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Indira Feroze Gandhi


In office
14 January 1980 – 31 October 1984
President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Giani Zail Singh
Preceded by Choudhary Charan Singh
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
24 January 1966 – 24 March 1977
President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Zakir Hussain
Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Preceded by Gulzarilal Nanda
Succeeded by Morarji Desai

In office
9 March 1984 – 31 October 1984
Preceded by P. V. Narasimha Rao
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
22 August 1967 – 14 March 1969
Preceded by Mahommedali Currim Chagla
Succeeded by Dinesh Singh

In office
26 June 1970 – 29 April 1971
Preceded by Morarji Desai
Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan

In office
1959
Preceded by U N Dhebar
Succeeded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
In office
1978–1984
Preceded by Dev Kant Baruah
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi

Born 19 November 1917(1917-11-19)
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
Died 31 October 1984 (aged 66)
New Delhi, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Feroze Gandhi
Children Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi
Religion Hindu-Adi Dharm
Signature
A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi (no relation), during one of his fasts
.Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: इंदिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गांधी Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī; née: Nehru; (19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the prime minister of the Republic of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, a total of fifteen years.^ She regained her position as prime minister in 1980.  Unfortunately on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards assassinated her.

^ Indira Gandhi, she replied that " The term Productivity has three implications.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1947 Nehru became India 's first Prime Minister.
  • Gandhi, Indira - A website dedicated to famous people, celebrities, VIP's, actors, actresses, musicians, politicians 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.prominentpeople.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She was India's first, and to date only, female prime minister.^ She was India's first and to date only female prime minister.

^ She was India's first, and to date only, female prime minister.
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Indira Gandhi was the first and, to date, only female prime minister of India.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Education

.Gandhi was partly educated in India and then in Britain: at Badminton School, a girls' independent school in Bristol, and at Somerville College at the University of Oxford.^ The India of the future is growing in her schools and universities.

^ While studying at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence London based India League[4].
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi received two educations: the first from the day by day often tumultuous life as the daughter of a leader striving for independence during a time when his actions were frequently considered illegal; the second education was, for short periods, in some of India 's finest schools as well as schooling in Switzerland .
  • Gandhi, Indira - A website dedicated to famous people, celebrities, VIP's, actors, actresses, musicians, politicians 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.prominentpeople.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Life and career

.Born in the politically influential Nehru Family, Gandhi grew up in an intensely political atmosphere.^ Born in the politically influential Nehru dynasty, she grew up in an intensely political atmosphere.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nehru-gandhi Family .
  • Indira Gandhi: Latest News, Photos and Videos 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC connect.in.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Born in 1917 in a politically influential family, Gandhi seemed inescapably destined for a career in politics.
  • Indian Americans Mark 25th Anniversary of Indira Gandhi's Assassination - NAM 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC news.newamericamedia.org [Source type: News]

.Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader.^ Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Mahatma Gandhi and her father, first Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, she is perhaps the most famous Indian leader in the world.
  • Indian Americans Mark 25th Anniversary of Indira Gandhi's Assassination - NAM 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC news.newamericamedia.org [Source type: News]

^ Indira's grandfather Motilal Nehru was a wealthy barrister of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India.^ Indira Gandhi was the daughter, of the newly independent India 's first leader, Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Gandhi, Indira - A website dedicated to famous people, celebrities, VIP's, actors, actresses, musicians, politicians 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.prominentpeople.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indira Gandhi with her father, Jawaharlal Nehru .
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was a well-educated lawyer and was a popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Returning to India from Oxford in 1941, she became involved in the Indian Independence movement.^ Returning to India from Oxford in 1941, she became involved in the Indian Independence movement.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While studying at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence London based India League[4].
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its centenary year, the Indian National Congress is proud that India has the honour to lead the Non-aligned Movement.

.In the 1950s, she served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime Minister of India.^ She was India's first and to date only female prime minister.

^ She was India's first, and to date only, female prime minister.
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India and the father of Indira Gandhi.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha by the President of India and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.^ After his death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri took over.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After her father's death, the new Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri appointed Indira Gandhi as minister of information and broadcasting.

^ Lal Bahadur Shastri , who succeeded Nehru as prime minister in 1964, named her minister of information and broadcasting in his government.
  • Indira Gandhi (prime minister of India) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The then Congress Party President K. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira Gandhi the Prime Minister after the sudden demise of Shastri.^ Q.Was Indira Gandhi India's best prime minister ?
  • The Indira Gandhi legacy - We The People 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.ndtv.com [Source type: General]

^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Was Indira Gandhi India's best prime minister or the most controversial?
  • The Indira Gandhi legacy - We The People 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.ndtv.com [Source type: General]

.Gandhi soon showed an ability to win elections and outmaneuver opponents.^ The then Congress Party President K. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister after the sudden demise of Shastri, Gandhi soon showed an ability to win elections and outmaneuver opponents through populism.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi, defending the Government's decision to postpone the elections for a year, said: ''If we held the elections now, we would win.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi found herself without work, income or residence until winning a by-election in 1978.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She introduced more left-wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity.^ She introduced more left-wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spreading of fragrance could motivate more people towards Peace and Productive thoughts, and promote their effects.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.She led the nation as Prime Minister during the decisive victory in the 1971 war with Pakistan and creation of an independent Bangladesh.^ He was elected to parliament and when his mother, Indira Gandhi , was assassinated in 1984 he succeeded her as prime minister, leading the Congress party (see Indian National Congress ) to a sweeping election victory.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Rajiv Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was riding the crest of popularity after India 's triumph in the war of 1971 against Pakistan , and the explosion of a nuclear device in 1974.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another war with Pakistan broke out, which ended in the establishment of an independent state of Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan ).
  • Gandhi, Indira - A website dedicated to famous people, celebrities, VIP's, actors, actresses, musicians, politicians 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.prominentpeople.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A period of instability led her to impose a state of emergency in 1975. Due to the alleged authoritarian excesses during the period of emergency, the Congress Party and Indira Gandhi herself lost the next general election for the first time in 1977.^ Elections In 1977, Gandhi called elections.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1977 elections, the Congress Party suffered a heavy defeat and the party split.
  • Indira Gandhi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her Congress Party, which had a majority in Parliament, ratified the state of emergency.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indira Gandhi led the Congress back to victory in 1980 elections and Gandhi resumed the office of the Prime Minister.^ Q.Was Indira Gandhi India's best prime minister ?
  • The Indira Gandhi legacy - We The People 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.ndtv.com [Source type: General]

^ Gandhi returned to the office of prime minister of 1980 after the Congress Party dominated elections for the Lok Sabha.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

.In June 1984, under Gandhi's order, the Indian army forcefully entered the Golden Temple, the most sacred Sikh shrine, to remove armed insurgents present inside the temple.^ In response, Gandhi ordered an army attack in June 1984 on the Harimandir (Golden Temple) at Amritsar , the Sikhs’ holiest shrine, which led to the deaths of more than 450 Sikhs.
  • Indira Gandhi (prime minister of India) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1984, Gandhi countered violent Sikh extremists by ordering the army to attack the Golden Temple of Amritsar, the Sikhs' holy shrine.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1984, she ordered the army into the Golden Temple in Amritsar; their orders were to flush out the Sikh militants holed up in there.
  • New Statesman - A mediocre goddess. Indira Gandhi left behind a lonely and unremarkable adolescence to become India's only female prime minister, drawing support from the poor and dispossessed. But she was also a despot, writes Pankaj Mishra, who brought shame, violence and misery to her nation 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: Original source]

.She was assassinated on 31 October 1984 in retaliation to this operation.^ October 31 , 1984 .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1984 she started an initiative to suppress Sikh rebels and a few months later on October 31st 1984 she was assassinated.
  • WatchMojo.com - Daily Video Clips - Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.watchmojo.com [Source type: General]

^ In response, on October 31, 1984, two of Gandhi's own Sikh bodyguards assassinated her — even as some of her Sikh guards tried to protect her.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Early life

Growing up in India

.Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on 19 November 1917 to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala Nehru and was their only child.^ November 19 , 1917 .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I ndira Nehru Gandhi was born in November 1917, the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Gandhi , 1917-84, Indian political leader; daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru .
  • Indira Gandhi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nehrus were a distinguished Kashmiri Pandit family.^ Indira witnessed this happening, and came to detest the way her mother was treated by the family especially by Nehrus two younger sisters, Vijayalakshmi Pandit and Krishna Hutheesingh.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the time of her birth, her grandfather Motilal Nehru and father Jawaharlal were influential political leaders.^ Indira Gandhi with her father, Jawaharlal Nehru .
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motilal Nehru, her grandfather, and also Jawaharlal Nehru, her father, were two influential leaders in the campaign for Indian independence.

.Gandhi was brought up in an intense political atmosphere at the Nehru family residence, Anand Bhawan, where she spent her childhood years.^ Nehru-Gandhi family .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nehru-gandhi Family .
  • Indira Gandhi: Latest News, Photos and Videos 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC connect.in.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Born in the politically influential Nehru dynasty, she grew up in an intensely political atmosphere.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Growing up in the sole care of her mother, who was sick and alienated from the Nehru household, Indira developed strong protective instincts and a loner personality.^ Growing up in the sole care of her mother, who was sick and alienated from the Nehru household, Gandhi developed strong protective instincts and a loner personality.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing up in the sole care of her mother, who was sick and alienated from the Nehru household, Indira developed strong protective instincts and a loner personality.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 2003, he took up a spate of new books on Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi .

.The flurry of political activity in the Nehru household made mixing with her peers difficult.^ Her grandfather and father continually being enmeshed in national politics also made mixing with her peers difficult.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What made her childhood even more difficult was the contemptuous treatment given her mother, Kamala, by the far more Westernized and sophisticated women of the Nehru family.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Illness was a difficult condition in the Nehru household: Nehru preened himself over his own fitness, and regarded illness almost as a moral failing, an abnegation of duties.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

.She had personal conflicts with her father's sisters, including Vijayalakshmi Pandit, and these extended into her relationship with them in the political world.^ She had conflicts with her father's sisters, including Vijayalakshmi Pandit , and these continued into the political world.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She had conflicts with her father's sisters, including Vijayalakshmi Pandit, and these continued into the political world.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had been her sense of duty and pride in her father and family legacy that had brought her into politics, but she had never been given the space to develop as a person.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In her father's autobiography, Toward Freedom, he writes that the police frequently came to the family home while he was in prison and took away pieces of furniture as payment toward the fines the Government imposed on him.^ The house served as a headquarters for the freedom struggle; her parents were frequently taken off to jail; the police were constantly there.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It describes her family life and the pain she had to endure when her parents Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru and her grandfather Motilal Nehru were sent to prison as a result of the Indian freedom movement.

