Indo-European Languages: Wikis

  

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Indo-European
Geographic
distribution:
Before the 15th century, .Europe, and South, Central and Southwest Asia; today worldwide.^ The prehistoric conditions of Northern, Western, Central and South-eastern Europe have been carefully investigated, but important new discoveries are still continually being made.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The grassland across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Steppe , is one of the great highways of world history.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq , Armenia , Afghanistan , eastern parts of Turkey , and parts of Syria , Pakistan , Caucasia , Central Asia and Arabia .
  • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Genetic
classification
:
One of the world's major language families
Subdivisions:
Anatolian (e.g., Hittite)
Balto-Slavic (e.g., Russian, Lithuanian)
Celtic (e.g., Irish, Welsh)
Germanic (e.g., English, German, Swedish)
Hellenic (e.g., Greek)
Indo-Iranian (e.g., Bengali, Hindi, Persian, Kurdish)
Italic (e.g., French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
ISO 639-2 and 639-5: ine
IE countries.svg
     Countries with a majority of speakers of IE languages      Countries with an IE minority language with official status
.The Indo-European languages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects,[1] including most major languages of Europe, languages of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.^ An Indo-European language spoken in Central India : dhow , chit ...
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An Indo-European language spoken in Pakistan and North India : balti , Pakistan , purdah ...
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Attested since the Bronze Age, in the form of Mycenaean Greek and Anatolian languages, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the longest recorded history after the Afroasiatic family.^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pure gold for the historical linguist is ATTESTED (written) ancient forms.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The languages of the Indo-European group are spoken by approximately three billion native speakers, the largest number for recognised languages families.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The language spoken in Germany belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family.

.Of the top 20 contemporary languages in terms of native speakers according to SIL Ethnologue, 12 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi and Urdu, accounting for over 1.6 billion native speakers.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Hindi and Urdu have borrowed from English and other modern languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ English, Italian, Spanish French, German, Portuguese, Russian Dutch, Greek, Swedish, Japanese includes online free instant estimate CLICK HERE .

[2]
.Several disputed proposals merge Indo-European with other major language families.^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages Linguistically isolated .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

Contents

History of Indo-European linguistics

.Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus with Kretschmer we must distinguish between what is common Indo-European and what is original Indo-European in language.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1583 Fr. .Thomas Stephens, SJ, an English Jesuit missionary in Goa, noted similarities between Indian languages, specifically Konkani, and Greek and Latin.^ Konkani (or कोंकणी; 7,6 million speakers ; one of the official languages of the Republic of India, mainly spoken in the Indian state of Goa; the LIP includes a brand-new speller) .
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Etruscan seems to bridge as well between Greek and the Anatolian languages, particularly Lydian.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various Indian languages are certain to continue and thrive, while English continues for purposes of neutral national communication.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

These observations were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century.[3]
.The first account to mention Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born in Florence, Italy in 1540 AD), a Florentine merchant who traveled to the Indian subcontinent and was among the first Europeans to study the ancient Indian language Sanskrit.^ Claims as to who was first among the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Another ancient and extensive class of languages, united by a greater number of resemblances than can well be altogether accidental, may be denominated the Indo-European, comprehending the Indian, the West Asiatic, and almost all the European languages."
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some scholars in India controvert this theory, that Sanskrit is the mother tongue of the Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", nava/nove "nine").^ The different ways to write the word are discussed at " Greek, Sanskrit, and Closely Related Languages ."
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note that some word derivations are disputed by etymologists.
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.[3]
.In 1647 Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed that they derived from a primitive common language which he called "Scythian". He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages.^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The national language of Iran is Persian, also known as Farsi, an Indo-European language.
  • Anthropology (Languages) 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.farhangsara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.^ Further investigation, however, did not confirm this ideally happy form of primitive civilization.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Gaston Coeurdoux and others had made observations of the same type. .Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship between them, about 20 years before William Jones.^ There is no question about the dating of the ProtoEtruscan culture, and the relationship between the Celtic and ProtoItalic languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his address to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta he proposed that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin are related to one another.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately Sir William Jones's views as to the relationship of the languages were not adopted for many years by later investigators.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities between three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian.^ Nevertheless, its influence continues on the modern languages, like Hindi, that place themselves deliberately in the tradition of Sanskrit civilization and consequently use it as a source of borrowings and neologisms, as European languages do with Greek and Latin.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his address to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta he proposed that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin are related to one another.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately Sir William Jones's views as to the relationship of the languages were not adopted for many years by later investigators.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in 1813,[4] which became the standard scientific term (except in Germany[5]) through the work of Franz Bopp, whose systematic comparison of these and other old languages supported the theory.^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages Linguistically isolated .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The term most commonly used in Germany is "Indo-Germanic."
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, counts as the starting point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline.^ Comparative Linguistics and the movement of the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

Classification

Indo-European language family.
Indo-European topics
Indo-European languages (list)
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  
Indo-European peoples
Europe: Balts · Slavs · Albanians · Italics · Celts · Germanic peoples · Greeks · Paleo-Balkans (Illyrians · Thracians · Dacians) ·
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies
The various subgroups of the Indo-European language family include ten major branches, given in the chronological order of their earliest surviving written attestations:
.
  1. Anatolian languages, earliest attested branch.^ All the actually attested Anatolian words for ‘horse’ are from languages of the Luvian subgroup; and in that subgroup the initial vow­els of all the relevant words are etymologically ambiguous!
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Isolated terms in Old Assyrian sources from the 19th century BC, Hittite texts from about the 16th century BC; extinct by Late Antiquity.
  2. Hellenic languages, fragmentary records in Mycenaean Greek from the late 15th - early 14th century BC; Homeric traditions date to the 8th century BC. (See Proto-Greek language, History of the Greek language.^ Prussian is an extinct language from this branch The Hellenic Branch .

    ^ In the early 19th century, the Javan Tiger was common all over the island, but rapid human population increase led to the destruction of its forest habitat.

    ^ However, given that the daughter languages do have reflexes of the proto-word, it's highly likely that the pronunciation was in fact cognate with the PIE term reconstructed.
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    )
  3. .
  4. Indo-Iranian languages, born from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-Iranian (dated to the late 3rd millenium BC)
    • Iranian languages, attested from roughly 1000 BC in the form of Avestan.^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Vedic Sanskrit , the language used in the Vedas, the sacred Hindu scriptures, is the earliest form of Sanskrit, dating from about 1500 BC to about 200 BC. A later variety of the language, classical Sanskrit (from about 500 BC), was a language of literary and technical works.

      ^ Proto-Iranian *čaxrah > Avestan čaxrō (no pl.
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Epigraphically from 520 BC in the form of Old Persian (Behistun inscription).
    • Indo-Aryan languages, attested from the late 15th - early 14th century BC in Mitanni texts showing traces of Indo-Aryan.^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The word Ariya , noble/spiritual/elevated, is attested in the Inscriptions of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes I ; it is used both as a linguistic and a racial designation as Darius refers to this at the Behistun inscription (DBiv.89), which is written in Aryan language / airyan , also thumb|left| Darius I , continued the expansion of The Persian Empire"> [Xerxes I , the son of Darius I , continued the expansion of The Persian Empire ] known as Old Persian .
      • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ And we have lots of attested Latin to work with — so we have clear, unambiguous examples of how some sound changes have worked; likewise in other language families where ancient texts are preserved (i.e.
      • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

      Epigraphically from the 3rd century BC in the form of Prakrit (Edicts of Ashoka). .The Rigveda is assumed to preserve intact records via oral tradition dating from about the mid-2nd millennium BC in the form of Vedic Sanskrit.
    • Dardic languages
    • Nuristani languages
  5. Italic languages, including Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), attested from the 7th century BC.
  6. Celtic languages, descended from Proto-Celtic.^ The earlier form of the language is closest to Italic, the precursor of Latin.
    • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Proto-Italic *ékwos > Latin equos.
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Gaulish inscriptions date as early as the 6th century BC; Old Irish manuscript tradition from about the 8th century AD.
  7. Germanic languages (from Proto-Germanic), earliest testimonies in runic inscriptions from around the 2nd century AD, earliest coherent texts in Gothic, 4th century AD. Old English manuscript tradition from about the 8th century AD.
  8. Armenian language, alphabet writings known from the beginning of the 5th century AD.
  9. Tocharian languages, extant in two dialects, attested from roughly the 6th to the 9th century AD. Marginalized by the Old Turkic Uyghur Khaganate and probably extinct by the 10th century.
  10. Balto-Slavic languages, believed by most Indo-Europeanists[6] to form a phylogenetic unit, while a minority ascribes similarities to prolonged language contact.^ Afrikaans , a Germanic language derived from the same 16 th -century Dutch dialect that led to modern Dutch, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
    • Office Natural Language Team Blog 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With these go (4) the Germanic or Teutonic languages , including ( a ) Gothic , ( b ) the Scandinavian languages , Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic—differentiated in historical times out of a single language, Old Norse,—( c ) West Germanic, including English and Frisian, Low Frankish (from which spring modern Dutch and Flemish), Low and High German.
    • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
    • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  11. Albanian language, attested from the 14th century AD; Proto-Albanian likely emerged from "Paleo-Balkanic" predecessors.^ Swedish has tones, unusual in European languages.

    ^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
    • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not all European languages are Indo-European.

    [7][8]
In addition to the classical ten branches listed above, several extinct and little-known languages have existed:

Grouping

.Membership of these languages in the Indo-European language family is determined by genetic relationships, meaning that all members are presumed to be descendants of a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Proto-Indo-European gender system animate versus inanimate goes back to a former gender system, male versus female, the markers seem to be identical in all three language families — which would mean the common origin not only of the gender system as such but also of the elements used as markers for gender.."
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Membership in the various branches, groups and subgroups or Indo-European is also genetic, but here the defining factors are shared innovations among various languages, suggesting a common ancestor that split off from other Indo-European groups.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this treatise he brings forward arguments from a great variety of facts to show that in the original Indo-European language there were dialects, the Aryan, Armenian, Balto-Slavonic and Albanian, as we have seen, forming an oriental group with novel characteristics developed in common, although in various other characteristics they do not agree.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, what makes the Germanic languages a branch of Indo-European is that much of their structure and phonology can so be stated in rules that apply to all of them.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we cut off all past history and regard the language of the present day as we have perforce to regard our earliest records, two of the words most widely disseminated amongst the Indo-European people of Europe are tobacco and potato.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of their common features are presumed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, the source of all the Germanic languages.^ Many people trying to debunk the source code say it is common practice in modeling to include adhoc code for test purposes not to be used to publish actual data.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many believe that before the arrival of the Aryans, Dravidian languages were spoken over all India.

