culture

Computer Graphics

  • Electric Indigo is sometimes used as a glow color for CG lightning, possibly because it seems to change color from indigo to lavender when blended with white.

Dancing

Music

New Age Philosophy

Transportation

Video Games

  • In keeping with a color theme for towns and cities in Pokémon's Kanto region, the location containing the Elite Four is "Indigo Plateau".
  • The color most associated with the Nintendo Gamecube is a purplish indigo, officially deemed indigo.
  • In Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask, there is a Zora band called the Indigo-Gos.
  • Quantic Dream's video game Fahrenheit was released in the United States and Canada as Indigo Prophecy, and contains a character called "The Indigo Child".


See also

References

  1. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, SVG color keywords. W3C. (May 2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
  2. ^ a b J. W. G. Hunt (1980). Measuring Color. Ellis Horwood Ltd. ISBN 0-7458-0125-0.  
  3. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197; Color Sample of Indigo: Page 117 Plate 47 Color Sample E10
  4. ^ http://www1.umn.edu/ships/updates/newton1.htm
  5. ^ Craig F. Bohren and Eugene E. Clothiaux (2006). Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527405038. http://books.google.com/books?visbn=3527405038&id=1oDOWr_yueIC&pg=PA214&lpg=PA214&ots=Jrfi5sPBhk&dq=indigo+spectra+blue+violet+date:1990-2007&sig=Rm2xP5mIgyGJ1a1pbfAt65QSf0I#PPA214,M1.  
  6. ^ Tansley, David V. Subtle Body: Essence and Shadow New York: 1984 Avon (Art and Cosmos series--Jill Purce, Editor) It is pointed out that New Age artists and philosophers accept indigo as a spectrum color because it is used to represent one of the seven chakras (the sixth or ajna chakra) of the subtle body.
  7. ^ web.Forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #6F00FF (Electric Indigo):
  8. ^ You Tube videos of the Indigo belly dancers:
  9. ^ Website of burlesque performer Miss Indigo Blue:
  10. ^ Indigo (Christian Englander):
  11. ^ Stevens, Samantha. The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. City: Insomniac Press, 2004. ISBN 1894663497 pg. 24
  12. ^ Graham, Lanier F. (editor) The Rainbow Book Berkeley, California:1976 Shambala Publishing and The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (Handbook for the Summer 1976 exhibition The Rainbow Art Show which took place primarily at the De Young Museum but also at other museums) Indigo Pages 152-153 The color indigo is stated to represent intuition.
  13. ^ Oslie, Pamalie Life Colors: What the Colors in Your Aura Reveal Novato, California:2000--New World Library Indigo Auras: Pages 161-174
  14. ^ Bailey, Alice A. (1995). The Seven Rays of Life. New York: Lucis Publishing Company. ISBN 0853301425.  

1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also indigo

German

Noun

Indigo (m. or n.)

  1. (masculine) indigo, a dye
  2. (masculine) Indigofera, plant traditionally used to produce indigo
  3. (neutral) indigo, a colour

Simple English

This box shows the color indigo.
 

Indigo is one of the colors of the rainbow.

The brightest shade of indigo is the color that is sixth color of the rainbow, a hue lying between blue and violet. The color shown at right, electric indigo, is the closest color it is possible to display on a computer to the color of the indigo color band in the rainbow.

Isaac Newton named and defined indigo as a spectrum color when he divided up the spectrum into the seven colors of the rainbow.

The name of the color indigo originally came from the Indigo plant. Indigo is a dye made from the indigo plant, used to dye cloth. Indigo dye also is used to dye denim cloth, which is used to make what are called blue jeans (they should really be called indigo jeans). This shade of indigo, called indigo dye (shown at left above in the picture and in the color chart below), is darker than the spectrum indigo shown above).

The indigo plant originally came from the nation of India. The Ancient Greek language word for the dye is indikon. The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo.