^ She centralized power, draining it away from the regional state governments and channelling it towards New Delhi.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

.He says, "Indira, my four-year-old daughter, was greatly annoyed at this continuous process of despoliation and protested to the police and expressed her strong displeasure.^ "Nobody ever thought it was a danger to the country's security when Sonia Gandhi continued to live in Indira Gandhi's household for 17 years without accepting Indian citizenship," he said.
  • How can Indira Gandhi's grandson pose danger to the country, asks Thackeray - India - The Times of India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC timesofindia.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ For 25 years, the Tamil leaders expressed their protest in parliament and outside, adopting the principles of ahimsa and satyagraha.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kasipillai Selvarasa, a 38-year-old farmer with four dependents.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

I am afraid those early impressions are likely to colour her future views about the police force generally."
.Indira created the Vanara Sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notable[citation needed] role in the Indian Independence Movement, conducting protests and flag marches, as well as helping members of the Indian National Congress circulate sensitive publications and banned materials.^ Indira created the Vanara Sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notable role in the Indian Independence Movement, conducting protests and flag marches, as well as helping Congress politicians circulate sensitive publications and banned materials.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indira Gandhi created the Vanara Sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notable role in the Indian Independence Movement, conducting protests and flag marches, as well as helping Congress politicians circulate sensitive publications and banned materials.

^ Indira Gandhi created the Vanara Sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notable role in the Indian Independence Movement , conducting protests and flag marches, as well as helping Congress politicians circulate sensitive publications and banned materials.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In an often-told story, she smuggled out in her schoolbag an important document from her father's house under police observation, that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early 1930s.^ In an often-told story, she smuggled out from her father's police-watched house an important document in her schoolbag that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early 1930 s.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an often-told story, she smuggled out from her father's police-watched house an important document in her schoolbag that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early 1930s.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After his father's death, Varun's mother, Maneka, fell out with Indira and moved out of the family house.
  • The Gandhis at war - Asia, World - The Independent 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

Studying in Europe

.In 1936, her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle.^ In 1934 , her mother Kamala Nehru finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1936, her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1934, her mother Kamala Nehru finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle.

.Indira was 18 at the time and had never experienced a stable family life during her childhood.^ Indira Gandhi was 17 at the time and thus never experienced a stable family life during her childhood.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira was 18 at the time and thus never experienced a stable family life during her childhood.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And moreover, as some readers pointed out during her entire life, she never expressed regrets on any incidents.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While studying at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence London based India League.^ While studying at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence London based India League[4].
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From here she went on to study in Switzerland and then to Oxford University in London.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nehru never liked his barrack-room style and when, just a couple of years after Kamalas death, he learned from his daughter then in England and studying at Oxford of her desire to marry Feroze (in London at the time), Nehru did all he could to dissuade her.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
In early 1940, Indira spent time in a rest home in Switzerland to recover from chronic lung disease. .She maintained her long-distance relationship with her father in the form of long letters as she was used to doing through her childhood.^ When Indira's father was in jail he used to write beautiful, long letters to her about his patriotic feelings and the current political situation.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They argued about politics.^ While such actions may sometimes be necessary, concern about the harms they may cause cannot be dismissed by arguing that they are being implemented for legitimate reasons.
  • Indira and the Islamists - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They argued that at least Sri Lankas reservations about the use of the word united should have been indicated.
  • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.In her years in continental Europe and the UK, she met a young Parsi man active in politics, Feroze Gandhi.^ In her years in continental Europe and the UK, she met Feroze Gandhi,a Congress activist.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feroze Gandhi (12 August 1912 - 8 September 1960) was an Indian politician and journalist of Parsi descent.

^ Due to election voting irregularities in 1975, India's High Court threatened to ban Gandhi from politics for six years.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .After returning to India, Feroze Gandhi grew close to the Nehru family, especially to Indira's mother Kamala Nehru and Indira herself.^ Indira Gandhi with her father, Jawaharlal Nehru .
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Nehru-Gandhi family .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ India is still proud of Indira Gandhi .
  • Indira Gandhi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marriage to Feroze Gandhi

.When Indira and Feroze Gandhi returned to India, they were in love and had decided to get married, despite doctors' advice.^ But she and Feroze Gandhi were married in March 1942.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The daughter of India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Gandhi, who changed her surname after marrying Feroze Gandhi, was given the top job two years after Nehru's death in 1964.
  • Indira Gandhi remembered: News24: World: News 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ They were unable to agree among themselves, and hence picked Indira Gandhi as a compromise candidate, thinking that she would be easily manipulable .
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] Indira liked Feroze's openness, sense of humor and self-confidence. .Nehru did not like the idea of his daughter marrying and sought Mahatma Gandhi's help to dissuade their love relationship.^ But it did help secure Gandhi's election.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nehru never liked his barrack-room style and when, just a couple of years after Kamalas death, he learned from his daughter then in England and studying at Oxford of her desire to marry Feroze (in London at the time), Nehru did all he could to dissuade her.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he had been a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru accepted partition — the decision by the British to split South Asia into India and Pakistan — even though Gandhi did not.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mahatma Gandhi as a solution adopted Feroze.^ Mahatma Gandhi had nothing to do with Feroze, leave alone adopting him!
  • The Gandhis at war - Asia, World - The Independent 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Indira's husband Feroze gandhi who is no relation to Mahatma!!!!
  • The Gandhis at war - Asia, World - The Independent 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Though the Mahatma was a family friend, the Gandhi in her name comes from her marriage to Feroze Gandhi .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indira was adamant and the marriage took place in March 1942 according to Hindu rituals.^ According to Adele, the marriage took place at Murugan Temple, Thiruporur, Madras on October 1, 1984.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Gandhi, according to family intimates, had opposed the marriage from the beginning.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And to his mother, Jawaharlal voiced his disapproval of arranged Hindu marriages: "In my opinion, unless there is a degree of mutual understanding, marriage should not take place.
  • Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi : Katherine Frank : ISBN 9780395730973 - Buy.com 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.buy.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.Feroze and Indira were both members of the Indian National Congress, and when they took part in the Quit India Movement in 1942, they were both arrested.^ In this epoch of radical change, the Indian National Congress brought the world to India and took India to the world.

^ In 1942, she married Feroze Gandhi, also a member of the Congress Party.
  • 3p. India: The World's Largest Democracy [Beyond Books - Culture and Geography] 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1942, she joined the 'Quit India' Movement along with her husband and was arrested and jailed.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .After independence, Feroze went on to run for election and became a member of parliament from Raebareli Uttar Pradesh in 1952. After the birth of their two sons, Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi, their relationship was strained leading to a separation.^ In 1944, she gave birth to Rajiv Gandhi with Feroze Gandhi, and followed by Sanjay Gandhi.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mother of two sons, Rajiv and Sanjay, she became a widow in 1960.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feroze Gandhi went on to become an outspoken member of Parliament; he died in 1960.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after his re-election, Feroze suffered a heart attack, which led to a reconciliation.^ Indira and Feroze were re-united in 1958, when Feroze suffered his first heart attack.

^ However, in 1957 , shortly after re-election, Feroze suffered a heart attack, which dramatically healed their broken marriage.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in 1957, shortly after re-election, Feroze suffered a heart attack, which dramatically healed their broken marriage.

Their relationship endured for the few years prior to the death of Feroze Gandhi in September 1960.
The Nehru family - Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira, and Ranjit Pandit; Seated: Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927).

Early leadership

President of the Indian National Congress

Indira and Mohandas Gandhi circa the 1930s
.During 1959 and 1960, Gandhi ran for and was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress.^ During 1959 and 1960 , Gandhi ran for and was elected the President of the Indian National Congress .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in 1959, Gandhi became the fourth woman elected president of the Indian National Congress.

^ Rise to Power During 1959 and 1960, Gandhi ran for and was elected the President of the Indian National Congress.

.Her term of office was uneventful.^ Her term of office was uneventful.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She also acted as her father's chief of staff.^ She also acted as her father's chief of staff.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nehru was known as a vocal opponent of nepotism, and she did not contest a seat in the 1962 elections.^ Nehru was known as a vocal opponent of nepotism , and she did not contest a seat in the 1962 elections.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nehru was known as a vocal opponent of nepotism, and she did not contest a seat in the 1962 elections.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When India's first general election approached in 1952, Gandhi managed the campaigns of both Nehru and her husband, who was contesting the constituency of Rae Bareilly.

Prime minister

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of India, administering the oath of office to Indira Gandhi on 24 January 1966.

First term

Domestic policy

.When Gandhi became Prime Minister in 1966, the Congress was split in two factions, the socialists led by Gandhi, and the conservatives led by Morarji Desai.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Desai became Prime Minister and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy , the establishment choice of 1969 , became President of the Republic.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (November 19, 1917 - October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and again from January 14, 1980 until her assassination on October 31, 1984.

.Rammanohar Lohia called her Gungi Gudiya which means 'Dumb Doll'[8].^ Her main party rival, Morarji Desai called her 'Gungi Gudiya' which means 'Dumb Doll'.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, however, he and others had dismissed her as a gungi gudiya - literally, a 'dumb doll'.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time, however, he and others had dismissed her as a gungi gudiya - literally, a dumb doll.

.The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the Congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545 seat Lok Sabha.^ Congress wins Elections in 5 out of 9 Provinces .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress wins vote in Lok Sabha on Civilian Nuclear Agreement.
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the Congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545 seat Lok Sabha.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She had to accommodate Desai as Deputy Prime Minister of India and Finance Minister of India.^ As under the British parliamentary system, he thereby automatically became India's seventh Prime Minister.
  • The Sikh Times - Biographies - Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sikhtimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Ahmed was an old political ally, and in India the President acts upon the advice of an elected Prime Minister alone.

^ After Shastri's death in 1966, Indira Gandhi served as prime minister until India held the next election.

