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Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.[1][2] Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict. Early influences in individualist anarchism were the thought of William Godwin[3], Henry David Thoreau (transcendentalism)[4], Josiah Warren ("sovereignty of the individual"), Lysander Spooner ("natural law"), Pierre Joseph Proudhon (mutualism), Herbert Spencer ("law of equal liberty")[5] and Max Stirner (egoism).[6] From there it expanded through Europe and the United States. Benjamin R. Tucker, a famous 19th century individualist anarchist, held that "if the individual has the right to govern himself, all external government is tyranny."[7]

Contents

Overview

Early individualist anarchists include William Godwin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Max Stirner.[3][6]

Individualist anarchism of different kinds have a few things in common. These are:

1. The individual is more important than any other construction such as morality, ideology, social custom, religion, metaphysics, ideas or the will of others.[8][9]

2. The rejection or reservations on the idea of revolution seeing it as a time of mass uprising which could bring about new hierarchies. Instead they favor more evolutionary methods of bringing about anarchy through alternative experiences and experiments and education which could be brought about today[10][11]. This also because it is not seen desirable for individuals the fact of having to wait for revolution to start experiencing alternative experiences outside what is offered in the current social system[12].

3. The view that relationships with other persons or things can only be of one's own interest and can be as transitory and without compromises as desired since in individualist anarchism sacrifice is usually rejected. In this way Max Stirner recommended associations of egoists[13][14]. Individual experience and exploration therefore is emphazised.

As such differences exist. In regards to economic questions there are adherents to mutualism (Proudhon, Emile Armand, early Benjamin Tucker), egoistic disrespect for "ghosts" such as private property and markets (Stirner, John Henry Mackay, Lev Chernyi, later Tucker), and adherents to anarcho-communism (Albert Libertad, illegalism).

The egoist form of individualist anarchism, derived from the philosophy of Max Stirner, supports the individual doing exactly what he pleases – taking no notice of God, state, or moral rules.[15] To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality"– he supported property by force of might rather than moral right.[16] Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw "associations of egoists" drawn together by respect for each other's ruthlessness.[17]

An important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. As such Murray Bookchin describes a lot of individualist anarchism as people who "expressed their opposition in uniquely personal forms, especially in fiery tracts, outrageous behavior, and aberrant lifestyles in the cultural ghettos of fin de siecle New York, Paris, and London. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ('free love') and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing."[18]. In this way free love[19][20] currents and other radical lifestyles such as naturism[20][21] had popularity among individualist anarchists.

People

William Godwin

James Northcote, William Godwin, oil on canvas, 1802, the National Portrait Gallery, William Godwin, a radical liberal and utilitarian was one of the first to espouse what became known as individualist anarchism.

William Godwin can be considered an individualist anarchist[22] and philosophical anarchist who was influenced by the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment,[23] and developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought.[3] Godwin was, according to Peter Kropotkin, "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work."[24][25] Godwin advocated extreme individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labor be eliminated.[26] Godwin was a utilitarian who believed that all individuals are not of equal value, with some of us "of more worth and importance' than others depending on our utility in bringing about social good. Therefore he does not believe in equal rights, but the person's life that should be favored that is most conducive to the general good.[27] Godwin opposed government because it infringes on the individual's right to "private judgement" to determine which actions most maximize utility, but also makes a critique of all authority over the individual's judgement. This aspect of Godwin's philosophy, minus the utilitarianism, was developed into a more extreme form later by Stirner.[28]

Godwin's individualism was to such a radical degree that he even opposed individuals performing together in orchestras, writing in Political Justice that "everything understood by the term co-operation is in some sense an evil."[26] The only apparent exception to this opposition to cooperation is the spontaneous association that may arise when a society is threatened by violent force. One reason he opposed cooperation is he believed it to interfere with an individual's ability to be benevolent for the greater good. Godwin opposes the idea of government, but wrote that a minimal state as a present "necessary evil"[29] that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge.[3] He expressly opposed democracy, fearing oppression of the individual by the majority (though he believed it to be preferable to dictatorship).

Title page from the third edition of Political Justice

Godwin supported individual ownership of property, defining it as "the empire to which every man is entitled over the produce of his own industry."[29] However, he also advocated that individuals give to each other their surplus property on the occasion that others have a need for it, without involving trade (e.g. gift economy). Thus, while people have the right to private property, they should give it away as enlightened altruists. This was to be based on utilitarian principles; he said: "Every man has a right to that, the exclusive possession of which being awarded to him, a greater sum of benefit or pleasure will result than could have arisen from its being otherwise appropriated."[29] However, benevolence was not to be enforced, being a matter of free individual "private judgement." He did not advocate a community of goods or assert collective ownership as is embraced in communism, but his belief that individuals ought to share with those in need was influential on the later development of anarchist communism.

Godwin's political views were diverse and do not perfectly agree with any of the ideologies that claim his influence; writers of the Socialist Standard, organ of the Socialist Party of Great Britain, consider Godwin both an individualist and a communist;[30] anarcho-capitalist Murray Rothbard did not regard Godwin as being in the individualist camp at all, referring to him as the "founder of communist anarchism";[31] and historian Albert Weisbord considers him an individualist anarchist without reservation.[32] Some writers see a conflict between Godwin's advocacy of "private judgement" and utilitarianism, as he says that ethics requires that individuals give their surplus property to each other resulting in an egalitarian society, but, at the same time, he insists that all things be left to individual choice.[3] Many of Godwin's views changed over time, as noted by Kropotkin.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the first self-identified anarchist.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865) was the first philosopher to label himself an "anarchist."[33] Some consider Proudhon to be an individualist anarchist,[34][35][36] while others regard him to be a social anarchist.[37][38] Some commentators do not identify Proudhon as an individualist anarchist due to his preference for association in large industries, rather than individual control.[39] Nevertheless, he was influential among some of the American individualists; in the 1840s and 1850s, Charles A. Dana,[40] and William B. Greene introduced Proudhon's works to the United States. Greene adapted Proudhon's mutualism to American conditions and introduced it to Benjamin R. Tucker.[41]

Proudhon opposed government privilege that protects capitalist, banking and land interests, and the accumulation or acquisition of property (and any form of coercion that led to it) which he believed hampers competition and keeps wealth in the hands of the few. Proudhon favoured a right of individuals to retain the product of their labor as their own property, but believed that any property beyond that which an individual produced and could possess was illegitimate. Thus, he saw private property as both essential to liberty and a road to tyranny, the former when it resulted from labor and was required for labor and the latter when it resulted in exploitation (profit, interest, rent, tax). He generally called the former "possession" and the latter "property." For large-scale industry, he supported workers associations to replace wage labour and opposed the ownership of land.

Proudhon maintained that those who labor should retain the entirety of what they produce, and that monopolies on credit and land are the forces that prohibit such. He advocated an economic system that included private property as possession and exchange market but without profit, which he called mutualism. It is Proudhon's philosophy that was explicitly rejected by Joseph Dejacque in the inception of anarchist-communism, with the latter asserting directly to Proudhon in a letter that "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature." An individualist rather than anarchist communist,[34][35][36] Proudhon said that "communism...is the very denial of society in its foundation..."[42] and famously declared that "property is theft!" in reference to his rejection of ownership rights to land being granted to a person who is not using that land.

After Dejacque and others split from Proudhon due to the latter's support of individual property and an exchange economy, the relationship between the individualists, who continued in relative alignment with the philosophy of Proudhon, and the anarcho-communists was characterised by various degrees of antagonism and harmony. For example, individualists like Tucker on the one hand translated and reprinted the works of collectivists like Mikhail Bakunin, while on the other hand rejected the economic aspects of collectivism and communism as incompatible with anarchist ideals.

Thought

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Mutualism

Modern symbol of mutualism

Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought which can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market.[43] Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank which would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate only high enough to cover the costs of administration.[44] Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility".[45] Some mutualists believe that if the state did not intervene, as a result of increased competition in the marketplace, individuals would receive no more income than that in proportion to the amount of labor they exert.[46] Mutualists oppose the idea of individuals receiving an income through loans, investments, and rent, as they believe these individuals are not laboring. Some of them argue that if state intervention ceased, these types of incomes would disappear due to increased competition in capital.[47] Though Proudhon opposed this type of income, he expressed: "... I never meant to ... forbid or suppress, by sovereign decree, ground rent and interest on capital. I believe that all these forms of human activity should remain free and optional for all."[48]

Insofar as they ensure the workers right to the full product of their labor, mutualists support markets and private property in the product of labor. However, they argue for conditional titles to land, whose private ownership is legitimate only so long as it remains in use or occupation (which Proudhon called "possession.")[49] Proudhon's Mutualism supports labor-owned cooperative firms and associations[50] for "we need not hesitate, for we have no choice. . . it is necessary to form an ASSOCIATION among workers . . . because without that, they would remain related as subordinates and superiors, and there would ensue two . . . castes of masters and wage-workers, which is repugnant to a free and democratic society" and so "it becomes necessary for the workers to form themselves into democratic

societies, with equal conditions for all members, on pain of a relapse into feudalism."[51] As for capital goods (man-made, non-land, "means of production"), mutualist opinions differs on whether these should be commonly managed public assets or private property.

Mutualists, following Proudhon, originally considered themselves to be libertarian socialists. However, "some mutualists have abandoned the labor theory of value, and prefer to avoid the term "socialist." But they still retain some cultural attitudes, for the most part, that set them off from the libertarian right."[52] Mutualists have distinguished themselves from state socialism, and don't advocate social control over the means of production. Benjamin Tucker said of Proudhon, that "though opposed to socializing the ownership of capital, Proudhon aimed nevertheless to socialize its effects by making its use beneficial to all instead of a means of impoverishing the many to enrich the few...by subjecting capital to the natural law of competition, thus bringing the price of its own use down to cost."[53]

Max Stirner and Egoism

Max Stirner was the first of the egoist individualist anarchists. Portrait by Friedrich Engels.