^ It has the reputation among some of being the common language of all of Africa, but it is actually not spoken in the West or South.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Tree versus wave model

.To the evolutionary history of a language family, a genetic "tree model" is considered appropriate especially if communities do not remain in effective contact as their languages diverge.^ Perfect phylogenetic networks: a new methodology for reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages.” Language 81.382-420.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But most disintegrations of speech communities don’t happen like that; dialects remain in contact as they diverge, continuing to trade linguistic material until some event finally makes them lose touch altogether.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears that the separation of Tocharian from the rest of the family was sharp, and that it did not again come into contact with other IE languages (specifically, Iranian languages) for many centuries.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Exempted from this concept are shared innovations acquired by borrowing (or other means of convergence), that cannot be considered genetic.^ Like Tocharian, Anatolian shares no distinctive innovations with any other subfamily of IE (cf.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This grouping, however, is by no means exclusive, members of either group having characteristics in common with individuals of the other group which they do not share with the other languages of their own group (Meillet, p.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this case the so-called "wave model" applies, featuring borrowings and no clear underlying genetic tree.^ Complications may include ascertainement bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has been asserted, for example, that many of the more striking features shared by Italic languages (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.^ Many ancient Indo-European languages (Latin, Sanskrit, etc.
  • conlang : Message: Re: Passive participles 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Separation of Proto-Italic into Osco-Umbrian and Latin-Faliscan , and foundation of Rome .
  • Indo-European languages at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient Greeks and Romans readily perceived that their languages were related to each other, and, as other European languages became objects of scholarly attention in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, many of these were seen to be more similar to Latin and Greek than, for example, to Hebrew or Hungarian.
  • Indo-European languages :: Establishment of the family -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) might well be areal features. .More certainly, very similar-looking alterations in the systems of long vowels in the West Germanic languages greatly postdate any possible notion of a proto-language innovation (and cannot readily be regarded as "areal", either, since English and continental West Germanic were not a linguistic area).^ Still no similarity with IPCC. So I looked at every station in the area.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greek and Germanic seem at first more promising, since Grimm’s Law was a comparatively early Germanic sound change (see the chart at Ringe 2008:152) and the Greek vowel rounding could have occurred very early (note that the unrounding of labiovelars next to u-vowels has already occurred in the Linear B documents).
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since in English voiced consonants invite lengthening of preceding vowels, this is ‘long’ /ea/.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a similar vein, there are many similar innovations in Germanic and Balto-Slavic that are far more likely to be areal features than traceable to a common proto-language, such as the uniform development of a high vowel (*u in the case of Germanic, *i/u in the case of Baltic and Slavic) before the PIE syllabic resonants *ṛ,* ḷ, *ṃ, *ṇ, unique to these two groups among IE languages, which is in agreement with the wave model .^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Often several of these occur at the same time, as is often the case with the introduction of automatic weather stations that is occurring in many parts of the world.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But apparently the need for adjustments of such magnitude in cases like this is “nonsense”.” .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Balkan sprachbund even features areal convergence that comprise very different branches.
.Using an extension to the Ringe-Warnow model of language evolution early IE was confirmed to have featured limited contact between distinct lineages, while only the Germanic subfamily exhibited a less treelike behaviour as it acquired some characteristics from neighbours early in its evolution rather than from its direct ancestors.^ But the distinction between them and the so-called agglutinative languages is one of degree rather than of kind.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following this rule Hans Joachim Alscher in " Relations between Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic Languages, " suggests that after 12,000 years less than five percent of the word stock of a language may be present, at which time the limit of possible coincidence between two parent languages is reached.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

The internal diversification of especially West Germanic is cited to have been radically non-treelike.[9]
.The Indo-Iranian languages form the largest sub-branch of Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers as well as in terms of the number of individual languages.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seventy percent of present-day Iranians are Iranic peoples , native speakers of Indo-European languages who are descended from the Aryan ( Indo-Iranians ) tribes that began migrating from Central Asia into what is now Iran in the second millennium BC. The majority of the population speaks one of the Iranian languages , including the official language, Persian ( Farsi ).
  • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Proposed subgroupings

.Specialists have postulated the existence of such subfamilies (subgroups) as Italo-Celtic, Graeco-Armenian, Graeco-Aryan, and Germanic with Balto-Slavic.^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vogue for such subgroups waxes and wanes; Italo-Celtic for example used to be a standard subgroup of Indo-European, but it is now little honored, in part because much of the evidence on which it was based has turned out to have been misinterpreted[10].^ Thus even if your doubts as to the correctness of the etymology of Gaulish "epo-" turn out to be well-founded, it is plain that Proto-Celtic did indeed inherit the Indo-European word for "horse".
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence for the position of Tocharian in the Indo-European family?” Die Sprache 34.59-123.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkey now includes many lands, which in the pages of [ancient] authors show their old names: so part of Asia Minor, for example, and Phrygia and Lydia.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subgroupings of the Indo European languages are commonly held to reflect genetic relationships and linguistic change.^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparative Linguistics and the movement of the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The generic differentiation of Proto-Indo-European into dialects and languages happened hand in hand with language contact and the spread of innovations over different territories.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rather than being entirely genetic, the grouping of satem languages is commonly inferred as an innovative change that occurred just once, and subsequently spread over a large cohesive territory or PIE continuum that affected all but the peripheral areas.^ Now this method does not yield reliable results further back than about 10,000 years, because beyond that too much change occurred for there to be any recognizable remnants (that we can be sure about anyway) in attested languages."
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than trying to change all that, which would have involved wholesale destruction and re-invention, I have changed the planet's name to Ares after the Greek rather than the Roman god of war.

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] .For instance, Kortlandt proposes this satemization process involved interaction between a western and central Indo-European sphere of influence to the ancestors of Balts and Slavs.^ "This claim is largely based on the simplicity of the Hittite grammatical system compared with that of Sanskrit and Greek, which may represent an earlier system elaborated on in the ancestor of the Indo-European branch.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They propose, " Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hittite may rather have undergone substantial grammatical reduction under the influence of neighbouring non-Indo-European languages in Anatolia.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.Shared features of Phrygian and Greek [13] and of Thracian and Armenian [14] group the southeastern branches of Indo-European together.^ Those exploring these connections are looking for the "mother tongue" from which the Indo-European group broke away.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So what were a group of Indo-Europeans doing so many thousands of miles east of their established territory?

^ From there the groups appear to have launched into Europe (the oldest Indo-European megaliths date circa.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some fundamental shared features, like the verbal aorist category (this is a verb form denoting action without reference to duration or completion) having the perfect active particle -s fixed to the stem, link this group closer to Anatolian languages[15] and Tocharian.^ The distinctive forms are the present, the perfect, and the aorist .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the locative-singular the ending –i seems to have been of the nature of a post-position, because in various languages (notably in Sanskrit) forms appear without any suffix.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The imperative, which was originally an exclamatory form to the verb, of the same kind as the vocative was to the noun, and which consisted simply of the verb stem without further suffixes, developed, partly on the analogy of the present and partly with the help of adverbs, a complete paradigm.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Shared features with Balto-Slavic languages, on the other hand (especially present and preterit formations), might be due to later contacts.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The present indicated that an action was in progress or continuous, the aorist on the other hand regarded the action as a whole and, as it were, summed it up.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 2008 Almanac, on the other hand, has a rather full list of Chinese and Indian languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.The Indo-Hittite hypothesis proposes the Indo European language family to consist of two main branches: one represented by the Anatolian languages and another branch encompassing all other Indo European languages.^ Three to one and two to the other.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ If a piece of data is really metadata on some other piece of data (for example, representing a class or role that the main data serves, or specifying a method of processing it), put it in an attribute if possible.

.Features that separate Anatolian from all other branches of Indo-European (such as the gender or the verb system) have been interpreted alternately as archaic debris or as innovations due to prolonged isolation.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ Tocharian class II presents and subjunctives and the reconstruction of the Indo-European verb.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 9.121-42.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Points proffered in favour of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis are the (non-universal) Indo-European agricultural terminology in Anatolia[17] and the preservation of laryngeals.[18] However, in general this hypothesis is considered to attribute too much weight to the Anatolian evidence. .According to another view the Anatolian subgroup left the Indo-European parent language comparatively late, approximately at the same time as Indo-Iranian and later than the Greek or Armenian divisions.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin and spread of the Indo-European languages has long been, and remains, a vexed question.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.A third view, especially prevalent in the so-called French school of Indo-European studies, holds that extant similarities in non-satem languages in general - including Anatolian - might be due to their peripheral location in the Indo-European language area and early separation, rather than indicating a special ancestral relationship.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also the problem of getting right the grammar that actually applies to a language like English, rather than to Latin.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] Holm (2008)[20] based on lexical calculations arrives at a picture roughly replicating the general scholarly opinion and refuting the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.

Satem and centum languages

.The Satem and Centum languages is a much-debated characterization of Indo-European languages devised by von Bradke in the late 19th century based on a single main isogloss.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin and spread of the Indo-European languages has long been, and remains, a vexed question.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Suggested superfamilies

.Some linguists propose that Indo-European languages form part of a hypothetical Nostratic language superfamily, and attempt to relate Indo-European to other language families, such as South Caucasian languages, Uralic languages, Dravidian languages, and Afroasiatic languages.^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A chain of ancient non-Indo-European and non-Semitic languages -- of Elam, the Kassites, the Hurrians, and Urartu -- stretched from Sumer to the Caucasus, but too little is known of these languages, or of the early forms of the Caucasian ones, for certain connections to be drawn.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some programming languages and libraries, processing elements is easier; in others, processing attributes is easier.

.This theory, like the similar Eurasiatic theory of Joseph Greenberg, and the Proto-Pontic postulation of John Colarusso, remains highly controversial, however, and is not accepted by most linguists in the field.^ However, in most cases it would not be too hard to get the data from the missions themselves or from the mining companies or other bodies like NT Dept.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Objections to such groupings are not based on any theoretical claim about the likely historical existence or non-existence of such super-families; it is entirely reasonable to suppose that they might have existed.^ I was certain there had to be a good reason for losing the raw data, as has been claimed by the Jones group.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire station history could be readjusted some entirely different way if, for example, a historic fact like a previously forgotten station move were discovered tomorrow.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the country wants to lie about what it’s giving to the GHCN, and give them somehow processed data while calling it raw, I suppose they could, if that’s what we’re coming to.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The serious difficulty lies in identifying the details of actual relationships between language families; it is very hard to find concrete evidence that transcends chance resemblance.^ It is thus hard to imagine no connection between the invasion and the disappearance, even as the probable language of the Indus Valley, a Dravidian language, was erased from most of the north of India.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the noise-to-signal ratio in historical linguistics increases steadily over time, at great enough time-depths it becomes open to reasonable doubt that it can even be possible to distinguish between signal and noise.^ It’s obviously not possible to attribute increased CO2 levels in that time period to human activity.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible to detect a signal of 1 degree per century from data which has had adjustments 7 times greater added to it?
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since I have been a boy (which is some time) I have noticed Darwins temperature on the evening news is always between 32-34 C. A perfect place to test climate change.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historical evolution

Proto-Indo-European

.The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has the reputation among some of being the common language of all of Africa, but it is actually not spoken in the West or South.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

.The classical phase of Indo-European comparative linguistics leads from Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar (1833) to August Schleicher's 1861 Compendium and up to Karl Brugmann's Grundriss published from the 1880s.^ Indo-European - Lulu.com Log In Sign Up Cart Publish Buy Services Community My Lulu Help Lulu Demo > Search: in All Products .
  • Indo-European - Lulu.com 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

Brugmann's junggrammatische reevaluation of the field and Ferdinand de Saussure's development of the laryngeal theory may be considered the beginning of "contemporary" Indo-European studies. .The generation of Indo-Europeanists active in the last third of the 20th century (such as Calvert Watkins, Jochem Schindler and Helmut Rix) developed a better understanding of morphology and, in the wake of Kuryłowicz's 1956 Apophonie, understanding of the ablaut.^ McKitrick has previously shown that half the warming of the last century is from urban and other development.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th Century, European explorers such as Aurel Stein recounted their discoveries of desiccated bodies found in their journeys through Central Asia.

.From the 1960s, knowledge of Anatolian became certain enough to establish its relationship to PIE. Using the method of internal reconstruction an earlier stage, called Pre-Proto-Indo-European, has been proposed.^ So what were a group of Indo-Europeans doing so many thousands of miles east of their established territory?