.In 1969 after many disagreements with Desai, the Indian National Congress split.^ In 1969 after a lot of disagreements with Desai, the Congress split.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All this and more is the legacy of Jawaharlal Nehru, his imperishable bequest to us in the Indian National Congress.

^ As it happened, the Indian people felt that the Indian National Congress could achieve this goal.

.She ruled with support from Socialist and Communist Parties for the next two years.^ Socialist Parties for the next two years.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As against that, for a ruling party to permit racist violence as it has done during the past six years is more reprehensible.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the past 15 years the Republican Party (supported by Christian Coalition) ruled the country for 12 years.
  • LEGAL AND SOCIAL EQUALITY IN INDIA 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.vepachedu.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the same year, in July 1969 she nationalized banks.^ The New Prime Minister Her first year of leadership was one of uncertainty, although she did make some strong moves, such as dividing Punjab and proposing that the commercial banks be nationalized, which was achieved in 1969.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

War with Pakistan in 1971

.The Pakistan army conducted widespread atrocities against the civilian populations of East Pakistan.^ The military leadership of West Pakistan was at this time pursuing a genocidal policy against the Bengalis of East Pakistan, and thousands of refugees were flowing into India.
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When civil war broke out that year in Pakistan, India supported East Pakistan in its fight against West Pakistan and was quickly victorious.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[9][10] .An estimated 10 million refugees fled to India, causing financial hardship and instability in the country.^ During the chaotic Partition of India in 1947 , she helped organize refugee camps and provide medical care for the millions of refugees from Pakistan .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the chaotic Partition of India in 1947, she helped organize refugee camps and provide medical care for the millions of refugees from Pakistan.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States under Richard Nixon supported Pakistan, and mooted a UN resolution warning India against going to war.^ During the 1971 War, the US had sent its Seventh Fleet to the Bay of Bengal as a warning to India not to use the genocide in East Pakistan as a pretext to launch a wider attack against West Pakistan, especially over the disputed territory of Kashmir .
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is a civil war in India on this issue, so be the case; in any case with direct American intervention in Pakistan, conflict between America and India is very near.

^ In the same year, she nationalised banks.During the 1971 War, the US had sent its Seventh Fleet to the Bay of Bengal as a warning to India keep away from East Pakistan as a pretext to launch a wider attack against West Pakistan, especially over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nixon apparently disliked Indira personally, referring to her as a "witch" and "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (now released by the State Department).^ Rather than relying on food aid from the United States - headed by a President whom Mrs. Gandhi disliked considerably (the feeling was mutual: to Nixon, Indira was "the old witch"[7]), the country became a food exporter.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Till now communal riots were engineered by communal forces and the fascist part of the Indian state machinery to polarize society.

[11]. .Indira signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, resulting in political support and a Soviet veto at the UN. India was victorious in the 1971 war, and Bangladesh was born.^ India and the USSR had earlier signed the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Cooperation, the resulting political and military support contributing substantially to India's victory in the 1971 war.
  • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in 1971, Pakistan attacked India and forced another smaller partition - the creation of Bangladesh.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green Revolution Main article: Green Revolution in India Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foreign policy

.Gandhi invited the late Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week-long summit.^ She also invited the new Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week-long summit.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi further utilized President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, to issue ordinances that did not need to be debated in Parliament, allowing her - and Sanjay - to effectively rule by decree.

^ State of Emergency Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency, claiming that the strikes and rallies were creating a state of 'internal disturbance'.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the near-failure of the talks, the two heads of state eventually signed the Shimla Agreement, which bound the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute by negotiations and peaceful means.^ After the near-failure of the talks, the two heads of state eventually signed the Shimla Agreement, which bound the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute by negotiations and peaceful means.

^ Over the perennial thorn of Kashmir, she established with her counterpart Zulfikar Ali Bhutto an informal agreement to observe as the de facto border between the two countries the Line of Control (this was the ceasefire line established after the Pakistan-instigated invasion of Kashmir in 1948).
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President, my profound thanks, and my genuine heartfelt assurances that India wishes to resume talks with your country for a solid, lasting, peaceful relationship between our two countries, which share so much in common.'
  • The Sikh Times - Biographies - Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sikhtimes.com [Source type: News]

.Due to her antipathy for Nixon, relations with the United States grew distant, while relations with the Soviet Union grew closer.^ On the international scene, relations with the United States, which provided billions of dollars in aid from the 1950's to the 1980's, were sour and tense during much of her tenure.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With her neighbors, the Soviet Union and China, she improved relations.  She also promoted science and technology.  In 1971, India sent its first satellite into space.

^ It also includes Gandhi's family background, path to power, relations with the United States, efforts at regional hegemony, and Gandhi's perception of herself.

.She was criticized by some for not making the Line of Control a permanent border while a few critics even believed that Pakistan-administered Kashmir should have been extracted from Pakistan, whose 93, 000 prisoners of war were under Indian control.^ Indira Gandhi was criticized by some for not making the Line of Control a permanent border while a few critics even believed that Pakistan-administered Kashmir should have been extracted from Pakistan, whose 93,000 prisoners of war were under Indian control.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indira Gandhi was heavily criticized for not extracting the Pakistan-occupied portion of Kashmir from a humiliated Pakistan, whose 93,000 prisoners of war were under Indian control.

^ Over the perennial thorn of Kashmir, she established with her counterpart Zulfikar Ali Bhutto an informal agreement to observe as the de facto border between the two countries the Line of Control (this was the ceasefire line established after the Pakistan-instigated invasion of Kashmir in 1948).
  • 540 Sunil Khilnani, Looking for Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the agreement did remove immediate United Nations and third party interference, and greatly reduced the likelihood of Pakistan launching a major attack in the near future.^ But the agreement did remove immediate United Nations and third party interference, and greatly reduced the likelihood of Pakistan launching a major attack in the near future.

^ Formation of Bangladesh removed forever the threat of simultaneous attack from the western and eastern wings of Pakistan on India.
  • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

.By not demanding total capitulation on a sensitive issue from Bhutto, she had allowed Pakistan to stabilize and normalize.^ By not demanding total capitulation on a sensitive issue from Bhutto, she had allowed Pakistan to stabilize and normalize.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Trade relations were also normalized, though much contact remained frozen(sealed) for years.^ Trade relations were also normalized, though much contact remained frozen for years.

Devaluation of the rupee

.During the late 1960s, Gandhi's administration decreed a 40% devaluation in the value of the Indian rupee from 4 to 7 to the United States dollar to boost trade.^ To secure her power and because of escalating riots, on June 26, 1975, Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency which limited the personal freedom of Indians.

^ It also includes Gandhi's family background, path to power, relations with the United States, efforts at regional hegemony, and Gandhi's perception of herself.

^ Rise to Power During 1959 and 1960, Gandhi ran for and was elected the President of the Indian National Congress.

Nuclear weapons program

.A national nuclear program was started by Gandhi in 1967, in response to the nuclear threat from the People's Republic of China and to establish India's stability and security interests as independent from those of the nuclear superpowers.^ Nuclear Program But Gandhi now accelerated the national nuclear program, as it was felt that the nuclear threat from the People's Republic of China and the intrusive interest of the two major superpowers were not conducive to India's stability and security.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Gandhi now accelerated the national nuclear program, as it was felt that the nuclear threat from China and the intrusive interest of the two major superpowers were not conducive to India's stability and security.

^ Agricultural and industrial production expanded considerably under Gandhi's 20-point program; revenues increased, and so did India's financial standing in the international community.

.In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan.^ In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially codenamed Smiling Buddha, near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan.

^ She was riding the crest of popularity after India 's triumph in the war of 1971 against Pakistan , and the explosion of a nuclear device in 1974.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GATE 2010 - Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering NotificationThe Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an All-India examination administered and conducted in eight zones across...
  • Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences Details 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.way2college.com [Source type: General]

.Describing the test as for peaceful purposes, India became the world's youngest nuclear power.^ Describing the test as for peaceful purposes, India nevertheless became the world's youngest nuclear power.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Hall - Moonlightchest.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC memorial.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially codenamed Smiling Buddha, near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan.

^ In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as smiling Buddha, near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Green Revolution

Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971. They had a deep personal antipathy that coloured bilateral relations.
.Special agricultural innovation programs and extra government support launched in the 1960s finally transformed India's chronic food shortages into surplus production of wheat, rice, cotton and milk, the success mainly attributed to hard working farmers of majority Sikh farmers of Punjab.^ They had a deep personal antipathy that coloured bilateral relations.Special agricultural innovation programs and extra government support launched in the 1960s that had finally resulted in India's chronic food shortages were gradually being transformed into surplus production of wheat, rice, cotton and milk.
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^ Innovative agricultural programs and additional government support launched in the 1960s had finally resulted in India's chronic food shortages gradually being transformed into surpluses of wheat, rice, cotton and milk.

^ Agricultural and industrial production expanded considerably under Gandhi's 20-point program; revenues increased, and so did India's financial standing in the international community.

.Rather than relying on food aid from the United States - headed by a President whom Gandhi disliked considerably (the feeling was mutual: to Nixon, Indira was "the old witch"[12]), the country became a food exporter.^ Rather than relying on food aid from the United States - headed by a President whom Mrs. Gandhi disliked considerably (the feeling was mutual: to Nixon, Indira was "the old witch"[7]), the country became a food exporter.
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^ Green Revolution Main article: Green Revolution in India Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971.
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^ Indira Gandhi had numerous bodyguards, two of whom were Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, both Sikhs.
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.That achievement, along with the diversification of its commercial crop production, has become known as the "Green Revolution". At the same time, the White Revolution was an expansion in milk production which helped to combat malnutrition, especially amidst young children.^ That achievement, along with the diversification of its commercial crop production, has become known as the Green Revolution.
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^ At the same time, the White Revolution was an expansion in milk production which helped to combat malnutrition, especially amidst young children.
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^ The country became a food exporter, and diversified its commercial crop production as well, in what has become known as the Green Revolution.