Max Stirner's philosophy, sometimes called "egoism," is the most extreme[54] form of individualist anarchism. Max Stirner was a Hegelian philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically-orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best-known exponents of individualist anarchism."[6] In 1844, his The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige and sein Eigentum which may literally be translated as The Unique Individual and His Property[55]) was published, which is considered to be "a founding text in the tradition of individualist anarchism."[6] Stirner does not recommend that the individual try to eliminate the state but simply that they disregard the state when it conflicts with one's autonomous choices and go along with it when doing so is conducive to one's interests.[56] He says that the egoist rejects pursuit of devotion to "a great idea, a good cause, a doctirine, a system, a lofty calling," saying that the egoist has no political calling but rather "lives themselves out" without regard to "how well or ill humanity may fare thereby."[57] Stirner held that the only limitation on the rights of the individual is his power to obtain what he desires.[58] He proposes that most commonly accepted social institutions—including the notion of State, property as a right, natural rights in general, and the very notion of society—were mere spooks in the mind. Stirner wants to "abolish not only the state but also society as an institution responsible for its members."[59] Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw Unions of Egoists, non-systematic associations, which Stirner proposed in as a form of organization in place of the state.[60] A Union is understood as a relation between egoists which is continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will.[61].[22] Even murder is permissible "if it is right for me,"[62], though it is claimed by egoist anarchists that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals.[63]

For Stirner, property simply comes about through might: "Whoever knows how to take, to defend, the thing, to him belongs property." And, "What I have in my power, that is my own. So long as I assert myself as holder, I am the proprietor of the thing." He says, "I do not step shyly back from your property, but look upon it always as my property, in which I respect nothing. Pray do the like with what you call my property!".[64] His concept of "egoistic property" not only a lack of moral restraint on how own obtains and uses things, but includes other people as well.[65] His embrace of egoism is in stark contrast to Godwin's altruism. Stirner was opposed to communism, seeing it as a form of authority over the individual.

This position on property is much different from the native American, natural law, form of individualist anarchism, which defends the inviolability of the private property that has been earned through labor[66] and trade. However, in 1886 Benjamin Tucker rejected the natural rights philosophy and adopted Stirner's egoism, with several others joining with him. This split the American individualists into fierce debate, "with the natural rights proponents accusing the egoists of destroying libertarianism itself."[67] Other egoists include James L. Walker, Sidney Parker, Dora Marsden, John Beverly Robinson, and Benjamin Tucker (later in life).

In Russia, individualist anarchism inspired by Stirner combined with an appreciation for Friedrich Nietzsche attracted a small following of bohemian artists and intellectuals such as Lev Chernyi, as well as a few lone wolves who found self-expression in crime and violence.[68] They rejected organizing, believing that only unorganized individuals were safe from coercion and domination, believing this kept them true to the ideals of anarchism.[69] This type of individualist anarchism inspired anarcho-feminist Emma Goldman[68]

Though Stirner's philosophy is individualist, it has influenced some libertarian communists and anarcho-communists. "For Ourselves Council for Generalized Self-Management" discusses Stirner and speaks of a "communist egoism," which is said to be a "synthesis of individualism and collectivism," and says that "greed in its fullest sense is the only possible basis of communist society."[70] Forms of libertarian communism such as Situationism are influenced by Stirner.[71] Anarcho-communist Emma Goldman was influenced by both Stirner and Peter Kropotkin and blended their philosophies together in her own, as shown in books of hers such as Anarchism And Other Essays.[72]

Free Love and anarcha-feminism

Lucifer the Lightbearer, an influential American free love journal

An important current within individualist anarchism is free love[19]. Free love advocates sometimes traced their roots back to Josiah Warren and to experimental communities, viewed sexual freedom as a clear, direct expression of an individual's self-ownership. Free love particularly stressed women's rights since most sexual laws discriminated against women: for example, marriage laws and anti-birth control measures[19]. The most important American free love journal was Lucifer the Lightbearer (1883–1907) edited by Moses Harman and Lois Waisbrooker[73] but also there existed Ezra Heywood and Angela Heywood's The Word (1872–1890, 1892–1893)[19]. Also M. E. Lazarus was an important American individualist anarchist who promoted free love[19].

In Europe the main propagandist of free love within individualist anarchism was Emile Armand[74]. He proposed the concept of la camaraderie amoureuse to speak of free love as the possibility of voluntary sexual encounter between consenting adults. He was also a consistent proponent of polyamory[74]. In France there was also feminist activity inside individualist anarchism as promoted by individualist feminists Marie Küge, Anna Mahé, Rirette Maitrejean, and Sophia Zaïkovska[75].

The Brazilian individualist anarchist Maria Lacerda de Moura lectured on topics such as education, women's rights, free love, and antimilitarism. Her writings and essays landed her attention not only in Brazil, but also in Argentina and Uruguay.[76].

In Germany the stirnerists Adolf Brand and John Henry Mackay were pioneering campaigners for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality.

Anarcho-naturism

Walden by Henry David Thoreau. Influential early eco-anarchist work

Another important current especially within French and Spanish individualist anarchist groups was naturism[20]. Naturism promoted an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity[21]. Naturist individualist anarchists saw the individual in his biological, physical and psychological aspects and avoided and tried to eliminate social determinations [21]. An early influence in this vein was Henry David Thoreau and his famous book Walden[20]. Important promoters of this were Henri Zisly and Emile Gravelle who collaborated in La Nouvelle Humanité followed by Le Naturien, Le Sauvage, L'Ordre Naturel, & La Vie Naturelle [77] Their ideas were important in individualist anarchist circles in France but also in Spain where Federico Urales (pseudonym of Joan Montseny), promotes the ideas of Gravelle and Zisly in La Revista Blanca (1898–1905)[20].

Anglo American individualist anarchism

Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe[11]. Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic , surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. His thought is an early influence on green anarchism but with an emphasis on the individual experience of the natural world influencing later naturist currents,[4]Simple living as a rejection of a materialist lifestyle[4] and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy. "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today in John Zerzan. For George Woodcock this attitude can be also motivated by certain idea of resistance to progress and of rejection of the growing materialism which is the nature of american society in the mid XIX century."[21]

Civil Disobedience(Resistance to Civil Government) is an essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849. It argues that people should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican-American War. It will influence Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Martin Buber and Leo Tolstoy through its advocacy of Nonviolent resistance.[78]. It is also the main prescedent for anarcho-pacifism[78].

The American version of individualist anarchism has a strong emphasis on the non-aggression principle and individual sovereignty.[79] Some individualist anarchists, such as Thoreau[80][81], do not speak of economics but simply the right of "disunion" from the state, and foresee the gradual elimination of the state through social evolution. His anarchism not only rejects the state but all organized associations of any kind, advocating complete individual self reliance.[82]

An early individualist anarchist who was very influential was Josiah Warren, who had participated in a failed collective "utopian socialist" experiment headed by Robert Owen called "New Harmony" and came to the conclusion that such a system is inferior to one that respects the "sovereignty[83] of the individual" and his right to dispose of his property as his own self-interest prescribes.

The "Boston Anarchists"

Another form of individualist anarchism was found in the United States, as advocated by the "Boston anarchists."[68] By default American individualists didn't have any problem that "one man employ another" or that "he direct him," in his labor but demanded that "all natural opportunities requisite to the production of wealth be accessible to all on equal terms and that monopolies arising from special privileges created by law be abolished."[84]

They believed state monopoly capitalism (defined as a state-sponsored monopoly)[85] prevented labor from being fully rewarded. Voltairine de Cleyre, summed up the philosophy by saying that the anarchist individualists "are firm in the idea that the system of employer and employed, buying and selling, banking, and all the other essential institutions of Commercialism, centered upon private property, are in themselves good, and are rendered vicious merely by the interference of the State."[86]

Even among the nineteenth century American individualists, there was not a monolithic doctrine, as they disagreed amongst each other on various issues including intellectual property rights and possession versus property in land.[87][88][89] A major schism occurred later in the 19th century when Tucker and some others abandoned their traditional support of natural rights -as espoused by Lysander Spooner- and converted to an "egoism" modeled upon Stirner's philosophy.[88]

Some "Boston anarchists", including Benjamin Tucker, identified themselves as "socialists" which in the 19th century was often used in the broad sense of a commitment to improving conditions of the working class (i.e. "the labor problem").[90] By the turn of the 20th century, the heyday of individualist anarchism had passed,[91] although aspects of the individualist anarchist tradition were later revived with modifications by Murray Rothbard and his anarcho-capitalism in the mid-twentieth century, as a current of the broader libertarian movement.[68][92]

American egoism

Some of the American individualist anarchists later in this era, such as Benjamin Tucker, abandoned natural rights positions and converted to Max Stirner's Egoist anarchism. Rejecting the idea of moral rights, Tucker said that there were only two rights, "the right of might" and "the right of contract." He also said, after converting to Egoist individualism, "In times past...it was my habit to talk glibly of the right of man to land. It was a bad habit, and I long ago sloughed it off....Man's only right to land is his might over it."[93] In adopting Stirnerite egoism (1886), Tucker rejected natural rights which had long been considered the foundation of libertarianism. This rejection galvanized the movement into fierce debates, with the natural rights proponents accusing the egoists of destroying libertarianism itself. So bitter was the conflict that a number of natural rights proponents withdrew from the pages of Liberty in protest even though they had hitherto been among its frequent contributors. Thereafter, Liberty championed egoism although its general content did not change significantly."[94]

"Several periodicals were undoubtedly influenced by Liberty's presentation of egoism. They included: I published by C.L. Swartz, edited by W.E. Gordak and J.W. Lloyd (all associates of Liberty); The Ego and The Egoist, both of which were edited by Edward H. Fulton. Among the egoist papers that Tucker followed were the German Der Eigene, edited by Adolf Brand, and The Eagle and The Serpent, issued from London. The latter, the most prominent English-language egoist journal, was published from 1898 to 1900 with the subtitle 'A Journal of Egoistic Philosophy and Sociology'".[95]

Among those American anarchists who adhered to egoism include Benjamin Tucker, John Beverley Robinson, Steven T. Byington, Hutchins Hapgood, James L. Walker and Victor Yarros and E.H. Fulton.[95] John Beverley Robinson wrote an essay called "Egoism" in which he states that "Modern egoism, as propounded by Stirner and Nietzsche, and expounded by Ibsen, Shaw and others, is all these; but it is more. It is the realization by the individual that they are an individual; that, as far as they are concerned, they are the only individual."[96]

Anarcho-capitalism

(Rothbard circa 1955).