^ Neither of these errors of mine affect my point, which is that there are not enough neighboring stations to adjust Darwin using the main GHCN method.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They perform their own homogenisation, independent of GHCN. They use both statistical methods and the metadata (knowledge of site changes, etc).
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PIE was an inflected language, in which the grammatical relationships between words were signaled through inflectional morphemes (usually endings). The roots of PIE are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. .By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of desinences (usually endings), these form grammatically inflected words (nouns or verbs).^ The Swahili word for "book," kitabu , is Arabic ( kitâb ); but since many nouns in Swahili begin with ki- and form their plurals by changing that to vi- , "books" is vitabu , which is not at all like Arabic, where the plural is kûtûb .
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The hypothetical Indo-European verb system is complex and, like the noun, exhibits a system of ablaut.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diversification

The diversification of the parent language into the attested branches of daughter languages is historically unattested. .The timeline of the evolution of the various daughter languages, on the other hand, is mostly undisputed, quite regardless of the question of Indo-European origins.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The 2008 Almanac, on the other hand, has a rather full list of Chinese and Indian languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

mid 2nd millennium BC distribution
mid 1st millennium BC distribution
post- Roman Empire and Migrations period distribution
  • 2500 BC–2000 BC: The breakup into the proto-languages of the attested dialects is complete. .Proto-Greek is spoken in the Balkans, Proto-Indo-Iranian north of the Caspian in the emerging Andronovo culture.^ The presence of Turkey amidst and upon older Indo-European peoples, the Greeks and the Armenians , and overlapping an Iranian people, the Kurds, has not made for forgiveness or forgetfulness of their recent advent.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian .
    • Languages of Iran: Extensive list of the languages of Iran 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC daytranslations.com [Source type: Reference]

    The Bronze Age reaches Central Europe with the Beaker culture, likely composed of various Centum dialects. The Tarim mummies possibly correspond to proto-Tocharians.
  • 2000 BC–1500 BC: Catacomb culture north of the black sea. .The chariot is invented, leading to the split and rapid spread of Iranian and Indo-Aryan from the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex over much of Central Asia, Northern India, Iran and Eastern Anatolia.^ At it's peak, the Tamil Kingdom extended from Middle and south India to include Malaya, Cambodia, Indonesia ( Indo- asia) and Northern Sri lanka.
    • Sri Lanka's road to serfdom: fuss-budget - LANKA BUSINESS ONLINE 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lankabusinessonline.com [Source type: Original source]

    Proto-Anatolian is split into Hittite and Luwian. The pre-Proto-Celtic Unetice culture has an active metal industry (Nebra skydisk).
  • 1500 BC–1000 BC: The Nordic Bronze Age develops pre-Proto-Germanic, and the (pre)-Proto-Celtic Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures emerge in Central Europe, introducing the Iron Age. Migration of the Proto-Italic speakers into the Italian peninsula (Bagnolo stele). Redaction of the Rigveda and rise of the Vedic civilization in the Punjab. .The Mycenaean civilization gives way to the Greek Dark Ages.
  • 1000 BC–500 BC: The Celtic languages spread over Central and Western Europe.^ The "cultural spheres of influence" of India , China , Europe , and Islâm are founded on the civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The different ways to write the word are discussed at " Greek, Sanskrit, and Closely Related Languages ."
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Baltic languages are spoken in a huge area from present-day Poland to the Ural Mountains.^ This reflects the circumstance that a large number of languages are spoken in Africa, and many areas are not densely populated.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The languages spoken in present India, evolved in different phases of Indian history.

    [21] Proto Germanic. Homer and the beginning of Classical Antiquity. The Vedic Civilization gives way to the Mahajanapadas. Siddhartha Gautama attains enlightenment and preaches Buddhism. Zoroaster composes the Gathas, rise of the Achaemenid Empire, replacing the Elamites and Babylonia. Separation of Proto-Italic into Osco-Umbrian and Latin-Faliscan. Genesis of the Greek and Old Italic alphabets. .A variety of Paleo-Balkan languages are spoken in Southern Europe.^ About 23 Dravidian languages are spoken by an estimated 169 million people, mainly in southern India.

    .The Anatolian languages are extinct.
  • 500 BC–1 BC/AD: Classical Antiquity: spread of Greek and Latin throughout the Mediterranean, and during Hellenism (Indo-Greeks) to Central Asia and the Hindukush.^ Vedic Sanskrit , the language used in the Vedas, the sacred Hindu scriptures, is the earliest form of Sanskrit, dating from about 1500 BC to about 200 BC. A later variety of the language, classical Sanskrit (from about 500 BC), was a language of literary and technical works.

    ^ Indo-European Linguistics By James Clackson E-book (PDF for Digital Editions): $27.00 Download immediately This item has not been rated yet The Indo-European language family consists of many of the modern and ancient languages of Europe, India and Central Asia, including Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Russian, German, French, Spanish and English.
    • Indo-European - Lulu.com 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Greek and Latin are not really dead languages either, but a great deal of effort is being put into making them so.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Kushan Empire, Mauryan Empire. .Proto-Germanic.
  • 1 BC/AD 500: Late Antiquity, Gupta period; attestation of Armenian.^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Note 1: Early Upanis.ad, between 800 and 500 BC. Note 2: The R.g Veda contains only the two Brâhman.as listed.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Proto-Slavic. .The Roman Empire and then the Migration period marginalize the Celtic languages to the British Isles.
  • 500–1000: Early Middle Ages.^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The youngest civilization and cultural area would be that of Islâm, whose language, Classical Arabic , represents a large body of secular and religious literature from the Middle Ages down to the present.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    The Viking Age forms an Old Norse koine spanning Scandinavia, the British Isles and Iceland. .The Islamic conquest and the Turkic expansion results in the Arabization and Turkification of significant areas where Indo-European languages were spoken.^ Although several significant and a few durable kingdoms resulted from this conquest, little remains by way of permanent Mongol ethnic presence.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
    • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
    • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This reflects the circumstance that a large number of languages are spoken in Africa, and many areas are not densely populated.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Tocharian is extinct in the course of the Turkic expansion while Northeastern Iranian (Scytho-Sarmatian) is reduced to small refugia.
  • 1000–1500: Late Middle Ages: Attestation of Albanian and Baltic languages.
  • 1500–2000: Early Modern period to present: Colonialism results in the spread of Indo-European languages to every continent, most notably Romance (North, Central and South America, French Canada, North and Sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia), West Germanic (English in North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and Australia; to a lesser extent Dutch and German), and Russian to Central Asia and North Asia.

Sound changes

.As the Proto-Indo-European language broke up, its sound system diverged as well, changing according to various sound laws evidenced in the daughter languages.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The system needs to be changed so that after the review, the reviewers sign their names to the paper as well as reviewers.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notable cases of such sound laws include Grimm's law in Proto-Germanic, loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic, loss of intervocalic *s- in Proto-Greek, Brugmann's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian, as well as satemization (discussed above).^ The presence of Turkey amidst and upon older Indo-European peoples, the Greeks and the Armenians , and overlapping an Iranian people, the Kurds, has not made for forgiveness or forgetfulness of their recent advent.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It means, not that everything is regulated by law, but, on the contrary that the coercive power of the state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law and in such a way that it can be foreseen how it will be used."
  • Sri Lanka's road to serfdom: fuss-budget - LANKA BUSINESS ONLINE 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lankabusinessonline.com [Source type: Original source]

Grassmann's law and Bartholomae's law may or may not have operated at the common Indo-European stage.

Comparison of conjugations

.The following table presents a comparison of conjugations of the thematic present indicative of the verbal root *bʰer- 'to carry' (whence English verb to bear) and its reflexes in various early attested IE languages and their modern descendants or relatives, showing that all languages had in the early stage an inflectional verb system.^ Of course in the case of classical Greek, as well as of many modern languages, we have to deal with the phenomena of ‘declension; ‘ whereas in English we ‘hide the declension.’ .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By abandoning Chinese characters, Korean and Vietnamese have lost their connection to the ancient language; but it is still a living presence in Chinese, in all its separate modern spoken languages , and Japanese.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Proto-Indo-European
(*bʰer- 'to carry')
I (1st. Sg.) *bʰéroh₂
You (2nd. Sg.) *bʰéresi
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) *bʰéreti
We (1st. Du.) *bʰérowos
You (2nd. Du.) *bʰéreth₁es
They (3rd. Du.) *bʰéretes
We (1st. Pl.) *bʰéromos
You (2nd. Pl.) *bʰérete
They (3rd. Pl.) *bʰéronti
Language Family Indo-Aryan Greek Italic Germanic Celtic Slavic Armenian
Vedic Sanskrit Ancient Greek Latin Gothic Old Irish OCS Cl. Arm.
I (1st. Sg.) bhárāmi phérō ferō baíra /bɛra/ biru berǫ berem
You (2nd. Sg.) bhárasi phéreis fers baíris biri bereši beres
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) bhárati phérei fert baíriþ berid beretъ berē
We (1st. Du.) bhárāvas --- --- baíros --- berevě ---
You (2nd. Du.) bhárathas phéreton --- baírats --- bereta ---
They (3rd. Du.) bháratas phéreton --- --- --- berete ---
We (1st. Pl.) bhárāmas phéromen ferimus baíram bermai beremъ berenk`
You (2nd. Pl.) bháratha phérete fertis baíriþ beirthe berete berēk`
They (3rd. Pl.) bháranti phérousi ferunt baírand berait berǫtъ beren
Language Family Hindi Modern Greek French German Irish Czech Persian
I (1st. Sg.) (maiṃ) bharūṃ férno (je) {con}fère (ich) {ge}bäre beirim beru bordam
You (2nd. Sg.) (tū) bhare férnis (tu) {con}fères (du) {ge}bärst beireann (tú) bereš bordi
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) (vah) bhare férni (il) {con}fère (er) {ge}bärt beireann (sé/sí) bere bord
We (1st. Pl.) (ham) bhareṃ férnoume (nous) {con}ferons (wir) {ge}bären beirimid berem(e) bordim
You (2nd. Pl.) (tum) bharo férnete (vous) {con}ferez (ihr) {ge}bärt beireann (sibh) berete bordid
They (3rd. Pl.) (ve) bhareṃ férnoun (ils) {con}fèrent (sie) {ge}bären beireann (siad) berou bordand
.While similarities are still visible between the modern descendants and relatives of these ancient languages, the differences have increased over time.^ The holy books of different religions that developed in ancient India are written in different languages.

^ Like Hindi, it is descended from Sanskrit, and has the most extensive literature of any modern Indian language.

