Indo-European languages: Wikis

  
  
  





































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Indo-European
Geographic
distribution:
Before the 15th century, .Europe, and South, Central and Southwest Asia; today worldwide.^ The prehistoric conditions of Northern, Western, Central and South-eastern Europe have been carefully investigated, but important new discoveries are still continually being made.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The grassland across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Steppe , is one of the great highways of world history.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq , Armenia , Afghanistan , eastern parts of Turkey , and parts of Syria , Pakistan , Caucasia , Central Asia and Arabia .
  • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Genetic
classification
:
One of the world's major language families
Subdivisions:
Anatolian (e.g., Hittite)
Balto-Slavic (e.g., Russian, Lithuanian)
Celtic (e.g., Irish, Welsh)
Germanic (e.g., English, German, Swedish)
Hellenic (e.g., Greek)
Indo-Iranian (e.g., Bengali, Hindi, Persian, Kurdish)
Italic (e.g., French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)
ISO 639-2 and 639-5: ine
IE countries.svg
     Countries with a majority of speakers of IE languages      Countries with an IE minority language with official status
.The Indo-European languages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects,[1] including most major languages of Europe, languages of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.^ An Indo-European language spoken in Central India : dhow , chit ...
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An Indo-European language spoken in Pakistan and North India : balti , Pakistan , purdah ...
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Attested since the Bronze Age, in the form of Mycenaean Greek and Anatolian languages, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the longest recorded history after the Afroasiatic family.^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pure gold for the historical linguist is ATTESTED (written) ancient forms.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The languages of the Indo-European group are spoken by approximately three billion native speakers, the largest number for recognised languages families.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The language spoken in Germany belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family.

.Of the top 20 contemporary languages in terms of native speakers according to SIL Ethnologue, 12 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi and Urdu, accounting for over 1.6 billion native speakers.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Hindi and Urdu have borrowed from English and other modern languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ English, Italian, Spanish French, German, Portuguese, Russian Dutch, Greek, Swedish, Japanese includes online free instant estimate CLICK HERE .

[2]
.Several disputed proposals merge Indo-European with other major language families.^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages Linguistically isolated .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

Contents

History of Indo-European linguistics

.Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus with Kretschmer we must distinguish between what is common Indo-European and what is original Indo-European in language.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1583 Fr. .Thomas Stephens, SJ, an English Jesuit missionary in Goa, noted similarities between Indian languages, specifically Konkani, and Greek and Latin.^ Konkani (or कोंकणी; 7,6 million speakers ; one of the official languages of the Republic of India, mainly spoken in the Indian state of Goa; the LIP includes a brand-new speller) .
  • Office Natural Language Team Blog 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Etruscan seems to bridge as well between Greek and the Anatolian languages, particularly Lydian.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various Indian languages are certain to continue and thrive, while English continues for purposes of neutral national communication.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

These observations were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century.[3]
.The first account to mention Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born in Florence, Italy in 1540 AD), a Florentine merchant who traveled to the Indian subcontinent and was among the first Europeans to study the ancient Indian language Sanskrit.^ Claims as to who was first among the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Another ancient and extensive class of languages, united by a greater number of resemblances than can well be altogether accidental, may be denominated the Indo-European, comprehending the Indian, the West Asiatic, and almost all the European languages."
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some scholars in India controvert this theory, that Sanskrit is the mother tongue of the Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", nava/nove "nine").^ The different ways to write the word are discussed at " Greek, Sanskrit, and Closely Related Languages ."
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note that some word derivations are disputed by etymologists.
  • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.[3]
.In 1647 Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed that they derived from a primitive common language which he called "Scythian". He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages.^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The national language of Iran is Persian, also known as Farsi, an Indo-European language.
  • Anthropology (Languages) 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.farhangsara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.^ Further investigation, however, did not confirm this ideally happy form of primitive civilization.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Gaston Coeurdoux and others had made observations of the same type. .Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship between them, about 20 years before William Jones.^ There is no question about the dating of the ProtoEtruscan culture, and the relationship between the Celtic and ProtoItalic languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his address to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta he proposed that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin are related to one another.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately Sir William Jones's views as to the relationship of the languages were not adopted for many years by later investigators.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities between three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian.^ Nevertheless, its influence continues on the modern languages, like Hindi, that place themselves deliberately in the tradition of Sanskrit civilization and consequently use it as a source of borrowings and neologisms, as European languages do with Greek and Latin.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his address to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta he proposed that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin are related to one another.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately Sir William Jones's views as to the relationship of the languages were not adopted for many years by later investigators.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in 1813,[4] which became the standard scientific term (except in Germany[5]) through the work of Franz Bopp, whose systematic comparison of these and other old languages supported the theory.^ Household Language: Other Indo-European languages Linguistically isolated .
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The term most commonly used in Germany is "Indo-Germanic."
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, counts as the starting point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline.^ Comparative Linguistics and the movement of the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

Classification

Indo-European language family.
Indo-European topics
Indo-European languages (list)
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  
Indo-European peoples
Europe: Balts · Slavs · Albanians · Italics · Celts · Germanic peoples · Greeks · Paleo-Balkans (Illyrians · Thracians · Dacians) ·
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies
The various subgroups of the Indo-European language family include ten major branches, given in the chronological order of their earliest surviving written attestations:
.
  1. Anatolian languages, earliest attested branch.^ All the actually attested Anatolian words for ‘horse’ are from languages of the Luvian subgroup; and in that subgroup the initial vow­els of all the relevant words are etymologically ambiguous!
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Isolated terms in Old Assyrian sources from the 19th century BC, Hittite texts from about the 16th century BC; extinct by Late Antiquity.
  2. Hellenic languages, fragmentary records in Mycenaean Greek from the late 15th - early 14th century BC; Homeric traditions date to the 8th century BC. (See Proto-Greek language, History of the Greek language.^ Prussian is an extinct language from this branch The Hellenic Branch .

    ^ In the early 19th century, the Javan Tiger was common all over the island, but rapid human population increase led to the destruction of its forest habitat.

    ^ However, given that the daughter languages do have reflexes of the proto-word, it's highly likely that the pronunciation was in fact cognate with the PIE term reconstructed.
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    )
  3. .
  4. Indo-Iranian languages, born from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-Iranian (dated to the late 3rd millenium BC)
    • Iranian languages, attested from roughly 1000 BC in the form of Avestan.^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Vedic Sanskrit , the language used in the Vedas, the sacred Hindu scriptures, is the earliest form of Sanskrit, dating from about 1500 BC to about 200 BC. A later variety of the language, classical Sanskrit (from about 500 BC), was a language of literary and technical works.