These things are colored indigo:


Contents

Meaning of indigo

  • Indigo was also the name of a character from the famous toy line, Rainbow Brite.


Comparison of blue, indigo, and violet

Note: The spectrum colors can only be approximated on a computer screen but the colors shown below are a close approximation of the spectrum colors blue, indigo, and violet.

  • BLUE (Hex: #0000FF) (RGB: 0, 0, 255)
  • INDIGO (Electric Indigo) (Hex: #6F00FF) (RGB: 111, 0, 255)
  • VIOLET (Electric Violet) (Hex: #8F00FF) (RGB: 143, 0, 255)

Tones of indigo color comparison chart

  • Lavender Mist Light (Xona.com Color List "Lavender Light
    Light") (Hex: #F5F5FD) (RGB: 245, 245, 253)
  • Lavender Mist (web color Lavender) (Hex: #E6E6FA) (RGB: 230, 230, 250)
  • Periwinkle (Lavender Blue) (Pastel Indigo) (Hex: #CCCCFF) (RGB: 204, 204, 255)
  • Blue-Violet Light (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #C77DF3) (RGB: 199, 125, 243)
  • Medium Slate Blue (web color) (Hex: #7B68EE) (RGB: 123, 104, 238)
  • Slate Blue (web color) (Hex: #6A5ACD) (RGB: 106, 90, 205)
  • Majorelle Blue (Hex: #6050DC) (RGB: 96, 80, 220)
  • Indigo Light (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #4081A4) (RGB: 64, 129, 164)
  • Bright Indigo (Crayola Indigo) (Hex: #4F69C6) (RGB: 79, 105, 198)
  • Gulf Blue Light (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #3560A6) (RGB: 53, 96, 166)
  • Denim (Crayola) (Hex: #1560BD) (RGB: 21, 96, 189)
  • Han Blue (Hex: #5218FA) (RGB: 82, 24, 250)
  • Electric Ultramarine (Hex: #3F00FF) (RGB: 63, 0, 255)
  • Westminster (Hex: #5F00FF) (RGB: 95, 0, 255)
  • Lobelia (Near Indigo) (Hex: #6700FF) (RGB: 103, 0, 255)
  • INDIGO (Electric Indigo) (Middle Indigo) (Hex: #6F00FF) (RGB: 111, 0, 255)
  • Pansy (Extreme Indigo) (Hex: #7700FF) (RGB: 119, 0, 255)
  • Lavender Indigo (Hex: #9457EB) (RGB: 148, 87, 235)
  • Deep Indigo (web color Blue-Violet) (Hex: #8A2BE2) (RGB: 138, 43, 226)
  • Pigment Indigo (web color Indigo) (Hex: #4B0082) (RGB: 75, 0, 130)
  • Dark Slate Blue (web color) (Hex: #483D8B) (RGB: 72, 61, 139)
  • Persian Indigo (Regimental) (Hex: #32127A) (RGB: 50, 18, 122)
  • Indigo Dye (Hex: #00416A) (RGB: 0, 65, 106)
  • Ultramarine (Hex: #120A8F) (RGB: 18, 10, 143)
  • Midnight Blue (Hex: #191970) (RGB: 25, 25, 112)
  • Midnight (Hex: #003366) (RGB: 0, 51, 102)
  • Prussian Blue (Berlin Blue) (Hex: #003153) (RGB: 0, 49, 83)
  • Dark Indigo (Hex: #310062) (RGB: 49, 0, 98)
  • Gulf Blue (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #051657) (RGB: 9, 22, 87)
ColorsList of colors
Cyan Magenta Black Gray Silver White
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet
Gold Olive Purple Navy Brown Pink

References

  1. Graham, Lanier F. (editor) The Rainbow Book Berkeley, California:1976 Shambala Publishing and The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (Handbook for the Summer 1976 exhibition The Rainbow Art Show which took place primarily at the De Young Museum but also at other museums) Indigo Pages 152-153 The color indigo is stated to represent intuition.

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