.Some IE languages have moved from synthetic verb systems to largely periphrastic systems.^ Over a large-enough data series, they should all average out anyway and back to zero, absent some systemic effect like UHI. .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pronouns of periphrastic forms are in brackets when they appear. .Some of these verbs have undergone a change in meaning as well.^ Some of these data are the original underlying observations and some are observations adjusted to account for non climatic influences, for example changes in observations methods.” .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be nice if these changes lined up well with Willis’ Fig 8, but they don’t.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include various observational errors as well as instrument changes, siting changes, etc.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • In Modern Irish beir usually only carries the meaning to bear in the sense of bearing a child, its common meanings are to catch, grab.
  • The Hindi verb bharnā, the continuation of the Sanskrit verb, can have a variety of meanings, but the most common is "to fill". The forms given in the table, although etymologically derived from the present indicative, now have the meaning of subjunctive.^ And just becase two parents are present doesn’t always mean that the child will turn out to be wonderfully successful.
    • Erykah Badu Responds to Third Pregnancy Chatter + Jay Electronica Video Profile 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.whudat.com [Source type: Original source]

    The present indicative is conjugated periphrastically, using a participle (etymologically the Sanskrit present participle bharant-) and an auxiliary: maiṃ bhartā hūṃ, tū bhartā hai, vah bhartā hai, ham bharte haiṃ, tum bharte ho, ve bharte haiṃ (masculine forms).
  • German is not directly descended from Gothic, but the Gothic forms are a close approximation of what the early West Germanic forms of c. 400 AD would have looked like. .The cognate of Germanic beranan (English bear) survives in German only in the compound gebären, meaning "bear (a child)".
  • The Latin verb ferre is irregular, and not a good representative of a normal thematic verb.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In French, the irregular Latin verb ferre "to carry" has been supplanted by other verbs and ferre only survives in compounds such as souffrir "to suffer" (from Latin sub- and ferre) and conferer "to confer" (from Latin "con-" and "ferre).
  • In Modern Greek, phero φέρω (modern transliteration fero) "to bear" is still used but only in specific contexts not in everyday language.^ There is no specific ‘responsibiity’ to remove artifacts from any dataset, only to account for their effect on the intended use of the adjusted data.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I’m still scratching my head, partly because the bug only affected August, not any other month including September or October.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The compound is used to house wayward polar bears that get too close to the town or return to the community after being scared away.” .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The form that is (very) common today is pherno φέρνω (modern transliteration ferno) meaning "to bring". Additionally, the perfective form of pherno (used for the subjunctive voice and also for the future tense) is also phero.
  • In Modern Russian брать (brat) carries the meaning to take. Бремя (bremia) means burden, as something heavy to bear, and derivative беременность (beremennost) means pregnancy.

See also

Citations and notes

  1. ^ It is composed of 449 languages and dialects, according to the 2005 Ethnologue estimate, about half (219) belonging to the Indo-Aryan sub-branch.
  2. ^ 308 languages according to SIL; more than one billion speakers (see List of languages by number of native speakers). Historically, also in terms of geographical spread (stretching from the Caucasus to South Asia; c.f. Scythia)
  3. ^ a b c Auroux, Sylvain (2000). History of the Language Sciences. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1156. ISBN 3110167352. http://books.google.com/books?id=yasNy365EywC&pg=PA1156&vq=stephens+sassetti&dq=3110167352&as_brr=3&sig=nOsHuf3fqPmzmjmGYk1UnvSiFAs. 
  4. ^ In London Quarterly Review X/2 1813.; cf. Szemerényi 1999:12, footnote 6
  5. ^ In German it is indogermanisch 'Indo-Germanic' which indicates the east-west extension. That term was first recorded in use in French original as indo-germanique, in 1810 by Conrad Malte-Brun, a French geographer of Danish descent.
  6. ^ such as Schleicher 1861, Szemerényi 1957, Collinge 1985, and Beekes 1995
  7. ^ Of the Albanian Language - William Martin Leake, London, 1814.
  8. ^ "The Thracian language". The Linguist List. http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=txh. Retrieved 2008-01-27. "An ancient language of Southern Balkans, belonging to the Satem group of Indo-European. This language is the most likely ancestor of modern Albanian (which is also a Satem language), though the evidence is scanty. 1st Millennium BC - 500 AD." 
  9. ^ [1] Perfect Phylogenetic Networks: A New Methodology for Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Natural Languages - Luay Nakhleh,Don Ringe & Tandy Warnow, 2005, Language- Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 81, Number 2, June 2005
  10. ^ Mallory J.P., D. Q. Adams (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, London, 1997
  11. ^ Britannica 15th edition, vol.22, 1981, p.588, 594
  12. ^ Frederik Kortlandt-The spread of the Indo-Europeans, 1989
  13. ^ Lubotsky - The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos 27, 9-26, 1988
  14. ^ Kortlandt - The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique 31, 71-74, 1988
  15. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.) 1981, p.593
  16. ^ George S. Lane, Douglas Q. Adams, Britannica 15th edition 22:667, "The Tocharian problem"
  17. ^ The supposed autochthony of Hittites, the Indo-Hittite hypothesis and migration of agricultural "Indo-European" societies became intrinsically linked together by C. Renfrew. (Renfrew, C 2001a The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites. In R. Drews ed., Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language. family: 36-63. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man).
  18. ^ Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 586 "Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory" - W.C.; p. 589, 593 "Anatolian languages" - Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate, H. Craig Melchert and Theo P.J. van den Hout
  19. ^ Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 594, "Indo-Hittite hypothesis"
  20. ^ [2] Holm, Hans J.: The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages. In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.): Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7-9, 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin (2008)
  21. ^ http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/iedocctr/ie-lg/Balto-Slavic.html

References

.
  • Auroux, Sylvain, History of the Language Sciences, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2000 ISBN 3110167352.
  • Kortlandt, Frederik, 1990, The Spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 18.1-2: 131-140
  • Lubotsky, A., The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos 27, 9-26, 1988
  • Kortlandt, Frederik , The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique 31, 71-74, 1988
  • Lane, George S., Adams, Douglas Q., The Tocharian problem, Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Classification: Indo-European, Armenian .
    • Languages of Iran: Extensive list of the languages of Iran 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC daytranslations.com [Source type: Reference]

    ) 1981
  • Renfrew, C., The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites. .In R. Drews ed., Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family, Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, DC, 2001
  • Houwink ten Cate, H.J., Melchert, H. Craig and van den Hout, Theo P.J. Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory, Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) 1981
  • Holm, Hans J., The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages, in Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.), .Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications, Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7-9, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, 2008
  • Szemerényi, Oswald; David Jones, Irene Jones (1999).^ I haven’t actually attempted this, but I’ve done some of this kind of data analysis WRT other, unrelated applications.”" .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I haven’t actually attempted this, but I’ve done some of this kind of data analysis WRT other, unrelated applications.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 July 2007 June 2007 May 2007 April 2007 March 2007 February 2007 January 2007 December 2006 November 2006 .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198238706. 

Further reading

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (1995). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co.. ISBN 8170741289. 
  • Collinge, N. E. (1985). The Laws of Indo-European. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
  • Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1. 
  • Renfrew, Colin (1987). Archaeology & Language. The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02495-7. 
  • Meillet, Antoine. .Esquisse d’une grammaire comparée de l’arménien classique,1903.
  • Schleicher, August, A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62).
  • Strazny, Philip (Ed).^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2000). Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics (1 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1579582180. 
  • Szemerényi, Oswald (1957). "The problem of Balto-Slav unity". Kratylos 2: 97–123. 
  • Watkins, Calvert (2000). .The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.^ The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
    • Erykah Badu Responds to Third Pregnancy Chatter + Jay Electronica Video Profile 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.whudat.com [Source type: Original source]

    Houghton Mifflin. .ISBN 0-618-08250-6. 
  • Remys, Edmund, General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Berlin, New York: Indogermanische Forschungen, Vol. 112, 2007.
  • Babaev, Kirill (2008). Origins of Indo-European Person Markers. Eidos. ISBN 978-5-902948-30-8. 

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe, and of Asia as far as India.

The main branches so far identified fall easily into two groups of four. These groups are distinguished from one another by the treatment of certain original guttural sounds, k(c), g, kh, gh, which one group shows as consonants, while the other converts them into sibilants. The variation is well shown in the word for "hundred": Gr. ἑ-κατόν, Lat. centum, Old Irish cēt; Sanskrit śatam, Zend satəm, Lithuanian szim̃tas, Old Bulgarian (Old ecclesiastical Slavonic) sŭto. In the first three the consonant is a hard guttural (the Romans said kentum, not sentum), in the others it is a sibilant (the Lithuanian sz is the English sh).

The first group (generally known as the centum-group) is the Western and entirely European group, the second (generally known as the satem-group) with one exception lies to the east of the centum-group and much its largest part is situated in Asia. To the centum-group belong (1) Greek; (2) the Italic languages, including Latin, Oscan, Umbrian and various minor dialects of ancient Italy; (3) Celtic, including (a) the Q-Celtic languages, Irish, Manx and Scotch Gaelic, (b) the P-Celtic, including the language of ancient Gaul, Welsh, Cornish and Breton: the differentiation, which exists also in the Italic languages, turning upon the treatment of original kw sounds, which all the Italic languages save Latin and the little-known Faliscan and the (b) group of the Celtic languages change to p. With these go (4) the Germanic or Teutonic languages, including (a) Gothic, (b) the Scandinavian languages, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic—differentiated in historical times out of a single language, Old Norse,—(c) West Germanic, including English and Frisian, Low Frankish (from which spring modern Dutch and Flemish), Low and High German.

To the satem-group belongs (1) Aryan or Indo-Iranian, including (a) Sanskrit, with its descendants, (b) Zend, and (c) Old Persian, from which is ultimately descended Modern Persian, largely modified, however, by Arabic words. This group is often divided into two sub-groups, Indo-Aryan, including the languages of India, and Iranian, used as a general title for Zend and Old Persian as the languages of ancient Iran. Although the sounds of Indo-Aryan and Iranian differ considerably, phrases of the earliest form of the one can be transliterated into the other without change in vocabulary or syntax. (2) To the west of these lies Armenian, which is so full of borrowed Iranian words that only in 1875 was it successfully differentiated by Hübschmann as an independent language. It is probably related to, or the descendant of, the ancient Phrygian, which spread into Asia from Thrace by the migration of tribes across the Hellespont. Of ancient Thracian unfortunately we know very little. (3) North of the Black Sea, and widening its borders in all directions, comes the great Balto-Slavonic group. In this there are two branches somewhat resembling the division between Indo-Aryan and Iranian. Here three small dialects on the south-east coast of the Baltic form the first group, Lithuanian, Lettish and Old Prussian, the last being extinct since the 17th century. The Slavonic languages proper themselves fall into two groups: (a) an Eastern and Southern group, including Old Bulgarian, the ecclesiastical language first known from the latter part of the 9th century A.D.; Russian in its varieties of Great Russian, White Russian and Little Russian or Ruthenian; and Servian and Slovene, which extend to the Adriatic. (b) The western group includes Polish with minor dialects, Czech or Bohemian, also with minor languages in the group, and Sorb. In the satem division is also included (4) Albanian, which like Armenian is much mixed with foreign elements—Latin, Greek, Turkish and Slavonic. The relation between it and the ancient Illyrian is not clear.

Besides the languages mentioned there are many others now extinct or of which little is known—e.g. Venetic, found in clearly written inscriptions with a distinctive alphabet in north-eastern Italy; Messapian, in the heel of Italy, which is supposed to have been connected with the ancient Illyrian; and possibly also the unknown tongue which has been found recently on several inscriptions in Crete and seems to have been the language of the pre-Hellenic population, the finds apparently confirming the statement of Herodotus (vii. 170) that the earlier population survived in later times only at Praesos and Polichne. Names of deities worshipped by the Aryan branch are reported to have been discovered in the German excavations at Boghaz-Keui (anc. Pteria, q.v.) in Cappadocia; names of kings appear in widely separated areas elsewhere in Asia,1 and a language not hitherto known has recently been found in excavations in Turkestan and christened by its first investigators Tocharish.2 So far as yet ascertained, Tocharish seems to be a mongrel dialect produced by an intermixture of peoples speaking respectively an I.E. language and a language of an entirely different origin. The stems of the words are clearly in many cases I.E., but the terminations are no less clearly alien to this family of languages. It is remarkable that some of its words, like ku, "dog," have a hard k, while the other languages of this stock in Asia, so far as at present known, belong to the satem-group, and have in such words replaced the k by a sibilant.