      ^ Proto-Iranian *čaxrah > Avestan čaxrō (no pl.
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Epigraphically from 520 BC in the form of Old Persian (Behistun inscription).
    • Indo-Aryan languages, attested from the late 15th - early 14th century BC in Mitanni texts showing traces of Indo-Aryan.^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
      • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The word Ariya , noble/spiritual/elevated, is attested in the Inscriptions of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes I ; it is used both as a linguistic and a racial designation as Darius refers to this at the Behistun inscription (DBiv.89), which is written in Aryan language / airyan , also thumb|left| Darius I , continued the expansion of The Persian Empire"> [Xerxes I , the son of Darius I , continued the expansion of The Persian Empire ] known as Old Persian .
      • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ And we have lots of attested Latin to work with — so we have clear, unambiguous examples of how some sound changes have worked; likewise in other language families where ancient texts are preserved (i.e.
      • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

      Epigraphically from the 3rd century BC in the form of Prakrit (Edicts of Ashoka). .The Rigveda is assumed to preserve intact records via oral tradition dating from about the mid-2nd millennium BC in the form of Vedic Sanskrit.
    • Dardic languages
    • Nuristani languages
  5. Italic languages, including Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), attested from the 7th century BC.
  6. Celtic languages, descended from Proto-Celtic.^ The earlier form of the language is closest to Italic, the precursor of Latin.
    • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Proto-Italic *ékwos > Latin equos.
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Development of attested forms in the daughter languages: .
    • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Gaulish inscriptions date as early as the 6th century BC; Old Irish manuscript tradition from about the 8th century AD.
  7. Germanic languages (from Proto-Germanic), earliest testimonies in runic inscriptions from around the 2nd century AD, earliest coherent texts in Gothic, 4th century AD. Old English manuscript tradition from about the 8th century AD.
  8. Armenian language, alphabet writings known from the beginning of the 5th century AD.
  9. Tocharian languages, extant in two dialects, attested from roughly the 6th to the 9th century AD. Marginalized by the Old Turkic Uyghur Khaganate and probably extinct by the 10th century.
  10. Balto-Slavic languages, believed by most Indo-Europeanists[6] to form a phylogenetic unit, while a minority ascribes similarities to prolonged language contact.^ Afrikaans , a Germanic language derived from the same 16 th -century Dutch dialect that led to modern Dutch, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
    • Office Natural Language Team Blog 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With these go (4) the Germanic or Teutonic languages , including ( a ) Gothic , ( b ) the Scandinavian languages , Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic—differentiated in historical times out of a single language, Old Norse,—( c ) West Germanic, including English and Frisian, Low Frankish (from which spring modern Dutch and Flemish), Low and High German.
    • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
    • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  11. Albanian language, attested from the 14th century AD; Proto-Albanian likely emerged from "Paleo-Balkanic" predecessors.^ Swedish has tones, unusual in European languages.

    ^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
    • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not all European languages are Indo-European.

    [7][8]
In addition to the classical ten branches listed above, several extinct and little-known languages have existed:

Grouping

.Membership of these languages in the Indo-European language family is determined by genetic relationships, meaning that all members are presumed to be descendants of a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Proto-Indo-European gender system animate versus inanimate goes back to a former gender system, male versus female, the markers seem to be identical in all three language families — which would mean the common origin not only of the gender system as such but also of the elements used as markers for gender.."
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Membership in the various branches, groups and subgroups or Indo-European is also genetic, but here the defining factors are shared innovations among various languages, suggesting a common ancestor that split off from other Indo-European groups.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this treatise he brings forward arguments from a great variety of facts to show that in the original Indo-European language there were dialects, the Aryan, Armenian, Balto-Slavonic and Albanian, as we have seen, forming an oriental group with novel characteristics developed in common, although in various other characteristics they do not agree.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, what makes the Germanic languages a branch of Indo-European is that much of their structure and phonology can so be stated in rules that apply to all of them.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we cut off all past history and regard the language of the present day as we have perforce to regard our earliest records, two of the words most widely disseminated amongst the Indo-European people of Europe are tobacco and potato.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of their common features are presumed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, the source of all the Germanic languages.^ Many people trying to debunk the source code say it is common practice in modeling to include adhoc code for test purposes not to be used to publish actual data.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many believe that before the arrival of the Aryans, Dravidian languages were spoken over all India.

^ It has the reputation among some of being the common language of all of Africa, but it is actually not spoken in the West or South.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Tree versus wave model

.To the evolutionary history of a language family, a genetic "tree model" is considered appropriate especially if communities do not remain in effective contact as their languages diverge.^ Perfect phylogenetic networks: a new methodology for reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages.” Language 81.382-420.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But most disintegrations of speech communities don’t happen like that; dialects remain in contact as they diverge, continuing to trade linguistic material until some event finally makes them lose touch altogether.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears that the separation of Tocharian from the rest of the family was sharp, and that it did not again come into contact with other IE languages (specifically, Iranian languages) for many centuries.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Exempted from this concept are shared innovations acquired by borrowing (or other means of convergence), that cannot be considered genetic.^ Like Tocharian, Anatolian shares no distinctive innovations with any other subfamily of IE (cf.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This grouping, however, is by no means exclusive, members of either group having characteristics in common with individuals of the other group which they do not share with the other languages of their own group (Meillet, p.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this case the so-called "wave model" applies, featuring borrowings and no clear underlying genetic tree.^ Complications may include ascertainement bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has been asserted, for example, that many of the more striking features shared by Italic languages (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.^ Many ancient Indo-European languages (Latin, Sanskrit, etc.
  • conlang : Message: Re: Passive participles 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Separation of Proto-Italic into Osco-Umbrian and Latin-Faliscan , and foundation of Rome .
  • Indo-European languages at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient Greeks and Romans readily perceived that their languages were related to each other, and, as other European languages became objects of scholarly attention in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, many of these were seen to be more similar to Latin and Greek than, for example, to Hebrew or Hungarian.
  • Indo-European languages :: Establishment of the family -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) might well be areal features. .More certainly, very similar-looking alterations in the systems of long vowels in the West Germanic languages greatly postdate any possible notion of a proto-language innovation (and cannot readily be regarded as "areal", either, since English and continental West Germanic were not a linguistic area).^ Still no similarity with IPCC. So I looked at every station in the area.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greek and Germanic seem at first more promising, since Grimm’s Law was a comparatively early Germanic sound change (see the chart at Ringe 2008:152) and the Greek vowel rounding could have occurred very early (note that the unrounding of labiovelars next to u-vowels has already occurred in the Linear B documents).
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since in English voiced consonants invite lengthening of preceding vowels, this is ‘long’ /ea/.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a similar vein, there are many similar innovations in Germanic and Balto-Slavic that are far more likely to be areal features than traceable to a common proto-language, such as the uniform development of a high vowel (*u in the case of Germanic, *i/u in the case of Baltic and Slavic) before the PIE syllabic resonants *ṛ,* ḷ, *ṃ, *ṇ, unique to these two groups among IE languages, which is in agreement with the wave model .^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Often several of these occur at the same time, as is often the case with the introduction of automatic weather stations that is occurring in many parts of the world.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But apparently the need for adjustments of such magnitude in cases like this is “nonsense”.” .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Balkan sprachbund even features areal convergence that comprise very different branches.
.Using an extension to the Ringe-Warnow model of language evolution early IE was confirmed to have featured limited contact between distinct lineages, while only the Germanic subfamily exhibited a less treelike behaviour as it acquired some characteristics from neighbours early in its evolution rather than from its direct ancestors.^ But the distinction between them and the so-called agglutinative languages is one of degree rather than of kind.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following this rule Hans Joachim Alscher in " Relations between Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic Languages, " suggests that after 12,000 years less than five percent of the word stock of a language may be present, at which time the limit of possible coincidence between two parent languages is reached.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