19th century individualist anarchists espoused the labor theory of value. Some believe that the modern movement of anarcho-capitalism is the result of simply removing the labor theory of value from ideas of the 19th century American individualist anarchists: "Their successors today, such as Murray Rothbard, having abandoned the labor theory of value, describe themselves as anarcho-capitalists."[97] As economic theory changed, the popularity of the labor theory of classical economics was superseded by the subjective theory of value of neo-classical economics. According to Kevin Carson (himself a mutualist), "most people who call themselves "individualist anarchists" today are followers of Murray Rothbard's Austrian economics."[98]

Murray Rothbard, a student of Ludwig von Mises, combined the Austrian school economics of his teacher with the absolutist views of human rights and rejection of the state he had absorbed from studying the individualist American anarchists of the nineteenth century such as Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker.[99]

In the mid-1950s Rothbard wrote an article under a pseudonym, saying that "we are not anarchists...but not archists either...Perhaps, then, we could call ourselves by a new name: nonarchist," concerned with differentiating himself from communist and socialistic economic views of other anarchists (including the individualist anarchists of the nineteenth century).[100] However, Rothbard later chose the term "anarcho-capitalism" for his philosophy and referred to himself as an anarchist.

Agorism

Agorism is a radical left-libertarian[δ] form of anarchism, developed from anarcho-capitalism in the late 20th-century by Samuel Edward Konkin III (a.k.a. SEK3). The goal of agorists is a society in which all "relations between people are voluntary exchanges – a free market."[101] Agorists are propertarian market anarchists who consider that property rights are natural rights deriving from the primary right of self-ownership and are not opposed in principle to collectively held property if individual owners of the property consent to collective ownership by contract or other voluntary mutual agreement. However, Agorists are divided on the question of intellectual property rights.[δ]

European individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism was one of the three categories of anarchism in Russia, along with the more prominent anarchist communism and anarcho-syndicalism.[102] The ranks of the Russian individualist anarchists were predominantly drawn from the intelligentsia and the working class.[102]

European individualist anarchists include Max Stirner, Albert Libertad, Shmuel Alexandrov, Anselme Bellegarrigue, Émile Armand, Enrico Arrigoni, Lev Chernyi, John Henry Mackay, Han Ryner, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Giménez Igualada, and currently Michel Onfray. Two influential authors in European individualist anarchists are Friedrich Nietzche (see Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche) and Georges Palante.

European individualist anarchism proceeded from the roots laid by William Godwin, Pierre Joseph Proudhon and Max Stirner.

France

From the legacy of Proudhon and Stirner there emerged a strong tradition of French individualist anarchism. An early important individualist anarchist was Anselme Bellegarrigue. He participated in the French Revolution of 1848, was author and editor of 'Anarchie, Journal de l'Ordre and Au fait ! Au fait ! Interprétation de l'idée démocratique' and wrote the important early Anarchist Manifesto in 1850. Autonomie Individuelle was an individualist anarchist publication that ran from 1887 to 1888. It was edited by Jean-Baptiste Louiche, Charles Schæffer and Georges Deherme[103].

Later this tradition continued with such intellectuals as Albert Libertad, André Lorulot, Emile Armand, Victor Serge, Zo d'Axa and Rirette Maitrejean developed theory in the main individualist anarchist journal in France, L’Anarchie in 1905. Outside this journal, Han Ryner wrote Petit Manuel individualiste (1903). Later appeared the journal L'EnDehors created by Zo d'Axa in 1891.

French individualist anarchist exposed a diversity of positions (per example, about violence and non-violence). For example Emile Armand rejected violence and embraced mutualism while becoming an important propagandist for free love, while Albert Libertad and Zo d’Axa was influential in violentists circles and championed violent propaganda by the deed while adhering to communitarianism or anarcho-communism [104] and rejecting work. Han Ryner on the other side conciled anarchism with stoicism. Nevertheless French individualist circles had a strong sense of personal libertarianism and experimentation. Naturism and free love contents started to have a strong influence in individualist anarchist circles and from there it expanded to the rest of anarchism also appearing in Spanish individualist anarchist groups[20].

Anarchist naturism was promoted by Henri Zisly, Emile Gravelle [77] and Georges Butaud. Butaud was a individualist "partisan of the milieux libres, publisher of "Flambeau" ("an enemy of authority") in 1901 in Vienna. Most of his energies were devoted to creating anarchist colonies (communautés expérimentales) in which he participated in several.[105]

"In this sense, the theoretical positions and the vital experiences of french individualism are deeply iconoclastic and scandalous, even within libertarian circles. The call of nudist naturism, the strong defence of bith control methods, the idea of "unions of egoists" with the sole justification of sexual practices, that will try to put in practice, not without difficulties, will establish a way of thought and action, and will result in symphathy within some, and a strong rejection within others."[20]

Illegalism

Caricature of the Bonnot gang

Illegalism[106] is an anarchist philosophy that developed primarily in France, Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland during the early 1900s as an outgrowth of Stirner's individualist anarchism[107]. Illegalists usually did not seek moral basis for their actions, recognizing only the reality of "might" rather than "right"; for the most part, illegal acts were done simply to satisfy personal desires, not for some greater ideal[108], although some committed crimes as a form of Propaganda of the deed [106]. The illegalists embraced direct action and propaganda by the deed[109].

Influenced by theorist Max Stirner's egoism as well as Proudhon (his view that Property is theft!), Clément Duval and Marius Jacob proposed the theory of la reprise individuelle (Eng: individual reclamation) which justified robbery on the rich and personal direct action against exploiters and the system.[108],

Illegalism first rose to prominence among a generation of Europeans inspired by the unrest of the 1890s, during which Ravachol, Émile Henry, Auguste Vaillant, and Caserio committed daring crimes in the name of anarchism[110], in what is known as propaganda of the deed. France's Bonnot Gang was the most famous group to embrace illegalism.

Italy

In Italy individualist anarchism had a strong tendency towards illegalism and violent propaganda by the deed similar to French individualist anarchism but perhaps more extreme[111]. In this respect we can consider notorious magnicides carried out or attempted by individualists Giovanni Passannante, Sante Caserio, Michele Angiolillo, Luigi Luccheni, Gaetano Bresci who murdered king Umberto I. Caserio lived in France and coexisted within French illegalism and later assassinated French president Sadi Carnot. The theoretical seeds of current Insurrectionary anarchism were already laid out at the end of 19th century Italy in a combination of individualist anarchism criticism of permanent groups and organization with a socialist class struggle worldview[112].During the rise of fascism this thought also motivated Gino Lucetti, Michele Schirru and Angelo Sbardellotto in attempting the assassination of Benito Mussolini.

During the early 20th century it is important the intellectual work of individualist anarchist Renzo Novatore which was influenced by Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Georges Palante, Oscar Wilde, Henrik Ibsen, Arthur Schopenhauer and Charles Baudelaire. He collaborated in numerous anarchist journals and participated in futurism avant-garde currents. In his thought he adhered to stirnerist disrespect to private property only recognizing property of one's own spirit.[113]. Novatore collaborated in the individualist anarchist journal Iconoclasta! alongside the young stirnerist illegalist Bruno Filippi[114]

The individualist philosopher and poet Renzo Novatore belonged to the leftist section of the avant-garde movement of Futurism[115] alongside other individualist anarcho-futurists such as Dante Carnesecchi, Leda Rafanelli, Auro d'Arcola, and Giovanni Governato. Also there is Pietro Bruzzi who published the journal L’Individualista in the 1920s but who fell to fascist forces later.

Spain

Spain received the influence of American individualist anarchism but most importantly it was related to the French currents. At the turn of the century individualism in Spain takes force through the efforts of people such as Dorado Montero, Ricardo Mella, Federico Urales and J. Elizalde who will translatre French and American individualists[20]. Important in this respect were also magazines such as La Idea Libre, La revista blanca, Etica, Iniciales, Al margen and Nosotros. The most influential thinkers there were Max Stirner, Emile Armand and Han Ryner. Just as in France, the spreading of Esperanto had importance just as naturism and free love currents[20]. Later Armand and Ryner themselves will start writing in the Spanish invidualist press. The concept of Armand of amorous chamaraderie had an important role in motivating polyamory as realization of the individual[20]. An important Spanish individualist anarchist was also Miguel Giménez Igualada who wrote the lengthy theory book called Anarchism espousing his individualist anarchism[116].