'Food security', as the program was called, was another source of support for Gandhi in the years leading up to 1975.[13]
.Established in the early 1960s, the Green Revolution was the unofficial name given to the Intense Agricultural District Program (IADP) which sought to insure abundant, inexpensive grain for urban dwellers upon whose support Gandhi—as indeed all Indian politicians—heavily depended.^ Established in the early 1960s, the Green Revolution was the unofficial name given to the Intense Agricultural District Programme (IADP) which sought to insure abundant, inexpensive grain for urban dwellers upon whose support Gandhi -- as indeed all Indian politicians -- heavily depended.
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^ Agricultural and industrial production expanded considerably under Gandhi's 20-point program; revenues increased, and so did India's financial standing in the international community.

^ The program was based on four premises: 1) New varieties of seed(s), 2) Acceptance of the necessity of the chemicalization of Indian agriculture, i.e.
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[14] The program was based on four premises: 1) New varieties of seed(s), 2) Acceptance of the necessity of the chemicalization of Indian agriculture, i.e. fertilizers, pesticides, weed killers, etc., 3) A commitment to national and international cooperative research to develop new and improved existing seed varieties, 4) The concept of developing a scientific, agricultural institutions in the form of land grant colleges.[15] .Lasting about ten years, the program was ultimately to bring about a tripling of wheat production, a lower but still impressive increase of rice; while there was little to no increase (depending on area, and adjusted for population growth) of such cereals as millet, gram and coarse grain, though these did, in fact, retain a relatively stable yield.^ Lasting about ten years, the program was ultimately to bring about a tripling of wheat production, a lower but still impressive increase of rice; while there was little to no increase (depending on area, and adjusted for population growth) of such cereals as millet, gram and coarse grain, though these did, in fact, retain a relatively stable yield.
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^ All and all, garibi hatao did little and accomplished a bit less: Only about 4% of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever reached the 'poorest of the poor'.
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^ Though the Chinese president and prime minister spoke about the sovereignty, territorial integrity and the independence of Sri Lanka, there was no doubt that secret talks were conducted about the supply of arms.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

1971 election victory and second term

.Indira's government faced major problems after her tremendous mandate of 1971. The internal structure of the Congress Party had withered following its numerous splits, leaving it entirely dependent on her leadership for its election fortunes.^ The majority were, however, faced with the problem that, if the First, Fourth and Seventeenth Amendments were at a late stage to be invalidated, the impact on social and economic affairs would be chaotic.

^ In 1978, her supporters wanted a new identity for the Indian National Congress under her nomenclature and formed the "Indira Congress", a party with an open Hand symbol.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was believed that she was motivated by a certainty that the Congress Party would win easily, as it had won every election since independence.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Garibi Hatao (Eradicate Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid.^ Garibi Hatao (Abolish Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid.
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^ Gandhi's close aides also remember her for her simplicity and her commitment to the cause of the poor, which led to the Congress slogan of "Garibi Hatao" during the 1971 Lok Sabha elections.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having emblazoned 'Garibi Hatao' (Abolish Poverty) on her standard, she did not conceptualize it and carry it forward.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor.^ The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor.
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^ As of this fall, Mrs. Gandhi could count all but four of India's 22 state govenments in her camp, giving her a strong advantage in a national election.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not content, Mrs. Gandhi proposed in August further constitutional amendments that would give the executive branch, meaning herself, almost unlimited powers.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local government; likewise the urban commercial class.^ This would allow her to by-pass the dominate rural castes both in and of state and local government; likewise the urban commercial class.
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^ She was successful in reasserting, sometimes forcefully, the dominance of the central Government over states that seemed to be squabbling perennially with each other.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sonia Gandhi has followed her mother-in-law scrupulously in this respect, for she has likewise ensured that her own son would head the party, and, perhaps in time, the government.

.And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight.^ And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight.
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^ They were determined to gain political mileage through a revolutionary struggle and through armed resistance in the very language the government leadership would understand.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded, developed, supervised, and staffed by New Delhi and the Indian National Congress party.^ The programs created through garibi hatao, though carried out locally, were funded, developed, supervised, and staffed by New Delhi and the Congress [party].
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^ The program was based on four premises: 1) New varieties of seed(s), 2) Acceptance of the necessity of the chemicalization of Indian agriculture, i.e.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All and all, garibi hatao did little and accomplished a bit less: Only about 4% of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever reached the 'poorest of the poor'.
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."These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed...^ "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed...throughout the country."
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throughout the country."[16]. .Scholars and historians now agree as to the extent of the failure of Garibi Hatao in alleviating poverty - only about 4% of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever reached the 'poorest of the poor' - and the empty sloganeering of the program was mainly used instead to engender populist support for Gandhi's re-election.^ Garibi Hatao (Abolish Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid.
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^ All and all, garibi hatao did little and accomplished a bit less: Only about 4% of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever reached the 'poorest of the poor'.
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^ In 1971, Gandhi was re-elected by campaigning with the slogan "Abolish Poverty."

Corruption charges and verdict of electoral malpractice

.On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice.^ Charges On June 12, 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Gandhi's election invalid on grounds of alleged malpractices in an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who had repeatedly contested her Parliamentary constituency of Rae Bareli without success).
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^ Indira and Sanjay Gandhi both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the south.
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^ Gandhi's close aides also remember her for her simplicity and her commitment to the cause of the poor, which led to the Congress slogan of "Garibi Hatao" during the 1971 Lok Sabha elections.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who later on defeated her in 1977 parliamentary election from Rae Bareily), he had alleged several major as well as minor instances of using government resources for campaigning.^ Charges On June 12, 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Gandhi's election invalid on grounds of alleged malpractices in an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who had repeatedly contested her Parliamentary constituency of Rae Bareli without success).
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^ Knowing very well that the Tamils of Sri Lanka had been given a resounding mandate in the 1977 parliamentary general elections for a separate state for Tamils, Indira Gandhi told the TULF leaders that she was against the separation of the country.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventhough she lost the election in 1977, she was able to come back as a Prime Minister, under the Indira Congress banner, with a thumping majority in 1980.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .The court thus ordered her to be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years.^ The court thus ordered her to be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years.
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^ In the elections of January 1980, she and her Congress-I Party won a sweeping victory, winning two-thirds of the seats in Parliament.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This amendment removed the limitation imposed on the amending power of the Parliament by the ruling of the Supreme Court in Keshvanand Bharti’s case.

.The Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha (lower house in the Parliament of India) or the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament).^ Since the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha (lower house in the Parliament of India) or the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament), this decision had the effect of removing her from office.
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^ Sanjay Gandhi's widow, Maneka Gandhi - who fell out with Indira after Sanjay's death and was famously thrown out of the Prime Minister's house[14] - as well as Sanjay's son, Varun Gandhi, are active in politics as members of the main opposition BJP party.
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^ Ahmed was a longtime political ally, and it is a strong convention in India that the president acts on the advice of the prime minister.
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.Thus, this decision effectively removed her from office.^ Since the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha (lower house in the Parliament of India) or the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament), this decision had the effect of removing her from office.
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.Mrs Gandhi had asked one of India's best legal minds and also one of her colleagues in government, Mr Ashoke Kumar Sen to defend her in court.^ As of this fall, Mrs. Gandhi could count all but four of India's 22 state govenments in her camp, giving her a strong advantage in a national election.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Mrs. Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her); the government was so bogged down by infighting.
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^ However vague her destinations may have seemed, Mrs. Gandhi was always clear about her conviction that she was meant to lead India.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has been written that Mrs Gandhi was told she would only win if Mr Sen appeared for her.^ Amirthalingam readily accepted Gandhi's plea and told her he would be satisfied if the aspirations of the Tamils in the Northern and Eastern provinces were met.
  • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vasudev's two books on Indira, Revolution in Restraint and Two Faces of Indira Gandhi , both written while Mrs G was alive, are now out of print.
  • www.outlookindia.com | The Aandhi Rerun 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a 43-day campaign, Mrs. Gandhi emerged with a parliamentary victory of dimensions comparable to those of her father, with her wing of the party winning 350 seats.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.But Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court.^ He was a childhood friend of Indira, but her family was shocked when she announced, on arriving home, that she and Mr. Gandhi - who was not related to Mohandas Gandhi - planned to marry.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not for two days after the election results were announced did Mrs. Gandhi leave her residence to go to the presidential palace and hand in her resignation.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi appealed the decision; the opposition parties rallied en masse, calling for her resignation.
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.The verdict was delivered by Mr Justice Sinha at Allahabad High Court.^ The petition is expected to come up before Justice Nawab Singh of the Punjab and Haryana High Court on Tuesday.
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^ But the reason for emergency was Justice Sinha's ruling on Mrs. Gandhi's election and debarring her for six years from contesting any election.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It came almost four years after the case was brought by Raj Narain, the premier's defeated opponent in the 1971 parliamentary election.^ A year later almost no schools were desegregated and the court took up the case again, issuing a new order for Brown to be enforced "with all deliberate speed."
  • LEGAL AND SOCIAL EQUALITY IN INDIA 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.vepachedu.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contradictory to her expectation that "1977 will prove to be a year of added stability, strength, and continued achievement", she and her Parliamentary supporters were completely routed in the elections.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gandhi, who gave evidence in her defence during the trial, was found guilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using government machinery and officials for party purposes.^ Gandhi's close aides also remember her for her simplicity and her commitment to the cause of the poor, which led to the Congress slogan of "Garibi Hatao" during the 1971 Lok Sabha elections.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well Mr. Dhavan who was Mr. T. N. Kaul in Tashkent during Shastri's death - was he related to Indira Gandhi?
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the summer, the Government charged her with having illegally detained opposition leaders and harassed officials during the emergency.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The judge rejected more serious charges of bribery against her.^ The decision in 1999 reduced the President once more to a mere rubber stamp where this time, he would be bound by the “recommendations” of the collegiums of judges in charge of appointing judges.

.Indira insisted the conviction did not undermine her position, despite having been unseated from the lower house of parliament, Lok Sabha, by order of the High Court.^ Indira and Sanjay Gandhi both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the south.
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^ Indira Gandhi sweeps back to power with over 300 seats in the Lok Sabha .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Gandhi insisted that her father did not discuss official matters with her and that her induction into politics was the work of Govind Ballabh Pant and U.N. Dhebar .

.She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments". And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods.^ We talked about the general political situation,” was all he said.