The internal diversification of especially West Germanic is cited to have been radically non-treelike.[9]
.The Indo-Iranian languages form the largest sub-branch of Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers as well as in terms of the number of individual languages.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seventy percent of present-day Iranians are Iranic peoples , native speakers of Indo-European languages who are descended from the Aryan ( Indo-Iranians ) tribes that began migrating from Central Asia into what is now Iran in the second millennium BC. The majority of the population speaks one of the Iranian languages , including the official language, Persian ( Farsi ).
  • Ask A Word 15 September 2009 22:27 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Proposed subgroupings

.Specialists have postulated the existence of such subfamilies (subgroups) as Italo-Celtic, Graeco-Armenian, Graeco-Aryan, and Germanic with Balto-Slavic.^ "Some theories have also linked Italic and Celtic closely as Italo-Celtic, or Germanic and Balto-Slavic together, or Greek and Armenian; however, the similarities between these groups may well be due to contact rather than common ancestry after the break-up of PIE, or to dialect variations within PIE before its break-up.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vogue for such subgroups waxes and wanes; Italo-Celtic for example used to be a standard subgroup of Indo-European, but it is now little honored, in part because much of the evidence on which it was based has turned out to have been misinterpreted[10].^ Thus even if your doubts as to the correctness of the etymology of Gaulish "epo-" turn out to be well-founded, it is plain that Proto-Celtic did indeed inherit the Indo-European word for "horse".
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence for the position of Tocharian in the Indo-European family?” Die Sprache 34.59-123.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkey now includes many lands, which in the pages of [ancient] authors show their old names: so part of Asia Minor, for example, and Phrygia and Lydia.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subgroupings of the Indo European languages are commonly held to reflect genetic relationships and linguistic change.^ And this initiated the study of linguistics, focusing on the matter of Indo-European languages.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparative Linguistics and the movement of the Indo-Europeans .
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The generic differentiation of Proto-Indo-European into dialects and languages happened hand in hand with language contact and the spread of innovations over different territories.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rather than being entirely genetic, the grouping of satem languages is commonly inferred as an innovative change that occurred just once, and subsequently spread over a large cohesive territory or PIE continuum that affected all but the peripheral areas.^ Now this method does not yield reliable results further back than about 10,000 years, because beyond that too much change occurred for there to be any recognizable remnants (that we can be sure about anyway) in attested languages."
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than trying to change all that, which would have involved wholesale destruction and re-invention, I have changed the planet's name to Ares after the Greek rather than the Roman god of war.

^ INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe , and of Asia as far as India .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] .For instance, Kortlandt proposes this satemization process involved interaction between a western and central Indo-European sphere of influence to the ancestors of Balts and Slavs.^ "This claim is largely based on the simplicity of the Hittite grammatical system compared with that of Sanskrit and Greek, which may represent an earlier system elaborated on in the ancestor of the Indo-European branch.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They propose, " Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Hittite may rather have undergone substantial grammatical reduction under the influence of neighbouring non-Indo-European languages in Anatolia.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.Shared features of Phrygian and Greek [13] and of Thracian and Armenian [14] group the southeastern branches of Indo-European together.^ Those exploring these connections are looking for the "mother tongue" from which the Indo-European group broke away.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So what were a group of Indo-Europeans doing so many thousands of miles east of their established territory?

^ From there the groups appear to have launched into Europe (the oldest Indo-European megaliths date circa.
  • Etruscan_Phrases, research providing new insight into Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some fundamental shared features, like the verbal aorist category (this is a verb form denoting action without reference to duration or completion) having the perfect active particle -s fixed to the stem, link this group closer to Anatolian languages[15] and Tocharian.^ The distinctive forms are the present, the perfect, and the aorist .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the locative-singular the ending –i seems to have been of the nature of a post-position, because in various languages (notably in Sanskrit) forms appear without any suffix.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The imperative, which was originally an exclamatory form to the verb, of the same kind as the vocative was to the noun, and which consisted simply of the verb stem without further suffixes, developed, partly on the analogy of the present and partly with the help of adverbs, a complete paradigm.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Shared features with Balto-Slavic languages, on the other hand (especially present and preterit formations), might be due to later contacts.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The present indicated that an action was in progress or continuous, the aorist on the other hand regarded the action as a whole and, as it were, summed it up.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 2008 Almanac, on the other hand, has a rather full list of Chinese and Indian languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.The Indo-Hittite hypothesis proposes the Indo European language family to consist of two main branches: one represented by the Anatolian languages and another branch encompassing all other Indo European languages.^ Three to one and two to the other.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ If a piece of data is really metadata on some other piece of data (for example, representing a class or role that the main data serves, or specifying a method of processing it), put it in an attribute if possible.

.Features that separate Anatolian from all other branches of Indo-European (such as the gender or the verb system) have been interpreted alternately as archaic debris or as innovations due to prolonged isolation.^ On the other hand, if the Indo-European language must have had dialects, the line of differentiation between it and its descendants becomes obliterated.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ Tocharian class II presents and subjunctives and the reconstruction of the Indo-European verb.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 9.121-42.
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Points proffered in favour of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis are the (non-universal) Indo-European agricultural terminology in Anatolia[17] and the preservation of laryngeals.[18] However, in general this hypothesis is considered to attribute too much weight to the Anatolian evidence. .According to another view the Anatolian subgroup left the Indo-European parent language comparatively late, approximately at the same time as Indo-Iranian and later than the Greek or Armenian divisions.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin and spread of the Indo-European languages has long been, and remains, a vexed question.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.A third view, especially prevalent in the so-called French school of Indo-European studies, holds that extant similarities in non-satem languages in general - including Anatolian - might be due to their peripheral location in the Indo-European language area and early separation, rather than indicating a special ancestral relationship.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also the problem of getting right the grammar that actually applies to a language like English, rather than to Latin.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] Holm (2008)[20] based on lexical calculations arrives at a picture roughly replicating the general scholarly opinion and refuting the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.