Germany

In Germany the Scottish-German John Henry McKay became the most important propagandist for individualist anarchist ideas. He fused stirnerist egoism with the positions of Benjamin Tucker and actually translated Tucker into German. Two semi-fictional writings of his own Die Anarchisten and Der Freiheitsucher contributed to individualist theory through an updating of egoist themes within a consideration of the anarchist movement. English translations of these works arrived in the United Kingdom and in individualist American circles lead by Tucker[117]. McKay is also known as an important European early activist for LGBT rights.

Using the pseudonym Sagitta, Mackay wrote a series of works for pederastic emancipation, titled Die Buecher der namenlosen Liebe (Books of the Nameless Love). This series was conceived in 1905 and completed in 1913 and included the Fenny Skaller, a story of a pederast.[118] Under the same pseudonym he also published fiction, such as Holland (1924) and a pederastic novel of the Berlin boy-bars, Der Puppenjunge (The Hustler) (1926).

Der Eigene stirnerist pioneer Gay activist publication

Adolf Brand (1874–1945) was a German writer, stirnerist anarchist and pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality. Brand published a German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene in 1896. This was the first ongoing homosexual publication in the world[119]. The name was taken from writings of egoist philosopher Max Stirner, who had greatly influenced the young Brand, and refers to Stirner's concept of "self-ownership" of the individual. Der Eigene concentrated on cultural and scholarly material, and may have had an average of around 1500 subscribers per issue during its lifetime, although the exact numbers are uncertain. Contributors included Erich Mühsam, Kurt Hiller, John Henry Mackay (under the pseudonym Sagitta) and artists Wilhelm von Gloeden, Fidus and Sascha Schneider. Brand contributed many poems and articles himself. Benjamin Tucker followed this journal from the United States[120].

Great Britain and Ireland

William Godwin was an important influence early influence as mentioned before[22]. The Irish anarchist writer of the Decadent movement Oscar Wilde influenced individualist anarchists such as Renzo Novatore[121] and gained the admiration of Benjamin Tucker[122]. In his important essay The Soul of Man under Socialism from 1891 he defended socialism as the way to guarantee individualism and so he saw that "With the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism. Nobody will waste his life in accumulating things, and the symbols for things. One will live. To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all."[123]

In the late 19th century in the United Kingdom there existed individualist anarchists such as Wordsworth Donisthorpe, Joseph Hiam Levy, Joseph Greevz Fisher, John Badcock, Jr., Albert Tarn, and Henry Seymour[124] who were close to the United States group around Benjamin Tucker´s magazine Liberty. In the mid 1880's Seymour published a journal called The Anarchist.[124] and also later took a special interest in free love as he participated in the journal The Adult: A Journal for the Advancement of Freedom in Sexual Relationships[124]. Also there is the philosopher in the line of German Idealism and writer Herbert Read who wrote on Godwin and Stirner, and works such as To Hell With Culture, The Paradox of Anarchism, "Philosophy of Anarchism", Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism and My Anarchism. Henry Meulen was another British anarchist, he was notable for his support of free banking.

Russia

In Russia, Lev Chernyi was an important individualist anarchist involved in resistance against the rise to power of the Bolchevik Party. He adhered mainly to Stirner and the ideas of Benjamin Tucker. In 1907, he published a book entitled Associational Anarchism, in which he advocated the "free association of independent individuals."[125]. On his return from Siberia in 1917 he enjoyed great popularity among Moscow workers as a lecturer. Chernyi was also Secretary of the Moscow Federation of Anarchist Groups, which was formed in March 1917[125]. He died after being accused of participation in an episode in which this group bombed the headquarters of the Moscow Committee of the Communist Party. Although most likely not being really involved in the bombing, he might have died of torture[125].

Chernyi advocated a Nietzschean overthrow of the values of bourgeois Russian society, and rejected the voluntary communes of anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin as a threat to the freedom of the individual.[126][127][128] Scholars including Avrich and Allan Antliff have interpreted this vision of society to have been greatly influenced by the individualist anarchists Max Stirner, and Benjamin Tucker.[129] Subsequent to the book's publication, Chernyi was imprisoned in Siberia under the Russian Czarist regime for his revolutionary activities.[130]

Latin American individualist anarchism

Vicente Rojas Lizcano pseudonym of Biófilo Panclasta, was a Colombian individualist anarchist writer and activist. In 1904 he begins using the name Biofilo Panclasta. "Biofilo" in Spanish stands for "lover of life" and "Panclasta" for "enemy of all".[131] He visited more than fifty countries propagadizing for anarchism which in his case was highly influenced by the thought of Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietszche. Among his written works there are Siete años enterrado vivo en una de las mazmorras de Gomezuela: Horripilante relato de un resucitado(1932) and Mis prisiones, mis destierros y mi vida (1929) which talk about his many adventures while living his live as an adventurer, activist and vagabond as well as his thought and the many times he was imprisoned in different countries.

Maria Lacerda de Moura was a Brazilian teacher, journalist, anarcha-feminist, and individualist anarchist. Her ideas regarding education were largely influenced by Francisco Ferrer. She later moved to São Paulo and became involved in journalism for the anarchist and labor press. There she also lectured on topics including education, women's rights, free love, and antimilitarism. Her writings and essays landed her attention not only in Brazil, but also in Argentina and Uruguay. In February 1923 she launched Renascença, a periodical linked with the anarchist, progressive, and freethinking circles of the period. Her thought was mainly influenced by individualist anarchists such as Han Ryner and Emile Armand[76].

Since 1945

French individualist anarchists grouped behind Emile Armand, published L’Unique after World War II. L’Unique went from 1945 to 1956 with a total of 110 numbers[132][133]. In 1956 the Spanish individualist anarchist Miguel Giménez Igualada publishes an extensive treatise on Stirner which he dedicates to fellow individualist anarchist Emile Armand[134] In the subject of individualist anarchist theory he publishes Anarchism in 1968 in his exile in Mexico from Franco´s dictatorship in Spain.[135].

In Italy in 1945 during the Founding Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation there was presence of individualists anarchists led by Cesare Zaccaria[136] who was an important anarchist of the time[137]. Later during the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara from 1965 a group decided to split off from this organization and creates the Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica. In the seventies it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with an orientation of pacifism, naturism, etc,..."[138].

In the United Kingdom Herbert Read was influenced highly by egoism as he later came close to existentialism[139]Albert Camus devotes a section of The Rebel to Stirner. "Although throughout his book Camus is concerned to present "the rebel" as a preferred alternative to "the revolutionary" he nowhere acknowledges that this distinction is taken from the one that Stirner makes between "the revolutionary" and "the insurrectionist".[140]. Sidney Parker is a British egoist individualist anarchist who wrote articles and edited anarchist journals from 1963 to 1993 such as Minus One, Egoist, and Ego.[141]

Murray Bookchin has identified post-left anarchy as a form of individualist anarchism in Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm where he says he identifies "a shift among Euro-American anarchists away from social anarchism and toward individualist or lifestyle anarchism. Indeed, lifestyle anarchism today is finding its principal expression in spray-can graffiti, post-modernist nihilism, antirationalism, neoprimitivism, anti-technologism, neo-Situationist `cultural terrorism,' mysticism, and a `practice' of staging Foucauldian `personal insurrections.'"[142].

A strong relationship does exist with post-left anarchism and the work of individualist anarchist Max Stirner. Jason McQuinn says that "when I (and other anti-ideological anarchists) criticize ideology, it is always from a specifically critical, anarchist perspective rooted in both the skeptical, individualist-anarchist philosophy of Max Stirner.[143] Also Bob Black and Feral Faun/Wolfi Landstreicher strongly adhere to stirnerist egoist anarchism. Bob Black has humorously suggested the idea of "marxist stirnerism".[144] Hakim Bey has said "From Stirner's "Union of Self-Owning Ones" we proceed to Nietzsche's circle of "Free Spirits" and thence to Charles Fourier's "Passional Series", doubling and redoubling ourselves even as the Other multiplies itself in the eros of the group."[143]

As far as posterior individualist anarchists Jason McQuinn for some time used the pseudonym Lev Chernyi in honor of the Russian individualist anarchist of the same name while Feral Faun has quoted Italian individualist anarchist Renzo Novatore[145] and has translated both Novatore.[146] and the young Italian individualist anarchist Bruno Filippi[114]

Egoism has had a strong influence on insurrectionary anarchism, as can be seen in the work of Wolfi Landstreicher, Alfredo Bonanno and Michele Fabiani. Bonanno has written on Stirner in works such as Max Stirner, "Max Stirner und der Anarchismus"[147]. In English a translation of Bonanno´s The Theory of the Individual: Stirner’s Savage Thought is available [148].