^ It is the very foundation on which the party was formed to be blamed.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, impending legislative assembly elections were indefinitely postponed, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on recommendation of the state's governor.
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.The prime minister retained the support of her party, which issued a statement backing her.^ Eventhough she lost the election in 1977, she was able to come back as a Prime Minister, under the Indira Congress banner, with a thumping majority in 1980.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When they started drafting the statement, Indian officials said their prime minister intended to call for a settlement within the framework of a united Sri Lanka.
  • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After her assassination in 1984, Rajiv succeeded her as head of the Congress party, and was sworn in as prime minister of India.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty.Indian High Commissioner BK Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career.^ Nevertheless, the Chief Minister"s reply brought good news: Farooq Abdullah would be pleased to talk to me about the late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
  • Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi : Katherine Frank : ISBN 9780395730973 - Buy.com 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.buy.com [Source type: General]

^ He maintained contact with Indian High Commissioner Chhatwal who made arrangements for his travel to Delhi.
  • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 12, 1980, he said in an interview with the editor of New Delhi magazine that he would consider entering politics only if he was convinced that it would "genuinely help" his mother.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

."Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said.^ On June 26th, 1975, Mrs. Gandhi declared an emergency, due to the turbulent political situation in the country at that time.
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^ Shortly afterward, Mrs. Gandhi released the last of the political opponents still being held.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any reunion of the two factions, Mrs. Gandhi said, must be headed by her.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

"I believe the prime minister of India will continue in office until the electorate of India decides otherwise".

State of Emergency (1975-1977)

.Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest.^ Even before the Emergency Proclamation was ratified by Parliament, Gandhi on the night of June 26, 1975 moved to put an end to any and all opposition to order the arrest of all her principal opposition, including those within the Congress Parliamentary Party.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency, because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision.^ State of Emergency Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency, claiming that the strikes and rallies were creating a state of 'internal disturbance'.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notwithstanding the First Amendment, agrarian legislative measures adopted by the States were effectively challenged in the High Courts and two further amendments were passed to save the validity of those measures.

^ She said that because of ''retrograde, communal and capitalistic forces'' trying to subvert her Government, she had been forced to proclaim the emergency to ''stem the impending disaster.''
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution, on 26 June 1975.

Rule by decree

.Within a few months, President's Rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party.^ Rule by Decree Within a few months, President's Rule was imposed on the two non-Congress (party)-ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct dictorial rule from Delhi.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fotedar also echoes similar views and refers to her rise in the party from a member of Congress Working Committee in 1955 to party president in 1959 as an example of her popularity.
  • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central government had twice imposed President's Rule under Article 356 of the Constitution by deeming states ruled by opposition parties as "lawless and chaotic", thus winning administrative control of those states.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens and all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.^ Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens, while all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inder Kumar Gujral, a future prime minister himself, resigned as Minister for Information and Broadcasting to protest Sanjay Gandhi's interference in his work of the ministry.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inder Kumar Gujral, a future prime minister himself, resigned as Minister for Information and Broadcasting to protest Sanjay Gandhi's interference in his work.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Speaking on the occasion, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, lauded the efforts of Gates and said that the work of the Bill and the Melinda Gates Foundation is an inspiration.
  • President confers Indira Gandhi Prize on Bill Gates 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

^ Lal Bahadur Shastri, the new Prime Minister, offered Mrs. Gandhi a Cabinet post; she chose the relatively unprestigious job of Minister of Information and Broadcasting and did a lackluster job.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, impending legislative assembly elections were indefinitely postponed, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on recommendation of the state's governor.^ Gandhi, defending the Government's decision to postpone the elections for a year, said: ''If we held the elections now, we would win.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dicey defines constitutional law as including "all rules which directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of the sovereign power in the State."

^ Perhaps as a sign of security, the Government allowed opponents to hold meetings to protest these changes in the country's Constitution, which they saw as basically codifying the state of emergency.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indira used the emergency provisions to grant herself extraordinary powers.^ Gandhi used the emergency provisions to grant herself extraordinary powers.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proud as she was of her father, Indira Gandhi used to describe herself as more her mother’s daughter.

"Unlike her father [Jawaharlal Nehru], who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states..."[19]
.It is alleged that she further moved President Ahmed to issue ordinances that did not need to be debated in Parliament, allowing her to rule by decree.^ Population Control One significant domestic issue for Mrs. Gandhi was population control, particularly the question of compulsory sterilization, which was debated in Parliament throughout 1976.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With this amendment, Parliament allowed the President to tinker with the Constitution when ‘necessary’.

Simultaneously, Gandhi's government undertook a campaign to stamp out dissent including the arrest and detention of thousands of political activists; Sanjay was instrumental in initiating the clearing of slums around Delhi's Jama Masjid under the supervision of Jag Mohan, later Lt. Governor of Delhi, which allegedly left thousands of people homeless and hundreds killed, and led to communal embitterment in those parts of the nation's capital; and the family planning program which forcibly imposed vasectomy on thousands of fathers and was often poorly administered.

Elections

.After extending the state of emergency twice, in 1977 Indira Gandhi called for elections, to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule.^ Smt Indira Gandhi sweeps state elections in Andhra and Karnataka .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Knowing very well that the Tamils of Sri Lanka had been given a resounding mandate in the 1977 parliamentary general elections for a separate state for Tamils, Indira Gandhi told the TULF leaders that she was against the separation of the country.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As of this fall, Mrs. Gandhi could count all but four of India's 22 state govenments in her camp, giving her a strong advantage in a national election.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi may have grossly misjudged her popularity by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her.^ Gandhi may have grossly misjudged her popularity by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her, or may have feared a military coup had she attempted to rule by decree any longer (There were reports that the Armed Forces would forcibly remove her from power and hold elections.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However vague her destinations may have seemed, Mrs. Gandhi was always clear about her conviction that she was meant to lead India.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

In any case, she was opposed by the Janata Party. .Janata, led by her long-time rival, Desai and with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship."^ Janata, led by her long-time rival, Desai and with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship."
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted By irfan shaikh on 30 January, 2008 i am i civil draughtsman and now working from last 3 year now i want to do diploma in civil part time please guide me .
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) January 2007 Session Admissions 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.educationobserver.com [Source type: General]

.Indira's Congress party was beaten soundly.^ In early 1978, Mrs. Gandhi and her supporters broke away from the regular Congress Party and formed what was known as the Congress-I (for Indira) Party, or to its adherents, the ''real Congress'' party.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1978, her supporters wanted a new identity for the Indian National Congress under her nomenclature and formed the "Indira Congress", a party with an open Hand symbol.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After her downfall in 1977, she formed her own party in the name of Indira Congress.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Indira and Sanjay Gandhi both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the south.^ Indira Gandhi sweeps back to power with over 300 seats in the Lok Sabha .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Martyrdom of Shri Rajiv Gandhi while campaigning during Lok Sabha Elections .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ His stay with Yojana was suddenly cut short when Indira Gandhi became prime minister and chose him as her Information Advisor.

Removal, arrest, and return

Mrs. Gandhi with M.G. Ramachandran, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. In the post-emergency elections in 1977, only the Southern states returned Congress majorities.
1984 USSR commemorative stamp
.The downfall of Indira Gandhi began after India won the war against Pakistan in 1971. The Allahabad High Court found Indira Gandhi guilty with electoral corruption for the 1971 elections.^ She was riding the crest of popularity after India 's triumph in the war of 1971 against Pakistan , and the explosion of a nuclear device in 1974.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Indira Gandhi was criticized by some for not making the Line of Control a permanent border while a few critics even believed that Pakistan-administered Kashmir should have been extracted from Pakistan, whose 93,000 prisoners of war were under Indian control.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charges On June 12, 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Gandhi's election invalid on grounds of alleged malpractices in an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who had repeatedly contested her Parliamentary constituency of Rae Bareli without success).
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1975, Indira Gandhi called a State of Emergency under Article 352 in which she ordered the arrest of her opposition, who later joined together and formed the Janata Party In 1977, Indira Gandhi and her party, Indian National Congress, lost the election to the Janata Party, a coalition of virtually all of Indira Gandhi’s opponents.^ And I think of those giants who made the Indian National Congress.

^ Her Congress Party, which had a majority in Parliament, ratified the state of emergency.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read the full article: State of the nation .

.After the elections, Gandhi found herself without work, income or residence.The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram and her most loyal Bahuguna & Nandini Satpathy - very close to Indira, the three were compelled due to politicking and possibly circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi - to part ways .^ Elections In 1977, Gandhi called elections.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977 with veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram abandoning her for Janata.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After her downfall in 1977, she formed her own party in the name of Indira Congress.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

The prevailing rumour was that Sanjay had intentions of dislodging Indira. .The Congress Party was now a much smaller group in Parliament, although the official opposition.^ The Congress (Gandhi) Party was now a much smaller group in Parliament, although the official opposition.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even before the Emergency Proclamation was ratified by Parliament, Gandhi on the night of June 26, 1975 moved to put an end to any and all opposition to order the arrest of all her principal opposition, including those within the Congress Parliamentary Party.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the elections of January 1980, she and her Congress-I Party won a sweeping victory, winning two-thirds of the seats in Parliament.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once the Janata Party came into power, they aimed to return all Indian citizens the freedoms taken away when Indira Gandhi declared the State of Emergency.^ Once, Indira Gandhi had displayed this when she clamped Emergency.

^ The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delh is free and open to all and the preferred time to visit the place is morning 10am to evening 5pm.
  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New DelhiThe Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens, while all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leader of the Janata Party was Jayaprakash Narayan who kept the party united.^ But leaders of the Janata Party quickly called for a vote of confidence and won it.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The other party leaders of the Janata Party were Moraji Desai , Charan Singh , Raj Narain and Atal Bihari Vajpayee .^ But leaders of the Janata Party quickly called for a vote of confidence and won it.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether it is Atal Bihari Vajpayee , whether it is Indira Gandhi , whether it is anybody, the minute it is a Muslim question, you will get the dariwarala s and only all the maulvi s to speak.” .