Satem and centum languages

.The Satem and Centum languages is a much-debated characterization of Indo-European languages devised by von Bradke in the late 19th century based on a single main isogloss.^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is customary to talk of the roots, stems and suffixes of words in the Indo-European languages.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin and spread of the Indo-European languages has long been, and remains, a vexed question.
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Suggested superfamilies

.Some linguists propose that Indo-European languages form part of a hypothetical Nostratic language superfamily, and attempt to relate Indo-European to other language families, such as South Caucasian languages, Uralic languages, Dravidian languages, and Afroasiatic languages.^ Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European Language Log .
  • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A chain of ancient non-Indo-European and non-Semitic languages -- of Elam, the Kassites, the Hurrians, and Urartu -- stretched from Sumer to the Caucasus, but too little is known of these languages, or of the early forms of the Caucasian ones, for certain connections to be drawn.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some programming languages and libraries, processing elements is easier; in others, processing attributes is easier.

.This theory, like the similar Eurasiatic theory of Joseph Greenberg, and the Proto-Pontic postulation of John Colarusso, remains highly controversial, however, and is not accepted by most linguists in the field.^ However, in most cases it would not be too hard to get the data from the missions themselves or from the mining companies or other bodies like NT Dept.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Objections to such groupings are not based on any theoretical claim about the likely historical existence or non-existence of such super-families; it is entirely reasonable to suppose that they might have existed.^ I was certain there had to be a good reason for losing the raw data, as has been claimed by the Jones group.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire station history could be readjusted some entirely different way if, for example, a historic fact like a previously forgotten station move were discovered tomorrow.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the country wants to lie about what it’s giving to the GHCN, and give them somehow processed data while calling it raw, I suppose they could, if that’s what we’re coming to.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The serious difficulty lies in identifying the details of actual relationships between language families; it is very hard to find concrete evidence that transcends chance resemblance.^ It is thus hard to imagine no connection between the invasion and the disappearance, even as the probable language of the Indus Valley, a Dravidian language, was erased from most of the north of India.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the noise-to-signal ratio in historical linguistics increases steadily over time, at great enough time-depths it becomes open to reasonable doubt that it can even be possible to distinguish between signal and noise.^ It’s obviously not possible to attribute increased CO2 levels in that time period to human activity.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible to detect a signal of 1 degree per century from data which has had adjustments 7 times greater added to it?
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since I have been a boy (which is some time) I have noticed Darwins temperature on the evening news is always between 32-34 C. A perfect place to test climate change.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historical evolution

Proto-Indo-European

.The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has the reputation among some of being the common language of all of Africa, but it is actually not spoken in the West or South.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

.The classical phase of Indo-European comparative linguistics leads from Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar (1833) to August Schleicher's 1861 Compendium and up to Karl Brugmann's Grundriss published from the 1880s.^ Indo-European - Lulu.com Log In Sign Up Cart Publish Buy Services Community My Lulu Help Lulu Demo > Search: in All Products .
  • Indo-European - Lulu.com 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

Brugmann's junggrammatische reevaluation of the field and Ferdinand de Saussure's development of the laryngeal theory may be considered the beginning of "contemporary" Indo-European studies. .The generation of Indo-Europeanists active in the last third of the 20th century (such as Calvert Watkins, Jochem Schindler and Helmut Rix) developed a better understanding of morphology and, in the wake of Kuryłowicz's 1956 Apophonie, understanding of the ablaut.^ McKitrick has previously shown that half the warming of the last century is from urban and other development.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th Century, European explorers such as Aurel Stein recounted their discoveries of desiccated bodies found in their journeys through Central Asia.

.From the 1960s, knowledge of Anatolian became certain enough to establish its relationship to PIE. Using the method of internal reconstruction an earlier stage, called Pre-Proto-Indo-European, has been proposed.^ So what were a group of Indo-Europeans doing so many thousands of miles east of their established territory?

^ Neither of these errors of mine affect my point, which is that there are not enough neighboring stations to adjust Darwin using the main GHCN method.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They perform their own homogenisation, independent of GHCN. They use both statistical methods and the metadata (knowledge of site changes, etc).
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PIE was an inflected language, in which the grammatical relationships between words were signaled through inflectional morphemes (usually endings). The roots of PIE are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. .By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of desinences (usually endings), these form grammatically inflected words (nouns or verbs).^ The Swahili word for "book," kitabu , is Arabic ( kitâb ); but since many nouns in Swahili begin with ki- and form their plurals by changing that to vi- , "books" is vitabu , which is not at all like Arabic, where the plural is kûtûb .
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The hypothetical Indo-European verb system is complex and, like the noun, exhibits a system of ablaut.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diversification

The diversification of the parent language into the attested branches of daughter languages is historically unattested. .The timeline of the evolution of the various daughter languages, on the other hand, is mostly undisputed, quite regardless of the question of Indo-European origins.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The 2008 Almanac, on the other hand, has a rather full list of Chinese and Indian languages.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

mid 2nd millennium BC distribution
mid 1st millennium BC distribution
post- Roman Empire and Migrations period distribution
  • 2500 BC–2000 BC: The breakup into the proto-languages of the attested dialects is complete. .Proto-Greek is spoken in the Balkans, Proto-Indo-Iranian north of the Caspian in the emerging Andronovo culture.^ The presence of Turkey amidst and upon older Indo-European peoples, the Greeks and the Armenians , and overlapping an Iranian people, the Kurds, has not made for forgiveness or forgetfulness of their recent advent.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian .
    • Languages of Iran: Extensive list of the languages of Iran 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC daytranslations.com [Source type: Reference]

    The Bronze Age reaches Central Europe with the Beaker culture, likely composed of various Centum dialects. The Tarim mummies possibly correspond to proto-Tocharians.
  • 2000 BC–1500 BC: Catacomb culture north of the black sea. .The chariot is invented, leading to the split and rapid spread of Iranian and Indo-Aryan from the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex over much of Central Asia, Northern India, Iran and Eastern Anatolia.^ At it's peak, the Tamil Kingdom extended from Middle and south India to include Malaya, Cambodia, Indonesia ( Indo- asia) and Northern Sri lanka.
    • Sri Lanka's road to serfdom: fuss-budget - LANKA BUSINESS ONLINE 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lankabusinessonline.com [Source type: Original source]

    Proto-Anatolian is split into Hittite and Luwian. The pre-Proto-Celtic Unetice culture has an active metal industry (Nebra skydisk).
  • 1500 BC–1000 BC: The Nordic Bronze Age develops pre-Proto-Germanic, and the (pre)-Proto-Celtic Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures emerge in Central Europe, introducing the Iron Age. Migration of the Proto-Italic speakers into the Italian peninsula (Bagnolo stele). Redaction of the Rigveda and rise of the Vedic civilization in the Punjab. .The Mycenaean civilization gives way to the Greek Dark Ages.
  • 1000 BC–500 BC: The Celtic languages spread over Central and Western Europe.^ The "cultural spheres of influence" of India , China , Europe , and Islâm are founded on the civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The different ways to write the word are discussed at " Greek, Sanskrit, and Closely Related Languages ."
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only Classical language that all European civilization has in common is Greek.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Baltic languages are spoken in a huge area from present-day Poland to the Ural Mountains.^ This reflects the circumstance that a large number of languages are spoken in Africa, and many areas are not densely populated.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The languages spoken in present India, evolved in different phases of Indian history.