Feral Faun wrote in 1995 that:

In the game of insurgence—a lived guerilla war game—it is strategically necessary to use identities and roles. Unfortunately, the context of social relationships gives these roles and identities the power to define the individual who attempts to use them. So I, Feral Faun, became ... an anarchist ... a writer ... a Stirner-influenced, post-situationist, anti-civilization theorist ... if not in my own eyes, at least in the eyes of most people who've read my writings.[149]

In the famous Italian insurrectionary anarchist essay written by an anonymous writer "At Daggers Drawn with the Existent, its Defenders and its False Critics" there reads "The workers who, during a wildcat strike, carried a banner saying, 'We are not asking for anything' understood that the defeat is in the claim itself ('the claim against the enemy is eternal'). There is no alternative but to take everything. As Stirner said: 'No matter how much you give them, they will always ask for more, because what they want is no less than the end of every concession'."[150]

The contemporary imprisoned Italian insurrectionary anarchist philosopher Michele Fabiani writes from an explicit individualist anarchist perspective in such essays as "Critica individualista anarchica alla modernità" (Individualist anarchist critique of modernity)[151]

In the hybrid of post-structuralism and anarchism called post-anarchism the British Saul Newman has written a lot on Stirner and his similarities to post-structuralism. He writes:

Max Stirner's impact on contemporary political theory is often neglected. However in Stirner's political thinking there can be found a surprising convergence with poststructuralist theory, particularly with regard to the function of power. Andrew Koch, for instance, sees Stirner as a thinker who transcends the Hegelian tradition he is usually placed in, arguing that his work is a precursor poststructuralist ideas about the foundations of knowledge and truth.[152]

Newman has published several essays on Stirner. "War on the State: Stirner and Deleuze's Anarchism"[152] and "Empiricism, pluralism, and politics in Deleuze and Stirner"[153] discusses what he sees are similarities between Stirner's thought and that of Gilles Deleuze. In "Spectres of Stirner: a Contemporary Critique of Ideology" he discusses the conception of ideology in Stirner.[154] In "Stirner and Foucault: Toward a Post-Kantian Freedom" similarities between Stirner and Michel Foucault.[155] Also he wrote "Politics of the ego: Stirner's critique of liberalism".[156]

During the 1990´s in Argentina there appears a stirnerist publication called El Único: publicacion periódica de pensamiento individualista[157][158][159].

In 2000 in Spain Ateneo Libertario Ricardo Mella, Ateneo libertario Al Margen, Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular, Ateneo Libertario de Sant Boi, Ateneu Llibertari Poble Sec y Fundació D’Estudis Llibertaris i Anarcosindicalistes republished Emile Armand´s writings on Free Love and individualist anarchism in a compilation titled Individualist anarchism and Amorous camaraderie.[160]. Recently Catalan historian Xavier Diez has dedicated extensive research on Spanish individualist anarchism as can be seen in his books El anarquismo individualista en España: 1923-1938[161] and Utopia sexual a la premsa anarquista de Catalunya. La revista Ética-Iniciales(1927–1937) (which deals with free love thought as present in the Spanish individualist anarchist magazine Iniciales)[162].

Kevin Carson is a contemporary mutualist and author of Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. Another important current mutualist is Joe Peacott. Contemporary mutualists are among those involved in the Alliance of the Libertarian Left and in the Voluntary Cooperation Movement. A recent mutualist collective was the Boston Anarchist Drinking Brigade[163].

In Canada the quebecer Anne Archet adheres to individualist anarchism influenced by Emile Armand, Stirner and Han Ryner and concentrates on the theme of free love[164][165]. The french hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray has an approach to politics and ethics influenced by Nietzsche as well as Stirner[166] In 2002, an anarchist, Libertad organized a new version of the L'EnDehors, collaborating with Green Anarchy and including several contributors, such as Lawrence Jarach, Patrick Mignard, Thierry Lodé, Ron Sakolsky, and Thomas Slut. Numerous articles about capitalism, human rights, free love and social fights were published. The EnDehors continues now as a website, EnDehors.org.

Criticisms

George Bernard Shaw expressed doubts about the distribution of wealth under individualist anarchism.

Prior to abandoning anarchism, libertarian socialist Murray Bookchin criticized individualist anarchism for its opposition to democracy and its embrace of "lifestylism" at the expense of class struggle.[167] Bookchin claimed that individualist anarchism supports only negative liberty and rejects the idea of positive liberty.[168] Anarcho-communist Albert Meltzer proposed that individualist anarchism differs radically from revolutionary anarchism, and that it "is sometimes too readily conceded 'that this is, after all, anarchism'." He claimed that Benjamin Tucker's acceptance of the use of a private police force (including to break up violent strikes to protect the "employer's 'freedom'") is contradictory to the definition of anarchism as "no government."[169] Meltzer opposed anarcho-capitalism for similar reasons, arguing that since it supports "private armies", it actually supports a "limited State." He contends that it "is only possible to conceive of Anarchism which is free, communistic and offering no economic necessity for repression of countering it."[170]

According to Gareth Griffith, George Bernard Shaw initially had flirtations with individualist anarchism before coming to the conclusion that it was "the negation of socialism, and is, in fact, unsocialism carried as near to its logical conclusion as any sane man dare carry it." Shaw's argument was that even if wealth was initially distributed equally, the degree of laissez-faire advocated by Tucker would result in the distribution of wealth becoming unequal because it would permit private appropriation and accumulation.[171] According to academic Carlotta Anderson, American individualist anarchists accept that free competition results in unequal wealth distribution, but they "do not see that as an injustice."[172] Tucker explained, "If I go through life free and rich, I shall not cry because my neighbor, equally free, is richer. Liberty will ultimately make all men rich; it will not make all men equally rich. Authority may (and may not) make all men equally rich in purse; it certainly will make them equally poor in all that makes life best worth living."[173]

There is also criticism between contemporary individualist anarchism currents. American mutualist Joe Peacott has criticized anarcho-capitalists for trying to hegemonize the label "individualist anarchism" and make appear as if all individualist anarchists are pro-capitalism[174]. He has stated that "some individualists, both past and present, agree with the communist anarchists that present-day capitalism is based on economic coercion, not on voluntary contract. Rent and interest are mainstays of modern capitalism, and are protected and enforced by the state. Without these two unjust institutions, capitalism could not exist."[175] In this way he adheres to mutualist anti-capitalism.

See also

Footnotes

α^ The term "individualist anarchism" is often used as a classificatory term, but in very different ways. Some sources, such as An Anarchist FAQ use the classification "social anarchism / individualist anarchism". Some see individualist anarchism as distinctly non-socialist, and use the classification "socialist anarchism / individualist anarchism" accordingly.[176] Other classifications include "mutualist/communal" anarchism.[177]
β^ Michael Freeden identifies four broad types of individualist anarchism. He says the first is the type associated with William Godwin that advocates self-government with a "progressive rationalism that included benevolence to others." The second type is the amoral self-serving rationality of Egoism, as most associated with Max Stirner. The third type is "found in Herbert Spencer's early predictions, and in that of some of his disciples such as Donisthorpe, foreseeing the redundancy of the state in the source of social evolution." The fourth type retains a moderated form of egoism and accounts for social cooperation through the advocacy of market relationships.[5]
γ^ See, for example, the Winter 2006 issue of the Journal of Libertarian Studies, dedicated to reviews of Kevin Carson's Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. Mutualists compose one bloc, along with agorists and geo-libertarians, in the recently formed Alliance of the Libertarian Left.
δ^ Though this term is non-standard usage – by "left", agorists mean "left" in the general sense used by left-libertarians, as defined by Roderick T. Long, as "... an integration, or I’d argue, a reintegration of libertarianism with concerns that are traditionally thought of as being concerns of the left. That includes concerns for worker empowerment, worry about plutocracy, concerns about feminism and various kinds of social equality."[178]
ε^ Konkin wrote the article "Copywrongs" in opposition to the concept and Schulman countered SEK3's arguments in "Informational Property: Logorights."
ζ^ Individualist anarchism is also known by the terms "anarchist individualism", "anarcho-individualism", "individualistic anarchism", "libertarian anarchism",[179][180][181][182] "anarcho-libertarianism",[183][184] "anarchist libertarianism"[183] and "anarchistic libertarianism".[185]