^ Desai headed the Janata Party, the dominant factor in the loose anti-Congress coalition.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unable to govern owing to fractious coalition warfare, the Janata government's Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered the arrest of Indira and Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court.^ Chandigarh/In June 1984, when then prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to storm the Golden Temple complex, home to the holiest Sikh shrine Harmandar Sahib, she could not have realised that the action would engrave her name in the inglorious part of Punjab's history.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ They were unable to agree among themselves, and hence picked Indira Gandhi as a compromise candidate, thinking that she would be easily manipulable .
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strong-willed, autocratic and determined to govern an almost ungovernable nation that seemed always in strife, Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister four times and the dominant figure in India for almost two decades.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The arrest meant that Indira was automatically expelled from Parliament.^ The arrest meant that Indira was automatically expelled from Parliament.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These allegations included that Indira Gandhi “‘had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency’” [20].However, this strategy backfired disastrously.^ However, this strategy backfired disastrously.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delh is free and open to all and the preferred time to visit the place is morning 10am to evening 5pm.
  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New DelhiThe Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, at dawn two days later, dozens of opposition leaders, including Mr. Desai, the Deputy Prime Minister, were arrested and taken to jail, and Mrs. Gandhi proclaimed a state of emergency.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Her arrest and long-running trial, however, gained her great sympathy from many people who had feared her as a tyrant just two years earlier.The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Indira (or "that woman" as some called her).^ My life isn't running by, like "Geez, it seems like just yesterday when I was single and free, and didn't have so many frickin' responsibilities or little ones who depend on me for God knows What."
  • HQR: HH Master Kirpal -- Indira Gandhi & Quotes : IntentBlog 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Li said, "There are some twisted people who talk of invasion, but China was sure that Sri Lanka could manage her problem."
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier, after the 1977 riots, plantation workers who were Tamils of Indian origin had settled on the two farms.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.With so little in common, the government was bogged down by infighting and Gandhi was able to use the situation to her advantage.^ She was able to use the situation to her advantage.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Mrs. Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her); the government was so bogged down by infighting.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

She began giving speeches again, tacitly apologizing for "mistakes" made during the Emergency. .Jayaprakash Narayan died on 8 October 1979, which broke the unity of the Janata Party and Desai took his place.^ According to Adele, the marriage took place at Murugan Temple, Thiruporur, Madras on October 1, 1984.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Desai headed the Janata Party, the dominant factor in the loose anti-Congress coalition.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Desai resigned in June 1979, and Charan Singh was appointed Prime Minister by Reddy after Gandhi promised that Congress would support his government from outside.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Chandigarh/In June 1984, when then prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to storm the Golden Temple complex, home to the holiest Sikh shrine Harmandar Sahib, she could not have realised that the action would engrave her name in the inglorious part of Punjab's history.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ The trees were planted by late Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New DelhiThe Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a short interval, she withdrew her initial support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in the winter of 1979. In elections held the following January, Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority.^ In elections held the following January, Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a short interval, she withdrew her initial support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in the winter of 1979.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the post-emergency elections in 1977, only the Southern states returned Congress majorities.Desai became Prime Minister and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, the establishment choice of 1969, became President of the Republic.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1980s, despite considerable opposition within the Parliament, the Indira Gandhi government provided money, weapons and military training to LTTE and other Tamil millitant groups in Sri Lanka.^ The sudden death of Indira Gandhi had a telling effect among Tamils in Sri Lanka.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Gandhi Sanctuary situated amidst dense forest landscape in the Anamalai range of Western Ghats, in Tamil Nadu, is a preferred destination of nature lovers.
  • Indira Gandhi Sanctuary Tour India, Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.primetravels.com [Source type: News]

^ The present impasse calls for a new initiative by India whose good offices have been accepted by both the Sri Lankan government and the Tamil people.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Currency crisis

.During the early 1980s, Indira's administration failed to arrest the 40 percent fall in the value of the Indian Rupee from 7 to 12 to the US Dollar.^ Posted By varun on 12 August, 2009 Hi Sir, Is that B-tech from IGNOU is valuable for us or not in Future?
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) January 2007 Session Admissions 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.educationobserver.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Operation Blue Star and assassination

Indira Gandhi's blood-stained saree and her belongings at the time of her assassination, preserved at the Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum in New Delhi.
.In June 1984, Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale's Sikh group occupied the Golden Temple.^ Chandigarh/In June 1984, when then prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to storm the Golden Temple complex, home to the holiest Sikh shrine Harmandar Sahib, she could not have realised that the action would engrave her name in the inglorious part of Punjab's history.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ During 1984, In her attempt to curb the secessionist movement, she ordered an assault upon the holiest Sikh shrine in Amritsar, called the "Golden Temple".
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this attempt, the Golden Temple was damaged, and Mrs. Gandhi earned the undying hatred of Sikhs.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .In response, on 6 June 1984, during one of the holiest Sikh holiday, enacting Operation Blue Star, the Indian army opened fire killing thousands of Sikh terrorists along with supporters of Bhindranwale.^ Chandigarh/In June 1984, when then prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to storm the Golden Temple complex, home to the holiest Sikh shrine Harmandar Sahib, she could not have realised that the action would engrave her name in the inglorious part of Punjab's history.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Indian government's undeclared war against the Sikhs, a military operation, codenamed "Blue Star", it was alleged that thousands of innocent Sikh devotees trapped in the Golden Temple complex perished.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ USSR commemorative stamp Operation Blue Star and assassination Main article: Operation Blue Star Main article: 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots The neutrality and factual accuracy of this section are disputed.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The State of Punjab was closed to International media, Sikh devotees, human rights organizations and other groups during the period.^ Her assassination was directly linked with the Sikh uprising in Punjab state and the subsequent campaign undertaken by the Indian army, code-named "Operation Blue Star".
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the international scene, relations with the United States, which provided billions of dollars in aid from the 1950's to the 1980's, were sour and tense during much of her tenure.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the post-defeat period, she made frequent visits to the Karnataka State, a stronghold of her congress, under the Chief Ministership of Shri.Gundu Rao.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, assassinated her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi as she was walking, past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant, to be interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated on this date in 1984: Oct.
  • Pennsylvania Entertainment News | Music, Movies, TV & More � PennLive.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.pennlive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indira Gandhi was assassinated on October 31st 1984 by her own trustworthy bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum New Delhi The Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to information immediately following the incident, Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds,[23] using a Sten submachine gun.^ As she was walking to be interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov filming a documentary for Irish television, she passed a wicket gate, guarded by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, where they opened fire with machine pistols before being shot themselves by other bodyguards.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Pramod Mahajan was shot dead by his brother, vice-president Bhairon Singh Shekawat had the time to attend the funeral.

^ Indira Gandhi had numerous bodyguards, two of whom were Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, both Sikhs.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beant Singh & Satwant Singh dropped their weapons and surrendered, afterwards they were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shot dead and Satwant Singh was shot and arrested by her other bodyguards, on the charges of trying to escape[24].^ Three arrests were made, although it was because of the youngsters being too fleet of foot for the officers that a couple of others were not taken to headquarters."...
  • Pennsylvania Entertainment News | Music, Movies, TV & More � PennLive.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.pennlive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Pramod Mahajan was shot dead by his brother, vice-president Bhairon Singh Shekawat had the time to attend the funeral.

.Gandhi died on her way to the hospital, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctors operated on her.^ She was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctors operated on her and reportedly removed 31 bullets from her body.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of this fall, Mrs. Gandhi could count all but four of India's 22 state govenments in her camp, giving her a strong advantage in a national election.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just before the beginning of the Quit India Movement - the final, all-out national revolt launched by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Party.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Official accounts at the time stated as many as 29 entry and exit wounds and some reports stated 31 bullets were extracted from her body. .She was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat.^ She was cremated on November 3, near Raj Ghat and the place was called Shakti Sthal.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations including the BBC.

Personal life

Initially Sanjay had been her chosen heir; but after his death in a flying accident, his mother persuaded a reluctant Rajiv Gandhi to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981.
.After Indira Gandhi's death, Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister.^ Strong-willed, autocratic and determined to govern an almost ungovernable nation that seemed always in strife, Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister four times and the dominant figure in India for almost two decades.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SMT. SONIA GANDHI RENOUNCES POST OF PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 31, 1984 they assassinated Indira Gandhi with machine guns in the garden of the Prime Minister's Residence at No.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May 1991, he too was assassinated, this time at the hands of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.^ Rajeev Gandhi was assassinated on May 1991.
  • Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum New Delhi The Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1991, he too was assassinated, this time at the hands of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam militants.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam claimed responsibility for the attacks on Kent and Dollar farms.
  • Asia Times: SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 31: Indira Gandhi - a casualty of 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rajiv's widow, Sonia Gandhi, led the United Progressive Alliance to a surprise electoral victory in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections.^ Sonia Gandhi leads United Progressive Alliance (UPA) to victory in Elections defeating the BJP led NDA .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Rajiv's widow, Sonia Gandhi, led the United Progressive Alliance to a surprise electoral victory in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martyrdom of Shri Rajiv Gandhi while campaigning during Lok Sabha Elections .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

Sonia Gandhi declined the opportunity to assume the office of Prime Minister but remains in control of the Congress' political apparatus; Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, formerly finance minister, now heads the nation. .Rajiv's children, Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi Vadra, have also entered politics.^ Rajiv's children, Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi, have also entered politics.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personal life Nehru-Gandhi family Main article: Nehru-Gandhi Family Initially Sanjay had been her chosen heir; but after his death in a flying accident, his mother persuaded a reluctant Rajiv Gandhi to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HRD minister Arjun Singh says Rahul baba has all the qualities of his late father Rajiv Gandhi to be prime minister.

.Sanjay Gandhi's widow, Maneka Gandhi - who fell out with Indira after Sanjay's death and was famously thrown out of the Prime Minister's house[25] - as well as Sanjay's son, Varun Gandhi, are active in politics as members of the main opposition BJP party.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ In 1982 Sanjay Gandhi's widow, Maneka, was evicted from the Prime Minister's house, where she had been living since her marriage.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Smt Indira Gandhi chosen as Prime Minister .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

Legacy

.Being the second woman Prime Minister, and an influential leader, in a prevalently male-dominated society, Indira Gandhi is a symbol of feminism in India.^ But Rahul Gandhi as prime minister ?