    [21] Proto Germanic. Homer and the beginning of Classical Antiquity. The Vedic Civilization gives way to the Mahajanapadas. Siddhartha Gautama attains enlightenment and preaches Buddhism. Zoroaster composes the Gathas, rise of the Achaemenid Empire, replacing the Elamites and Babylonia. Separation of Proto-Italic into Osco-Umbrian and Latin-Faliscan. Genesis of the Greek and Old Italic alphabets. .A variety of Paleo-Balkan languages are spoken in Southern Europe.^ About 23 Dravidian languages are spoken by an estimated 169 million people, mainly in southern India.

    .The Anatolian languages are extinct.
  • 500 BC–1 BC/AD: Classical Antiquity: spread of Greek and Latin throughout the Mediterranean, and during Hellenism (Indo-Greeks) to Central Asia and the Hindukush.^ Vedic Sanskrit , the language used in the Vedas, the sacred Hindu scriptures, is the earliest form of Sanskrit, dating from about 1500 BC to about 200 BC. A later variety of the language, classical Sanskrit (from about 500 BC), was a language of literary and technical works.

    ^ Indo-European Linguistics By James Clackson E-book (PDF for Digital Editions): $27.00 Download immediately This item has not been rated yet The Indo-European language family consists of many of the modern and ancient languages of Europe, India and Central Asia, including Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Russian, German, French, Spanish and English.
    • Indo-European - Lulu.com 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Greek and Latin are not really dead languages either, but a great deal of effort is being put into making them so.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Kushan Empire, Mauryan Empire. .Proto-Germanic.
  • 1 BC/AD 500: Late Antiquity, Gupta period; attestation of Armenian.^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Note 1: Early Upanis.ad, between 800 and 500 BC. Note 2: The R.g Veda contains only the two Brâhman.as listed.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Proto-Slavic. .The Roman Empire and then the Migration period marginalize the Celtic languages to the British Isles.
  • 500–1000: Early Middle Ages.^ Note 7: Upanis.ads of the middle period, between 500 and 200 BC. Note 8: Some attribute the Kât.ha Upanis.ad to the Atharva Veda or the Sâma Veda.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The youngest civilization and cultural area would be that of Islâm, whose language, Classical Arabic , represents a large body of secular and religious literature from the Middle Ages down to the present.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    The Viking Age forms an Old Norse koine spanning Scandinavia, the British Isles and Iceland. .The Islamic conquest and the Turkic expansion results in the Arabization and Turkification of significant areas where Indo-European languages were spoken.^ Although several significant and a few durable kingdoms resulted from this conquest, little remains by way of permanent Mongol ethnic presence.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
    • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
    • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This reflects the circumstance that a large number of languages are spoken in Africa, and many areas are not densely populated.
    • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    Tocharian is extinct in the course of the Turkic expansion while Northeastern Iranian (Scytho-Sarmatian) is reduced to small refugia.
  • 1000–1500: Late Middle Ages: Attestation of Albanian and Baltic languages.
  • 1500–2000: Early Modern period to present: Colonialism results in the spread of Indo-European languages to every continent, most notably Romance (North, Central and South America, French Canada, North and Sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia), West Germanic (English in North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and Australia; to a lesser extent Dutch and German), and Russian to Central Asia and North Asia.

Sound changes

.As the Proto-Indo-European language broke up, its sound system diverged as well, changing according to various sound laws evidenced in the daughter languages.^ Speak other Indo-European Language at Home .
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]
  • Languages Spoken at Home by Town - Massachusetts - KIDS COUNT Data Center 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC datacenter.kidscount.org [Source type: General]

^ The system needs to be changed so that after the review, the reviewers sign their names to the paper as well as reviewers.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notable cases of such sound laws include Grimm's law in Proto-Germanic, loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic, loss of intervocalic *s- in Proto-Greek, Brugmann's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian, as well as satemization (discussed above).^ The presence of Turkey amidst and upon older Indo-European peoples, the Greeks and the Armenians , and overlapping an Iranian people, the Kurds, has not made for forgiveness or forgetfulness of their recent advent.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It means, not that everything is regulated by law, but, on the contrary that the coercive power of the state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law and in such a way that it can be foreseen how it will be used."
  • Sri Lanka's road to serfdom: fuss-budget - LANKA BUSINESS ONLINE 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.lankabusinessonline.com [Source type: Original source]

Grassmann's law and Bartholomae's law may or may not have operated at the common Indo-European stage.