References

  1. ^ "What do I mean by individualism? I mean by individualism the moral doctrine which, relying on no dogma, no tradition, no external determination, appeals only to the individual conscience."Mini-Manual of Individualism by Han Ryner
  2. ^ "I do not admit anything except the existence of the individual, as a condition of his sovereignty. To say that the sovereignty of the individual is conditioned by Liberty is simply another way of saying that it is conditioned by itself.""Anarchism and the State" in Individual Liberty
  3. ^ a b c d e "William Godwin" article by Mark Philip in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006-05-20
  4. ^ a b c "Paralelamente, al otro lado del atlántico, en el diferente contexto de una nación a medio hacer, los Estados Unidos, otros filósofos elaboraron un pensamiento individualista similar, aunque con sus propias especificidades. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), uno de los escritores próximos al movimiento de la filosofía trascendentalista, es uno de los más conocidos. Su obra más representativa es Walden, aparecida en 1854, aunque redactada entre 1845 y 1847, cuando Thoreau decide instalarse en el aislamiento de una cabaña en el bosque, y vivir en íntimo contacto con la naturaleza, en una vida de soledad y sobriedad. De esta experiencia, su filosofía trata de transmitirnos la idea que resulta necesario un retorno respetuoso a la naturaleza, y que la felicidad es sobre todo fruto de la riqueza interior y de la armonía de los individuos con el entorno natural. Muchos han visto en Thoreau a uno de los precursores del ecologismo y del anarquismo primitivista representado en la actualidad por Jonh Zerzan. Para George Woodcock(, esta actitud puede estar también motivada por una cierta idea de resistencia al progreso y de rechazo al materialismo creciente que caracteriza la sociedad norteamericana de mediados de siglo XIX."Voluntary non-submission. Spanish individualist anarchism during dictatorship and the second republic (1923-1938)
  5. ^ a b Freeden, Micheal. Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019829414X. pp. 313-314
  6. ^ a b c d "Max Stirner" article by David Leopold in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006-08-04
  7. ^ Tucker, Benjamin R. (March 10, 1888). "State Socialism and Anarchism: How far they agree and wherein they differ". Liberty 5 (16): 2–3, 6. http://praxeology.net/BT-SSA.htm. 
  8. ^ "En la vida de todo único, todo vínculo, independientemente de la forma en que éste se presente, supone una cadena que condiciona, y por tanto elimina la condición de persona libre. Ello supone dos consecuencias; la libertad se mantendrá al margen de toda categoría moral. Este último concepto quedará al margen del vocabulario estirneriano, puesto que tanto ética como moral serán dos conceptos absolutos que, como tales, no pueden situarse por encima de la voluntad individual. La libertad se vive siempre al margen de cualquier condicionamiento material o espiritual, “más allá del bien y del mal” como enunciará Nietzsche en una de sus principales obras. Las creencias colectivas, los prejuicios compartidos, los convencionalismos sociales serán, pues, objeto de destrucción."A.3.1 What are the differences between individualist and social anarchists?
  9. ^ "Stirner himself, however, has no truck with "higher beings." Indeed, with the aim of concerning himself purely with his own interests, he attacks all "higher beings," regarding them as a variety of what he calls "spooks," or ideas to which individuals sacrifice themselves and by which they are dominated. First amongst these is the abstraction "Man", into which all unique individuals are submerged and lost. As he put it, "liberalism is a religion because it separates my essence from me and sets it above me, because it exalts 'Man' to the same extent as any other religion does to God . . . it sets me beneath Man." Indeed, he "who is infatuated with Man leaves persons out of account so far as that infatuation extends, and floats in an ideal, sacred interest. Man, you see, is not a person, but an ideal, a spook." [p. 176 and p.79] Among the many "spooks" Stirner attacks are such notable aspects of capitalist life as private property, the division of labour, the state, religion, and (at times) society itself. We will discuss Stirner's critique of capitalism before moving onto his vision of an egoist society and how it relates to social anarchism."[A.3.1 What are the differences between individualist and social anarchists?]
  10. ^ "The first is in regard to the means of action in the here and now (and so the manner in which anarchy will come about). Individualists generally prefer education and the creation of alternative institutions, such as mutual banks, unions, communes, etc.... Such activity, they argue, will ensure that present society will gradually develop out of government into an anarchist one. They are primarily evolutionists, not revolutionists, and dislike social anarchists' use of direct action to create revolutionary situations."A.3.1 What are the differences between individualist and social anarchists?
  11. ^ a b "Toda revolución, pues, hecha en nombre de principios abstractos como igualdad, fraternidad, libertad o humanidad, persigue el mismo fin; anular la voluntad y soberanía del individuo, para así poderlo dominar."La insumisión voluntaria. El anarquismo individualista español durante la dictadura y la segund arepública (1923-1938)
  12. ^ "The wave of anarchist bombings and assassinations of the 1890s... and the practice of illegalism from the mid-1880s to the start of the First World War... were twin aspects of the same proletarian offensive, but were expressed in an individualist practice, one that complemented the great collective struggles against capital. The illegalist comrades were tired of waiting for the revolution. The acts of the anarchist bombers and assassins ("propaganda by the deed") and the anarchist burglars ("individual reappropriation") expressed their desperation and their personal, violent rejection of an intolerable society. Moreover, they were clearly meant to be exemplary , invitations to revolt."THE "ILLEGALISTS" by Doug Imrie
  13. ^ Finalmente, y este es un tema poco resuelto por el filósofo bávaro, resulta evidente que, a pesar de todo culto a la soberanía individual, es necesario y deseable que los individuos cooperen. Pero el peligro de la asociación conlleva la reproducción, a escala diferente, de una sociedad, y es evidente que en este contexto, los individuos deban renunciar a buena parte de su soberanía. Stirner propone “uniones de egoístas”, formadas por individuos libres que pueden unirse episódicamente para colaborar, pero evitando la estabilidad o la permanencia."La insumisión voluntaria. El anarquismo individualista español durante la dictadura y la segunda república (1923-1938)
  14. ^ "The unions Stirner desires would be based on free agreement, being spontaneous and voluntary associations drawn together out of the mutual interests of those involved, who would "care best for their welfare if they unite with others." [p. 309] The unions, unlike the state, exist to ensure what Stirner calls "intercourse," or "union" between individuals. To better understand the nature of these associations, which will replace the state, Stirner lists the relationships between friends, lovers, and children at play as examples. [No Gods, No Masters, vol. 1, p. 25] These illustrate the kinds of relationships that maximise an individual's self-enjoyment, pleasure, freedom, and individuality, as well as ensuring that those involved sacrifice nothing while belonging to them. Such associations are based on mutuality and a free and spontaneous co-operation between equals. As Stirner puts it, "intercourse is mutuality, it is the action, the commercium, of individuals." [p. 218] Its aim is "pleasure" and "self-enjoyment." Thus Stirner sought a broad egoism, one which appreciated others and their uniqueness, and so criticised the narrow egoism of people who forgot the wealth others are:
    "But that would be a man who does not know and cannot appreciate any of the delights emanating from an interest taken in others, from the consideration shown to others. That would be a man bereft of innumerable pleasures, a wretched character... would he not be a wretched egoist, rather than a genuine Egoist?... The person who loves a human being is, by virtue of that love, a wealthier man that someone else who loves no one." [No Gods, No Masters, vol. 1, p. 23]"What are the differences between individualist and social anarchists?
  15. ^ Miller, David (1987). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11. 
  16. ^ "What my might reaches is my property; and let me claim as property everything I feel myself strong enough to attain, and let me extend my actual property as fas as I entitle, that is, empower myself to take…" From The Ego and Its Own, quoted in Ossar, Michael (1980). Anarchism in the Dramas of Ernst Toller. State University of New York Press. p. 27. 
  17. ^ Woodcock, George (2004). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press. p. 20. 
  18. ^ "2. Individualist Anarchism and Reaction" in Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism - An Unbridgeable Chasm
  19. ^ a b c d e The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism By Wendy McElroy
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "La insumisión voluntaria. El anarquismo individualista español durante la dictadura y la Segunda República" by Xavier Díez
  21. ^ a b c d "EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890-1939)" by Josep Maria Rosell
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  23. ^ "Anarchism", Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006 (UK version)
  24. ^ Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910
  25. ^ Godwin himself attributed the first anarchist writing to Edmund Burke's A Vindication of Natural Society. "Most of the above arguments may be found much more at large in Burke's Vindication of Natural Society; a treatise in which the evils of the existing political institutions are displayed with incomparable force of reasoning and lustre of eloquence…" – footnote, Ch. 2 Political Justice by William Godwin.
  26. ^ a b "Godwin, William". (2006). In Britannica Concise Encyclopaedia. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  27. ^ McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate Publishing,. p. 119. 
  28. ^ McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate Publishing,. p. 123. 
  29. ^ a b c Godwin, William (1796) [1793]. Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners. G.G. and J. Robinson. OCLC 2340417. 
  30. ^ "William Godwin, Shelly and Communism" by ALB, The Socialist Standard
  31. ^ Rothbard, Murray. "Edmund Burke, Anarchist."
  32. ^ Weisbord, Albert (1937). "Libertarianism". The Conquest of Power. New York: Covici-Friede. OCLC 1019295. http://www.weisbord.org/conquest8.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  33. ^ "Anarchism", BBC Radio 4 program, In Our Time, Thursday December 7, 2006. Hosted by Melvyn Bragg of the BBC, with John Keane, Professor of Politics at University of Westminster, Ruth Kinna, Senior Lecturer in Politics at Loughborough University, and Peter Marshall, philosopher and historian.