Till the latter part of the 18th century it was the universal practice to refer all languages ultimately to a Hebrew origin, because Hebrew, being the language of the Bible, was assumed, with reference to the early chapters of Genesis, to be the original language. Even on these premises the argument was unsound, for the same authority also recorded a confusion of tongues at Babel, so that it was unreasonable to expect that languages thus violently metamorphosed could be referred so easily at a later period to the same original. The first person to indicate very briefly the existence of the Indo-European family, though he gave it no distinctive name, was Sir William Jones in his address to the Bengal Oriental Society in 1786. Being a skilled linguist, he recognized that Sanskrit must be of the same origin as Greek, Latin, Teutonic (Germanic) and possibly Celtic (Asiatic Researches, i. p. 422; Works of Sir W. Jones, i. p. 26, London, 1799). Unfortunately Sir William Jones's views as to the relationship of the languages were not adopted for many years by later investigators. He had said quite definitely, "No philologer could examine them all three (Sanskrit, Greek and Latin) without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which perhaps no longer exists." Friedrich Schlegel, who learnt Sanskrit from Alexander Hamilton in Paris nearly twenty years later, started the view that Sanskrit, instead of being the sister, was the mother of the other languages, a mistake which, though long since refuted in all philological works, has been most persistent.

Curiously enough the history of the names given to the family is obscure. The earliest known occurrence of the word " Indo-European " is in an article in the Quarterly Review for 18133 by Dr Thomas Young. The term has been in use in English and in French almost continuously since that date. But a glance at Dr Young's article will show that he included under Indo-European many languages like Basque, Etruscan and Arabian (his term for Semitic), which certainly do not belong to this family of languages at all; and if the term is taken to mean, as it would seem to imply, all the languages spoken in India and Europe, it is undoubtedly a misnomer. There are many languages in India, as those of the Dravidians in Southern India and those of Northern Assam, which do not belong to this family. On the other hand there are many languages belonging to the family which exist outside both India and Europe—Zend, Old Persian, Armenian, Phrygian, to say nothing of languages recently discovered. The term most commonly used in Germany is "Indo-Germanic." This was employed by Klaproth as early as 1823. It is said not to have been invented by him, but by whom and when it was invented is not quite ascertained.4 It is an attempt to name the family by its most easterly and most westerly links. At the time when it was invented it had not yet been settled whether Celtic was or was not a member of this family. But in any case the term would not have been wrong, for members of the Germanic stock have been settled for above a thousand years in Iceland, the most westerly land of Europe, and for the last four centuries have increasingly dominated the continent of America. As has been pointed out by Professor Buck of Chicago (Classical Review, xviii. p. 400), owing to the German method of pronouncing eu as oi, the word "Indo-Germanic" is easier for a German to pronounce than "Indo-European." Attempts to discover a more accurate and less ponderous term, such as "Indo-Celtic" or "Celtindic," have not met with popular favour. Aryan (q.v.) is conveniently brief, but is wanted as the proper term for the most easterly branch of the family. What is wanted is a term which does not confuse ethnological and linguistic ideas. Not all speakers of any given language are necessarily of the same stock. In ancient Rome Latin must have been spoken by many slaves or sons of slaves who had no Latin blood in their bodies, though a slave if manumitted by his master might be the father or grandfather of a Roman citizen with full rights. Plautus and Terence were both aliens, the one an Umbrian, the other an African. The speakers of modern English are even a more multifarious body. A possible name for the family, implying only the speaking of a language of the stock without any reference to racial or national characteristics, could be obtained from the name for man, so widely though perhaps not altogether universally diffused throughout the family—Sanskrit vīras, Lithuanian wyras, Lat. vir, Irish fer, Gothic waír, &c. If the speakers of these languages were called collectively Wiros, no confusion with ethnological theories need arise.


It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages. These languages are distinguished from languages like Chinese by the fact that in the great majority of words suffixes can be separated from roots. But the distinction between them and the so-called agglutinative languages is one of degree rather than of kind. In the agglutinative languages, or at any rate in some of them, some of the post-fixed elements have still an independent value. In the Indo-Germanic languages no one can say what the meaning of the earliest suffixes was. Suffixes which have developed in individual languages or individual sections of this family of languages can often be traced, e.g. the often quoted -hood in English words like "manhood," or the English -ly in "manly," which has gradually extended till it is actually attached to its own parent like in "likely." But all recent investigation goes to show that before the Indo-European languages separated they possessed words with all the characteristics which we recognize in substantives like the Latin dominus or verbs like the Greek δείκνυται. Or, to put the same fact in another way, by the comparative method it is impossible to reach a period when the speakers of Indo-European languages spoke in roots. A "root" is only a convenient philological abstraction; it is merely the remnant which is left when all the elements that can be analysed are taken away; it is therefore only a kind of greatest common measure for a greater or smaller body of words expressing modifications of the same idea. Thus, though by no means the earliest form of the word, the English man might be taken as the "root" from which are derived by various suffixes manhood, manly, mannish, manful, manned (past tense), manned (participle), unman, mannikin, &c. How far the suffixes which can be traced back to Indo-European times (i.e. to a time before the separation of the languages) had existence as separate entities it is impossible to say. From what we see of the later history of the languages it is much more probable that both forms and signification were very largely the result of analogy. For in the making of new words analogy plays a much larger part than any reference to general principles of formation or composition. New words are to a large extent, even in modern times, the invention of persons unskilled in the history of language.

The first to point out that the term Indo-European (or Indo-Germanic) was not used uniformly in one sense was Professor Kretschmer in his Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache (Göttingen, 1896), pp. 9 ff. It is in fact used in three senses. (1) Indo-European is treated as preceding and different from all its descendants, a single uniform speech without dialects. But, strictly, no such language can exist, for even individual members of the same family differ from one another in pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence formation, etc. Thus it appears impossible to ascertain what the Indo-European term for the numeral 1 was, since different languages show at least four words for this, three of them presenting the same root with different suffixes: (a) Sanskrit eka (= *οι-qu̯o-); (b) Zend aeva, Old Persian aiva, Greek οἶ-(ϝ)ο-ς (= *οι-u̯o-); (c) Greek οἰνή, "ace," Latin unus (older oenus), Old Irish oen, Gothic ains, Lithuanian vénas (where the initial v has no more etymological signification than the w which now begins the pronunciation of the English one), Old Bulgarian inŭ; (d) Greek εἶς, ἕν (= *sem-s). But the Indo-European community must have had a word for the numeral since the various languages agree in forms for the numerals 2 to 10, and the original Indo-European people seem to have been able to count at least as far as 100. On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated. (2) But even when a word is found very widely diffused over the area of the Indo-European languages, it is not justifiable to conclude that therefore the word must have belonged to the original language. The dispersion of the Indo-European people over the areas they now inhabit, or inhabited in the earliest times known to history, must have been gradual, and commerce or communication between different branches must have always existed to some extent; the word might thus have been transmitted from one community to another. When a word is found in two branches which are geographically remote from one another and is not found in the intermediate area, the probability that the word is original is somewhat stronger. But even in this case the originality of the word is by no means certain, for (a) the intervening branch or branches which do not possess the word may merely have dropped it and replaced it by another; (b) the geographical position which the branches occupy in historical times may not be their original position; the branches which do not possess the word may have forced themselves into the area they now occupy after they had dropped the word; (c) if the linguistic communities which possess the word have a seaboard and the intervening communities have not, the possibility of its transmission in connexion with early sea-borne commerce must be considered. At the dawn of European history the Phoenicians and the Etruscans are great seafarers; at a later time the Varangians of the North penetrated to the Mediterranean and as far as Constantinople; in modern times sea-borne commerce brought to Europe words from the Caribbean Indians like potato and tobacco, and gave English a new word for man-eating savages—cannibal. Thus with Kretschmer we must distinguish between what is common Indo-European and what is original Indo-European in language. (3) A word may exist in several of the languages, and may have existed in them for a very long time, and yet not be Indo-European. Hehn (Das Salz, ed. 2, 1901) rejects salt as an Indo-European word because it is not found in the Aryan group, though in this case he is probably wrong, (a) because, as has been shown by Professor Johannes Schmidt, its irregular declension (sal-d, genitive sal-nes) possesses characteristics of the oldest Indo-European words; (b) because the great plains of Iran are characterized by their great saltness, so that the Aryan branch did not pass through a country where salt was unknown, although, according to Herodotus (i. 133), the Persian did not use salt to season his food. Since Kretschmer wrote, this argument has been used very extensively by Professor A. Meillet of Paris in his Dialectes indo-européens (Paris, 1908). In this treatise he brings forward arguments from a great variety of facts to show that in the original Indo-European language there were dialects, the Aryan, Armenian, Balto-Slavonic and Albanian, as we have seen, forming an oriental group with novel characteristics developed in common, although in various other characteristics they do not agree. Similarly Italic, Celtic and Germanic form a Western group, while Greek agrees now with the one group now with the other, at some points being more intimately connected with Italic than with any other branch, at others inclining more towards the Aryan. This grouping, however, is by no means exclusive, members of either group having characteristics in common with individuals of the other group which they do not share with the other languages of their own group (Meillet, p. 131 ff.).