Comparison of conjugations

.The following table presents a comparison of conjugations of the thematic present indicative of the verbal root *bʰer- 'to carry' (whence English verb to bear) and its reflexes in various early attested IE languages and their modern descendants or relatives, showing that all languages had in the early stage an inflectional verb system.^ Of course in the case of classical Greek, as well as of many modern languages, we have to deal with the phenomena of ‘declension; ‘ whereas in English we ‘hide the declension.’ .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By abandoning Chinese characters, Korean and Vietnamese have lost their connection to the ancient language; but it is still a living presence in Chinese, in all its separate modern spoken languages , and Japanese.
  • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Proto-Indo-European
(*bʰer- 'to carry')
I (1st. Sg.) *bʰéroh₂
You (2nd. Sg.) *bʰéresi
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) *bʰéreti
We (1st. Du.) *bʰérowos
You (2nd. Du.) *bʰéreth₁es
They (3rd. Du.) *bʰéretes
We (1st. Pl.) *bʰéromos
You (2nd. Pl.) *bʰérete
They (3rd. Pl.) *bʰéronti
Language Family Indo-Aryan Greek Italic Germanic Celtic Slavic Armenian
Vedic Sanskrit Ancient Greek Latin Gothic Old Irish OCS Cl. Arm.
I (1st. Sg.) bhárāmi phérō ferō baíra /bɛra/ biru berǫ berem
You (2nd. Sg.) bhárasi phéreis fers baíris biri bereši beres
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) bhárati phérei fert baíriþ berid beretъ berē
We (1st. Du.) bhárāvas --- --- baíros --- berevě ---
You (2nd. Du.) bhárathas phéreton --- baírats --- bereta ---
They (3rd. Du.) bháratas phéreton --- --- --- berete ---
We (1st. Pl.) bhárāmas phéromen ferimus baíram bermai beremъ berenk`
You (2nd. Pl.) bháratha phérete fertis baíriþ beirthe berete berēk`
They (3rd. Pl.) bháranti phérousi ferunt baírand berait berǫtъ beren
Language Family Hindi Modern Greek French German Irish Czech Persian
I (1st. Sg.) (maiṃ) bharūṃ férno (je) {con}fère (ich) {ge}bäre beirim beru bordam
You (2nd. Sg.) (tū) bhare férnis (tu) {con}fères (du) {ge}bärst beireann (tú) bereš bordi
He/She/It (3rd. Sg.) (vah) bhare férni (il) {con}fère (er) {ge}bärt beireann (sé/sí) bere bord
We (1st. Pl.) (ham) bhareṃ férnoume (nous) {con}ferons (wir) {ge}bären beirimid berem(e) bordim
You (2nd. Pl.) (tum) bharo férnete (vous) {con}ferez (ihr) {ge}bärt beireann (sibh) berete bordid
They (3rd. Pl.) (ve) bhareṃ férnoun (ils) {con}fèrent (sie) {ge}bären beireann (siad) berou bordand
.While similarities are still visible between the modern descendants and relatives of these ancient languages, the differences have increased over time.^ The holy books of different religions that developed in ancient India are written in different languages.

^ Like Hindi, it is descended from Sanskrit, and has the most extensive literature of any modern Indian language.

.Some IE languages have moved from synthetic verb systems to largely periphrastic systems.^ Over a large-enough data series, they should all average out anyway and back to zero, absent some systemic effect like UHI. .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pronouns of periphrastic forms are in brackets when they appear. .Some of these verbs have undergone a change in meaning as well.^ Some of these data are the original underlying observations and some are observations adjusted to account for non climatic influences, for example changes in observations methods.” .
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be nice if these changes lined up well with Willis’ Fig 8, but they don’t.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include various observational errors as well as instrument changes, siting changes, etc.
  • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • In Modern Irish beir usually only carries the meaning to bear in the sense of bearing a child, its common meanings are to catch, grab.
  • The Hindi verb bharnā, the continuation of the Sanskrit verb, can have a variety of meanings, but the most common is "to fill". The forms given in the table, although etymologically derived from the present indicative, now have the meaning of subjunctive.^ And just becase two parents are present doesn’t always mean that the child will turn out to be wonderfully successful.
    • Erykah Badu Responds to Third Pregnancy Chatter + Jay Electronica Video Profile 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.whudat.com [Source type: Original source]

    The present indicative is conjugated periphrastically, using a participle (etymologically the Sanskrit present participle bharant-) and an auxiliary: maiṃ bhartā hūṃ, tū bhartā hai, vah bhartā hai, ham bharte haiṃ, tum bharte ho, ve bharte haiṃ (masculine forms).
  • German is not directly descended from Gothic, but the Gothic forms are a close approximation of what the early West Germanic forms of c. 400 AD would have looked like. .The cognate of Germanic beranan (English bear) survives in German only in the compound gebären, meaning "bear (a child)".
  • The Latin verb ferre is irregular, and not a good representative of a normal thematic verb.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In French, the irregular Latin verb ferre "to carry" has been supplanted by other verbs and ferre only survives in compounds such as souffrir "to suffer" (from Latin sub- and ferre) and conferer "to confer" (from Latin "con-" and "ferre).
  • In Modern Greek, phero φέρω (modern transliteration fero) "to bear" is still used but only in specific contexts not in everyday language.^ There is no specific ‘responsibiity’ to remove artifacts from any dataset, only to account for their effect on the intended use of the adjusted data.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I’m still scratching my head, partly because the bug only affected August, not any other month including September or October.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The compound is used to house wayward polar bears that get too close to the town or return to the community after being scared away.” .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The form that is (very) common today is pherno φέρνω (modern transliteration ferno) meaning "to bring". Additionally, the perfective form of pherno (used for the subjunctive voice and also for the future tense) is also phero.
  • In Modern Russian брать (brat) carries the meaning to take. Бремя (bremia) means burden, as something heavy to bear, and derivative беременность (beremennost) means pregnancy.

See also

Citations and notes

  1. ^ It is composed of 449 languages and dialects, according to the 2005 Ethnologue estimate, about half (219) belonging to the Indo-Aryan sub-branch.
  2. ^ 308 languages according to SIL; more than one billion speakers (see List of languages by number of native speakers). Historically, also in terms of geographical spread (stretching from the Caucasus to South Asia; c.f. Scythia)
  3. ^ a b c Auroux, Sylvain (2000). History of the Language Sciences. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1156. ISBN 3110167352. http://books.google.com/books?id=yasNy365EywC&pg=PA1156&vq=stephens+sassetti&dq=3110167352&as_brr=3&sig=nOsHuf3fqPmzmjmGYk1UnvSiFAs. 
  4. ^ In London Quarterly Review X/2 1813.; cf. Szemerényi 1999:12, footnote 6
  5. ^ In German it is indogermanisch 'Indo-Germanic' which indicates the east-west extension. That term was first recorded in use in French original as indo-germanique, in 1810 by Conrad Malte-Brun, a French geographer of Danish descent.
  6. ^ such as Schleicher 1861, Szemerényi 1957, Collinge 1985, and Beekes 1995
  7. ^ Of the Albanian Language - William Martin Leake, London, 1814.
  8. ^ "The Thracian language". The Linguist List. http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=txh. Retrieved 2008-01-27. "An ancient language of Southern Balkans, belonging to the Satem group of Indo-European. This language is the most likely ancestor of modern Albanian (which is also a Satem language), though the evidence is scanty. 1st Millennium BC - 500 AD." 
  9. ^ [1] Perfect Phylogenetic Networks: A New Methodology for Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Natural Languages - Luay Nakhleh,Don Ringe & Tandy Warnow, 2005, Language- Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 81, Number 2, June 2005
  10. ^ Mallory J.P., D. Q. Adams (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, London, 1997
  11. ^ Britannica 15th edition, vol.22, 1981, p.588, 594
  12. ^ Frederik Kortlandt-The spread of the Indo-Europeans, 1989
  13. ^ Lubotsky - The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos 27, 9-26, 1988
  14. ^ Kortlandt - The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique 31, 71-74, 1988
  15. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.) 1981, p.593
  16. ^ George S. Lane, Douglas Q. Adams, Britannica 15th edition 22:667, "The Tocharian problem"
  17. ^ The supposed autochthony of Hittites, the Indo-Hittite hypothesis and migration of agricultural "Indo-European" societies became intrinsically linked together by C. Renfrew. (Renfrew, C 2001a The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites. In R. Drews ed., Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language. family: 36-63. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man).
  18. ^ Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 586 "Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory" - W.C.; p. 589, 593 "Anatolian languages" - Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate, H. Craig Melchert and Theo P.J. van den Hout
  19. ^ Britannica 15th edition, 22 p. 594, "Indo-Hittite hypothesis"
  20. ^ [2] Holm, Hans J.: The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages. In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.): Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7-9, 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin (2008)
  21. ^ http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/iedocctr/ie-lg/Balto-Slavic.html