  34. ^ a b George Edward Rines, ed (1918). Encyclopedia Americana. New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp.. pp. 624. OCLC 7308909. 
  35. ^ a b Hamilton, Peter (1995). Emile Durkheim. New York: Routledge. pp. 79. ISBN 0415110475. 
  36. ^ a b Faguet, Emile (1970). Politicians & Moralists of the Nineteenth Century. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press. pp. 147. ISBN 0836918282. 
  37. ^ Bowen, James & Purkis, Jon. 2004. Changing Anarchism: Anarchist Theory and Practice in a Global Age. Manchester University Press. p. 24
  38. ^ Knowles, Rob. "Political Economy from below : Communitarian Anarchism as a Neglected Discourse in Histories of Economic Thought". History of Economics Review, No.31 Winter 2000.
  39. ^ Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements, Broadview Press, 2004, p. 20
  40. ^ Dana, Charles A. Proudhon and his "Bank of the People" (1848).
  41. ^ Tucker, Benjamin R., "On Picket Duty", Liberty (Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order) (1881–1908); 5 January 1889; 6, 10; APS Online pg. 1
  42. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. The Philosophy of Misery: The Evolution of Capitalism. BiblioBazaar, LLC (2006). ISBN 1426409087 pp. 217
  43. ^ Mutualist.org Introduction
  44. ^ Miller, David. 1987. "Mutualism." The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11
  45. ^ Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraph 15.
  46. ^ Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraphs 9, 10 & 22.
    Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Meek & Oppenheimer).
  47. ^ Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraph 19.
    Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Ricardo, Dobb & Oppenheimer).
  48. ^ Solution of the Social Problem, 1848-49.
  49. ^ Swartz, Clarence Lee. What is Mutualism? VI. Land and Rent
  50. ^ Hymans, E., Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, pp. 190-1,
    Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements, Broadview Press, 2004, pp. 110 & 112
  51. ^ General Idea of the Revolution, Pluto Press, pp. 215-216 and p. 277
  52. ^ A Mutualist FAQ: A.4. Are Mutualists Socialists?
  53. ^ Tucker, Benjamin, State Socialism and Anarchism, State Socialism and Anarchism
  54. ^ Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool University Press. p. 99. 
  55. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press. p. 177
  56. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press, 2006 p. 190
  57. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press, 2006 p. 183
  58. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopedia Corporation. p. 176
  59. ^ Heider, Ulrike. Anarchism: Left, Right and Green, San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1994, pp. 95-96
  60. ^ Thomas, Paul (1985). Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul. pp. 142. ISBN 0710206852. 
  61. ^ Nyberg, Svein Olav. "max stirner". Non Serviam. http://www.nonserviam.com/stirner/philosophy/index.html. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  62. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press, 2006 p. 191
  63. ^ Carlson, Andrew (1972). "Philosophical Egoism: German Antecedents". Anarchism in Germany. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810804840. http://tmh.floonet.net/articles/carlson.html. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  64. ^ Stirner, Max. The Ego and Its Own, p. 248
  65. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press, 2006 p. 194
  66. ^ Weir, David. Anarchy & Culture. University of Massachusetts Press. 1997. p. 146
  67. ^ McElroy, Wendy. Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order. Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought (1978-1982). Institute for Human Studies. Autumn 1981, VOL. IV, NO. 3
  68. ^ a b c d Levy, Carl. "Anarchism". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
  69. ^ Avrich, Paul. "The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution". Russian Review, Vol. 26, No. 4. (Oct., 1967). p. 343
  70. ^ For Ourselves, [1] The Right to Be Greedy: Theses On The Practical Necessity Of Demanding Everything, 1974.
  71. ^ see, for example, Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88.
  72. ^ Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays, p. 50.
  73. ^ Joanne E. Passet, "Power through Print: Lois Waisbrooker and Grassroots Feminism," in: Women in Print: Essays on the Print Culture of American Women from the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, James Philip Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand, eds., Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 2006; pp. 229-50.
  74. ^ a b E. Armand and “la camaraderie amoureuse”. Revolutionary sexualism and the struggle against jealousy
  75. ^ "Individualisme anarchiste et féminisme à la « Belle Epoque »"
  76. ^ a b http://www.nodo50.org/insurgentes/textos/mulher/09marialacerda.htm "Maria Lacerda de Moura - Uma Anarquista Individualista Brasileira" by
  77. ^ a b The daily bleed
  78. ^ a b RESISTING THE NATION STATE the pacifist and anarchist tradition by Geoffrey Ostergaard
  79. ^ Madison, Charles A. (1945). "Anarchism in the United States". Journal of the History of Ideas 6 (1): 46–66. doi:10.2307/2707055. 
  80. ^ Johnson, Ellwood. The Goodly Word: The Puritan Influence in America Literature, Clements Publishing, 2005, p. 138.
  81. ^ Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, edited by Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, Alvin Saunders Johnson, 1937, p. 12.
  82. ^ Richard Orr Curry, Lawrence B. Goodheart. American Chameloen: American Chameleon: Individualism in Trans-national Context. Kent State University Press, 1991. p. 39
  83. ^ "Some portion, at least, of those who have attended the public meetings, know that EQUITABLE COMMERCE is founded on a principle exactly opposite to combination; this principle may be called that of Individuality. It leaves every one in undisturbed possession of his or her natural and proper sovereignty over its own person, time, property and responsibilities; & no one is acquired or expected to surrender any "portion" of his natural liberty by joining any society whatever; nor to become in any way responsible for the acts or sentiments of any one but himself; nor is there any arrangement by which even the whole body can exercise any government over the person, time property or responsibility of a single individual." - Josiah Warren, Manifesto
  84. ^ Madison, Charles A. "Anarchism in the United States." Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol 6, No 1, January 1945, p. 53.
  85. ^ Schwartzman, Jack. "Ingalls, Hanson, and Tucker: Nineteenth-Century American Anarchists." American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 62, No. 5 (November, 2003). p. 325.
  86. ^ de Cleyre, Voltairine. Anarchism. Originally published in Free Society, 13 October 1901. Published in Exquisite Rebel: The Essays of Voltairine de Cleyre, edited by Sharon Presley, SUNY Press 2005, p. 224.
  87. ^ Spooner, Lysander. The Law of Intellectual Property.
  88. ^ a b Watner, Carl (1977). Benjamin Tucker and His Periodical, LibertyPDF (868 KB). Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 4, p. 308.
  89. ^ Watner, Carl. "Spooner Vs. Liberty"PDF (1.20 MB) in The Libertarian Forum. March 1975. Volume VII, No 3. ISSN 0047–4517. pp. 5–6.
  90. ^ Brooks, Frank H. 1994. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p. 75.
  91. ^ Avrich, Paul. 2006. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. AK Press. p. 6.
  92. ^ Miller, David. "Anarchism." The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought 1987. p. 11.
  93. ^ Tucker, Instead of a Book, p. 350
  94. ^ Wendy Mcelroy. "Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order"
  95. ^ a b McElroy, Wendy. A Reconsideration of Trial by Jury, Forumulations, Winter 1998-1999, Free Nation Foundation
  96. ^ "Egoism" by John Beverley Robinson
  97. ^ Outhwaite, William. The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought, Anarchism entry, Blackwell Publishing, 2003, p. 13
  98. ^ Carson, Kevin (2007). "Preface". Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 1419658697. http://www.mutualist.org/id112.html. 
  99. ^ Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, 1987, ISBN 0-631-17944-5, p. 290
  100. ^ Rothbard, Murray. Are Libertarians 'Anarchists'?. LewRockwell.com.
  101. ^ Konkin III, Samuel Edward (2006) (PDF). New Libertarian Manifesto. KoPubCo. ISBN 0977764923. http://invisiblemolotov.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/new_libertarian_manifesto.pdf. 
  102. ^ a b Avrich, Paul (2006). The Russian Anarchists. Stirling: AK Press. p. 56. ISBN 1904859488. 
  103. ^ http://www.la-presse-anarchiste.net/spip.php?rubrique258 Autonomie Individuelle (1887 — 1888)
  104. ^ "Libertad était un révolté, qui luttait non en dehors (tel les communautaires/colonies) ni à côté de la société (les éducationnistes), mais en son sein. Il sera énoncé comme une figure de l'anarchisme individualiste, néanmoins, il ne se revendiquera jamais ainsi, même si il ne rejetait pas l'individualisme, et que Libertad se revendiquait du communisme ; plus tard, Mauricius, qui était un des éditeurs du journal "l'Anarchie" dira "Nous ne nous faisions pas d'illusions, nous savions bien que cette libération totale de l'individu dans la société capitaliste était impossible et que la réalisation de sa personnalité ne pourrait se faire que dans une société raisonnable, dont le communisme libertaire nous semblait être la meilleure expression.". Libertad s'associait à la dynamique de révolte individuelle radicale au projet d'émancipation collective. Il insistait sur la nécessité de développer le sentiment de camaraderie, afin de remplacer la concurrence qui était la morale de la société bourgeoise. ""Albert Libertad"
  105. ^ http://www.eskimo.com/~recall/bleed/0226.htm "1926 -- France: Georges Butaud (1868-1926) dies, in Ermont."
  106. ^ a b The "Illegalists", by Doug Imrie (published by Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed)
  107. ^ "Parallel to the social, collectivist anarchist current there was an individualist one whose partisans emphasized their individu�al freedom and advised other individuals to do the same. Individualist anarchist activity spanned the full spectrum of alternatives to authoritarian society, subverting it by undermining its way of life facet by facet."Thus theft, counterfeiting, swindling and robbery became a way of life for hundreds of individual�ists, as it was already for countless thousands of proletarians. The wave of anarchist bombings and assassinations of the 1890s (Auguste Vaillant, Ravachol, Emile Henry, Sante Caserio) and the practice of illegalism from the mid-1880s to the start of the First World War (Clément Duval, Pini, Marius Jacob, the Bonnot gang) were twin aspects of the same proletarian offensive, but were expressed in an individualist practice, one that complemented the great collective struggles against capital."
  108. ^ a b Parry, Richard. The Bonnot Gang. Rebel Press, 1987. p. 15
  109. ^ http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/illegalistsDougImrie.htm