^ Smt Indira Gandhi chosen as Prime Minister .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ The then Congress Party President K. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister after the sudden demise of Shastri, Gandhi soon showed an ability to win elections and outmaneuver opponents through populism.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The goodwill of the rural population earned by Gandhi still has its effects on the success of the Congress Party in rural India, as well as the popular support of the Nehru-Gandhi Family.^ All Party Committee appointed under Pt Motilal Nehru to draft a Consititution for Independent India .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ She was born and spent part of her childhood in Allahabad , India, where the Nehrus had their family resided, and part in Switzerland , where her mother Kamla convalesced from her periodic illnesses.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Congress became a divided party, with an older group forming around Mr. Desai and a younger, more radical faction gathering around Mrs. Gandhi.
  • Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.She is reverently remembered in many parts of rural India as Indira-Amma ("Amma" means "mother" in many Indian languages).^ She was born and spent part of her childhood in Allahabad , India, where the Nehrus had their family resided, and part in Switzerland , where her mother Kamla convalesced from her periodic illnesses.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Generations will remember with gratitude the decisive direction Indira Gandhi gave to India's industrialisation and technological advance.

^ EARLY INDIRA In Sanskrit language "Indira" denotes the Leader of the Immortals (Devas), Priya means Love and Dharshini is an exhibiting medium.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Her Garibi Hatao slogan is still used by the Congress during political campaigns.^ The vocabulary and the idiom of Indian politics were never to be same again after her historic call for 'garibi hatao'.

^ In June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad found her guilty of using illegal practices during the last election campaign, and ordered her to vacate her seat.
  • IGANDHI 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.The present president of the Indian National Congress, Sonia Gandhi, who is also the daughter-in-law of Indira Gandhi, is said to style herself in resemblance to her.^ And I think of those giants who made the Indian National Congress.

^ Sonia Gandhi persuaded to take over as Congress President .
  • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.congress.org.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Sonia Gandhi declined the opportunity to assume the office of Prime Minister but remains in control of the Congress' political apparatus; Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, formerly finance minister, now heads the nation.
  • IRON LADY SMT. INDIRA GANDHI IS OUR PRIDE, YOUTUBE PLEASE ST... - Care2 News Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Indira Awaas Yojana, a programme of the central government to provide low-cost housing to rural poor, is named after her.^ He questions the political morality of attaching a politician’s name to government programmes aimed at improving the lives of citizens.

^ The next generation of slum dwellers will buy a home and move out of the slums to, may be, low cost housing.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ The step-by-step process would be village-city slums-city low cost housing-city middle income group housing-city suburbs.
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

.The international airport at New Delhi is named as the Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour.^ Delhi - Indira Gandhi International and its surroundings, rainradar Europe .
  • The weather in Delhi - Indira Gandhi International? Weather forecast Delhi - Indira Gandhi International - 14 days weatherforecast Delhi - Indira Gandhi International India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.meteox.com [Source type: News]

^ The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delh is free and open to all and the preferred time to visit the place is morning 10am to evening 5pm.
  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New DelhiThe Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts New Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix Local News: Houston, TX .
  • Sikhs have neither forgotten nor forgiven Indira Gandhi - Topix 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gandhi, Indira. (1982) My Truth
  2. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 139
  3. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 144
  4. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 136
  5. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 164
  6. ^ "AROUND THE WORLD; Mrs. Gandhi Not Hindu, Daughter-in-Law Says". New York Times. 2 May 1984. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/02/world/around-the-world-mrs-gandhi-not-hindu-daughter-in-law-says.html. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  7. ^ Tribute to Feroze Gandhi, Satya Prakash Malaviya, The Hindu, 20-Oct-2002
  8. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 303. Also lists other put-downs commonly used to describe the forty-year-old Indira Gandhi, both in the press and by her Congress colleagues. Lyndon Johnson referred to her as 'this girl'.
  9. ^ U.S. Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp
  10. ^ East Pakistan: Even the Skies Weep, Time Magazine, 25 October 1971.
  11. ^ Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005
  12. ^ Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005
  13. ^ "India's Green Revolution". Indiaonestop.com. http://indiaonestop.com/Greenrevolution.htm. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  14. ^ Ibid. #3 pages 295
  15. ^ Farmer, B.H.,Perspectives on the 'Green Revolution' Modern Asian Studies, xx No.1 (February, 1986) pages 177
  16. ^ Rath, Nilakantha, "Garibi Hatao": Can IRDP Do It?"(EWP,xx,No.6) February 1981.
  17. ^ Katherine Frank, pages 372
  18. ^ Kochanek, Stanely, "Mrs. Gandhi's Pyramid: The New Congress, (Westview Press, Boulder, CO 1976) pages 98
  19. ^ Brass, Paul R., The Politics of India Since Independence,(Cambridge University Press, England 1995) pages 40
  20. ^ Malhotra, Inder. Indira Gandhi. New York: Coronet Books, 1991.
  21. ^ Lost opportunities for the Tamils
  22. ^ Ibid, pages 105.
  23. ^ indiatimepass http://www.indiatimepass.com/famous_indians/Indra-gandhi.html
  24. ^ The Economist http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-6781540.html
  25. ^ Khushwant Singh's autobiography - the Tribune

Further reading

  • Ved Mehta, A Family Affair: India Under Three Prime Ministers (1982) ISBN 0-19-503118-0
  • Pupul Jayakar, Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography (1992) ISBN 9780679424796
  • Katherine Frank, Indira: the life of Indira Nehru Gandhi (2002) ISBN 0-395-73097-X
  • Ramachandra Guha, India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy (2007) ISBN 978-0-06-019881-7
  • Inder Malhotra, Indira Gandhi: A personal and political biography (1991) ISBN 0-340-53548-2

External links

Preceded by
Gulzarilal Nanda
Prime Minister of India
1966–1977
Succeeded by
Morarji Desai
Preceded by
Mahommedali Currim Chagla
Minister for External Affairs of India
1967–1969
Succeeded by
Dinesh Singh
Preceded by
Morarji Desai
Finance Minister of India
1970–1971
Succeeded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Preceded by
Choudhary Charan Singh
Prime Minister of India
1980–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi
Preceded by
Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao
Minister for External Affairs of India
1984–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
^ Jump to: navigation , search My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
  • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
  • Creative Quotations from Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC creativequotations.com [Source type: General]

^ Indira Gandhi My father was a statesman, I am a political woman.
  • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]

.My father was a saint.^ My father was a saint.
  • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Creative Quotations from Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC creativequotations.com [Source type: General]

^ Mahatma Gandhi is called a saint in politics, but if ever there was a saint in politics, it was my father.

I'm not.
.Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (November 19, 1917October 31, 1984), daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, became the first woman Prime Minister of India in 1966. She died while Prime Minister, assassinated by her security guards at her residence.^ She regained her position as prime minister in 1980.  Unfortunately on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards assassinated her.

^ Indira Gandhi was born in Allahabad, India, on November 19, 1917, an only child.
  • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indira (Nehru) Gandhi 1917-1984 Prime minister from 1966-1977 and 1980-1984; assassinated in 1984.
  • The Once and (Probably) Future First Family of India - The New York Times 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

Sourced

.
We should not mourn for men of high ideals.
^ We should not mourn for men of high ideals.
  • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Martin Luther King famous speech by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

Rather we should rejoice that we had the privilege of having had them with us, to inspire us by their radiant personalities.
  • We admired Dr. King. .We felt his loss as our own.^ We felt his loss as our own.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Martin Luther King famous speech by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .The tragedy rekindled memories of the great martyrs of all time who gave their lives so that men might live and grow.
    We thought of the great men in your own country who fell to the assassin's bullet and of Mahatma Gandhi's martyrdom here in this city, this very month, twenty-one years ago.^ Last 1 Month   Last 6 Months   All time .
    • Rae Bareilly remembers Indira Gandhi on 25th death anniversary 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.newstrackindia.com [Source type: News]
    • Bollywood and Hollywood collaborate for Indira Gandhi biopic 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.newstrackindia.com [Source type: News]

    ^ One who lives with a sword dies with a sword.
    • 'Indira Gandhi regretted Operation Blue Star, Emergency' - Express India 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here she came into contact with the great men and women of the time.
    • All India Congress Committee - AICC 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.aicc.org.in [Source type: Original source]
    • Delhi Pradesh Congress Committee 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC dpcc.co.in [Source type: Original source]

    .Such events remain as wounds in the human consciousness, reminding us of battles, yet to be fought and tasks still to be accomplished.^ Such events remain as wounds in the human consciousness, reminding us of battles, yet to be fought and tasks still to be accomplished.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Martin Luther King famous speech by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, because of the historical, cultural and such other close ties between the peoples of the two countries, particularly between the Tamil community of Sri Lanka and us, India cannot remain unaffected by such events there."
    • http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/446.html 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.sangam.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We should not mourn for men of high ideals.^ We should not mourn for men of high ideals.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Martin Luther King famous speech by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Rather we should rejoice that we had the privilege of having had them with us, to inspire us by their radiant personalities.
    • "Martin Luther King", speech at the presentation of the Jawaharial Nehru Award for International Understanding to Coretta Scott King in New Delhi, India (January 24, 1969).^ New Delhi, 27 January 1995 .
      • Acceptance Speech on the Occasion of the Award of The Indira Gandhi Prize 1994 forPeace, Disarmament and Development 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.anc.org.za [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "Martin Luther King" , speech at the presentation of the Jawaharial Nehru Award for International Understanding to Coretta Scott King in New Delhi, India (January 24, 1969).
      • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Rather we should rejoice that we had the privilege of having had them with us, to inspire us by their radiant personalities.
      • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Martin Luther King famous speech by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

      .Published in Selected Speeches and Writings of Indira Gandhi, September 1972-March 1977 (New Delhi : Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt.^ Madhuri Dixit to play Indira Gandhi?: Rediff.com Movies rediff.com News Business Movies Sports Get Ahead Hi Guest rediff.com   web  Madhuri Dixit to play Indira Gandhi?
      • Madhuri Dixit to play Indira Gandhi?: Rediff.com Movies 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC movies.rediff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Indira (Nehru) Gandhi 1917-1984 Prime minister from 1966-1977 and 1980-1984; assassinated in 1984.
      • The Once and (Probably) Future First Family of India - The New York Times 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

      ^ Following the death of her father in May 1964, Gandhi became minister of information and broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri's government.
      • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.distinguishedwomen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Indira Gandhi - A brief biography | Kids Magazine > Biographies for kids > Indira Gandhi - A brief biography | Pitara Kids Network 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC pitara.com [Source type: General]
      • Al Shindagah 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.alshindagah.com [Source type: Original source]

      of .India, 1984. pp.^ India, 1984, pp.
      • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .312-313)
  • A nation's strength ultimately consists in what it can do on its own, and not in what it can borrow from others.^ "A nation' s strength ultimately consists in what it can do on its own, and not in what it can borrow from others."