References

.
  • Auroux, Sylvain, History of the Language Sciences, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2000 ISBN 3110167352.
  • Kortlandt, Frederik, 1990, The Spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 18.1-2: 131-140
  • Lubotsky, A., The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription, Kadmos 27, 9-26, 1988
  • Kortlandt, Frederik , The Thraco-Armenian consonant shift, Linguistique Balkanique 31, 71-74, 1988
  • Lane, George S., Adams, Douglas Q., The Tocharian problem, Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Classification: Indo-European, Armenian .
    • Languages of Iran: Extensive list of the languages of Iran 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC daytranslations.com [Source type: Reference]

    ) 1981
  • Renfrew, C., The Anatolian origins of Proto-Indo-European and the autochthony of the Hittites. .In R. Drews ed., Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family, Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, DC, 2001
  • Houwink ten Cate, H.J., Melchert, H. Craig and van den Hout, Theo P.J. Indo-European languages, The parent language, Laryngeal theory, Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.22, Helen Hemingway Benton Publisher, Chicago, (15th ed.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) 1981
  • Holm, Hans J., The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages, in Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.), .Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications, Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, March 7-9, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, 2008
  • Szemerényi, Oswald; David Jones, Irene Jones (1999).^ I haven’t actually attempted this, but I’ve done some of this kind of data analysis WRT other, unrelated applications.”" .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I haven’t actually attempted this, but I’ve done some of this kind of data analysis WRT other, unrelated applications.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 July 2007 June 2007 May 2007 April 2007 March 2007 February 2007 January 2007 December 2006 November 2006 .
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198238706. 

Further reading

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (1995). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co.. ISBN 8170741289. 
  • Collinge, N. E. (1985). The Laws of Indo-European. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 
  • Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1. 
  • Renfrew, Colin (1987). Archaeology & Language. The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02495-7. 
  • Meillet, Antoine. .Esquisse d’une grammaire comparée de l’arménien classique,1903.
  • Schleicher, August, A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62).
  • Strazny, Philip (Ed).^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2000). Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics (1 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1579582180. 
  • Szemerényi, Oswald (1957). "The problem of Balto-Slav unity". Kratylos 2: 97–123. 
  • Watkins, Calvert (2000). .The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.^ The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
    • Erykah Badu Responds to Third Pregnancy Chatter + Jay Electronica Video Profile 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.whudat.com [Source type: Original source]

    Houghton Mifflin. .ISBN 0-618-08250-6. 
  • Remys, Edmund, General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian.^ It is a persisting characteristic of Indo-European languages, and often has grammatical significance, as in irregular verbs in English, e.g.
    • The Smoking Gun At Darwin Zero « Watts Up With That? 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Berlin, New York: Indogermanische Forschungen, Vol. 112, 2007.
  • Babaev, Kirill (2008). Origins of Indo-European Person Markers. Eidos. ISBN 978-5-902948-30-8. 

External links

Databases

Lexica


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.This page provides a classification of the Indo-European languages and analyses of the major European languages.^ Not all European languages are Indo-European.

^ Some Wanderwörter in Indo-European languages .
  • Language Log » Some Wanderwörter in Indo-European languages 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 .
  • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

For an overview of the Indo-European languages, including spread and classification, please see Wikipedia's article on Indo-European languages.

Contents

Germanic Languages

.
  • Western Germanic
    • Anglo-Frisian
      • English Languages/Anglic
        • Old English (OE:Anglo-Saxon; spoken between approx.^ These languages originate from Old Norse and Anglo Saxon .

          ^ With these go (4) the Germanic or Teutonic languages , including ( a ) Gothic , ( b ) the Scandinavian languages , Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic—differentiated in historical times out of a single language, Old Norse,—( c ) West Germanic, including English and Frisian, Low Frankish (from which spring modern Dutch and Flemish), Low and High German.
          • Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

          ^ Icelandic is the least changed of the Germanic Languages - being close to Old Norse.

          .450 - 1100 CE)
        • Middle English (ME:Anglo-Norman; spoken between approx.^ A precursor of the English language spoken in England before 1000AD. Anglo-Saxon is (like its modern counterpart) an Indo-European language: Easter , Tuesday , Welsh , Yule ...
          • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

          ^ A short history of the world's most widespread language from its Anglo Saxon origins via Norman and Latin influences to Modern English.
          • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

          ^ Old English (Anglo-Saxon) is as foreign to Modern English as German, while Middle English (Chaucer) is barely more intelligible than Dutch.
          • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

          1100 - 1500 CE)
          • Yola Language (spoken between ? - mid-16th century .CE)
        • Early Modern English (EMnE; spoken between approx.^ A precursor of the English language spoken in England before 1000AD. Anglo-Saxon is (like its modern counterpart) an Indo-European language: Easter , Tuesday , Welsh , Yule ...
          • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

          .1500 - 1650 CE)
        • Modern English (MnE; spoken beginning approx.^ A precursor of the English language spoken in England before 1000AD. Anglo-Saxon is (like its modern counterpart) an Indo-European language: Easter , Tuesday , Welsh , Yule ...
          • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

          .1650 - present) However, there are some divergent dialects of Modern English where phonology and orthography vary, particularly among British English (including South African English, Australian English, etc.^ Afrikaans , a Germanic language derived from the same 16 th -century Dutch dialect that led to modern Dutch, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
          • Office Natural Language Team Blog 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

          ^ If the dialects continue to diverge there will come a time when they are mutually unintelligible (in other words, the people are speaking different languages).