From all this it is clear that in many cases it must be extremely uncertain what is original Indo-European and what is not. Some general characteristics can, however, be predicated from what is handed down to us in the earliest forms of all or nearly all the existing languages. (1) The noun had certainly a large number of distinct cases in the singular: nominative, accusative, genitive, ablative, locative, instrumental, dative.5 In the plural, however, there was less variety, the forms for dative and ablative being from the earliest times identical. In the dual, the oblique cases cannot be restored with certainty, so little agreement is there between the languages. In the locative-singular the ending –i seems to have been of the nature of a post-position, because in various languages (notably in Sanskrit) forms appear without any suffix. In the locative plural also the difference between the –su of Sanskrit and early Lithuanian (Slavonic –chu) on the one hand, and of –σι in Greek on the other, seems to be best explained by supposing that the –u and –i are postpositions, a conclusion which is strengthened by the Greek rule that –σ– between vowels disappears. In the instrumental singular and plural it is noticeable that there are two suffixes—one, represented in Germanic and Balto-Slavonic only, beginning with the sound –m, the other, surviving in most of the other languages for the plural, going back to an Indo-European form beginning with –bh. Professor Hirt of Leipzig has argued (Idg. Forschungen, v. pp. 251 ff.) that –bh– originally belonged to the instrumental plural (cf. the Lat. filiabus, omnibus, &c.), and the forms with –m– to the dative and ablative. But this is merely a conjecture, which has no linguistic facts in its favour, for the –bi of the Latin dative tibi, which has parallel forms in many other languages, belongs to the pronouns, which show in their declension many differences from the declension of the noun (cf. also Brugmann, Grundriss (ed. 2), ii. 2, p. 120). (2) The adjective agrees with its noun in gender, number and case, thus introducing a superfluous element of agreement which is not found, e.g. in most of the agglutinative languages. Thus in phrases like the Greek ἡ καλὴ κόρη or the Latin illa pulchra puella the feminine gender is expressed three times, with no advantage, so far as can be detected, over the modern English, that fair maid, where it is not obviously expressed at all. In this respect and also in the employment of the same case endings for the plural as well as the singular, in the plural after a syllable expressing plurality, the agglutinative languages have a distinct superiority over the Indo-European languages in their earliest forms. Some languages, like English and Modern Persian, have practically got rid of inflexion altogether and the present difficulty with it; others, like modern German, as the result of phonetic and analogical changes have even intensified the difficulty. (3) In the personal pronouns, especially those of the first and second persons, there is widely spread agreement, but more in the singular than in the plural. Forms corresponding to the English I and thou, the Latin ego and tu, are practically universal. On the other hand the demonstrative pronouns vary very considerably. (4) The system of numerals (subject to slight discrepancies, as that regarding 1 mentioned above) is the same, at least up to 100. (5) In the verb there were at first two voices, the active and the middle, and three moods, the indicative, the subjunctive and the optative. It has been suggested by Professors Oertel and Morris in Harvard Studies, xvi. (p. 101, n. 3) that the similarity which exists between the earliest Greek and the earliest Aryan in the moods is the result of a longer common life between those two branches. But of this there is no proof, and the great difference in the treatment of the sounds by these two branches (see below) militates very strongly against the supposition. The tense forms indicated originally not relations in time but different kinds of action. The distinctive forms are the present, the perfect, and the aorist. The present indicated that an action was in progress or continuous, the aorist on the other hand regarded the action as a whole and, as it were, summed it up. The aorist has sometimes been said to express instantaneous action, and so it does. But this is not the essence of the aorist; the aorist may be used also of a long continued action when it is regarded as a whole. Greek shows this very clearly. In Athenian official inscriptions it was usual to fix the date of the record by stating at the commencement who was the chief magistrate (archon) of the year. This was expressed by the imperfect (ἦρχε). But when reference was made to a past archonship, that was expressed by the aorist (ἦρξε). The same characteristic is evident also in prohibitions; thus, in Plato's Apology of Socrates, μὴ θορυβήσητε is "Do not begin to make a disturbance," μὴ θορυβεῖτε is "Do not keep on making a disturbance." These points are most easily illustrated from Greek, because Greek, better than the other languages, has kept the distinctive usages of both moods and tenses. The perfect as distinguished from the other forms expresses either repetition of the action, emphasis, or the state which results from the action expressed by the verb. Different languages regard this last in different ways. Sometimes the state resulting from the action is so characteristic that the perfect is almost an independent verb. Thus in Greek κτάομαι is "I acquire," but κέκτημαι (the perfect) is "I possess," the result of the action of acquiring. On the other hand the perfect may mean that the action has come to an end. This is specially common in Latin, as in Cicero's famous announcement of the execution of the Catilinarian conspirators, —Vixerunt ("They have lived" = "They are no more"). But it is by no means confined to Latin. The pluperfect, the past of the perfect, is a late development and can hardly be reckoned Indo-European. In Greek the forms clearly arise from adding aorist endings to a perfect stem. The forms of Latin are not yet completely explained—but it is certain that the specially Latin meaning expressing something that was past at a time already past (relative time) is a late growth. When Homeric Greek wishes to express this meaning it uses most frequently the aorist, but also the imperfect as well as the pluperfect, the notion of relative time being derived from the context. In the earliest Latin the pluperfect is not uncommonly used with the value of the aorist perfect. As regards the future it is difficult to say how far it was an original form. Some languages, like Germanic, preserve no original form for the future. When the present is found not to be distinctive enough, periphrastic forms come in. In other languages, like Latin and Greek, there is constant confusion between subjunctive and future forms. It is impossible to distinguish by their form between δείξω (future) and δείξω (subjunctive), between regam (future) and regam (subjunctive). A special future with a suffix –si̯o– (syo) is found only with certainty in the Aryan group and the Baltic languages. The future perfect is, strictly speaking, only a future made from a perfect stem; in the Latin sense it is certainly a late development, and even in early Latin, videro has occasionally no different meaning from videbo. The imperative, which was originally an exclamatory form to the verb, of the same kind as the vocative was to the noun, and which consisted simply of the verb stem without further suffixes, developed, partly on the analogy of the present and partly with the help of adverbs, a complete paradigm. The infinitives of all the languages are noun cases, generally stereotyped in form and no longer in touch with a noun system, though this, e.g. in early Sanskrit, is not always true. The participles differ only from other adjectives in governing the same case as their verb; and this is not an early distinction, for in the earliest Sanskrit all verbal nouns may govern the same case as their verb.

The system here sketched in the barest outline tended steadily to fall into decay. The case system was not extensive enough to express even the commonest relations. Thus there was no means of distinguishing by the cases between starting from outside and starting from inside, ideas which, e.g. Finnish regards as requiring separate cases; without a preposition it was impossible to distinguish between on and in, though to the person concerned there is much difference, for example between being on a river and in a river. There are other difficulties of the same kind. These had to be got over by the use of adverbs. But no sooner had the adverbs become well established for the purpose of defining these local relations than the meaning was felt to exist more in the adverb than in the case ending. For this syntactical reason, as well as for mechanical reasons arising from accent, the case system in some languages fell more and more into desuetude. In Sanskrit it has been kept entire, in Balto-Slavonic the only loss has been the disappearance of the original genitive and its replacement by the ablative. In Latin the locative has been confused with the genitive and the ablative, and the instrumental with the ablative. The loss of the locative as an independent case had not long preceded historical times, because it survives in Oscan, the kindred dialect of the neighbouring Campania. Greek has confused ablative with genitive, except for one small relic recently discovered on an inscription at Delphi; in the consonant stems it has replaced the dative by the locative form and confused in it dative, locative and instrumental meanings. In some other members of the family, e.g. Germanic, the confusion has gone still farther.

The fate of the verb is similar, though the two paradigms do not necessarily decay at the same rate. Thus Latin has modified its verb system much more than its noun system, and Greek, while reducing seriously its noun forms, shows a very elaborate verb system, which has no parallel except in the Aryan group. From the syntactical point of view, however, the Greek system is much superior to the Aryan, which has converted its perfect into a past tense in classical Sanskrit, and to a large extent lost grip of the moods. The decay in Aryan may be largely attributed to the power, which this group developed beyond any other, of making compounds which in practice took the place of subordinate sentences to a large extent. The causes for the modifications which the Latin verb system has undergone are more obscure, but they are shared not only by its immediate neighbours the other Italic dialects, but also to a great degree by the more remote Celtic dialects.

The origin and spread of the Indo-European languages has long been, and remains, a vexed question. No sooner had Bopp laid the foundation of Comparative Philology in his great work, the first edition of which appeared in 1833–1835, than this question began to be seriously considered. The earlier writers agreed in regarding Asia as the original home of the speakers of these languages. For this belief there were various grounds,—statements in the Biblical record, the greater originality (according to Schlegel) of Sanskrit, the absurd belief that the migrations of mankind always proceeded towards the west. The view propounded by an English philologist, Dr R. G. Latham, that the original home was in Europe, was scouted by one of the most eminent writers on the subject—Victor Hehn—as lunacy possible only to one who lived in a country of cranks. Latham's view was first put forward in 1851, and in half a century opinion had almost universally come over to his side. Max Miller indeed to the last held to the view that the home was "somewhere in Asia," and Professor Johannes Schmidt of Berlin, in a paper read before the Oriental Congress at Stockholm in 1889, argued for a close contact between early Indo-European and Assyrian civilization, from the borrowing of one or two words and the existence of duodecimal elements in the Indo-European numeral system side by side with the prevalent decimal system—the dozen, the gross, the long hundred (120), &c. At 60 the systems crossed, and 60 was a very characteristic element in Assyrian numeration, whence come our minutes and seconds and many other units.6

Even before Latham a Belgian geologist, d'Omalius d'Halloy, in 1848 had raised objections to the theory of the Asiatic origin of the Indo-Europeans, but his views remained unheeded. In 1864 he brought three questions before the Société d'anthropologie of Paris: (1) What are the proofs of the Asiatic origin of Europeans? (2) Have not inflectional languages passed from Europe to Asia rather than from Asia to Europe? (3) Are not the speakers of Celtic languages the descendants of the autochthonous peoples of Western Europe? (Reinach, op. cit. p. 38). Broca in replying to d'Omalius emphasized the fact which has been too often forgotten in this controversy, that race and language are not necessarily identical. In 1868 Professor Benfey of Göttingen argued for the south-east of Europe as the original home, while Ludwig Geiger in 1871 placed it in Germany, a view which in later times has had not a few supporters.

Truth to tell, however, we are not yet ready to fix the site of the original home. Before this can be done, many factors as yet imperfectly known must be more completely ascertained. The prehistoric conditions of Northern, Western, Central and South-eastern Europe have been carefully investigated, but important new discoveries are still continually being made. Investigation of other parts of Europe is less complete, and prehistoric conditions in Asia are at present very imperfectly known. In Western Europe two prehistoric races are known, the palaeolithic and the neolithic. The former, distinguished by their great skill in drawing figures of animals, especially the horse, the reindeer, and the mammoth, preceded the period of the Great Ice Age which rendered Northern Europe to the latitude of London and Berlin uninhabitable for a period, the length of which, as of all geological ages, cannot definitely be ascertained. For the present purpose, however, this is of less importance, because it is not claimed that the Indo-European stock is of so great antiquity. But when the ice again retreated it must have been long before Northern Europe could have maintained a population of human beings. The disappearance of the surface ice must have been followed by a long period when ice still remained underground, and the surface was occupied by swamps and barren tundras, as Northern Siberia is now. When a human population once more occupied Northern Europe it is impossible to estimate in years.

The problem may be attacked from the opposite direction. How long would it have taken for the Indo-European stock to spread from its original home to its modern areas of occupation? Some recent writers say that it is unnecessary to carry the stock back farther than 2500 B.C.—a period when the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia were already ancient. Wherever the original home was situated, this date is probably fixed too low. The discussion, moreover, is in danger not only of moving in one vicious circle but in two. (a) The term "Indo-European stock" necessarily implies race, but why might not the language have been from the earliest times at which we can trace it the language of a mixed race? (b) It is usual to assume that the Indo-European stock was tall and blond, in fact much as the classical writers describe the early Germans. But the truth of this hypothesis is much more difficult to demonstrate. In most countries known to the ancients where blond hair prevailed, at the present day dark or brown hair is much more in evidence. Moreover the colour of fair hair often varies from childhood to middle life, and the flaxen hair of youth is very frequently replaced by a much darker shade in the adult. It has been often pointed out that many of Homer's heroes are xanthoi, and it is frequently argued that ξανθός means blond. This, however, is anything but certain, even when Vacher de Lapouge has collected all the passages in ancient writers which bear upon the subject. When Diodorus (v. 32) wishes to describe the children of the Galatae, by whom apparently he means the Germans, he says that their hair as children is generally white, but as they grow up it is assimilated to the colour of their fathers. The ethnological argument as to long-headed and short-headed races (dolichocephalic and brachycephalic) seems untrustworthy, because in countries described as dolichocephalic short skulls abound and vice versa. Moreover this classification, to which much more attention has been devoted than its inventor Retzius ever intended, is in itself unsatisfactory. The relation between the length and breadth of the head without consideration of the total size is clearly an unsatisfactory criterion. It is true that to the mathematician 3/4 or 6/8 or 9/12 are of identical value, but, if it be also generally true that mental and physical energy are dependent on the size and weight of the brain, then the mere mathematical relation between length and breadth is of less importance than the size of the quantities. Anthropologists appear now to recognize this themselves.