    ^ A nation' s strength ultimately consists in what it can do on its own, and not in what it can borrow from others.
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A nation's strength ultimately consists in what it can do on its own, and not in what it can borrow from others.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • India wants to avoid a war at all costs but it is not a one-sided affair, you cannot shake hands with a clenched fist.^ "You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist."
    • Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini Biography - S9.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.s9.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • All my games were political games; I was, like Joan of Arc, perpetually being burned at the stake. by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC quoteworld.org [Source type: General]
    • You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist. by Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC quoteworld.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Indira Gandhi You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist.
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Preface, 4th Five Year Plan" , Government of India Planning Commission (July 18, 1970) India wants to avoid a war at all costs but it is not a one-sided affair, you cannot shake hands with a clenched fist.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Press conference, New Delhi (October 19, 1971), quoted in "Indian and Pakistani Armies Confront Each Other Along Borders" by Sydney H. Schanberg, The New York Times (October 20, 1971), page 6C
  • There are moments in history when brooding tragedy and its dark shadows can be lightened by recalling great moments of the past.^ November 19, 2007 New Delhi .
    • Prime Minister's Office 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC pmindia.nic.in [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Her death came as a violent response to the Indian Army storming the Golden Temple in Amritsar in June 1984 to confront heavily armed Sikh extremists.
    • Nation remembers Indira Gandhi on 25th death anniversary 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.deccanherald.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Having grown to more than 20 times its original size in the past 50 years, it is now home to a...
    • Indira Gandhi International 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC blog.ratestogo.com [Source type: General]
    • Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC blog.ratestogo.com [Source type: News]

    .
    • Letter to Richard Nixon (December 15, 1971) [1]
  • Dacca is now the free capital of a free country.^ Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971 .
    • Indira Gandhi at AllExperts 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Richard Nixon (December 15, 1971) [1] Dacca is now the free capital of a free country.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Feel free to use capital letters or spaces in your username.
    • The Green Belt Movement | Prof. Maathai receives the Indira Gandhi Award for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2006 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC greenbeltmovement.org [Source type: News]

    .
    • Address to Parliament announcing the victory of India-Bangladesh Forces (December 16, 1971) [2]
  • You must learn to be still in the midst of activity and to be vibrantly alive in repose.^ Address to Parliament announcing the victory of India-Bangladesh Forces (December 16, 1971) [2] You must learn to be still in the midst of activity and to be vibrantly alive in repose.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You must learn to be still in the midst of activity and to be vibrantly alive in repose.
    • Indira Gandhi - Famous Quotations. 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.cognitivedistortion.com [Source type: General]
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes - Quotes by Indira Ghandi - Indra Gandhi Quotations - Quotes From Indra Ghandi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.iloveindia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Creative Quotations from Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famouscreativewomen.com [Source type: General]
    • Indira Gandhi Pics & Quote - By suman_jindam 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.uvabharat.com [Source type: General]
    • Indira Gandhi Quotations 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.memorablequotations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "We must learn to be still in the midst of activity and to be vibrantly alive in repose."
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • "The Embattled Woman Who Relishes Crosswords, Children...and Running India," People (June 30, 1975)
  • My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.^ "The Embattled Woman Who Relishes Crosswords, Children...and Running India," People (June 30, 1975) My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jump to: navigation , search My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "My father was a statesman, I'm a political woman.
    • Creative Quotations from Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC creativequotations.com [Source type: General]

    .My father was a saint.^ My father was a saint.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Creative Quotations from Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.famouscreativewomen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mahatma Gandhi is called a saint in politics, but if ever there was a saint in politics, it was my father.

    I'm not. .
    • Quoted in "Indira's Coup," profile by Oriana Fallaci, The New York Review of Books (September 18, 1975)
  • To be liberated, woman must feel free to be herself, not in rivalry to man but in the context of her own capacity and her personality.^ Quoted in "Indira's Coup," profile by Oriana Fallaci , The New York Review of Books (September 18, 1975) To be liberated, woman must feel free to be herself, not in rivalry to man but in the context of her own capacity and her personality.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To be liberated, woman must feel free to be herself, not in rivalry to man but in the context of her own capacity and her personality.
    • Indira Gandhi: True Liberation of Women 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sojust.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Gifts of Speech - Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Pantheon Books, 1993.

    .
    • "True Liberation Of Women", speech, inauguration of the All-India Women's Conference Building Complex in New Delhi, India (March 26, 1980).^ "True Liberation Of Women" , speech, inauguration of the All-India Women's Conference Building Complex in New Delhi, India (March 26, 1980).
      • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For several decades the All-India Women's Conference has been the organized voice of the women of India.
      • Gifts of Speech - Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Lakshmi Raghuramaiah, on their achievements, I dedicate to the nation this building complex of the All-India Women's Conference.
      • Indira Gandhi: True Liberation of Women 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sojust.net [Source type: Original source]
      • Gifts of Speech - Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC gos.sbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Published in Selected Speeches and Writings of Indira Gandhi, September 1972-March 1977 (New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt.^ Katherine Frank, an American citizen, has taken six years to write this book and it is a masterful study of the life of Indira Gandhi.
      • Pakistan Link - Letter & Opinion 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.pakistanlink.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Home General News Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar General News .

      ^ During the prime ministership of Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting.
      • Indira Gandhi Profile, Biography Indira Gandhi Images, Indira Gandhi Wallpapers at Politics - MaxAbout.com 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.maxabout.com [Source type: General]

      of .India, 1984, pp.^ India, 1984, pp.
      • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .417-418)
  • I am not interested in a long life.^ I am not interested in a long life.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The night before her death, she had told a large, enthusiastic crowd in Orissa's capital city, Bhubaneswar, 'I am not interested in a long life.
    • The Sikh Times - Biographies - Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sikhtimes.com [Source type: News]

    .I am not afraid of these things.^ I am not afraid of these things.
    • The Sikh Times - Biographies - Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sikhtimes.com [Source type: News]
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I don't mind if my life goes in the service of this nation.^ I don't mind if my life goes in the service of this nation.
    • The Sikh Times - Biographies - Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.sikhtimes.com [Source type: News]
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don't mind if my life goes in the service of the nation.
    • Indira Gandhi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The very night before the day she was assassinated she said in a speech, "I don't mind if my life goes in the service of the nation.
    • Indira Gandhi -- Universal Woman of Courage, Conviction, and Social Justice: Ruth Brummund, Dipl Psych, and Blake Finley, M.A.: Uranian Astrology 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.uranian-institute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation.^ If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every drop of my blood...
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi Pics & Quote - By suman_jindam 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.uvabharat.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In her speech she said: “When I die, I can say that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it.” .
    • Pakistan Link - Letter & Opinion 20 November 2009 7:17 UTC www.pakistanlink.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Speech, Bhubaneswar, India (October 30, 1984), quoted in "Death in the Garden," by William E. Smith, Time (November 12, 1984) [3]

Unsourced

.
  • I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people.
  • Martyrdom does not end something, it is only a beginning.
  • My grandfather once told me that there were two kinds of people: those who do the work and those who take the credit.^ Your success does not end there.
    • Indira Gandhi National Open University: UNESCO Education 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC portal.unesco.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Martyrdom does not end something, it only a beginning.
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes - Quotes by Indira Ghandi - Indra Gandhi Quotations - Quotes From Indra Ghandi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.iloveindia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi Pics & Quote - By suman_jindam 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.uvabharat.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people.
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .He told me to try to be in the first group; there was much less competition.
  • There exists no politician in India daring enough to attempt to explain to the masses that cows can be eaten.
  • Think twice before pointing a finger to any one as other three fingers are always pointing towards you.
  • To bear many children is considered not only a religious blessing but also an investment.^ There is no one quite like her.

    ^ The truth was that there was not much else she could do in India.
    • New Statesman - A mediocre goddess. Indira Gandhi left behind a lonely and unremarkable adolescence to become India's only female prime minister, drawing support from the poor and dispossessed. But she was also a despot, writes Pankaj Mishra, who brought shame, violence and misery to her nation 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He told me to try to be in the first group; there was much less competition.
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes 20 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.worldofquotes.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi Quotes - Quotes by Indira Ghandi - Indra Gandhi Quotations - Quotes From Indra Ghandi 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.iloveindia.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Indira Gandhi - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • indira gandhi Quotes 14 January 2010 14:50 UTC www.worldofquotes.com [Source type: Original source]

    The greater their number, some Indians reason, the more alms they can beg.
  • All my games were political games; I was, like Joan of Arc, perpetually being burned at the stake.
  • People tend to forget their duties but remember their rights.
  • One must beware of ministers who can do nothing without money, and those who want to do everything with money.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

File:Indira and
Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971

Indira Gandhi (19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the first woman to become Prime Minister of India. She is the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, who was also Prime Minister of India. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi, also later became Prime Minister of India. Born Indira Nehru, she married Feroze Gandhi, who had changed his name from "Feroze Khan" and was not related to the famous civil rights leader, Mahatma Gandhi, who helped India gain freedom.

Indria Gandhi was the first lady prime minister of India. Her dad was the president of India. Indira Gandhi was assassinated In 1984 at the age of 66. Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. Her road to power and politics started when she turned twelve years of age. During the time of British imperialism, many Indian National Congress workers from Allahabad did not know when or if the British would arrest them or search their homes. In 1938, Indira finally joined the Indian National Congress Party, something she always longed to do. Fortunately, India won its independence from Britain in 1947. After Shastri's death in 1966, Indira Gandhi served as prime minister until India held the next election. She won that election, and in 1967, became one of the first women ever elected to lead a democracy.

Indira Gandhi were Prime Minister of India two times. She served the first time between 1966 and 1977 and the second time between 1980 and 1984.[1] She also studied at the University of Oxford.

References

  1. "Indira Gandhi". Microsoft Corporation. http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/gandhi.html. Retrieved 13-10-2009. 


Citable sentences

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