          ^ However, this same thing can be said of Modern English and Computers.
          • Language Log » Horse and wheel in the early history of Indo-European 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

          ) and .North American English.
        • Scots
          • Early Scots (spoken between approx. ?^ A version of the English language spoken in the United States of America ( North America ): blizzard , hangover , OK , teenager ...
            • KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English 29 September 2009 17:017 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Reference]

            ^ I would say it's roughly equivalent to the difference between British and American English.
            • Learning a second language | Ask MetaFilter 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC ask.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

            - .1450 CE)
          • Middle Scots (spoken between 1450 - 1700 CE)
          • Modern Scots
      • Frisian Languages
        • West Frisian
        • Saterland Frisian
        • North Frisian
        • Middle Frisian (spoken between approx.^ Total Population age 18+, language spoken at home: Other West Germanic languages .
          • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/medina/Medina-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]
          • http://www3.uakron.edu/src/DataServ/Census_2000/portage/Portage-OH-SF3-Language-Home-2000.htm 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www3.uakron.edu [Source type: Academic]

          ^ Indo-European languages come with the language spoken in England, Frisian, and Netherlandic language spoken in Netherland and Flemish.

          ^ In general, these are not separate languages, although North African Arabic, Maghribî , is rather different from the Middle Eastern dialects.
          • Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad 10 January 2010 6:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

          1500 - 1820 CE)
        • Old Frisian (spoken between approx. 700 - 1500 CE)
    • Low German
      • Dutch Low German
      • West Low German
      • East Low German
      • Low Franconian Languages (sometimes defined as seperate branch of West German)
        • Afrikaans
        • Dutch
          • Flemish
    • High German
    • b:German
    • Yiddish
    • Luxembourgish
    • Central German Dialects
    • Upper German Dialects
    • Vilamovian
  • Northern Germanic (Scandinavian)'
    • Danish
    • Icelandic
    • Norwegian
    • Swedish
    • Faeroese
    • Norn
    • Elfdalian
  • East Germanic (extinct)
    • Gothic
    • Crimean Gothic
    • Vandalic
    • Burgundian

Romance Languages

Slavic Languages

  • 'Western
    • Czech
    • Polish
    • Slovak
    • Sorbian (also called Lusatian or Wendish - a Slavic language spoken by an isolated group in East Germany)
  • Eastern
    • Belarussian
    • Russian
    • Ukrainian
  • Southern

Baltic

  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian

Celtic

Hellenic (Greek)

Albanian

Armenian

Indo-Iranian

  • Indo-Aryan (Indic)
    • Assamese
    • Bengali
    • Bihari
    • Gujarati
    • Hindi(हिन्दी)
    • Urdu (اردو)
    • Marathi
    • Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ)
    • Romani
    • Sanskrit
    • Sindhi
    • Singhalese
  • Iranian
    • Avestan
    • Baluchi
    • Persian
    • Kurdish
    • Pashto (Afghan)
    • Sogdian

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Redirect page
#REDIRECT wikiversity:School of Linguistics/Indo-European languages

Simple English

File:IE
Countries where Indo-European languages are spoken today.
Dark Green = Main language. Light Green = Less significant
File:Indoarische Sprachen
Geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages (Urdu is not shown because it is mainly a lingua franca with no prevalence as a first language. Outside of the scope of the map is the migratory Romani language)

Indo-European languages are a major group of languages. Linguists believe they all came from a single language called Proto-Indo-European. This language was originally spoken somewhere in Eurasia. Today they are spoken all over the world.

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects,[1] including most major languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia. Historically, this language family was also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia. The earliest Indo-European writing comes from the Bronze Age in the Anatolian and Mycenaean Greek languages. We can place the origin of Indo-European languages after the invention of farming, because some of the Proto-Indo-European words are farming words.

The languages of the Indo-European group have about three billion native speakers. It is the biggest language family. Of present-day languages with most speakers, 12 are Indo-European: English, Spanish, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi and Urdu. They account for over 1.6 billion native speakers.[2]

Main language groups

These are the main Indo-European language groups:

History of Indo-European linguistics

Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. In 1583 Fr. Thomas Stephens S.J. an English Jesuit missionary in Goa, noticed similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin. These observations were included in a letter to his brother which was not published until the twentieth century.[3]

The first account to mention Sanskrit came from Filippo Sassetti (born Florence, Italy 1540). He was a Florentine merchant who was among the first Europeans to study the ancient Indian language Sanskrit. Writing in 1585, he noted some word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian (these included devaḥ/dio "God", sarpaḥ/serpe "serpent", sapta/sette "seven", aṣṭa/otto "eight", nava/nove "nine").[3] However, neither Stephens' nor Sassetti's observations led to further scholarly inquiry.[3]

In 1647 Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn noted the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed that they derived from a primitive common language. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. However, van Boxhorn's suggestions did not become widely known and did not stimulate further research.

Gaston Coeurdoux and others had made observations of the same type. Coeurdoux made a thorough comparison of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek conjugations in the late 1760s to suggest a relationship between them, about 20 years before William Jones. Similarly, Mikhail Lomonosov compared different languages groups of the world including Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, Finnish, Chinese, Hottentot and others.[4]

The hypothesis reappeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on the striking similarities between three of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, to which he tentatively added Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian,[5] though also commiting some inaccuracies and omissions in his classification.[6]

It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in 1813,[7] which became the standard scientific term (except in Germany)[8] through the work of Franz Bopp. Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, is the starting point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline.

References

  1. It is composed of 449 languages and dialects, according to the 2005 Ethnologue estimate, about half (219) belonging to the Indo-Aryan sub-branch.
  2. 308 languages according to SIL; more than one billion speakers. Historically, also in terms of geographical spread (stretching from the Caucasus to South Asia
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Auroux, Sylvain (2000). History of the language sciences. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1156. ISBN 3110167352. http://books.google.com/books?id=yasNy365EywC&pg=PA1156&vq=stephens+sassetti&dq=3110167352&as_brr=3&sig=nOsHuf3fqPmzmjmGYk1UnvSiFAs. 
  4. M.V. Lomonosov. In: Complete edition, Moscow, 1952, vol 7, pp 652-659: Представимъ долготу времени, которою сіи языки раздѣлились. ... Польской и россійской языкъ коль давно раздѣлились! Подумай же, когда курляндской! Подумай же, когда латинской, греч., нѣм., росс. О глубокая древность! [Imagine the depth of time when these languages separated! ... Polish and Russian separated so long ago! Now think how long ago [this happened to] Kurlandic! Think when [this happened to] Latin, Greek, German, and Russian! Oh, great antiquity!]
  5. http://www.billposer.org/Papers/iephm.pdf, cited on page 14-15.
  6. Blench, Roger 2004. Archaeology and language: methods and issues. In: A companion to archaeology. J. Bintliff ed. 52-74. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2004. (He erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindi.)
  7. In London Quarterly Review X/2 1813.; cf. Szemerényi 1999:12, footnote 6
  8. In German it is indogermanisch 'Indo-Germanic' which indicates the east-west extension. That term was first recorded in use in French original as indo-germanique, in 1810 by Conrad Malte-Brun, a French geographer of Danish descent.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Indo-European languages, which are similar to those in the above article.








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