The argument from physical geography seems more important. But here also no certain answer can be obtained till more is known of the conditions, in early times, of the eastern part of the area. According to Ratzel7 the Caspian was once very much larger than it is now, and to the north of it there extended a great area of swamp, which made it practically impossible for the Indo-European race to have crossed north of the Caspian from either continent to the other. At an early period the Caspian and Black Sea were connected, and the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles were represented by a river which entered the Aegean at a point near the island of Andros. While the northern Aegean was still land divided only by a river, it is clear that migration from south-eastern Europe to Asia Minor, or reversely, might have taken place with ease. Even in much later times the Dardanelles have formed no serious barrier to migration in either direction. At the dawn of history, Thracian tribes crossed it and founded, it seems, the Phrygian and Armenian stock in Asia Minor; the Gauls at a later time followed the same road, as did Alexander the Great a generation earlier. At the end of the middle ages, Asia sent by way of the Dardanelles the invading Turks into Europe. The Greeks, a nation of seafarers, on the other hand reached Asia directly across the Aegean, using the islands, as it were, as stepping-stones.

Though much more attention has been devoted to the subject by recent writers than was earlier the practice, it is doubtful whether migration by sea has even now been assigned its full importance. The most mysterious people of antiquity, the Pelasgians, do not seem to be in all cases the same stock, as their name appears merely to mean "the people of the sea," Πελασγοί representing an earlier πελαγς-κοι, where πελαγς is the weak form of the stem of πέλαγος, "sea," and -κοι the ending so frequent in the names of peoples. A parallel to the sound changes may be seen in μίσγω, for *μίγ-σκω, by the side of μίγ-νυμι. As time goes on, evidence seems more and more to tend to confirm the truth of the great migrations by sea, recorded by Herodotus, of Lydians to Etruria, of Eteocretans both to east and west. An argument in favour of the original Indo-Europeans being seated in north-western Germany has been developed by G. Kossinna (Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 1902, pp. 161-222) from the forms and ornamentation of ancient pottery. It has certainly not been generally received with favour, and as Kossinna himself affirms that the classification of prehistoric pottery is still an undeveloped science, his theory is clearly at present unequal to the weight of such a superstructure as he would build upon it. As the allied sciences are not prepared with an answer, it is necessary to fall back upon the Indo-European languages themselves. The attempt has often been made to ascertain both the position of the original home and the stage of civilization which the original community had reached from a consideration of the vocabulary for plants and animals common to the various languages of the Indo-European family. But the experience of recent centuries warns us to be wary in the application of this argument. If we cut off all past history and regard the language of the present day as we have perforce to regard our earliest records, two of the words most widely disseminated amongst the Indo-European people of Europe are tobacco and potato. Without historical records it would be impossible for us to discover that these words in their earliest European form had been borrowed from the Caribbean Indians. Most languages tend to adopt with an imported product the name given to it by its producers, though frequently misunderstanding arises, as in the case of the two words mentioned, the potato being properly the yam, and tobacco being properly the pipe, while petum or petun (cp. petunia) was the plant.8

The first treatise in which an attempt was made to work out the primitive Indo-European civilisation in detail was Adolphe Pictet's Les Origines indo-européennes ou les Aryas primitifs (1859–1863). The idyllic conditions in which, according to Pictet, early Indo-European man subsisted were accepted and extended by many enthusiastic successors. The father, the protector of the family (pater from pā, protect), and the mother (mater from mā, to produce) were surrounded by their children (Skt. putra), whose name implied that they kept everything clean and neat. The daughter was the milkmaid (Skt. duhitā from duh, milk), while the brother (Skt. bhrātār), derived from the root of ferre, "bear," was the natural protector of his sister, whose name, with some hesitation, is decided to mean "she who dwells with her brother," the notion of brother and sister marriage being, however, summarily rejected (ii. p. 365). The uncle and aunt are a second father and mother to the family, and for this reason nepos, Skt. napāt, is both nephew and grandson. The life of such families was pastoral but not nomad; there was a farmstead where the women were busied with housewifery and butter-making, while the men drove their flocks afield. The ox, the horse, the sheep, the goat and the pig were domesticated as well as the dog and the farmyard fowls, but it was in oxen that their chief wealth consisted. Hence a cow was offered to an honoured guest, cows were the object of armed raids upon their neighbours, and when a member of the family died, a cow was killed to accompany him in the next world. Even the phenomena of nature to their naive imaginations could be represented by cows: the clouds of heaven were cows whose milk nourished the earth, the stars were a herd with the sun as the bull amongst them, the earth was a cow yielding her increase. Before the original community, which extended over a wide area with Bactria for its centre, had broken up, agriculture had begun, and barley, if not other cereals, and various leguminous plants were cultivated. Oxen drew the plough and the wagon. Industry also had developed with the introduction of agriculture; the carpenter with a variety of tools appears to construct farm implements, buildings and furniture, and the smith is no less busy. Implements had begun with stone, but by this time were made of bronze if not of iron, for the metals gold, silver, copper, tin were certainly known. Spinning and weaving had also begun; pottery was well developed. The flocks and herds and agriculture supplied food with plenty of variety; fermented liquors, mead, probably wine and perhaps beer, were used, not always in moderation. A great variety of military weapons had been invented, but geographical reasons prevented navigation from developing in Bactria. Towns existed and fortified places. The people were organized in clans, the clans in tribes. At the head of all, though not in the most primitive epoch, was the king, who reigned not by hereditary right, but by election. Though money had not yet been invented, exchange and barter flourished; there were borrowers and lenders, and property passed from father to son. Though we have no definite information as to their laws, justice was administered; murder, theft and fraud were punished with death, imprisonment or fine (Résumé général at end of vol. ii.).

3

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Further investigation, however, did not confirm this ideally happy form of primitive civilization. Many of Pictet's etymologies were erroneous, many of his deductions based on very uncertain evidence. No recent writer adopts Pictet's views of the Indo-European family. But his list of domesticated animals is approximately correct, if domestication is used loosely simply of animals that might be kept by the Indo-European man about his homestead. Even at the present day domestication means different things in the case of different animals. A pig is not domesticated as a dog is; in areas like the Hebrides or western Ireland, where cattle and human beings share the two ends of the same building, domestication means something very different from the treatment of large herds on a farm extending to many hundreds of acres. In other respects the height of the civilization was vastly exaggerated. That the Indo-European people were agricultural as well as pastoral seems highly probable. But as Heraclides says of the Athamanes (Fragments hist. Graec. ii. 219), the women were the agriculturists, while the men were shepherds. Agriculture begins on a very small scale with the dibbling by means of a pointed stick of a few seeds of some plant which the women recognize as useful either for food or medicine, and is possible only when the people have ceased to be absolutely nomad and have fixed settlements for continuous periods of some length. The pastoral habit is broken down in men only by starvation, if the pasture-lands become too cramped through an excessive increase of population or are seized by a conqueror. As has been well said, "of all the ordinary means of gaining a livelihood—with the exception perhaps of mining—agriculture is the most laborious, and is never voluntarily adopted by men who have not been accustomed to it from their childhood" (Mackenzie Wallace, Russia, new ed. i. p. 266, in relating the conversion of the Bashkir Tatars to agriculture). Even the plough, in the primitive form of a tree stump with two branches, one forming the handle, the other the pole, was developed, and to this period may belong the representations in rock carvings in Sweden and the Alps of a pair of oxen in the plough (S. Muller, Nordische Altertumskunde, i. 205; Dechelette, Manuel d'archéologie, ii. pp. 492 ff.). The Indo-European civilization in its beginnings apparently belongs to the chalcolithic period (sometimes described by the barbarous term of Italian origin eneolithic) when copper, if not bronze had come in, but the use of stone for many purposes had not yet gone out. While primitive Indo-European man apparently knew, as has been said, the horse, ox, sheep, goat, pig and dog, it is to be observed that in their wild state at least these animals do not all affect the same kind of area. The horse is an animal of the open plain; the foal always accompanies the mother, for at first its neck is too short to allow it to graze, and the mare, unlike the cow, has no large udder in which to carry a great supply of milk. The cow, on the other hand, hides her calf in a brake when she goes to graze, and is more a woodland animal. The pig's natural habitat is the forest where beech mast, acorns, or chestnuts are plentiful. The goat is a climber and affects the heights, while the sheep also prefers short grass to the richer pastures suited to kine. To collect and tame all those animals implies control of an extensive and varied area.

What of the trees known to primitive Indo-European man? On this the greater part of the arguments regarding the original home have turned. The name for the beech extends through a considerable number of Indo-European languages, and it has generally been assumed that the beech must have been known from the first and therefore must have been a tree which flourished in the original home. Now the habitat of the beech is to the west of a line drawn from Königsberg to the Crimea. The argument assumes that its distribution was always the same. But nothing is more certain than that in different ages different trees succeed one another on the same soil. In the peat mosses of north-east Scotland are found the trunks of vast oaks which have no parallel among the trees which grow in the same district now, where the oak has a hard struggle to live at all, and where experience teaches the planter that coniferous trees will be more successful. On the coast of Denmark in the same way the conifer has replaced the beech since the days of the "kitchen middens," from which so much information as to the primitive inhabitants of that area has been obtained. But with. regard to the names of trees there are two serious pitfalls which it is difficult to avoid. (a) It is common to give a tree the name of another which in habit it resembles. In England the oriental plane does not grow freely north of the Trent; accordingly, farther north the sycamore, which has a leaf that a casual observer might think similar, has usurped the name of the plane. (b) In the case of the beech (Lat. fagus), the corresponding Greek word φηγός does not mean beech but oak, or possibly, if one may judge from the magnificent trees of north-west Greece, the chestnut. It has been suggested that the word is connected with the verb φαγεῖν to eat, so that it was originally the tree with edible fruit and could thus be specialized in different senses in different areas. If, however, Bartholomae's connexion of the Kurd būz, "elm" (Idg. Forschungen, ix. 271) be correct, there can be no relation between φαγεῖν and φηγός, but the latter comes from a root *bhāuĝ, in which the g would become z among the satem languages. The birch is a more widely spread tree than the beech, growing as luxuriantly in the Himalayas as in western Europe, but notwithstanding, the Latin fraxinus, which is almost certainly of the same origin, means not birch but ash, while the word akin to ash (Gr. ὀξύη) appears in Latin without the k suffix as os- in Latin ornus, "mountain ash," for an earlier *osinos, cp. Old Bulgarian jasenŭ (the j has no etymological value), Welsh and Cornish onnen, from an original Celtic *onna from *os-nā. One of the most widely spread tree names is the word tree itself, which appears in a variety of forms, Gr. δρῦς, Goth triu; Skt. dāru, δόρυ, &c., which is sometimes as in Greek specially limited to the oak, while the Indian deodar (deva-dāru) is a conifer. O. Schrader, who in his remarkable book, Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte (1883, 3rd ed., 1906–1907), locates the original home in southern Russia, would allow the original community (ii. p. 178) to be partly within, partly without the beech line. The only other tree the name of which is widely spread is the willow: the English with, withy, Lat. vitex, Gr. ἰτέα for ϝιτέα, Lithuanian wýtis, Zend vaêti. Otherwise the words for trees are limited to a small number of languages, and the meaning in different languages is widely different, as Gr. ἐλάτη, "pine," Old High German linta, "linden," with which go the Latin linter, "boat," and Lithuanian lentà, "board." The lime tree and the birch do not exist in Greece, and the Latin betula is a borrowing from Gaulish (Irish bethe), the native word fraxinus, as we have seen, being used for the ash. The equation of the Latin taxus, "yew,"' with Gr. τόξον, "bow," is no doubt correct; Schrader's equation. of Skt. dhanvan, "bow," with the German tanne, "fir," must, if correct, show at least a change of material, for no wood is less welt adapted for a bow than fir. The only conclusion that can be drawn with apparent certainty from the names of trees is that the original settlements were not in the southern peninsulas of Europe.