  110. ^ "Pre-WWI France was the setting for the only documented anarchist revolutionary movement to embrace all illegal activity as revolutionary practice. Pick-pocketing, theft from the workplace, robbery, confidence scams, desertion from the armed forces, you name it, illegalist activity was praised as a justifiable and necessary aspect of class struggle.""Illegalism" by Rob los Ricos
  111. ^ "anarco-individualismo" in italian anarchopedia
  112. ^ "Essa trova soprattutto in America del Nord un notevole seguito per opera del Galleani che esprime una sintesi fra l'istanza puramente individualista di stampo anglosassone e americano (ben espressa negli scritti di Tucker) e quella profondamente socialista del movimento anarchico di lingua italiana. Questa commistione di elementi individualisti e comunisti - che caratterizza bene la corrente antiorganizzatrice - rappresenta lo sforzo di quanti avvertirono in modo estremamente sensibile l'invadente burocratismo che pervadeva il movimento operaio e socialista.""anarchismo insurrezionale" in italian anarchopedia
  113. ^ "Novatore non era contrario all’abolizione della proprietà privata, poichè riteneva che l’unica proprietà inviolabile fosse solo quella spirituale ed etica. Il suo pensiero è esplicitato in "Verso il nulla creatore": Bisogna che tutto ciò che si chiama "proprietà materiale", "proprietà privata", "proprietà esteriore" diventi per gli individui ciò che è il sole, la luce, il cielo, il mare, le stelle. E ciò avverrà!Avverrà perchè noi - gli iconoclasti - la violenteremo!Solo la ricchezza etica espirituale è invulnerabile. E’ vera proprietà dell'individuo. Il resto no! Il resto è vulnerabile! E tutto ciò che è vulnerabile sarà vulnerato.""Renzo Novatore" in italian anarchopedia
  114. ^ a b The rebel's dark laughter: the writings of Bruno Filippi
  115. ^ Novatore: una biografia
  116. ^ Anarquismo por Miguel Gimenez Igualada
  117. ^ "New England Anarchism in Germany" by Thomas A. Riley
  118. ^ thamyris 02
  119. ^ Karl Heinrich Ulrichs had begun a journal called Prometheus in 1870, but only one issue was published. (Kennedy, Hubert, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: First Theorist of Homosexuality, In: 'Science and Homosexualities', ed. Vernon Rosario (pp. 26–45). New York: Routledge, 1997.
  120. ^ "Among the egoist papers that Tucker followed were the German Der Eigene, edited by Adolf Brand..."http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=796&Itemid=259 "Benjamin Tucker and Liberty: A Bibliographical Essay" by Wendy McElroy
  121. ^ "We must kill the christian philosophy in the most radical sense of the word. How much mostly goes sneaking inside the democratic civilization (this most cynically ferocious form of christian depravity) and it goes more towards the categorical negation of human Individuality. “Democracy! By now we have comprised it that it means all that says Oscar Wilde Democracy is the people who govern the people with blows of the club for love of the people”." "Towards the Hurricane" by Renzo Novatore
  122. ^ "When Oscar Wilde's plea for penal reform, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, was widely criticized, Tucker enthusiastically endorsed the poem, urging all of his subscribers to read it. Tucker, in fact, published an American edition. From its early championing of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass to a series of short stories by Francis du Bosque in its last issues, Liberty was a vehicle of controversial, avant-garde literature.""Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order" by Wendy McElroy
  123. ^ The soul of man under Socialism by Oscar Wilde
  124. ^ a b c "The English Individualists As They Appear In Liberty" by Carl Watner
  125. ^ a b c "Prominent Anarchists and Left-Libertarians"
  126. ^ Avrich 2006, p. 180
  127. ^ Avrich 2006, p. 254
  128. ^ Chernyi, Lev (1923) [1907]. Novoe Napravlenie v Anarkhizme: Asosiatsionnii Anarkhism (Moscow; 2nd ed.). New York. 
  129. ^ Antliff, Allan (2007). "Anarchy, Power, and Poststructuralism". SubStance 36 (113): 56–66. doi:10.1353/sub.2007.0026. https://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/substance/v036/36.2antliff.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  130. ^ Phillips, Terry (Fall 1984). "Lev Chernyi". The Match! (79). http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/ChernyiLev.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  131. ^ PANCLASTA, Biófilo (1928): Comprimidos psicológicos de los revolucionarios criollos. Periódico Claridad, Bogotá, Nº 52, 53, 54, 55 y 56.
  132. ^ Émile Armand in A las barricadas.com
  133. ^ http://www.la-presse-anarchiste.net/spip.php?rubrique1 Unique, L’ (1945 - 1956)
  134. ^ "Stirner" por Miguel Gimenez Igualada
  135. ^ Anarquismo by Miguel Gimenez Igualada
  136. ^ http://ita.anarchopedia.org/Storia_del_movimento_libertario_in_Italia "Storia del movimento libertario in Italia" in anarchopedia in italian
  137. ^ http://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/73n6nh Cesare Zaccaria (19 August 1897-October 1961) Pier Carlo Masini and Paul Sharkey
  138. ^ "Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A...Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se pr odujo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo" clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento""El movimiento libertario en Italia" by Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977
  139. ^ Herbert Read Reassessed by David Goodway. Liverpool University Press. 1998. p. 190.
  140. ^ "The Egoism of Max Stirner" by Sidney Parker
  141. ^ "Sid Parker" by nonserviam.com
  142. ^ Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm by Murray Bookchin
  143. ^ a b "What is Ideology?" by Jason McQuinn
  144. ^ "Theses on Groucho Marxism" by Bob Black
  145. ^ Anti-politics.net, "Whither now? Some thoughts on creating anarchy" by Feral Faun
  146. ^ Towards the creative nothing and other writings by Renzo Novatore
  147. ^ BONANNO, Alfredo Maria
  148. ^ The Theory of the Individual: Stirner’s Savage Thought
  149. ^ "The Last Word" by Feral Faun
  150. ^ "At Daggers Drawn with the Existent, its Defenders and its False Critics" by anonymous
  151. ^ "Critica individualista anarchica alla modernità" by Michele Fabiani
  152. ^ a b "War on the State: Stirner and Deleuze's Anarchism" by Saul Newman
  153. ^ "Empiricism, pluralism, and politics in Deleuze and Stirner" by Saul Newman
  154. ^ "Spectres of Stirner: a Contemporary Critique of Ideology"
  155. ^ "Stirner and Foucault: Toward a Post-Kantian Freedom
  156. ^ "Politics of the ego: Stirner's critique of liberalism"
  157. ^ El Único: publicacion periódica de pensamiento individualista
  158. ^ Argentinian anarchist periodicals in R.A. Forum.
  159. ^ Bitácora de la Utopía: Anarquismo para el Siglo XXI by Nelson Méndez and Alfredo Vallota
  160. ^ Individualismo anarquista y camaradería amorosa by Emile Armand
  161. ^ [http://www.cgt.es/fedens/El-anarquismo-individualista-en?lang=es Xavier Diez El anarquismo individualista en España. by Xavier Diez]
  162. ^ Utopía sexual a la premsa anarquista de Catalunya:La revista Ética-Iniciales (1927-1937) por Xavier Díez
  163. ^ http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin184.htm "Contemporary Individualist Anarchism: The Broadsides of the Boston Anarchist Drinking Brigade 1988-2000" by Joe Peacott, Jim Baker, & Others
  164. ^ Utilisateur:Anne Archet
  165. ^ Lubricites: les cahiers de Anne Archet
  166. ^ [La sculpture de soi : la morale esthétique (1991) by Michel Onfray]
  167. ^ Bookchin, Murray (1995). Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 9781873176832. 
  168. ^ Bookchin, Murray. "Communalism: The Democratic Dimensions of Social Anarchism". Anarchism, Marxism and the Future of the Left: Interviews and Essays, 1993-1998. AK Press, 1999, p. 155
  169. ^ Meltzer, Albert. Anarchism: Arguments For and Against. AK Press, 2000. pp. 114-115
  170. ^ Meltzer, Albert. Anarchism: Arguments For and Against. AK Press, 2000. p 50
  171. ^ Griffith, Gareth. Socialism and Superior Brain: The Political Thought of George Bernard Shaw. Routledge (UK). 1993. p. 310
  172. ^ Anderson, Carlotta R. All-American Anarchist: Joseph A. Labadie and the Labor Movement, Wayne State University Press, 1998, p. 250
  173. ^ Tucker, Benjamin. Economic Rent.
  174. ^ "In her article on individualist anarchism in the October, 1984, New Libertarian, Wendy McElroy mistakenly claims that modern-day individualist anarchism is identical with anarchist capitalism. She ignores the fact that there are still individualist anarchists who reject capitalism as well as communism, in the tradition of Warren, Spooner, Tucker, and others.""I do not quarrel with McElroy's definition of herself as an individualist anarchist. However, I dislike the fact that she tries to equate the term with anarchist capitalism. This is simply not true. I am an individualist anarchist and I am opposed to capitalist economic relations, voluntary or otherwise.""Benjamin Tucker, when he spoke of his ideal "society of contract," was certainly not speaking of anything remotely resembling contemporary capitalist society." "Reply to Wendy Mc Elroy" by Joe Peacott
  175. ^ "Reply to Wendy Mc Elroy" by Joe Peacott
  176. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
  177. ^ Carson, Kevin, "A Mutualist FAQ".
  178. ^ Long, Roderick. T. An Interview With Roderick Long
  179. ^ Morris, Christopher. 1992. An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. (Used synonymously with "individualist anarchism" when referring to individualist anarchism that supports a market society)
  180. ^ "One is anarcho-capitalism, a form of libertarian anarchism which demands that the state should be abolished and that private individuals and firms should control social and economic affairs" (Barbara Goodwin, "Using Political Ideas", fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons (1987), p. 137-138)
  181. ^ "the 'libertarian anarchist' could on the face of it either be in favour of capitalism or against it...Pro-capitalist anarchism, is as one might expect, particularly prevalent in the U.S. where it feeds on the strong individualist and libertarian currents that have always been part of the American political imaginary. To return to the point, however, there are individualist anarchists who are most certainly not anti-capitalist and there are those who may well be." Tormey, Simon, Anti-Capitalism, A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, 2004, p. 118-119
  182. ^ .Friedman presents practical and economic arguments for both libertarianism in general and libertarian anarchism, which he calls anarcho-capitalism." Burton, Daniel C. Libertarian Anarchism: Why It Is Best For Freedom, Law, The Economy And The Environment, And Why Direct Action Is The Way To Get It, Political Notes No. 168, Libertarian Alliance (2001), ISSN 0267-7058 ISBN 1 85637 504 8, p. 1 & 7 - Note: Burton is the founder of the Individualist Anarchist Society at the University of California at Berkeley.
  183. ^ a b Machan, T.R. (2006). Libertarianism Defended. Ashgate Publishing. p. 257. 
  184. ^ Carey, G.W. (1984). Freedom and Virtue: The Conservative/libertarian Debate. University Press of America. 
  185. ^ Harcourt, GC. The Capitalist Alternative: An Introduction to Neo-Austrian Economics. JSTOR. 

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