Some of the names for cultivated plants are widely spread, but like the names of trees do not always indicate the same thing. This is not surprising if we consider that the word corn, within the Teutonic languages alone, means wheat in England, oats in Scotland, rye in Germany, barley in Sweden, maize in the United States of America. Thus the Skt. yáva means corn or barley, in Zend corn (modern Persian jav, barley, but in the language of the Ossetes yeu, yau is millet), the Gk. ζεά is spelt, the Lithuanian jawaĩ corn, the Irish. éorna barley (Schrader, Sprachvergleichung,3 ii. p. 188). The word bere or barley itself is widely spread in Europe—Latin far, spelt, Goth, barizeins, "of barley," Old Norse barr, Old Slav, bŭrŭ, a kind of millet (ibid.). But the original habitat of the cultivated grain plants has not yet been clearly established, and circumstances of many kinds may occasion a change in the kind of grain cultivated, provided another can be found suitable to the climate. In early England it is clear that the prevalent crop was barley, for barn is the bere-ern or barley-house.

The earliest tree-fruits found in Europe are apparently those discovered by Edouard Piette as Mas d'Azil in a stratum which he places between palaeolithic and neolithic. They included nuts, plums, birdcherry, sloe, &c., and along with them was a little heap of grains of wheat. If Piette's observations are correct, this find must go back to a date long preceding the fruits found by Heer in the pile-dwellings of Switzerland. Here also cherry-stones were found, though the modern cherry is said to have been imported first by Lucullus in the first century B.C. from Cerasus in Pontus, whence its name. In the pile-dwellings a considerable number of apples were found. They were generally cut up into two or three pieces, apparently to be dried for winter use. In all probability they were wild apples of the variety Pirus silvatica, which is found across the whole of Central Europe from north to south (Buschan, Vorgeschichtliche Botanik, p. 166). The original habitat of the apple is uncertain, but it is supposed to be indigenous at any rate south of the Black Sea (Schrader, Reallexikon, s. v. Apfelbaum). The history of the name is obscure; it is often connected with the Campanian town Abella, which Virgil (Aeneid, vii. 740) calls malifera, "apple-bearing." Here also the material for fixing the site of the original habitat is untrustworthy.

The attempt has been made to limit the possible area by a consideration of three animals which are said not to occur in certain parts of it—(a) the eel, which is said not to be found in the Black Sea; (b) the honey bee, which is not found in that part of Central Asia drained by the Oxus and Jaxartes; (c) the tortoise, which is not found in northern areas. From evidence collected by Schrader from a specialist at Bucharest (Sprachvergleichung,3 ii. p. 147) eels are found in the Black Sea. The argument, therefore, for excluding the area which drains into the Black Sea from the possible habitat of the primitive Indo-European community falls to the ground. Honey was certainly familiar at an early age, as is shown by the occurrence of the word *medhu, Skt. mádhu, Gr. μέθυ (here the meaning has shifted from mead to wine), Irish mid, English mead, Old Slav. medŭ, Lithuanian medùs honey, midùs mead. Schrader, who is the first to utilize the name of the tortoise in this argument, points out (op. cit. p. 148) that forms from the same root occur in both a centum and a satem language - Gr. χελύς, χελώνη,, Old Slav. žĭly, želŭvĭ—but that while it reaches far north in eastern Europe, it does not pass the 46th parallel of latitude in western Europe. This argument would make not only the German site for the original home which is supported by Kossinna and Hirt impossible, but also that of Scandinavia contended for by Penka.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the arguments for any given area are not conclusive. In the great plain which extends across Europe north of the Alps and Carpathians and across Asia north of the Hindu Kush there are few geographical obstacles to prevent the rapid spread of peoples from any part of its area to any other, and, as we have seen, the Celts and the Hungarians, &c., have, in the historical period, demonstrated the rapidity with which such migrations could be made. Such migration may possibly account for the appearance of a people using a centum language so far east as Turkestan. But our information as to Tocharish is still too fragmentary to decide the question. It is impossible here to discuss at any length the relations between the separate Indo-European languages, a subject which has formed, from somewhat different points of view, the subject of Kretschmer's Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache and Meillet's Les Dialectes indo-européennes. BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Besides the articles on the separate languages in this Encyclopaedia the following works are the most important for consultation: K. Brugmann (phonology and morphology) and B. Delbrück (syntax), Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen (1886–1900), ed. 2, vol. i. (1897); of vol. ii. two large parts, including the stem formation and inflexion of the noun, the pronoun and the numerals, have been published in 1906 and 1909. A shorter work by Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, dealing mainly with Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Germanic and Slavonic, appeared in three parts in 1902–1903. A good but less elaborate work is A. Meillet, Introduction à l'étude comparative des langues indo-européennes (1903, 2nd ed. 1908). For the ethnological argument: W. Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe (1900); G. Sergi, The Mediterranean Race (English edition, 1901). Other works, now largely superseded, which deal with this argument are K. Penka, Origines Ariacae (1883), and Die Herkunft der Arier (1886), and I. Taylor, The Origin of the Aryans, N.D. (1890). The ethnologists are no more in agreement than the philologists. For the arguments mainly from the linguistic side see especially O. Schrader, Sprachvergleichung and Urgeschichte (3rd ed., 2 vols., 1906–1907)—the second edition was translated into English by Dr F. B. Jevons under the title Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples (1890); Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde (1901); M. Much, Die Heimat der Indogermanen (1902, 2nd ed. 1904); E. de Michelis, L'Origine degli Indo-europei (1903); H. Hirt, Die Indogermanen (2 vols., 1905–1907); S. Feist, Europa im Lichte der Vorgeschichte und die Ergebnisse der vergleichenden indogermanischen Sprachwissenschaft, 1910, in W. Sieglin's Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographie. Important for special sections of this question are S. Müller, Nordische Altertumskunde (2 vols., 1897–1898), and Urgeschichte Europas (1905); V. Hehn, Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere (1870), 7th ed. edited by O. Schrader, with contributions on botany by A. Engler (1902); J. Hoops, Waldbäume und Kulturpflanzen im germanischen Altertum (1905). Delbrück has devoted a special monograph to the I.-E. names of relationships, from which he shows that the I.-E. family was patriarchal, not matriarchal (Die idg. Verwandtschaftsnamen, 1889). E. Meyer, from Tocharish being a centum language, has revived with reserve the hypothesis of the Asiatic origin (Geschichte des Altertums,2 I. 2, p. 801). (P. Gi.)

1 E. Meyer, Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie (1908, pp. 14 ff.), and more fully in Kuhn's Zeitschrift (xlii. pp. 17 ff.); also Geschichte des Altertums (i. 2, 2nd ed. pp. 807 ff.).

2 Sieg und Siegling, "Tocharisch, die Sprache der Indoskythen" (Sitzb. d. Berl. Ak. 1908, pp. 915 ff.).

3 No. xix. p. 255, "Another ancient and extensive class of languages, united by a greater number of resemblances than can well be altogether accidental, may be denominated the Indo-European, comprehending the Indian, the West Asiatic, and almost all the European languages."

4 Leo Meyer, "Über den Ursprung der Namen Indogermanen, Semiten und Ugrofinner," in the Göttinger gelehrte Nachrichten, philologisch-historische Klasse, 1901, pp. 454 ff.

5 The vocative is not strictly speaking a case at all, for it stands outside the syntax of the sentence. It was originally an exclamatory form consisting of the bare stem without case suffix. In the plural the nominative is used to supply the lacking vocative form.


6 For the history of the controversy see the excellent summary in Salomon Reinach's L'Origine des Aryens: Historie d'une controverse (1892). Max Müller's latest views are contained in his Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas (1888). See Schmidt's Die Urheimat der Indogermanen und das europäische Zahlsystem (1890).

7 "Geographische Prüfung der Tatsachen über den Ursprung der Völker Europas " (Berichte der k. sächsischen Ges. d. Wissenschaften, 1900, pp. 34 ff.).

8 See the essay on "Evolution and the Science of Language," in Darwin and Modern Science (1909), p. 524 f.


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File:IE
Countries where Indo-European languages are spoken today.
Dark Green = Main language. Light Green = Less significant
File:Indoarische Sprachen
Geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages (Urdu is not shown because it is mainly a lingua franca with no prevalence as a first language. Outside of the scope of the map is the migratory Romani language)

Indo-European languages are a major group of languages. Linguists believe they all came from a single language called Proto-Indo-European. This language was originally spoken somewhere in Eurasia. Today they are spoken all over the world.

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects,[1] including most major languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia. Historically, this language family was also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia. The earliest Indo-European writing comes from the Bronze Age in the Anatolian and Mycenaean Greek languages. We can place the origin of Indo-European languages after the invention of farming, because some of the Proto-Indo-European words are farming words.

The languages of the Indo-European group have about three billion native speakers. It is the biggest language family. Of present-day languages with most speakers, 12 are Indo-European: English, Spanish, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi and Urdu. They account for over 1.6 billion native speakers.[2]

Main language groups

These are the main Indo-European language groups:

History of Indo-European linguistics

Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. In 1583 Fr. Thomas Stephens S.J. an English Jesuit missionary in Goa, noticed similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin. These observations were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century.[3]

The first account to mention Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born Florence, Italy 1540). He was a Florentine merchant who was among the first Europeans to study the ancient Indian language Sanskrit. Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", nava/nove "nine").[3] However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.[3]

In 1647 Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed that they derived from a primitive common language. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. However, van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.

Gaston Coeurdoux and others had made observations of the same type. Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship between them, about 20 years before William Jones. Similarly, Mikhail Lomonosov compared different languages groups of the world including Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, Finnish, Chinese, Hottentot and others.[4]

The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities between three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian,[5] though also commiting some inaccuracies and omissions in his classification.[6]

It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in 1813,[7] which became the standard scientific term (except in Germany)[8] through the work of Franz Bopp. Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, is the starting point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline.

References

  1. It is composed of 449 languages and dialects, according to the 2005 Ethnologue estimate, about half (219) belonging to the Indo-Aryan sub-branch.
  2. 308 languages according to SIL; more than one billion speakers. Historically, also in terms of geographical spread (stretching from the Caucasus to South Asia
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Auroux, Sylvain (2000). History of the language sciences. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1156. ISBN 3110167352. http://books.google.com/books?id=yasNy365EywC&pg=PA1156&vq=stephens+sassetti&dq=3110167352&as_brr=3&sig=nOsHuf3fqPmzmjmGYk1UnvSiFAs. 
  4. M.V. Lomonosov. In: Complete edition, Moscow, 1952, vol 7, pp 652-659: Представимъ долготу времени, которою сіи языки раздѣлились. ... Польской и россійской языкъ коль давно раздѣлились! Подумай же, когда курляндской! Подумай же, когда латинской, греч., нѣм., росс. О глубокая древность! [Imagine the depth of time when these languages separated! ... Polish and Russian separated so long ago! Now think how long ago [this happened to] Kurlandic! Think when [this happened to] Latin, Greek, German, and Russian! Oh, great antiquity!]
  5. http://www.billposer.org/Papers/iephm.pdf, cited on page 14-15.
  6. Blench, Roger 2004. Archaeology and language: methods and issues. In: A companion to archaeology. J. Bintliff ed. 52-74. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2004. (He erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindi.)
  7. In London Quarterly Review X/2 1813.; cf. Szemerényi 1999:12, footnote 6
  8. In German it is indogermanisch 'Indo-Germanic' which indicates the east-west extension. That term was first recorded in use in French original as indo-germanique, in 1810 by Conrad Malte-Brun, a French geographer of Danish descent.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Indo-European languages, which are similar to those in the above article.








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